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Sample records for pigs experimentally infected

  1. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

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    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Eguiluz, María; Roncal, Elisa; Quiñones-García, Stefany; Clipman, Steven J; Calcina, Juan; Gavidia, Cesar M; Sheen, Patricia; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-12-01

    The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3%) out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100%) out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared parental genotype.

  3. Genetic variability of Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from experimentally infected pigs and from naturally infected pigs using microsatellite markers.

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    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm, usually lives as a single worm in the small intestine of humans, its only known definitive host. Mechanisms of genetic variation in T. solium are poorly understood. Using three microsatellite markers previously reported [1], this study explored the genetic variability of T. solium from cysts recovered from experimentally infected pigs. It then explored the genetic epidemiology and transmission in naturally infected pigs and adult tapeworms recovered from human carriers from an endemic rural community in Peru. In an initial study on experimental infection, two groups of three piglets were each infected with proglottids from one of two genetically different tapeworms for each of the microsatellites. After 7 weeks, pigs were slaughtered and necropsy performed. Thirty-six (92.3% out of 39 cysts originated from one tapeworm, and 27 (100% out of 27 cysts from the other had exactly the same genotype as the parental tapeworm. This suggests that the microsatellite markers may be a useful tool for studying the transmission of T. solium. In the second study, we analyzed the genetic variation of T. solium in cysts recovered from eight naturally infected pigs, and from adult tapeworms recovered from four human carriers; they showed genetic variability. Four pigs had cysts with only one genotype, and four pigs had cysts with two different genotypes, suggesting that multiple infections of genetically distinct parental tapeworms are possible. Six pigs harbored cysts with a genotype corresponding to one of the identified tapeworms from the human carriers. In the dendrogram, cysts appeared to cluster within the corresponding pigs as well as with the geographical origin, but this association was not statistically significant. We conclude that genotyping of microsatellite size polymorphisms is a potentially important tool to trace the spread of infection and pinpoint sources of infection as pigs spread cysts with a shared

  4. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... of spontaneous porcine pyemia including endocarditis and associated brain lesions. We present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus induced brain infection. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs received an intravenous injection of S. aureus of 108 CFU/kg body weight once at 0h or twice at 0h and 12h. Four...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  5. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

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    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet I or Diet 2, +/- B. hyodysenteriae, and +/- T suis......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown....... Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet I showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were...

  6. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  7. Experimental infection of pigs with two East European variants of Type 1 PRRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) have been divided into Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American) viruses. PRRSV are very diverse and Type 1 viruses have even been further divided into subtypes. While Type 1 viruses from Western Europe belong to subtype 1, viruses...... the subtype 1 strains. The aim of this project was to study the infection dynamics and clinical and pathological impact of two east European Type 1 strains. In an experimental trial, infection of pigs with the Russian subtype 2 strain “Ili6” and the Belarusian atypical isolate “Bor59” were compared...... to an early “Lelystad-like” Danish subtype 1 isolate “18794”. Groups of seven pigs of unique high sanitary status were infected with one of the three PRRSV isolates, and a fourth group served as sham-inoculated controls. The pigs were monitored for 24 days, and nasal swabs and blood samples were taken at 0, 3...

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

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    Irma Estela Sommerfelt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi. Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  9. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

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    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  10. Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs.

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    Arsenakis, Ioannis; Panzavolta, Luca; Michiels, Annelies; Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-03-29

    Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX®) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2 = 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung lesions were produced in the inoculated pigs, when compared to previous

  11. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies

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    Riber, Ulla; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2011-01-01

    In two separate trials previous termpigsnext term were experimentally infected with previous termLawsonia intracellularisnext term at 5–6 weeks of age followed by antibiotic treatment and resolution of the previous termprimary infection and then renext term-inoculated at 12–13 weeks of age. A tre...

  12. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

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    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  13. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

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    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  14. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

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    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15–40 dpi). Anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15–75 dpi; high levels of anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  15. IL-18 potentiated whole blood IFN-γ assay can identify cell-mediated immune responses towards Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft; Hvass, Henriette Cordes

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacteria causing proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. The infection causes diarrhoea, retarded growth and sudden death in pigs and is one of the most economically important diseases in the swine industry worldwide. The infection is one...... indications that cell-mediated immune responses (CMI) are important for the protection against infections with L. intracellularis and in mice models IFN-γ has been shown to play a key role in the host defence against experimental infections . In L. intracellularis infected pigs, IFN-γ is only sparsely...

  16. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs

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    Viuff Birgitte M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3 and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6 influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA. Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0% at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated

  17. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

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    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  18. Differentiation between serological responses to Brucella suis and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 after natural or experimental infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Sørensen, Vibeke; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    with responses of B. suis biovar 2-inoculated pigs. FPSR were limited to 2-9 weeks post-YeO:9 inoculation, while B. suis-infected pigs were test-positive throughout the 21-week period of investigation. Although YeO:9-inoculated pigs exhibited FPSR in Brucella tests for a limited period of time, the serological...

  19. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization of experimental Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli infection in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian; Boye, Mette

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of six 8-week-old pigs were challenged with 1X10(9) cfu Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli or Serpulina intermedia daily for 3 consecutive days to study the pathology of porcine colonic spirochetosis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH......; however, only two pigs developed transient watery diarrhea. S. intermedia was reisolated from four of the inoculated pigs, but clinical signs were not observed. Gross examination of the B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed dilated large intestines with a hyperemic mucosa, whereas the large intestines...... of the S. intermedia-inoculated pigs and the control pigs appeared normal. SEM examination of B. pilosicoli-infected pigs revealed degenerated epithelial cells and spirochetal colonization of the colonic mucosa in four pigs. By FISH, B. pilosicoli cells were found colonizing and invading the surface...

  20. Immune responses of a chimaeric protein vaccine containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens and LTB against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

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    Marchioro, Silvana B; Sácristan, Rubén Del Pozo; Michiels, Annelies; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Maes, Dominiek

    2014-08-06

    A recombinant chimaeric protein containing three Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens (C-terminal portion of P97, heat shock protein P42, and NrdF) fused to an adjuvant, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB), was used to immunize pigs against enzootic pneumonia. The systemic and local immune responses, as well as the efficacy of the chimaeric protein in inducing protection against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection were evaluated. In total, 60 male piglets, purchased from a M. hyopneumoniae-free herd, at 4 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six different experimental groups of 10 animals each: recombinant chimaeric protein by intramuscular (IM) (1) or intranasal (IN) (2) administration, commercial bacterin by IM administration (3), and the adjuvant LTB by IM (4, control group A) or IN (5, control group B) administration. All groups were immunized at 24 and 38 days of age and challenged at 52 days of age. The sixth group that was not challenged was used as the negative control (IN [n=5] or IM [n=5] administration of the LTB adjuvant). Compared with the non-challenged group, administration of the chimaeric protein induced significant (Phyopneumoniae infection in pigs. This lack of effectiveness points towards the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in bacterial community structure in the colon of pigs fed different experimental diets and after infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leser, Thomas D.; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented with die......Bacterial communities in the large intestines of pigs were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis targeting the 16S ribosomal DNA. The pigs were fed different experimental diets based on either modified standard feed or cooked rice supplemented...

  2. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

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    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neither hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli nor Brachyspira pilosicoli type strain caused diarrhoea in early-weaned pigs by experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossi, M.; Ahlsten, K.; Pohjanvirta, T.

    2005-01-01

    Fossi M, Ahlsten K, Pohjanvirta T, Anttila M, Kokkonen T, Jensen TK, Boye M, Sukura A, Pelkola K, Pelkonen S: Neither hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli nor Brachyspira pilosicoli type strain caused diarrhoea in early-weaned pigs by experimental infection. Acta vet. scand. 2005, 46, 257...

  4. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

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    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  5. Marginal vitamin A deficiency in pigs experimentally infected with Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S; Saeed, I; Jensen, S K

    2001-01-01

    were marginally smaller (36.7 vs 40.2 mm; P = 0.08), more orally located (section 2.9 vs 3.9; P = 0.08) and had a higher proportion of males (0.58 vs 0.50; P = 0.08) whereas there were no effects of diet treatment on fecundity. The proportion of pigs with faecal T. suis egg excretion 12 weeks post...

  6. Molecular characterisation of the early response in pigs to experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using cDNA microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Jakob; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila

    2007-01-01

    Background: The bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is responsible for porcine pleuropneumonia, a widespread, highly contagious and often fatal respiratory disease of pigs. The general porcine innate immune response after A. pleuropneumoniae infection is still not clarified. The objective...... lymph node tissue were hybridised to an expanded version of the porcine microarray with 26879 unique PCR products. Results: A total of 357 genes differed significantly in expression between infected and non-infected lung tissue, 713 genes differed in expression in liver tissue from infected versus non-infected...... animals and 130 genes differed in expression in tracheobronchial lymph node tissue from infected versus non-infected animals. Among these genes, several have previously been described to be part of a general host response to infections encoding immune response related proteins. In inflamed lung tissue...

  7. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  8. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig...

  9. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-11-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe.

  10. Microvascular Physiologic and Anatomic Responses of the Guinea Pig to Experimental Arenavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-31

    factor that leads to death. This process could explain the reports of pleural and peni- cardial effusions following Lassa fever in primates (Walker et al...the pleural spaces. No gross hemorrhages were found in the lung, heart, brain, kidneys, or gastrointestinal tract. A uniform finding in the infected...microscopic observation was the lack of any ultra - structural evidence suggestive of damage to the integrity of the endothelial lining in the vessels in

  11. Experimental infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae and its gentamicin therapy in guinea pigs 60Co irradiated with 4 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallay, Z.; Trnovec, T.; Durisova, M.; Mazurova, E.; Navarova, J.; Plskova, M.; Kettner, M.

    1982-01-01

    Sublethal irradiation was used to suppress the immunity response of the organism. Following the development of infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae the therapeutical effect was compared of intramuscular administration and of inhalation of gentamicin. Intramuscular administration was statistically significant for reducing the mortality of infected guinea pigs as against non-treated animals at days 7 to 10 after irradiation. Administration by inhalation had the same effect between days 12 and 25 after irradiation. The weight and blood counts of the animals were observed during the experiment. (M.D.)

  12. Cessation of clinical disease and spirochete shedding after tiamulin treatment in pigs experimentally infected with "Brachyspira hampsonii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, B L; Arruda, P H; Warneke, H L; Erlandson, K R; Hammer, J M; Burrough, E R

    2014-10-01

    With the emergence of "Brachyspira hampsonii" associated with swine dysentery in North America, identification of effective treatments and interventions is a pressing need. Denagard® (tiamulin hydrogen fumarate) Liquid Concentrate 12.5% is approved in the United States for treatment of dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae at 0.006% in the water. In this study, the effectiveness of tiamulin in resolving clinical disease, eliminating viable spirochete shedding, and reducing neutrophilic colitis following infection with either "B. hampsonii" or B. hyodysenteriae was evaluated. Seventy-eight 7-week-old crossbred pigs were divided into three groups [sham-inoculated (n = 18), "B. hampsonii"-inoculated (n = 30), and B. hyodysenteriae-inoculated (n = 30)]. Each inoculum group was divided into three subgroups which received either 0.006% tiamulin, 0.018% tiamulin, or no medication. Both levels of tiamulin resolved clinical disease within 24 h of treatment initiation, eliminated spirochete shedding within 72 h of treatment initiation, and resolved and/or prevented histologic lesions in pigs infected with either Brachyspira spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  14. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  15. Expression of innate immune genes, proteins and microRNAs in lung tissue of pigs infected experimentally with influenza virus (H1N2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, Susanna; Vasby, Ditte

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors, including miRNA, in the local host response to influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by influenza A virus subtype H1N2. Expression of microRNA (miRNA), mRNA and proteins were...... results suggest that, in addition to a wide range of innate immune factors, miRNAs may also be involved in controlling acute influenza infection in pigs....

  16. Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 and Viral Replication by In Situ Hybridization in Primary Lymphoid Organs From Naturally and Experimentally Infected Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Segalés, J.; Fernandes, L.

    2013-01-01

    was not detected in the experimentally PCV2-inoculated pigs or the control animals. Among the PMWS-affected pigs, 19 of 20 (95%) thymuses were positive for PCV2 by CP ISH, and 7 of 19 (37%) of these also supported viral replication. By CP ISH, PCV2 was detected in 16 of 33 (48%) bone marrow samples, and 5 of 16...

  17. Population dynamics of Trichuris suis in trickle-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M; Petersen, H H; Kringel, H; Fredholm, M; Roepstorff, A

    2009-05-01

    The population dynamics of Trichuris suis in pigs was studied during long-term experimental infections. Twenty-three 10-week-old pigs were inoculated with 5 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Seven, 8, and 8 pigs were necropsied at weeks 4, 8, and 14 post-start of infection (p.i.), respectively. The median numbers of worms in the colon were 538 (min-max: 277-618), 332 (14-1140) and 0 (0-4) at 4, 8, and 14 weeks p.i. respectively, suggesting an increased aggregation of the worms with time and acquisition of nearly sterile immunity. The serum levels of T. suis specific antibodies (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) peaked at week 8 p.i. By week 14 p.i. the IgG2 and IgA antibody levels remained significantly elevated above the level of week 0. The population dynamics of T. suis trickle infections in pigs is discussed with focus on interpretation of diagnostic and epidemiological data of pigs, the use of pigs as a model for human Trichuris trichiura infections and the novel approach of using T. suis eggs in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  19. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole - pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Valpotić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunoprophylaxis of porcine postweaning colibacillosis (PWC caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC expressing F4 fimbriae is an unsolved problem. Just as ETEC strains can exploit intestinal microfold (M cells as the entry portal for infection, their high transcytotic ability make them an attractive target for mucosally delivered vaccines, adjuvants and therapeutics. We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac+ non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-sampling M cells. Identification, localization and morphometric quantification of cytokeratin 18 positive M cells in the ileal mucosa of 6-weeks-old pigs revealed that they were: 1 exclusively located within villous epithelial layer, 2 significantly numerous (P< 0.01 in levamisole pretreated/challenged pigs, and 3 only slightly, but not significantly numerous in vaccinated/challenged pigs compared with non-pretreated/challenged control pigs. The fact that levamisole may affect the M cells frequency by increasing their numbers, makes it an interesting adjuvant to study development of an effective M cell-targeted vaccine against porcine PWC.

  20. Trichinella spiralis, T-britovi, and T-nativa: infectivity, larval distribution in muscle, and antibody response after experimental infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    larvae per gram (lpg)] and in three of four pigs inoculated with T. britovi (mean 7 lpg). No larvae were found in pigs inoculated with T. nativa. For T. spiralis and T. britovi, the neck muscle (m. splenius) appears to be a predilection site in addition to the tongue, the diaphram, and the jaw. High...... samples from wild animals. Immunoblotting (Western blots) on slaughter sera revealed no species specificity when comparing homologous versus heterologous staining....

  1. The time course of the specific antibody response by various ELISAs in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Peter; Haugegaard, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of developing routine serological tests for monitoring the Toxoplasma infection status of Danish swine herds, four ELISAs based on tachyzoite antigen were set up: (1) an indirect ELISA for IgG-antibody; (2) a blocking ELISA for antibody to the membrane antigen, P-30; (3) an indirect ...

  2. Regulatory T cells in draining lymph nodes of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Jungersen, Gregers

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs cause diarrhoea and poor performance in growing pigs and is an important contributor to the high antibiotic usage in pig production. Experimentally, a primary subclinical L. intracellularis infection can induce protection against a secondary challenge...... in the infected host. Four pigs were challenged twice with L. intracellularis infectious material, with four weeks interval. Lack of faecal shedding after the second challenge indicated the pigs were protected. The pigs developed L. intracellularis specific IgG responses and CMI responses in PBMCs confirmed TC...... cells (CD3+CD4- CD8β+) and memory TH cells (CD3+CD4+CD8α+) being main producers of IFN-γ. Pigs were slaughtered 8 week after the second challenge and ileocacal lymph node cells (iLNC) and PBMCs were prepared and frozen. With focus on identification and characterisation of Tregs, iLNC were co...

  3. Population dynamics of Ascaris suum in trickle-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Petersen, Heidi H; Kringel, Helene; Fredholm, Merete; Roepstorff, Allan

    2009-10-01

    The population dynamics of Ascaris suum was studied by long-term exposure of pigs to infective eggs. The pigs were experimentally inoculated with 25 A. suum eggs/kg/day, and 7, 8, and 8 pigs were necropsied at weeks 4, 8, and 14 postinoculation (PI), respectively. Despite the fact that the pigs were continuously reinfected, dramatic reductions in numbers of liver lesions (white spots) and migrating lung larvae were observed as a function of time. However, even at the end of the study, a few larvae were able to complete migration, but these larvae seemed unable to mature in the small intestine. Thus, the adult worm population seemed to consist of worms from the first part of the exposure period. The noticeable decrease in number of white spots suggests that the level of exposure is not reflected in the number of white spots in the late phase of a continuous infection. The serum levels of A. suum L3-specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly elevated by week 4 PI, after which the antibody levels declined. The population dynamics and parasite regulating mechanisms are discussed for A. suum in pigs as well as for the closely related species A. lumbricoides in humans.

  4. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Hepatic gene expression changes in pigs experimentally infected with the lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as analysed with an innate immunity focused microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on gene expression in the liver during respiratory infections is limited although it is well-established that this organ is an important site of synthesis of several systemic innate immune components as response to infections. In the present study, the early transcriptional hepatic...... in initiating and orchestrating the innate immune response to A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Keywords: acute phase protein, hepatic transcriptional response, innate defence, gene expression, pig...... differentially expressed. A large group of these genes encoded proteins involved in the acute phase response, including serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-a the expression of which were all found to be up-regulated and glutathione S-transferase, transthyretin...

  6. Update on Senecavirus Infection in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Leme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Senecavirus A (SVA is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Senecavirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. The virus has been silently circulating in pig herds of the USA since 1988. However, cases of senecavirus-associated vesicular disease were reported in Canada in 2007 and in the USA in 2012. Since late 2014 and early 2015, an increasing number of senecavirus outbreaks have been reported in pigs in different producing categories, with this virus being detected in Brazil, China, and Thailand. Considering the novel available data on senecavirus infection and disease, 2015 may be a divisor in the epidemiology of the virus. Among the aspects that reinforce this hypothesis are the geographical distribution of the virus, the affected pig-producing categories, clinical signs associated with the infection, and disease severity. This review presents the current knowledge regarding the senecavirus infection and disease, especially in the last two years. Senecavirus epidemiology, pathogenic potential, host immunological response, diagnosis, and prophylaxis and control measures are addressed. Perspectives are focused on the need for complete evolutionary, epidemiological and pathogenic data and the capability for an immediate diagnosis of senecavirus infection. The health risks inherent in the swine industry cannot be neglected.

  7. Transmission of African swine fever virus from infected pigs by direct contact and aerosol routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ann Sofie; Lohse, Louise; Boklund, Anette

    2017-01-01

    from Poland (designated here POL/2015/Podlaskie/Lindholm). In both studies, pigs were inoculated intranasally with the virus and contact pigs were exposed to the experimentally infected pigs, either directly (contact within and between pens) or by air. Pigs exposed to the virus by intranasal...... and occasionally infectious virus was found in nasal-, oral-, and rectal swabs obtained from the pigs, and ASFV DNA was detected in air samples. No anti-ASFV antibodies were detected in sera.In conclusion, the study shows that the currently circulating strain of ASFV can be efficiently transmitted via direct...... contact and by aerosols. Also, the results provide quantitative transmission parameters and knowledge of infection stages in pigs infected with this ASFV....

  8. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  10. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Post Mortem Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Juvenile Pigs with Experimentally Induced Osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P.; Nielsen, O. L.; Jensen, S. B.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 111In-labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy is able to detect osteomyelitis in living juvenile pigs. In animal research studies, it may well be an advantage if the animals could be scanned after euthanasia. Applying traditional scanning of living animals...... for homing to the site of infections as usual while the pigs were alive. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform SPECT/CT with 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes almost 24 hrs after euthanasia with the same detectability of osteomyelitic lesions as in living pigs (78% versus 79......%). The pigs in this study had exactly the same experimental conditions as the living pigs and were examined in parallel with the living pigs except for euthanasia prior to the leukocyte scan and that no PET/CT scans were performed....

  12. Laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy in pigs - experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando de Oliveira Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluated laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy as treatment of experimental ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction in pigs. Ten male Large White pigs weighting approximately 28.4 (±1.43 kg were used in the current study. The UPJ obstruction was created laparoscopically by double-clipping of the left ureter. After 14 days the animals underwent laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy f The animals were sacrificed for subsequent retrograde pyelography in order to assess the anastomotic patency on the 28th day. The laparoscopic procedure for experimental obstruction of UPJ was successfully performed in all animals, as well as the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy. There was intestinal iatrogenic injury in one animal. Satisfactory UPJ patency was noted in 75% of the animals. There was no stenosis of the proximal anastomosis between the ureter and the lower pole of the kidney in 37.5%, mild stenosis in 37.5% and severe stenosis in 25% of the animals. The laparoscopic approach for reestablishment he urinary flow by ureterocalicostomy was feasible in the porcine model. The ascending pyelography revealed satisfactory results of the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy

  13. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  14. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. Copyright

  16. The course of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs after contact-infection and intravenous inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Mart CM

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype 3 is observed in pigs and transmission to humans is implied. To be able to estimate public health risks from e.g. contact with pigs or consumption of pork products, the transmission routes and dynamics of infection should be identified. Hence, the course of HEV-infection in naturally infected pigs should be studied. Results To resemble natural transmission, 24 HEV-susceptible pigs were infected either by one-to-one exposure to intravenously inoculated pigs (C1-pigs; n = 10, by one-to-one exposure to contact-infected pigs (C2-pigs: n = 7; C3-pigs: n = 5 or due to an unknown non-intravenous infection route (one C2-pig and one C3-pig. The course of HEV-infection for contact-infected pigs was characterized by: faecal HEV RNA excretion that started at day 7 (95% confidence interval: 5–10 postexposure and lasted 23 (19–28 days; viremia that started after 13 (8–17 days of faecal HEV RNA excretion and lasted 11 (8–13 days; antibody development that was detected after 13 (10–16 days of faecal HEV RNA excretion. The time until onset of faecal HEV RNA excretion and onset of viremia was significantly shorter for iv-pigs compared to contact-infected pigs, whereas the duration of faecal HEV RNA excretion was significantly longer. At 28 days postinfection HEV RNA was detected less frequently in organs of contact-infected pigs compared to iv-pigs. For contact-infected pigs, HEV RNA was detected in 20 of 39 muscle samples that were proxies for pork at retail and in 4 of 7 urine samples. Conclusion The course of infection differed between infection routes, suggesting that contact-infection could be a better model for natural transmission than iv inoculation. Urine and meat were identified as possible HEV-sources for pig-to-pig and pig-to-human HEV transmission.

  17. The microbiota of pigs influenced by diet texture and severity of Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølbak, Lars; Johnsen, Kaare; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K; Johansen, Markku; Møller, Kristian; Leser, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Pigs with and without naturally occurring Lawsonia intracellularis infection were fed diets with different texture. In a previous study from 79 pig herds using a similar feeding on pelleted or non-pelleted form showed that the non-pelleted diet was associated with a reduced prevalence of L. intracellularis. In this study a mechanistic approach was taken for explaining and testing this observation by studying the microbiota and the occurrence of L. intracellularis in the distal ileum of 54 pigs by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, Real-Time PCR and in situ hybridization. The texture of the diet influenced the microbiota, and from a quantitative discriminative analysis of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of ileum samples it was deduced that Clostridium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were associated with the non-pelleted diet and Streptococcus spp. with the pelleted diet. In experimentally infected pigs it was verified that 89bp and 90bp sized T-RFs (HhaI) from ileum represented L. intracellularis. The non-pelleted diet seemed to reduce the relative amount of L. intracellularis in the total microbiota of the ileum, but the number of pigs detected positive with L. intracellularis by Real-Time PCR was not influenced. The five pigs with highest L. intracellularis content showed T-RFs that were not present in profiles from less or non-infected pigs, which may indicate that some bacterial species were associated with L. intracellularis infection.

  18. Infection dynamics of Lawsonia intracellularis in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    shedding of L. intracellularis was assessed by real time-PCR and sero-conversion by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Clinical disease was not reported but infection was present in all herds and the PCR assay indicated infection in 75% of pigs examined. Most L. intracellularis infected....... Relative to the bacterial shedding, the onset of sero-conversion was a little delayed, in general, most pigs had sero-converted 2 weeks after the first shedding. Once sero-converted, 92% of the pigs remained sero-positive over the entire survey period....

  19. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Salmonella arizonaeInfection In A Guinea Pig Breeding Unit

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Aydın; AYYILDIZ, Gülbin

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae infection was detected in guinea pigs kept for breeding. Two months old 50 quinea pigs were died in the breedig unit. Three death and 2 live guinea pigs were brought to Veterinary Faculty of İstanbul. The live 2 were euthanasied and necropcy was performed on all guinea pigs. The fluid about 50 cc. in the abdomen, the necrosis and pseudomembranes in the liver and spleen were observed. On histopathology, the foci of various coagulative necrosis were seen in the liver. The...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease/infection of medical and veterinary importance. The causative agent; Toxoplasma gondii, can infect warm blooded animals, birds as well as humans. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs in Makurdi, Nigeria.

  2. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens...... or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.......i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post...

  3. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin demonstrated in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Johansen, K S; Bentzon, M W

    1976-01-01

    Skin reactivity to tuberculin has been studied during the course of experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs. A depression of the delayed hypersensitivity to tuberculin was demonstrated in the infected animals. The depression was most pronounced when icterus had developed. The depression...

  5. Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected With Lassa Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bearss, J J; Mattix, M E; Koistinen, K A; Honnold, S P; Zeng, X; Blancett, C D; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2017-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes. Guinea pigs developed viremia on day 5 to 6 postexposure (PE), with clinical signs appearing by day 7 to 8 PE. Complete blood counts revealed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included skin lesions and congested lungs. Histologic lesions consisted of cortical lymphoid depletion by day 6 to 7 PE with lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia at 7 to 8 days PE. Scattered hepatocellular degeneration and cell death were also noted in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues including the haired skin, lung, heart, adrenal gland, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. The first cell types to demonstrate staining for viral antigen were fibroblastic reticular cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the lymph nodes on day 5 to 6 PE. This study demonstrates similarities between Lassa viral disease in human infections and experimental guinea pig infection. These shared pathologic characteristics support the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development under the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule.

  6. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  7. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n...... arrangement of treatments with two levels of SID SAA : Lys ratio (0.52 vs 0.60) and two levels of SID Trp : Lys ratio (0.16 vs 0.24). Diets did not contain any antimicrobial compounds. Pigs were individually housed and were fed diets for 14 days after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (3.44 × 108 CFU....../mL, serotype O149 : K91 : K88) on Days 5, 6, and 7 after weaning. Pigs were bled on Days 5, 8 and 14 and subsequently analysed for plasma levels of acute-phase proteins, urea, cytokines (Days 5 and 8 only) and amino acids (Days 5 and 8 only). Increasing Trp (P = 0.036) and SAA (P = 0.028) improved feed...

  8. Parasite population dynamics in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Andreasen, Annette; Kringel, Helene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the population dynamics and potential interactions between Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally co-infected pigs, by quantification of parasite parameters such as egg excretion, worm recovery and worm location. Forty......-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into four groups. Group O was inoculated with 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and group T with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Group OT was inoculated with both 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day, while Group C was kept as an uninfected control group. All inoculations...

  9. Experimental arsanilic acid poisoning in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, J D.J.; Lewis, G; Done, J T

    1968-11-30

    Twenty-one pigs were poisoned with rations containing 611, 1000 or 2000 g. arsanilic acid per ton. The chief symptoms were tremor of the head and incoordination followed by progressive blindness, ataxia and paresis. The only post-mortem abnormality was distension of the urinary bladder. The principal histological lesions were degeneration of the optic nerves, optic tracts and peripheral nerves, but such lesions could not be detected until about four, 10 and 14 days respectively after the onset of symptoms. The arsenic levels in various tissues were estimated. Concentrations in liver and kidney cortex were highest in the early stages of illness, two to 14 days after the onset of symptoms.

  10. Age related susceptibility of pigs to Cryptosporidium scrofarum infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Němejc, K.; Kestřánová, M.; Květoňová, Dana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Rost, M.; Samková, E.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 202, 3-4 (2014), s. 330-334 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium scrofarum * molecular analyses * transmission studies * susceptibility * infection * pigs Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.460, year: 2014

  11. Use of saprophytic leptospira strains in the serodiagnosis of experimental leptospirosis in guinea-pigs (Cavia sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul J. S. Girio

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Leptospira biflexa strains (Buenos Aires, Patoc 1, Rufino and São Paulo as single antigen in the serodiagnosis in guinea-pigs experimentally infected with seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, tarassovi and wolffi was evaluated by the microscopic agglutination test. The four saprophytic strains were not able to reveal antibody titres in sera of guinea-pigs experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Serological cross-reactions were observed between strains Patoc 1 and São Paulo and between serovars wolffi and hardjo.

  12. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  13. Experimental itraamniotic infection of pig fetuses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šplíchal, Igor; Šplíchalová, Alla; Hrnčíř, Tomáš

    -, č. 66 (2012), s. 66-66 ISSN 0741-5400. [Annual Meeting of The Society for Leukocyte Biology /45./. 28.10.2012-30.10.2012, Maui] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Enteropathogenic * E. coli Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  14. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention.We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33.Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7% were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5% were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1% and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6% (p = 0.02. The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4-47.0.Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high-risk foci may be an effective and

  15. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  16. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheresiz, S V; Semenova, E A; Chepurnov, A A

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  17. Adapted Lethality: What We Can Learn from Guinea Pig-Adapted Ebola Virus Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Cheresiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups.

  18. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...

  19. Hematological and immunological parameters of 4-1/2-month-old pigs infected with PRRS virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette

    1997-01-01

    4-1/2-month old SPF pigs were experimentally infected with PRRS virus. Blood samples were collected with regular intervals up to day 35 post inoculation (PI). Serum was used for PRRS virus isolation and antibody detection and stabilized blood for total leucocyte counts, differential counts and ch...

  20. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs.

  1. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-08

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  2. Transcriptional profiling at different sites in lungs of pigs during acute bacterial respiratory infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Shila; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The local transcriptional response was studied in different locations of lungs from pigs experimentally infected with the respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5B, using porcine cDNA microarrays. This infection gives rise to well-demarcated infection loci in the lung...... of apoptosis and the complement system. Interferon-g was downregulated in both necrotic and bordering areas. Evidence of neutrophil recruitment was seen by the up-regulation of chemotactic factors for neutrophils. In conclusion, we found subsets of genes expressed at different levels in the three selected...... of induced genes as, in unaffected areas a large part of differently expressed genes were involved in systemic reactions to infections, while differently expressed genes in necrotic areas were mainly concerned with homeostasis regulation....

  3. Experimental and iatrogenic poisoning by sodium selenite in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Following a case of iatrogenic selenium poisoning in a young pig, an experimental study was carry out. Sodium selenite was orally and parenterally administered to 13 pigs that were subdivided into three groups (G1, G2 and G3. The animals in groups G1 and G3 received sodium selenite intramuscularly (IM, G1 received a comercial formula, and G3 received sodium selenite mixed with distilled water at different dosages, and those in group G2 were fed commercial sodium selenite. Acute and subacute poisoning was observed in both groups, although the onset of clinical signs was slower in group G2. Only one pig (in group G1 that had received the highest dose showed a peracute course. Apathy, anorexia, dyspnea, vomiting, muscular tremors, proprioceptive deficit, ataxia and paresis of the hind limbs progressing to the front limbs evolving to tetraplegia were observed. Postmortem findings differed whether the animals received the injected (G1 and G3 or oral (G2 sodium selenite. The liver was moderately atrophic in some animals of G2. Some of the animals in groups G1 and G3 presented with lung edema. One pig in G3 had yellowish-brown areas in the ventral horns of the cervical intumescences of the spinal cord. The most important histological changes were present in the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescences of the spinal cord. In one animal, changes were present in the brainstem and mesencephalon. The initial lesion was a perivascular and astrocyte edema that progressing to lysis and death of astrocytes and neurons. In the chronic stage of the lesions, there were extensive areas of liquefaction necrosis with perivascular lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltration and occasional eosinophils. It seems that disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to astrocyte edema is the most likely mechanism of CNS lesion.

  4. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungwon J Chung

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI. However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates.An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983 and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332 with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection.At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate.These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and

  5. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Annette; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Kringel, Helene

    2015-01-01

    effect on O. dentatum populations has been observed in co-infected pigs. Forty-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into 4 groups in a 2-factorial design. Two groups were trickle inoculated with either 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (Group O). Group OT was infected...

  6. Detection of antibodies against porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 may distinguish between vaccinated and infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Eva Smedegaard; Madsen, Knud Gert; Nielsen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The humoral antibody response against the nonstructural protein NS1 and the structural protein VP2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) was evaluated by immuno-peroxidase test (IPT) and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant PPV antigens. The coding sequence for NS1 and VP2...... was inserted into the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) genome resulting in two recombinant baculoviruses AcNPV-NS1 and AcNPV-VP2, respectively. Sf9 cells (Spodoptora frugidiperda) inoculated with AcNPV-NS1 producing recombinant nonstructural protein (rNS1) and AcNPV-VP2...... producing recombinant virion protein (rVP2) were used in IPT and ELISA to analyse serum antibodies. Pigs vaccinated with an inactivated whole virus vaccine and experimentally infected pigs were studied. Significant titers against rVP2 were obtained in both vaccinated and infected pigs. Specific antibodies...

  7. PR-39, a porcine host defence peptide, is prominent in mucosa and lymphatic tissue of the respiratory tract in healthy pigs and pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Koch, Rüdiger; Hoeltig, Doris; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz; Blecha, Frank; Brauer, Carsten; Gasse, Hagen

    2012-09-28

    Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of

  8. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-04-15

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  11. Kinetics of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha gene expression and their relationship with disease progression after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, In Soon; Cho, Sungae; Eum, Seok-Yong; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2013-05-01

    Guinea pig is one of the most suitable animal models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection since it shows similarities to pulmonary infection in humans. Although guinea pig shows hematogenous spread of M. tb infection into the whole body, immunological studies have mainly focused on granulomatous tissues in lungs and spleens. In order to investigate the time-course of disease pathogenesis and immunological profiles in each infected organ, we performed the following approaches with guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. tb over a 22-week post-infection period. We examined body weight changes, M. tb growth curve, cytokine gene expression (IFN-γ and TNF-α), and histopathology in liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes of infected guinea pigs. The body weights of infected guinea pigs did not increase as much as uninfected ones and the number of M. tb bacilli in their organs increased except bronchotracheal lymph node during the experimental period. The gene expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α was induced between 3 and 6 weeks of infection; however, kinetic profiles of cytokine gene expression showed heterogeneity among organs over the study period. Histophathologically granulomatous lesions were developed in all four organs of infected guinea pigs. Although IFN-γ and TNF-α gene expression profiles showed heterogeneity, the granuloma formation was clearly observed in every organ regardless of whether the number of bacilli increased or decreased. However, this protective immunity was accompanied with severe tissue damage in all four organs, which may lead to the death of guinea pigs.

  12. Individual risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the occurrence and the relevance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs has been examined in several studies. Whereas most of these studies were focused on sole prevalence estimation within different age groups, follow-up of infected piglets or assessment of pathological findings, none of the studies included a detailed analysis of individual and environmental risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs of endemically infected herds and to identify individual risk factors potentially influencing the infection status of suckling pigs at the age of weaning. Results The animal level prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs examined in three conventional pig breeding herds was 3.6% (41/1127) at the time of weaning. A prevalence of 1.2% was found in the same pigs at the end of their nursery period. In a multivariable Poisson regression model it was found that incidence rate ratios (IRR) for suckling pigs are significantly lower than 1 when teeth grinding was conducted (IRR: 0.10). Moreover, high temperatures in the piglet nest during the first two weeks of life (occasionally >40°C) were associated with a decrease of the probability of an infection (IRR: 0.23-0.40). Contrary, the application of PCV2 vaccines to piglets was associated with an increased infection risk (IRR: 9.72). Conclusions Since single infected piglets are supposed to act as initiators for the transmission of this pathogen in nursery and fattening pigs, the elimination of the risk factors described in this study should help to reduce the incidence rate of M. hyopneumoniae infections and thereby might contribute to a reduced probability of high prevalences in older pigs. PMID:23731650

  13. Introduction of infected animals to herds is an important route for the spread of Yersinia enterocolitica infection between pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Nikunen, S; Korkeala, H

    2014-01-01

    Altogether, 369 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates from 1,118 fecal samples collected from 22 pig farms of different production types were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and genotyping using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. We investigated the distribution of the different genotypes at the farm level and their association with different farm conditions. Pigs were found to carry and transmit Y. enterocolitica between farms, because the same genotypes were found on farms that had previously transported the pigs between them. The purchase of new animals for the farms associated significantly with the number of different multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis types of Y. enterocolitica found within a farm. Some genotypes seemed to persist on farms for years. The results of this study show that pigs purchased from infected herds transmit Y. enterocolitica infection between farms. Certain pig farms may act as long-term sources of infection.

  14. Comparative analysis of detection methods for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a Guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert H; Mann, David; Error, Marc E; Miller, Matthew; Firpo, Matthew A; Wang, Yong; Alder, Stephen C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the validity of the guinea pig as a model for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by comparing the effectiveness of detecting the virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood, urine, and saliva. Case-control study. Academic research. Eleven pregnant Hartley guinea pigs. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected from guinea pig pups delivered from pregnant dams inoculated with guinea pig CMV. These samples were then evaluated for the presence of guinea pig CMV by real-time PCR assuming 100% transmission. Thirty-one pups delivered from 9 inoculated pregnant dams and 8 uninfected control pups underwent testing for guinea pig CMV and for auditory brainstem response hearing loss. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significantly lower weight for the infected pups compared with the noninfected control pups. Six infected pups demonstrated auditory brainstem response hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR assay on saliva samples were 74.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on blood and urine samples was significantly lower than that on saliva samples. Real-time PCR assays of blood, urine, and saliva revealed that saliva samples show high sensitivity and specificity for detecting congenital CMV infection in guinea pigs. This finding is consistent with recent screening studies in human newborns. The guinea pig may be a good animal model in which to compare different diagnostic assays for congenital CMV infection.

  15. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  16. Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    .p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O....... dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets.......p. The experimental pigs initially had a high faecal level of AIA though it decreased over time. The results are discussed in relation to the biological characteristics of the 2 parasites and their occurrence in organic pig production....

  17. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  18. Elimination of Salmonella typhimurium infection by the strategic movement of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J.; Wingstrand, Anne; Nielsen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Three field investigations were tarried out to assess the feasibility of raising salmonella-free finishers from pigs born in infected herds, by moving the pigs to clean and disinfected facilities before their expected exposure to the bacteria from the environment. Three herds with persistently hi...

  19. Population dynamics of Toxocara canis in pigs receiving a single or multiple infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, K.; Saeed, I.; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    of the experiment (day 49 p.i.). A few larvae were found in the muscles and brain until day 42 p.i., and 2 larvae were found in the eyes of 2 pigs on day 35 p.i. There was little evidence of protective immurory to a challenge infection in this experiment. The eosinophil levels tended not to increase in pigs...

  20. Evaluation of tulathromycin for the treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection of swine with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jo; Morgan, Jeremy H; Nanjiani, Ian A; Sherington, John; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    Tulathromycin was evaluated in the treatment of pneumonia in weaned pigs inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Five days postchallenge, the pigs were randomized to treatment with a single IM administration of saline, a single IM administration of tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg; day 0), or three IM administrations of enrofloxacin (5.0 mg/kg; days 0, 1, 2). Pigs were necropsied on day 12 or 13. Unchallenged controls remained healthy with no lung pathology. Compared with saline, coughing, mean lung lesion score, and proportional lung weight were significantly reduced and weight gain was significantly greater for tulathromycin-treated pigs (P pigs (P treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection with M. hyopneumoniae.

  1. Blast cells transfer experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuyler, M.; Cook, C.; Listrom, M.; Fengolio-Preiser, C.

    1988-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) can be transferred by lymph node cells (LNC) cultured in vitro with antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the cells responsible for transfer and to determine if pulmonary cells can transfer HP. We cultured LNC from sensitized Strain 2 guinea pigs with a soluble extract of Micropolyspora faeni for 72 h, separated lymphoblasts from small lymphocytes, and transferred both subpopulations intravenously to syngeneic recipients. We also transferred irradiated lymphoblasts (1,500 rads), macrophage-depleted, lymphoblast-enriched populations, and pulmonary cells either without culture or after culture with M. faeni. Control animals received an equal volume of medium. All recipient animals were challenged intratracheally (i.t.) with M. faeni 48 h after the cell transfer, and they were killed 4 days after i.t. challenge. Randomly selected microscopic fields of the lung (250/animal) were judged to be normal or abnormal without knowledge of treatment. This measurement was reproducible (r = 0.95 for duplicate measurements, n = 55). All guinea pigs were maintained in HEPA-filtered air. There was a low level of pulmonary response to an i.t. challenge of M. faeni in animals that received medium. Animals that received pulmonary cells, either cultured or noncultured, did not differ from those in the control group. There was a substantial increase (p less than 0.01) in the extent of pulmonary abnormalities in the recipients of the lymphoblast population, with significant correlation (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01) between the number of lymphoblasts transferred and the extent of pulmonary abnormalities

  2. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (psolium infected (4.7±3.0pg/mg) compared to control pigs (9.0±3.7pg/mg) prior to arrival at the research facility, however no significant difference was observed between the two groups at arrival and after approximately two weeks. Similar patterns were also observed for DHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (p<0.001). Results showed that lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR baseada no gene cpx para detecção de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae em suínos natural e experimentalmente infectados Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based on the cpx gene for detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in natural and experimentally infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Koerich de Souza

    2008-10-01

    infection with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5B was performed and samples were obtained by tonsil swab, tonsil biopsy and blood for PCR, bacterial isolation and ELISA, respectively. These tests were then performed in naturally infected pigs from three herds with different sanitary situations of clinical disease. In each herd, five groups of different ages were analyzed. Tonsil biopsy for bacterial isolation and PCR and blood to determine the herd serological status was collected. The results obtained in the experimental infection confirmed that, even with the infection establishment, proved with bacterial isolation, it was not possible to detect the agent by PCR 45 days after infection. In naturally infected animals, PCR was more sensitive than bacterial isolation. The association between PCR and ELISA is a good alternative to define the herd sanitary status regarding the infection with A. pleuropneumoniae.

  4. SULFAMETHOXAZOLE-TRIMETHOPRIM TREATMENT OF GUINEA PIGS INFECTED WITH 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMPOPHILA'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...

  5. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  6. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  7. High-throughput gene expression analysis in pigs as model for respiratory infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    for disease and inflammation. Pigs are fully susceptible to human influenza, and have been demonstrated to be involved in influenza evolution and ecology. Pigs share many similarities with humans regarding lung physiology and innate immune cell infiltration of the respiratory system and thus seem...... to be an obvious large animal model for respiratory infections. This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of circulating non-coding RNA and innate immune factors in porcine blood leukocytes during influenza virus infection. By employing the pig as a model we were able to perform...

  8. High-throughput Gene Expression Analysis In Pigs As Model For Respiratory Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    model for disease and inflammation. Pigs are fully susceptible to human influenza, and have been demonstrated to be involved in influenza evolution and ecology. Pigs share many similarities with humans regarding lung physiology and innate immune cell infiltration of the respiratory system and thus seem...... to be an obvious large animal model for respiratory infections. This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of circulating non-coding RNA and innate immune factors in porcine blood leukocytes during influenza virus infection. By employing the pig as a model we were able to perform...

  9. Parasite-specific IL-4 responses in Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis-infected pigs evaluated by ELISPOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N. R.; Kringel, H.; Roepstorff, A.

    2007-01-01

    method is a valuable tool for future experimental settings as it enables repeated and parasite-specific measurement of IL-4 at protein level when investigating, for example, immunomodulatory properties of helminths. Furthermore, the method could be used to identify specific parasite antigens inducing IL......The objective of the present study was to develop an ELISPOT method to measure parasite-specific IL-4 producing cells during experimental Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs. In many experimental settings it is useful to be able to measure changes in specifically induced cytokines...

  10. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas

    2017-01-01

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water...... post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain...... or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8 g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect...

  11. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and mouse bioassay in commercial cuts of pork from experimentally infected pigs Detecção do Toxoplasma gondii por PCR e bioensaio em camundongo em cortes comerciais de carnes de suínos infectados experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Tsutsui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of T. gondii in commercial cuts of pork (ham, tenderloin, spareribs and arm picnic by PCR and bioassay from experimentally infected pigs, was evaluated. Eighteen mixed breed pigs were divided into two groups (G. The G1 animals (n=10 were infected with 4 x10(4 oocysts of the T. gondii VEG strain and the G2 animals (n=8 were used as control. Pigs of both groups were slaughtered at 59th day after infection, and meat samples were collected for bioassay and PCR. All animals from G1 were positive by at least one or both tests, and all control animals were negative. T. gondii was identified in pork by mouse bioassay and PCR in 27/40 (67.5% and in 9/40 (22.5% of the evaluated samples, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of tissue cysts from commercial cuts of pork by bioassay (P>0.05. However, statistical differences were observed when mouse bioassay and PCR were compared (PAvaliou-se a presença de T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne suína (pernil, lombo, costela e paleta, por meio do bioensaio e PCR, em animais experimentalmente inoculados. Dois grupos (G foram formados. Os animais do G1 (n=10 foram inoculados com 4 x10(4 oocistos da cepa VEG e os do G2 (n=8 permaneceram como grupo-controle, não inoculado. Todos os animais foram abatidos no dia 59 após a infecção, quando foram colhidas as amostras de carne para a realização das provas de bioensaio e da PCR. Todos os suínos do G1 apresentaram-se positivos a pelo menos um dos testes de diagnóstico ou a ambos, e os do grupo-controle permaneceram negativos. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação aos tipos de cortes comerciais e à presença do parasita no bioensaio (P>0,05. O bioensaio foi capaz de detectar T. gondii em 27/40 (67,5% amostras e a PCR em 9/40 (22,5%. O estudo mostrou diferença entre o bioensaio e a PCR (P<0,01.

  12. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  13. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential.Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12 that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively and specificity (95.5% and 90.0% in pigs and humans, respectively.These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12 that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody target in infected humans and pigs.

  14. Slaughterhouse survey of Trichinella infections in pigs of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in five regions of Tanzania to determine the prevalence of the nematode in domestic pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the framework of an OIE Twinning project. At least five grams of diaphragm muscle was taken from each sampled carcass. A total of 1,078 adult pigs were ...

  15. Experimental rhinovirus infection in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, P G; Sanderson, G; Robinson, B S; Holgate, S T; Tyrrell, D A

    1996-11-01

    Experimental viral disease studies in volunteers have clarified many aspects of the pathogenesis of human viral disease. Recently, interest has focused on rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations, and new volunteer studies have suggested that airway responsiveness (AR) is enhanced during a cold. For scientific, ethical and safety reasons, it is important to use validated methods for the preparation of a virus inoculum and that the particular virological characteristics and host responses should not be altered. We have prepared a new human rhinovirus (HRV) inoculum using recent guidelines and assessed whether disease characteristics (for example, severity of colds or changes in AR) were retained. Studies were conducted in 25 clinically healthy volunteers using a validated HRV inoculum in the first 17 and a new inoculum in the subsequent eight subjects. Severity of cold symptoms, nasal wash albumin levels and airway responsiveness were measured, and the new inoculum was prepared from nasal washes obtained during the cold. The new inoculum was tested using standard virological and serological techniques, as well as a polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. No contaminating viruses or organisms were detected and the methods suggested were workable. Good clinical colds developed in 20 of the 25 subjects and median symptom scores were similar in the validated and new inoculum groups (18 and 17.5, respectively; p=0.19). All subjects shed virus, and there were no differences noted in viral culture scores, nasal wash albumin and rates of seroconversion in the two groups. Although airway responsiveness increased in both groups (p=0.02 and p=0.05), the degree of change was similar. We have performed experimental rhinovirus infection studies and demonstrated similar clinical disease in two inoculum groups. Amplified airway responsiveness was induced; continuing studies will define the mechanisms and suggest modes of treatment.

  16. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis...... posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...... the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after...

  17. Oxfendazole as successful treatment of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta; Armando Emiliano Gonzalez; Cesar Gavidia; Viterbo Ayvar; Hector Hugo Garcia; Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of oxfendazole (OFZ) on Taenia hydatigena metacestodes, also called Cysticercus tenuicollis (C. tenuicollis), was studied in 648 raising pigs. This study was performed in Tumbes Department in Peru, an endemic area for cysticercosis. Pigs were randomized in two groups;untreated group (n=142) did not receive any treatment and treated group (n=506) received OFZ treatment at a single dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. Six months after treatment, the pigs were necropsied. The prevalence of infection by C. tenuicollis among the pigs was 27.5%(39/142) and 2.0%(10/506) in untreated and treated groups, respectively. Untreated group was infested only with viable cysts, whereas treated group had no viable cysts. All the cysts found in treated group presented degeneration, with a thick membrane, and they contained milky fluid and fibrous tissue. A single dose of OFZ was effective against C. tenuicollis, thus providing an alternative drug for controlling this parasite in pigs.

  18. Immunization of pigs against infection with Schistosoma japonicum using ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y.-E.; Jiang, C.-F.; Han, J.-J.; Li, Y.-L.

    1993-01-01

    Since pigs are important in the zoonotic transmission of schistosomiasis japonica in China, a veterinary vaccine might contribute to the control of the disease in humans. Pigs were immunized with three doses each of 10 000 cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum attenuated with ultraviolet light (400 μWatt.min/cm 2 ). The experiment was performed with portable irradiation equipment in a rural area of the Hubei Province (P.R. China). A challenge infection of 1000 untreated cercariae was given 2.5 or 6 months after the last immunization, and age-matched naive pigs were challenged as a control. Immunized pigs developed about 90% resistance against the challenge. The liver egg load of these animals was reduced by over 90%. Less than 0.01% of the immunizing cercariae developed to adult parasites and the vaccination had no apparent adverse influence on the pig's health. (Author)

  19. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  20. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  1. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates in weanling pigs: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates in 22-day-old SPF pigs. Results The study found that all pigs in the infected groups developed typical signs of flu-like symptoms on 1–4 days post- infection (dpi. The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. Histopathological lesions related to swine influenza-induced lesions consisting of epithelial cells damage, airway plugging and peribronchial and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration were present in both infected groups. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using nucleoprotein specific monoclonal antibodies revealed positive staining cells in lung sections of both infected groups at 2 and 4 dpi. Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Conclusion The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. However the severity of the diseases with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s.

  2. Experimental infection of Rickettsia parkeri in the Rhipicephalus microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; de Azevedo Baêta, Bruna; Cepeda, Patricia Barizon; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; de Almeida Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Pinter, Adriano; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate, by means of artificial feeding, the interaction between a pathogenic rickettsia and the hard tick R. microplus. We used partially engorged females fed on calves free of Rickettsia spp. Group 1 (G1), containing 20 ticks, was fed bovine blood only. Group 2 (G2), containing 20 ticks, was fed blood containing uninfected VERO cells, and group 3 (G3), containing 40 ticks, was fed blood containing VERO cells infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Biological parameters of the non-parasitic phase and a possible bacterial transmission to the tick eggs and to guinea pigs were evaluated. At the end of oviposition, all G3 females were PCR-positive for genes specific for the genus Rickettsia. Although no guinea pigs were infected, the experimental infection of R. microplus by R. parkeri caused a deleterious effect on the oviposition and provided the first report of transovarian transmission of rickettsia in this tick. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein A Suppresses Immune Responses during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity. Importance  Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections; however, a vaccine with clinical efficacy is not available. Using mice to model staphylococcal infection, earlier work identified protective antigens; however, corresponding human clinical trials did not reach their endpoints. We show that B cell receptor (IgM) cross-linking by protein A is an important immune evasion strategy of S. aureus that can be monitored in a guinea pig model of bloodstream infection. Further, immunization with nontoxigenic protein A enables infected guinea pigs to elicit antibody responses that are protective against S. aureus. Thus, the guinea pig model may support preclinical development of staphylococcal vaccines. PMID:25564466

  4. Modeling the Disease Course of Zaire ebolavirus Infection in the Outbred Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models that accurately reflect human filovirus infection are needed as early screens for medical countermeasures. Prior work in rodents with the Zaire species of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) primarily used inbred mice and guinea pigs to model disease. However, these inbred species do not show some of the important features of primate ZEBOV infection, most notably, coagulation abnormalities. Thirty-six outbred guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted ZEBOV and examined sequentially over an 8-day period to investigate the pathologic events that lead to death. Features of disease in ZEBOV-infected outbred guinea pigs were largely consistent with disease in humans and nonhuman primates and included early infection of macrophages and dendritiform cells, apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes, and increases in levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, dysregulation of circulating levels of fibrinogen, protein C activity, and antifibrinolytic proteins and deposition of fibrin in tissues demonstrated both biochemical and microscopic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. These findings suggest that the outbred guinea pig model recapitulates ZEBOV infection of primates better than inbred rodent models, is useful for dissecting key events in the pathogenesis of ZEBOV, and is useful for evaluating candidate interventions prior to assessment in primates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection on pig farms in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Wang, Zhengsong; Feng, Huihui; Fang, Rui; Nie, Hao; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes severe diseases in mammals, including humans, around the world. In China, pork is the main meat source; accordingly, T. gondii in pigs is considered an important source for human toxoplasmosis. Understanding the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pig farms is thus important for control of the disease in humans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epizootiology of T. gondii infections in pig farms in central China by assessing the seroprevalence and risk factors of this disease. In the present study, 3,558 sera samples were collected from pigs in 37 large-scale pig farms in this region and tested by AG-ELISA. The total seroprevalence was 24.5%, with the greatest prevalence in breeding pigs. The risk factors for toxoplasmosis suggest that high frequency of the contact of pigs with cats (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), high density of pig breeding (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), the presence of mosquitoes and flies (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%), semi-patency pens (P ≤ 0.05; IC 95%), and low frequency of scavenging (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) were all associated with seroprevalence. In addition, the use of sulfonamides (P ≤ 0.01; IC 95%) significantly decreased seroprevalence. This is the first report of anti- T. gondii antibodies in pigs on large-scale pig farms in central China. The findings will provide useful information for designing control strategies of toxoplasmasis in pig farms.

  6. Cellular immune responses in the lungs of pigs infected in utero with PRRSV: An immunohistochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingstedt, Jens Erik; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The cellular response in the lungs of pigs transplacentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Double staining for the T-cell marker antigen CD3 and PRRSV demonstrated that the appearance and distribution of T-cells homing...... to the lungs of infected pigs correlated well with the presence and location of virus-infected cells. Single stainings showed that cells positive for the CD2 and CD8 antigen were almost as numerous in pneumonic lesions as CD3 positive cells whereas cells expressing the CD4 antigen were rare. The morphology...

  7. Dietary cinnamaldehyde enhances acquisition of specific antibodies following helminth infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Krych, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Parasite-naïve pigs fed diets supplemented...... with CA had higher levels of total IgA and IgG in plasma, and A. suum-infected pigs fed CA had higher levels of parasite-specific IgM and IgA in plasma 14days post-infection. Moreover, dietary CA increased expression of genes encoding the B-cell marker CD19, sodium/glucose co-transporter1 (SCA5L1...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hove

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large and small-scale commercial farms that practise good hygiene (19.75 % of 238 and highest in backyard scavenging pigs (35.71 % of 70. Only 11.7 % (11 of the 127 positive samples had titres of > 1:400 and nine (81.82 % of these 11 originated from pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. A prevalence of 3.51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T. gondii infection in domestic pigs.

  9. A field evaluation of two vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Charlotte S; Vinther, Jens; Svensmark, Birgitta; Bækbo, Poul

    2014-04-16

    A field trial was carried out with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in order to investigate the benefit of vaccination under field conditions in modern Danish pig production facilities with pigs being positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The M. hyopneumoniae infection of the herd was confirmed through blood samples that were positive for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae combined with gross lesions of the lungs related to M. hyopneumoniae at slaughter and detection of M. hyopneumoniae by polymerace chain reaction in these lesions. A total of 2,256 pigs from two herds were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received 2 mL ThoroVAX®VET, Group 2 received 1 mL Ingelvac®MycoFLEX, and Group 3 was a non-vaccinated control group. The vaccination was performed by a person who was not involved in the rest of the trial and vaccination status thereby blinded to the evaluators.The prevalence of lung lesions related to M. hyopneumoniae were significantly lower for pigs vaccinated with ThoroVAX®VET but not for pigs vaccinated with Ingelvac®MycoFLEX®, when compared to non-vaccinated pigs. There was no significant effect of vaccination on growth rate, antibiotic consumption or mortality. This trial demonstrated that vaccination with Thoro®VAX VET was effective in reducing the prevalence of lung lesion in pig units infected with M. hyopneumoniae.

  10. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  11. Administration of acidified drinking water to finishing pigs in order to prevent Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wolf, P J; van Schie, F W; Elbers, A R; Engel, B; van der Heijden, H M; Hunneman, W A; Tielen, M J

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether acidified drinking water, with two millilitres of an acid mixture per litre, was able to reduce the number of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds. In each compartment, half of the pens were supplied with acidified water and the other pens served as negative control. In three herds the required dose was not applied to the pigs as a result of various practical problems. In another herd, all pigs remained seronegative throughout the study. Analysis of the remaining three herds showed a large and significant treatment effect in one herd (Pdrinking nipples as a result of fungal growth in the pipelines.

  12. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture...

  13. Exploring the Pregnant Guinea Pig as a Model for Group B Streptococcus Intrauterine Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Maria I; Burnside, Kellie; Whidbey, Christopher; Vornhagen, Jay; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2017-09-01

    Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost. Given these limitations, the guinea pig is an attractive animal model for studying pregnancy infections, particularly as the placental structure is quite similar to the human placenta. Here, we describe our studies that explored the pregnant guinea pig as a model to study in utero Group B Streptococci (GBS) infections. We observed that intrauterine inoculation of wild type GBS in pregnant guinea pigs resulted in bacterial invasion and dissemination to the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal organs. Also, hyperhemolytic GBS such as those lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S showed increased dissemination into the amniotic fluid and fetal organs such as the fetal lung and brain. These results are similar to those observed in mouse and non-human primate models of in utero infection, and support use of the guinea pig as a model for studying GBS infections in pregnancy.

  14. Vaccination reduces macrophage infiltration in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pigs infected with a highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranckx Katleen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia and is responsible for significant economic losses to the pig industry. To better understand the mode of action of a commercial, adjuvanted, inactivated whole cell vaccine and the influence of diversity on the efficacy of vaccination, we investigated samples from vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs experimentally infected with either a low (LV or a highly virulent (HV M. hyopneumoniae strain. Non-vaccinated and sham-infected control groups were included. Lung tissue samples collected at 4 and 8 weeks post infection (PI were immunohistochemically tested for the presence of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and macrophages in the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT. The number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid was determined using quantitative PCR at 4 and 8 weeks PI. Serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were determined at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks PI. Results The immunostaining revealed a lower density of macrophages in the BALT of the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups. The highest number of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid was measured at 4 weeks PI for the HV strain and at 8 weeks PI for the LV strain. Vaccination reduced the number of organisms non-significantly, though for the HV strain the reduction was clinically more relevant than for the LV strain. At the level of the individual pigs, a higher lung lesion score was associated with more M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the lungs and a higher density of the investigated immune cells in the BALT. Conclusions In conclusion, the infiltration of macrophages after infection with M. hyopneumoniae is reduced by vaccination. The M. hyopneumoniae replication in the lungs is also reduced in vaccinated pigs, though the HV strain is inhibited more than the LV strain.

  15. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  16. Cell-mediated immune responses differentiate infections with Brucella suis from Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O : 9 in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Jungersen, Gregers

    2007-01-01

    Due to almost identical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigens, infections with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9 (YeO:9) cause false positive serological reactions (FPSR) in tests for Brucella and thus cause problems in National Brucella surveillance programs. As LPS are strong inducers...... of antibody responses it was hypothesized that cell-mediated immune responses to non-LPS antigens of the two bacteria can be used to separate immune responses to these two biologically very different infections. Following subclinical experimental infections with Brucella suis biovar 2, high interferon......-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay responses with a commercial Brucella melitensis antigen preparation (Brucellergene OCB) preceded the development of antibodies. High IFN-gamma responses in the seven B. suis inoculated pigs with serological evidence of infection were consistent throughout a 20-week postinoculation...

  17. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  18. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs...... and their durations varied largely. Some of the observed autonomic signs were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle tone leading to collapse. Stereotypic walk in circles was observed in several occasions...

  19. MicroRNA and the innate immune response toinfluenza A virus infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise

    response to influenza A virus infection requires the joint expression profiling of protein-coding gene and microRNA expression. Paper 1 is a review which emphasizes the importance of the pig in the study of influenza Avirus infections. Pigs are themselves natural hosts for influenza A virus, and our close......Influenza A virus infections are a major public health concern. Many million cases of diseaseassociated with influenza A virus occur every year during seasonal epidemics, and especially vulnerable populations such as the elderly, pregnant women, young children, and individual swith underlying...... conditions such as diabetes and patients of autoimmune diseases are at higher risk of severe complications from influenza A virus infection. However, in otherwise healthy individuals, influenza A virus infection is relatively short-lived, commonly being cleared within one to two weeks. Influenza A virus...

  20. Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Diego P

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts, and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88% than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%. Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.

  1. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: partial prevention of the natural infection of guinea pigs with a killed parasite vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basombrio, M A

    1990-07-01

    Guinea pigs are natural reservoirs of Chagas' disease. Domestic breeding and local trade of these animals are common practices among andean communities in South America. Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi occurs when the animals live in triatomine-infested houses or yards. The preventive effect of a vaccine consisting of cultured T. cruzi killed by freezing and thawing plus saponin was tested both in mice and in the guinea pig ecosystem. Resistance against T. cruzi challenge in mice was improved by increasing the trypomastigote/epimastigote ratio in live attenuated vaccines but not in killed parasite vaccines. Although the killing of attenuated parasites sharply reduced their immunogenicity for mice, a protective effect against natural T. cruzi infection was detected in guinea pigs. A total of 88 guinea pigs were vaccinated in four intradermal sites on three occasions. Eighty controls received similar inoculations of culture medium plus saponin. All animals were kept in a triatomine-infested yard. Parasitemia was studied with the capillary microhematocrit method. After an exposure time averaging 4 months, natural T. cruzi infection occurred in 55% (44/80) of the controls and in 33% (29/88) of the vaccinated group (P less than 0.01). The number of highly parasitemic guinea pigs was also significantly decreased (6/80 vs 0/88, P less than 0.01). Thus, immunizing protocols which are only partially protective against artificial callenge with T. cruzi may nevertheless constrain the exchange of parasites between natural hosts and vectors.

  3. Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Annelies; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Krejci, Roman; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-08-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets. At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected. The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 10 7 CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25). A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated animals showed a 52.9% lower RDS and 91.0% lower MLL compared to the PCG. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected at the necropsy of the vaccinated pigs, a significantly lower amount of M. hyopneumoniae-DNA and a significantly lower IL-1 and IL-6 concentration was found compared to the pigs of the PCG.

  4. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  5. Metabolism of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezes, V.; Bukovsky, V.; Drgova, A.; Mezesova, V.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of intraventricularly administered 32 P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of 32 P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs. (author)

  6. Evidence of infection with avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Shehata, Mahmoud M; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2018-02-01

    The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs.

  7. Cross-species infection of specific-pathogen-free pigs by a genotype 4 strain of human hepatitis E virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagins, A. R.; Opriessnig, T.; Huang, Y. W.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important pathogen. The animal strain of HEV, swine HEV, is related to human HEV. The genotype 3 swine HEV infected humans and genotype 3 human HEV infected pigs. The genotype 4 swine and human HEV strains are genetically related, but it is unknown whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. A swine bioassay was utilized in this study to determine whether genotype 4 human HEV can infect pigs. Fifteen, 4-week-old, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. Group 1 pigs were each inoculated intravenously with PBS buffer as negative controls, group 2 pigs similarly with genotype 3 human HEV (strain US-2), and group 3 pigs similarly with genotype 4 human HEV (strain TW6196E). Serum and fecal samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 days postinoculation (dpi) and tested for evidence of HEV infection. All pigs were necropsied at 56 dpi. As expected, the negative control pigs remained negative. The positive control pigs inoculated with genotype 3 human HEV all became infected as evidenced by detection of HEV antibodies, viremia and fecal virus shedding. All five pigs in group 3 inoculated with genotype 4 human HEV also became infected: fecal virus shedding and viremia were detected variably from 7 to 56 dpi, and seroconversion occurred by 28 dpi. The data indicated that genotype 4 human HEV has an expanded host range, and the results have important implications for understanding the natural history and zoonosis of HEV. PMID:18551597

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants.

  10. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  11. Administration of acidified drinking water to finishing pigs in order to prevent Salmonella infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der P.J.; Schie, van F.W.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Engel, B.; Heijden, van der H.; Hunneman, W.A.; Tielen, M.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether acidified drinking water, with two millilitres of an acid mixture per litre, was able to reduce the number of Salmonella infections in finishing pig herds. In each compartment, half of the pens were supplied with acidified water and the other pens served as

  12. Variations in the severity of classical swine fever infections in Danish pigs - the clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Bruun, Camilla S.

    Aim The severity of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection is believed to be determined by different factors, including virulence of the specific strain as well as factors related to the host, e.g. age, genetic background and health status of the pig [1, 2]. In recent Danish experiments...

  13. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-γ response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Boesen, Henriette Toft; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2011-01-01

    The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult to evalu......The whole-blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay is a quantitative in-vitro assay for a direct read out of Ag-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to infectious diseases. The IFN-γ assay is robust in severe intracellular infections like Brucella or mycobacteria, but more difficult...

  14. Prevalence and sustainable control of Balantidium coli infection in pigs of Ranchi, Jahrkahnd, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Bauri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs had a higher degree of gastrointestinal protozoa infection 93 out of 100 faecal samples. Balantidium coli infected pigs were controlled effectively by oxytetracycline (100% on 3rd day of observation and Metronidazole +Furazolidone combination (100% on 5th day of observation. Initially B. coli infected pigs had decreased haemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count values, but these pigs returned towards normal ranges after 7th day of observation. The differential leukocyte count values of B. coli infected pigs showed decreased values of neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and increased eosinophils values come towards normal range on 7th day of observation. The average body weight gain in oxytetracycline and metronidazole + furazolidone combination treated Tampworth & Desi piglets showed higher viz.35.25 ± 1.64 kg and 28.08 ± 1.75 kg of body weight respectively than untreated infected control piglets (15.75 ± 2.39. The average body weight gain in Oxytetracycline and metronidazole + furazolidone combination treated desi piglets were higher body weight viz. 36.67±1.07 kg and 32.50±0.96 kg respectively than untreated infected control piglets (22.00±0.88 kg. In both the treatment group, the group treated with Oxytetracycline had significantly higher body weight gain 35.25 ± 1.64 kg and 36.67±1.07 kg in both T & D and desi piglets respectively than metronidazole +furazolidone combination treated T & D and desi piglets (28.08 ± 1.75 kg, 32.50±0.96 kg respectively. The observation on different hematological parameters during B. coli infection and their treatment indicated that the harm caused by B. coli in pigs could be reduced to a greater extent by suitable therapeutic management. Application of suitable control packages were found to be very encouraging for maintaining optimum health and economical pig production. Oxytetracycline drugs showed higher efficacy than metronidazole + furazolidone combination and it show significantly

  15. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium...... infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly...

  16. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community...... chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number...

  17. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

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    Vassilis Papatsiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS. About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES.

  18. Incidence and presence of virulence factors of Streptococcus suis infection in slaughtered pigs from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padungtod, Pawin; Tharavichitkul, Prasit; Junya, Supansa; Chaisowong, Warangkhana; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Makino, Souichi; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the incidence of Streptococcus suis infection in slaughtered pigs raised in industrial facility and backyard system in Chiang Mai City, Thailand. A total of 90 tonsils and submaxillary salivary gland/lymph node samples from slaughtered pigs raised in industrial facility and 122 samples from slaughtered pigs raised in backyard system were collected. Isolation and identification of S. suis were conducted using standard bacteriological methods. Farm management and risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Serotyping and presence of virulence factor genes, epf, mrp and sly, were determined by multiplex PCR assay. The overall incidence of S. suis in this study was 9% (n = 212) and the incidence is significantly higher in districts located at a greater distance south of Chiang Mai City. S. suis serotype 2 was present more in healthy pigs (43%) than ill pigs (10%). Every S. suis isolate carried mrp and sly and ill pigs carried epf (80%) more than healthy pigs (57%). However, the probability of S. suis serotype 2 with epf+ (0.245) detected in healthy pigs was higher than in ill pigs (0.08) indicating people may have a higher risk of being infected with S. suis from healthy than ill pigs.

  19. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui

    2010-08-09

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  20. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

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    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  1. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

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    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  2. Swine influenza virus infection dynamics in two pig farms; results of a longitudinal assessment

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    Simon-Grifé Meritxell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to assess the dynamics of influenza virus infection in pigs, serological and virological follow-ups were conducted in two whole batches of pigs from two different farms (F1 and F2, from 3 weeks of age until market age. Anti-swine influenza virus (SIV antibodies (measured by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition and nasal virus shedding (measured by RRT-PCR and isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells were carried out periodically. SIV isolates were subtyped and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were partially sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. In F1, four waves of viral circulation were detected, and globally, 62/121 pigs (51.2% were positive by RRT-PCR at least once. All F1 isolates corresponded to H1N1 subtype although hemagglutination inhibition results also revealed the presence of antibodies against H3N2. The first viral wave took place in the presence of colostral-derived antibodies. Nine pigs were positive in two non-consecutive sampling weeks, with two of the animals being positive with the same isolate. Phylogenetic analyses showed that different H1N1 variants circulated in that farm. In F2, only one isolate, H1N2, was detected and all infections were concentrated in a very short period of time, as assumed for a classic influenza outbreak. These findings led us to propose that influenza virus infection in pigs might present different patterns, from an epidemic outbreak to an endemic form with different waves of infections with a lower incidence.

  3. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  4. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected...... protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts....

  5. Excretion in feces and mucosal persistence of Salmonella ser. Typhimurium in pigs subclinically infected with Oesophagostomum spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N.R.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    ; group B was given 0 dentatum, 0 quadrispinulatum, and S Typhimurium; and group C was given STyphimurium only. Pigs in groups A and B were trickle infected with Oesophagostomum spp 3 times weekly throughout the study. After 19 days, groups B and C were inoculated once with STyphimurium. One pig from each...

  6. Classical swine fever virus induces pyroptosis in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Zhu, Mengjiao; Deng, Shaofeng; Fan, Shuangqi; Xu, Hailuan; Liao, Jiedan; Li, Peng; Zheng, Jingfang; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2018-05-02

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection. According to qRT-PCR assay results, the prevalence of this virus in peripheral lymphoid organs (tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen) was much higher than that in other organs. Severe bleeding, necrosis, and a significant reduction in lymphocytes were found in the peripheral lymphoid organs of CSFV-infected pigs based on histological examination. In-depth studies showed that an increased ratio of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were present in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group according to immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the p10 subunit and activity of caspase-1, which is a regulator of pyroptosis, the N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, which is an executor of pyroptosis, and the cleavage and secretion of IL-1b, which is a product of pyroptosis were increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group. Together, these results demonstrated that pyroptosis is involved in CSFV-induced cell death in vivo, which provides a new understanding of the mechanism associated with lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in pigs infected with this virus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction methods and formation process of experimental myopia in guinea pigs

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    Mi-Duo Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myopia, especially high myopia, is one of the most important eye diseases in the world. For many years the researchers established a variety of animal models and animal experiments to explore the mechanism of development of myopia. Guinea pig is one of the most commonly used myopia models in recent years. It has obvious advantages in many aspects, and it is a kind of experimental animals which is worth to be further applied to different kinds of myopic experiments and to be studied thoroughly. This article reviews the induction methods and the forming process of the guinea pig myopia model.

  8. Antibody response between pigs of Piau and a commercial breed naturally infected with Porcine circovirus 2

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    L.H.S. Bulos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pig population is made up of several naturalized breeds; among them the Piau breed is known for its rusticity and large fat stores. The naturalized breeds, in comparison with commercial ones, may have an increased resistance to diseases circulating in their territory. Thus, this study aimed to verify if there are differences between the serologic profile against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 of Piau pigs and that of a commercial breed from a farm naturally infected by PCV2. The serum viral load was measured by qPCR, and levels of anti-PCV2 antibodies were measured by ELISA. The results showed that the serum viral load was similar across all animals. However, Piau piglets showed higher levels of antibodies compared to commercial piglets (P= 0.05, while sows of the commercial breed showed higher levels than the Piau breed (P< 0.01. There was not a statistical difference between pigs of different production stages in the seroprevalence of PCV2 or the blood viral load. This work demonstrates that, with regard to a natural PCV2 infection, the Piau breed has a different humoral immune response compared to the response developed by the commercial pigs. The results support the importance of conservation of native breeds.

  9. Detection of PR-39, a porcine host defence peptide, in different cell sub-linages in pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabner, S; Egerbacher, M; Gasse, H; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Höltig, D; Waldmann, K-H; Blecha, F; Saalmüller, A; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2017-10-01

    Innate immunity is critically important for the outcome of infection in many diseases. It was previously shown that cathelicidin PR-39, an important porcine multifunctional host defence peptide, is elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and respiratory tract tissue after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.pp.). To date, neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are thought to be the only source of PR-39. The aim of this study was to further characterize PR-39⁺ cells and selected immune cell populations in lung tissue during the peracute (7-10 hours), acute (2 days), reconvalescent (7 days) and chronic (21 days) stages of experimental infection with A.pp. serotype 2. In total, six mock-infected control pigs and 12 infected pigs were examined. Using immunofluorescence double-labeling, antibodies against PR-39 were combined with antibodies against CD3 (T-cells), CD79 (B-cells), Iba1 (activated macrophages), TTF-1 (lung epithelial cells expressing surfactant proteins), macrophage/L1 protein and myeloperoxidase (MPO, cells of the myeloid linage). In the peracute and acute phases of infection, total PR-39⁺ cells and myeloid linage cells increased, whereas CD3⁺ cells and TTF-1⁺ cells decreased. Double labeling revealed that most Macrophage/L1 protein+ cells and to a lesser extent MPO⁺ cells co-expressed PR-39. In addition, few bronchial epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (both identified with TTF-1) produced PR-39. Occasionally, CD3⁺ T cells expressing PR-39 were seen in infected animals. Taken together, this study identifies cell types, other than PMNs, in lungs of A.pp.-infected pigs that are capable of producing PR-39. In addition, these findings provide further insights into the dynamics of different immune cell populations during A.pp.-infection.

  10. Trichinella spiralis infection enhances protein kinase C phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Wałajtys-Rode, E

    2010-03-01

    To learn more about the signalling pathways involved in superoxide anion production in guinea pig alveolar macrophages, triggered by Trichinella spiralis infection, protein level and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated. Infection with T. spiralis, the nematode having 'lung phase' during colonization of the host, enhances PKC phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. Isoenzymes beta and delta of PKC have been found significantly phosphorylated, although their location was not changed as a consequence of T. spiralis infection. Neither in macrophages from T. spiralis-infected guinea pig nor in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated macrophages from uninfected animals, participation of MAP kinases in respiratory burst activation was statistically significant. The parasite antigens seem to act through macrophage PAF receptors, transducing a signal for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, as stimulating effect of newborn larvae homogenate on respiratory burst was abolished by specific PAF receptor antagonist CV 6209. A suppressive action of T. spiralis larvae on host alveolar macrophage innate immunological response was reflected by diminished protein level of ERK2 kinase and suppressed superoxide anion production, in spite of high level of PKC phosphorylation.

  11. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

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    Harel Josée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4

  12. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine p...

  13. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. First Case of Natural Infection in Pigs: Review of Trypanosoma cruzi Reservoirs in Mexico

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    Paz María Salazar-Schettino

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa, the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris. This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi

  15. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

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    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  16. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Heiko; Woeste, Henrike; Doehring, Stefanie; Fahrion, Anna S; Doherr, Marcus G; Beilage, Elisabeth grosse

    2013-04-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial character of enzootic pneumonia

  17. Acute and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus type 2 in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fabrício Dias; Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2010-02-01

    Bovine herpetic mammillits is a self-limiting cutaneous disease of the udder and teats of cows associated with bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. This article describes the use of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) to study the pathogenesis of BoHV-2 infection. Twelve weanling female guinea pigs inoculated subcutaneously with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and teats developed local hyperemia, edema, vesicles, ulcers and scabs. Infectious virus was recovered between days 3 and 7 post-infection (pi) from the genital area (9/12) and teats (1/12); and all inoculated animals seroconverted (virus-neutralizing titers of 16-128). Histological examination of lesions revealed lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates and intranuclear inclusion bodies in keratinocytes. PCR examination of tissues collected at day 35 pi detected latent viral DNA predominantly in lumbosacral spinal segments. In another experiment, eight females inoculated with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and treated with dexamethasone (Dx) at day 35 pi developed mild to moderate local signs, yet no virus could be recovered from lesions. PCR examination of spinal segments from these animals confirmed the presence of latent viral DNA. These results demonstrate that guinea pigs are susceptible to BoHV-2 infection and therefore may be used to study selected aspects of BoHV-2 biology.

  18. Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroconversion and infection in pigs in the three main production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Enrico; Ferrari, Nicola; Pitozzi, Alessandra; Remistani, Michela; Giardiello, Daniele; Maes, Dominiek; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in 66 pig farms, with different production systems (one-, two-, and three-site systems), and considered different risk factors. Serological assay was used to detect serum antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA in tracheobronchial swabs. Results demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae infection status was predominantly influenced by the age of the animals and the type of production system. Infection rates were higher in older animals and the prevalence was higher in the one- and two-site systems than in the three-site systems. Dynamics of infection by RT-PCR showed that earlier M. hyopneumoniae infection on one-site farms occurs earlier, while on two- and three-site farms occurs later but spreads faster, suggesting that contact between animals of different age favors the transmission.

  19. Late regulation of immune genes and microRNAs in circulating leukocytes in a pig model of influenza A (H1N2) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Louise; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Lars E; Mortensen, Shila; Schlegel, Michael; Dürrwald, Ralf; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-02-19

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short regulatory RNA molecules which are implicated in modulating gene expression. Levels of circulating, cell-associated miRNAs in response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection has received limited attention so far. To further understand the temporal dynamics and biological implications of miRNA regulation in circulating leukocytes, we collected blood samples before and after (1, 3, and 14 days) IAV challenge of pigs. Differential expression of miRNAs and innate immune factor mRNA transcripts was analysed using RT-qPCR. A total of 20 miRNAs were regulated after IAV challenge, with the highest number of regulated miRNAs seen on day 14 after infection at which time the infection was cleared. Targets of the regulated miRNAs included genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. Significant regulation of both miRNAs and mRNA transcripts at 14 days after challenge points to a protracted effect of IAV infection, potentially affecting the host's ability to respond to secondary infections. In conclusion, experimental IAV infection of pigs demonstrated the dynamic nature of miRNA and mRNA regulation in circulating leukocytes during and after infection, and revealed the need for further investigation of the potential immunosuppressing effect of miRNA and innate immune signaling after IAV infection.

  20. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...

  1. Prevalence and age-related infection of Cryptosporidium suis, C. muris and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs on a farm complex in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hanzlíková, D.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, 3/4 (2009), s. 319-322 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium infection * age specificity * pigs Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2009

  2. Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Vargas-Calla; Luis A Gomez-Puerta; Juan Calcina; Omar Gonzales-Viera; Cesar Gavidia; Maria T Lopez-Urbina; Hector H Garcia; Armando E Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis. Methods:Eighteen naturally infected cysticercotic pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups. Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation. Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.

  3. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Zelko, Justine M.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment. PMID:29135337

  4. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  5. The comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Lohse, Louise; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oralswab and probangsamples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oralswabs as well...... as in probangsamples from both species. FMDV RNA could be detected in oralswabs and probangsamples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas animals which were infected through contact exposure had low levels of FMDV RNA in oralswabs before viral RNA could...... be measured in serum. Analysis of samples collected from cattle persistently infected with FMDV showed that it was not possible to detect FMDV RNA in oralswabs harvested beyond 10 days post infection (dpi), despite the presence of FMDV RNA in probangsamples that had been collected as late as 35 dpi...

  6. Interaction of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Su-Jin; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccinations on disease severity in an experimental PCV2-M. hyopneumoniae dual challenge model. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using microbiological (PCV2 viremia and M. hyopneumoniae nasal shedding), immunological (neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells), and pathological (gross lung lesions, histopathologic pulmonary and lymphoid lesions, and the presence of PCV2 antigen and M. hyopneumoniae DNA within the lesions) evaluations. Although M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lesions and lesion-associated PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not reduce PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, or PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs. In addition, vaccination against PCV2 did not reduce the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, the M. hyopneumoniae-induced pulmonary lesions or the lesion-associated M. hyopneumoniae DNA in dually challenged pigs. Dual challenge with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae did not interfere with the induction of active immunity induced by a previous single vaccination for either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae and (ii) vaccination against PCV2 alone decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae in dually challenged pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...... became severely septicemic and died within a week of inoculation, irrespective of presence or absence of thymus. In the second experiment the animals were inoculated with 10(6) bacteria, and both euthymic and thymus-grafted animals responded with high titres of anti bacterial antibodies while these were...... very low in the athymic nude animals. Polyclonal antibody production was only observed in the euthymic animals and only regarding IgG. Athymic rats were not able to clear the infection, while the thymus-grafted animals reacted like euthymic rats: Very few animals housed the bacteria four weeks after...

  8. Chronological study of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, seroconversion and associated lung lesions in vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; López-Soria, S; Segalés, J; Valero, O; Espinal, A; Calsamiglia, M

    2007-05-16

    A field trial was conducted to study Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) infection dynamics by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and serology in pigs of a farm affected by enzootic pneumonia (EP). Moreover, correlation of Mh detection at different respiratory tract sites with presence of EP gross and microscopic lung lesions was assessed. These parameters were studied and compared between vaccinated (two doses at 1 and 3 weeks of age versus one dose at 6 weeks of age) and non-vaccinated pigs. Animals were monitored from birth to slaughter by nPCR from nasal swabs and by serology. From 3 to 22 weeks of age, an average of three pigs per treatment and per batch were necropsied (n = 302). The remaining pigs were sent to the slaughter (n = 103). Nasal, bronchial and tonsillar swabs were taken from the necropsied/slaughtered pigs; gross and microscopic EP-suggestive lung lesions were also assessed. Single and double vaccination resulted in earlier seroconversion and higher percentage of Mh seropositive pigs compared to control group. At slaughter, double vaccinated pigs showed lower percentage of EP-compatible gross lung lesions and lower Mh prevalence at upper respiratory tract sites (nasal cavity and tonsil) than control pigs.

  9. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushnell Ruth V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI, and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan. Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization.

  10. Alveolar bone loss and mineralization in the pig with experimental periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandee Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To address how experimental periodontal disease affects alveolar bone mass and mineral apposition in a young pig model. Materials and methods: Seven three-month-old pigs were periodically inoculated with 4 types of periodontal bacteria, along with a ligature around the last maxillary deciduous molar for 8 weeks to induce periodontal disease (PG. Eight same-aged pigs served as the control (CG. Segmentations of 3D cone-beam CT images were performed to quantify volumes of the total alveolar bone, alveolar ridge, and all roots of the target molar. Calcein and alizarin were administered for labeling mineral apposition before euthanasia. The harvested molar blocks were sectioned and examined under epifluorescence. The inter-label distance between the two vital markers at regional bone surfaces were measured and mineral apposition rate (MAR was calculated. Results: A significant reduction of total alveolar bone volume was seen in PG with the major loss at the alveolar ridge. MAR was significantly higher at the root furcation region than those at both buccal and palatal ridges in CG. Compared with CG, PG animals showed more interrupted labeled bands with significantly lower MAR at the furcation region. MARs were positively associated with both the volumes of total alveolar bone and ridge in CG, but only with the total alveolar bone in PG. Conclusions: In young growing pigs, mineral apposition is region specific. The experimental periodontal disease not only leads to alveolar bone loss, but also perturbs mineral apposition for new bone formation, thus impairing the homeostasis of alveolar bone remodeling. Keyword: Dentistry

  11. Infecção experimental em suínos jovens com Leptospira interrogans sorovar wolffi: determinação de parâmetros bioquímicos Experimental infection by Leptospira interrogans serovar wolffi in young pigs: determination of biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rende

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre infecção experimental foi realizado em oito suínos, com idade média de 90 dias, machos castrados, da raça Wessex, e distribuídos em dois grupos de quatro suínos cada. Durante 36 dias, foram analisadas as alterações bioquímicas nos soros dos suínos dos dois grupos. O Grupo I foi mantido como testemunho e recebeu 5,0mL de solução fisiológica estéril por via intravenosa (veia cava craniana e, no Grupo II, os suínos foram inoculados pela mesma via com 5,0mL de cultura de Leptospira interrogans sorovar wolffi , amostra L-10 selvagem isolada de tatu (Dasypus novemcinctus, contendo 1,0 x 10(8 leptospiras/mL. A partir do terceiro dia após a inoculação e em intervalos de 72 horas até o décimo oitavo dia, foram feitas coletas de sangue, sem anticoagulante, dos animais inoculados e testemunhas. Os parâmetros bioquímicos analisados foram: bilirrubina total, direta e indireta, ácidos graxos, glicose e proteínas plasmáticas. Foi detectado um aumento da bilirrubina direta no terceiro dia e um aumento no sexto dia da bilirrubina total e indireta após a inoculação. As dosagens de glicose, ácidos graxos e proteínas plasmáticas apresentaram uma diminuição a partir do terceiro dia da inoculação. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que o aumento das taxas de bilirrubinas levam a uma definição de um diagnóstico de hemólise aguda, e que a hipoglicemia, a hipolipidemia e a hipoproteinemia podem estar relacionadas com lesões hepáticas e a uma septcemia.Todas as dosagens em todos os animais retornaram aos seus valores normais a partir do décimo quinto dia.Eight, 90 days old pigs, of the Wessex lineage all castrated male were used in experiment, divided into two groups of four animals. Biochemical alterations in the serum of the animals were analyzed in both groups during 36 days. Control (Group I received 5.0mL of a 0.9% sterile sodium chloride solution by intracranial vein injection; Group II animals

  12. Influenza A Virus Infection in Pigs Attracts Multifunctional and Cross-Reactive T Cells to the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talker, Stephanie C; Stadler, Maria; Koinig, Hanna C; Mair, Kerstin H; Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M; Graage, Robert; Zell, Roland; Dürrwald, Ralf; Starick, Elke; Harder, Timm; Weissenböck, Herbert; Lamp, Benjamin; Hammer, Sabine E; Ladinig, Andrea; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-10-15

    Pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses and play a critical role in influenza epidemiology. However, little is known about their influenza-evoked T-cell response. We performed a thorough analysis of both the local and systemic T-cell response in influenza virus-infected pigs, addressing kinetics and phenotype as well as multifunctionality (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and cross-reactivity. A total of 31 pigs were intratracheally infected with an H1N2 swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) and consecutively euthanized. Lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and blood were sampled during the first 15 days postinfection (p.i.) and at 6 weeks p.i. Ex vivo flow cytometry of lung lymphocytes revealed an increase in proliferating (Ki-67(+)) CD8(+) T cells with an early effector phenotype (perforin(+) CD27(+)) at day 6 p.i. Low frequencies of influenza virus-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells could be detected in the lung as early as 4 days p.i. On consecutive days, influenza virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells produced mainly IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, reaching peak frequencies around day 9 p.i., which were up to 30-fold higher in the lung than in tracheobronchial lymph nodes or blood. At 6 weeks p.i., CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells had accumulated in lung tissue. These cells showed diverse cytokine profiles and in vitro reactivity against heterologous influenza virus strains, all of which supports their potential to combat heterologous influenza virus infections in pigs. Pigs not only are a suitable large-animal model for human influenza virus infection and vaccine development but also play a central role in the emergence of new pandemic strains. Although promising candidate universal vaccines are tested in pigs and local T cells are the major correlate of heterologous control, detailed and targeted analyses of T-cell responses at the site of infection are scarce. With the present study, we

  13. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  14. Vertebral growth modulation by hemicircumferential electrocoagulation: an experimental study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alberto; Barrios, Carlos; Burgos, Jesús; Hevia, Eduardo; Correa, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    This experimental study in pigs was aimed at evaluating spinal growth disorders after partial arrest of the vertebral epiphyseal plates (EP) and neurocentral cartilages (NCC). Unilateral and multisegmental single or combined lesions of the physeal structures were performed by electrocoagulation throughout a video-assisted thoracoscopical approach. Thirty 4-week-old domestic pigs (mean weight 16 kg) were included in the experiments. The superior and inferior epiphyseal plates of T5 to T9 vertebra were damaged in ten animals by hemicircumferential electrocoagulation (group I). In other ten pigs (group II), right NCC at the same T5-T9 levels were damaged. Ten other animals underwent combined lesions of the ipsilateral hemiepiphyseal plates and NCC at the T5-T9 levels. A total of 26 animals could be evaluated after 12 weeks of follow-up using conventional X-rays, CT scans and histology. The pigs with hemicircumferential EP damage developed very slight concave non-structured scoliotic deformities without vertebral rotation.(mean 12° Cobb; range10-16°). Some of the damaged vertebra showed a marked wedgening with unilateral development alteration of the vertebral body, including the adjacent discs The animals with damage of the NCC developed mild scoliotic curves (mean 19° Cobb; range 16-24°) with convexity opposite to the damaged side and loss of physiological kyphosis. The injured segments showed an asymmetric growth with hypoplasia of the pedicle and costovertebral joints at the damaged side. The pigs undergoing combined EP and NCC lesions developed minimal non-structured curves, ranging from 10 to 12° Cobb. In these animals there was a lack of growth of a vertebral hemibody and disc hypoplasia at the damaged segments. Both damage of the NCC and the EP affect the height of the vertebral body. No spinal stenosis was found in any case. In most cases, the adjacent superior and inferior vertebral EP to damaged segments had a compensatory growth that maintained the

  15. Comparing validation of four ELISAsystems for detection of Salmonella Derby- and Salmonella Infantis-infected pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Rösler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Kerstin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs. Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were ...

  16. Tiamulin-nitrovin interaction in pigs: a case report and experimental reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Bulnes, C; Valcárcel, L; Abeledo, M A; Figueredo, J M; Toraño, M E

    2000-10-01

    Tiamulin is a diterpenic veterinary drug widely used in swine for the control of infectious diseases, including swine dysentery and enzootic pneumonia. Tiamulin is well tolerated and only a few drug interactions have been reported with some ionophore antibiotics. A case of tiamulin adverse drug interaction with nitrovin, a nitrofuranic growth promoter, in fattening pigs from a commercial farm is described. To confirm the diagnosis, experimental reproduction was conducted using 20 healthy female pigs. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1 of them receiving feed medicated with 100 mg tiamulin hydrogen fumarate/kg, another received 20 mg nitrovin/kg to establish the harmlessness of the drugs alone. The other 2 groups received feeds containing both drugs at the previous concentrations, one of which came from the farm. In the last 2 groups clinical signs appeared 72-96 h after initially feeding pigs the tiamulin hydrogen fumarate + nitrovin-containing feed. The animals had uneasiness, anxiety, skin erythema, and rash on snout, vulva and abdomen, and increased body temperatures. No mortality occurred, and there were no characteristic findings during pathological examination. The signs disappeared after 96 h of consuming the medicated feed, leaving a slight skin thickening of the affected regions. All signs disappeared spontaneously 4-5 d after ceasing medication.

  17. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of 99 Tc m -labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods

  18. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J

    2011-08-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.

  19. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of AS2077715 against experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs in comparison with terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsumi, Keisuke; Murai, Hidetsugu; Nakamura, Ikko; Watanabe, Masato; Fujie, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    AS2077715 is a novel antifungal metabolite produced by the newly isolated fungal strain Capnodium sp. 339855. This compound has potent inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and potent fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes, as measured in vitro. Here, we compared the effects of AS2077715 and terbinafine in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis. In a treatment regimen started from the day 7 after infection, 10 daily oral doses of 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 and 20 mg kg(-1) of terbinafine significantly decreased fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) in foot pad skin. In a treatment regimen started from the day 11 after infection, 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 significantly reduced fungal CFUs in foot pad skin after 7 daily doses in comparison with 20 mg kg(-1) terbinafine-treated guinea pigs. Our findings suggest that in vivo potency and efficacy of AS2077715 are equal to or greater than that of terbinafine, positioning AS2077715 as a good candidate for use in treating trichophytosis.

  1. Experimental joint immobilization in guinea pigs. Effects on the knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondesdesouza, J. P.; Machado, F. F.; Sesso, A.; Valeri, V.

    1980-01-01

    In young and adult guinea pigs, the aftermath experimentally induced by the immobilization of the knee joint in hyperextended forced position was studied. Joint immobilization which varied from one to nine weeks was attained by plaster. Eighty knee joints were examined macro and microscopically. Findings included: (1) muscular hypotrophy and joint stiffness in all animals, directly proportional to the length of immobilization; (2) haemoarthrosis in the first week; (3) intra-articular fibrous tissue proliferation ending up with fibrous ankylosis; (4) hyaline articular cartilage erosions; (5) various degrees of destructive menisci changes. A tentative explanation of the fibrous tissue proliferation and of the cartilage changes is offered.

  2. Comparing validation of four ELISA-systems for detection of Salmonella derby- and Salmonella infantis-infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Uwe; Szabo, Istvan; Matthies, Claudia; Albrecht, Kerstin; Leffler, Martin; Scherer, Kathrin; Nöckler, Karsten; Lehmann, Jörg; Methner, Ulrich; Hensel, Andreas; Truyen, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was the comparative evaluation of four indirect Salmonella ELISA tests at study time approved in Germany to detect Salmonella infection in pigs.Three tests are based on a LPS-antigen mix and directed against specific IgG antibodies. The fourth test is based on a purified S. Typhimurium whole-cell lysate antigen and discriminates between Salmonella-specific IgM-, IgA-, and IgG- antibodies. In a longitudinal study, two groups of six weeks old hybrid piglets were orally infected with a porcine S. Infantis or S. Derby strain. Clinical and bacteriological parameters were monitored weekly during an observation period of 130 days after infection and serum samples were investigated in parallel with the respective ELISAs. Apparently, the LPS-based ELISA systems used in this study failed to recognize S. Infantis-infected pigs although those animals shed the pathogen in high amounts throughout the study until day 81 post infection (p. i.). In contrast, the isotype-specific Salmonella Typhimurium whole-cell-lysate based ELISA was capable of detecting Salmonella-infected pigs from day ten p. i. at all tested serotypes and revealed the highest sensitivity in detection of S. Infantis-infected pigs. Furthermore, it became apparent that the often used surveillance cut-off value of 40 OD% is not appropriate for intra-vitam detection of S. Infantis- and S. Derby-infected pigs. In contrast, the cut-off values of the ELISAs given by the suppliers result in considerable higher detection rates.

  3. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  5. Guinea pig-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered receptor recognition can productively infect a natural host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José I; Molina, Nicolas; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, Esteban; Clark, Stuart; Burman, Alison; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    We report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. Adaptive amino acid replacements (I(248)-->T in 2C, Q(44)-->R in 3A, and L(147)-->P in VP1), selected upon serial passages of a type C FMDV isolated from swine (biological clone C-S8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swine and suckling mice. However, the adaptive replacement L(147)-->P, next to the integrin-binding RGD motif at the GH loop in VP1, abolished growth of the virus in different established cell lines and modified its antigenicity. In contrast, primary bovine thyroid cell cultures could be productively infected by viruses with replacement L(147)-->P, and this infection was inhibited by antibodies to alphavbeta6 and by an FMDV-derived RGD-containing peptide, suggesting that integrin alphavbeta6 may be used as a receptor for these mutants in the animal (porcine, guinea pig, and suckling mice) host. Substitution T(248)-->N in 2C was not detectable in C-S8c1 but was present in a low proportion of the guinea pig-adapted virus. This substitution became rapidly dominant in the viral population after the reintroduction of the guinea pig-adapted virus into pigs. These observations illustrate how the appearance of minority variant viruses in an unnatural host can result in the dominance of these viruses on reinfection of the original host species.

  6. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I decreases during experimentally induced acute-phase processes in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, R.; Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower...

  7. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis...

  8. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    , which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher......Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  9. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM. Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets ( n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10 5 colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) ( P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) ( P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine ( P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  10. Experimental evaluation of furosemide renography in unobstructed and partially obstructed upper urinary tracts in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harving, N.; Christiansen, P.; Taagehoj-Jensen, F.; Frokjaer, J.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Mortensen, J. (Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, University of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    To evaluate the reliability and the constancy of the furosemide renography an experimental evaluation of the test has been performed. A standardized unilateral partial proximal ureteral obstruction was applied to 11 pigs. Preoperatively and again weekly in the three weeks following obstruction a furosemide renogram (FR) was done. The furosemide renography was a very constant parameter in the unobstructed kidney (85%) and in the partly obstructed kidney (85%). A type I FR pattern (O'Reilly classification) was an exact indicator of an unobstructed pelvis. After partial ureteral obstruction, an immediate change in the FR pattern was seen either into type II or type IIIa renography. In this experimental study furosemide renography was found to be a reliable tool in the differentiation between the unobstructed normal renal pelves and the partly obstructed dilated renal pelves.

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nugent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control.

  12. Serological evidence for hepatitis e virus infection in laboratory monkeys and pigs in animal facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kaori; Kita, Masakazu; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Arikawa, Jiro; Yagami, Kenichi; Asano, Masahide; Tezuka, Hideo; Suzuki, Noboru; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Furuya, Masato; Mohri, Shirou; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Ibuki, Kentaro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-07-01

    In laboratory animal facilities, monkeys and pigs are used for animal experiments, but the details of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these animals are unknown. The risk of infection from laboratory animals to humans has become a concern; therefore, much attention should be paid to the handling of these animals during their care and use, including surgical procedures performed on infected animals. In this connection, serum samples collected from 916 monkeys and 77 pigs kept in 23 animal facilities belonging to the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of National University Corporations (JALAN) and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of Public and Private Universities (JALAP) in Japan were examined for the purpose of detecting antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA by using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and seven serum samples of 916 (11.7%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 7 and 17 serum samples of 916 (0.8% and 5.3%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgA, respectively. Thirty-six samples from 62 (58.1%) farm pigs were positive for anti-HEV IgG, whereas all samples tested from miniature pigs were negative (0/15, 0%). Seven samples from 62 (9.1%) farm pigs and 7 samples from 916 (0.8%) monkeys were positive for IgM antibody, but these HEV-IgM antibody positive serum samples were HEV-RNA negative by RT-PCR. The IgM antibody positive rate (9.1%) of farm pigs was much higher than that of monkeys (0.8%). These results suggest the relative levels of risk of HEV infection from these animals to animal handlers and researchers who work with them in laboratory animal facilities.

  13. Gross and histopathological findings in synovial membranes of pigs with experimentally induced Mycoplasma hyosynoviae arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Olsen, T.; Basse, A.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    1999-01-01

    or contact exposure with M. hyosynoviae induced arthritis in 13- to 17-week-old pigs. The acute to subacute arthritis was characterized by increased amounts of serohaemorrhagic, serofibrinous or mahogany coloured synovial fluid combined with edema and hyperaemia, followed by yellow to brownish discoloration...... and moderate villous proliferation of the synovial membrane. In the chronic phase moderate fibrosis was seen, but no periarticular or articular cartilage involvement. The acute to subacute histopathological characteristics were edema, hyperaemia, variable hyperplasia of synovial lining cells, increased density...... of subsynovial cell populations, diffuse and perivascular infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophage-like cells, fibrinous material, mild to moderate villous hypertrophy and mild to moderate fibrosis in chronic cases. The morphogenetic changes during the course of the infection may be described...

  14. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  15. [Use of new immunoglobulin isotype-specific ELISA-systems to detect Salmonella infections in pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Joachim; Alt, Michael; Trepnau, Daniela; Lehmann, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In Germany, the program for controlling salmonella infections in pigs is based on tests detecting salmonella-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced antibodies in meat-juice or blood. These conventional tests which are based on the technology of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detect exclusively or mainly immunoglobulin(lg)G antibodies. Meanwhile, novel ELISA systems (WCE-ELISA, 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA) have been developed, which additionally detect the antibody classes IgM and IgA.This fact enables the registration of fresh salmonella infections (starting with day 5 p.i.) and thus, the distinction between early and older infections. The results show that animals with early salmonella infections appear significantly more often in herds with a high than with a low prevalence. With the newly developed tests this group of animals can be detected much more efficiently and precisely than with the tests used so far. Due to their clearly improved sensitivity the application of the WCE-ELISA and the 3-Isotype-Screening-ELISA in terms of the QS-Salmonella-Monitoring program can therefore significantly improve the selection of farms with potential salmonella excretors. Additionally, the WCE-ELISA can be applied very suitable for the examination of individual animals.

  16. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) infected with SIVmac239.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Ming-Xu; Xia, Yu-Jie; Xiao, Yu; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-01-18

    Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carried parasites before viral injection. At the 50th week after viral injection, the individuals with negative results in parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287) were characterized as the Parasites Exit (PE) group, with the other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and 10225) characterized as the Parasites Remain (PR) group. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in the PE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4 + T cells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally, the PE group had higher immune activation and immune exhaustion of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Pathological observation showed greater injury to the liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes in the PE group. This study showed more seriously compromised immunity in the PE group, strongly indicating that parasites might exit an immunocompromised host.

  17. Immunological variation in Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis: measurement on the variation of the antibody immune response of naturally infected pigs against antigens extracted from their own cysticerci and from those of different pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-10-18

    Although it is widely assumed that both antigen and host immunological variability are involved in the variable intensity of natural porcine infections by Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercis and success of immunodiagnostic tests vaccines, the magnitude of such combined variability has not been studied or measured at all. In this paper we report statistical data on the variability of the antibody response of naturally infected pigs against the antigens extracted from the vesicular fluids of their own infecting cysts (variance within pigs) and against antigen samples extracted from cysts of other cysticercotic pigs (variance among pigs). The variation between pigs was greater than the inter-pigs variations, which suggests that a concomitant immunity process prevents the establishment of cysts coming from a subsequent challenge. In so doing, we found that there is not a single antigenic band that was recognized by all hosts and that antigens varied among the cysts within the same pigs as well as among pigs. Our results may be valuable for the improvement of immunodiagnostic tests and of effective vaccines against naturally acquired porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine for the control of enzootic pneumonia in pigs infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivara, A; Kritas, S K; Bourriel, A R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2007-02-17

    The efficacy of an inactivated aqueous vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was evaluated at two M hyopneumoniae-infected farrow-to-finish commercial farms (A and B) in Greece. In a prospective, randomised double-blind study, two groups on each farm received intramuscular doses of either the vaccine or the adjuvant when they were one and four weeks of age. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs of disease; morbidity and mortality were recorded; and bodyweight was recorded at intervals. At slaughter, the lungs of the animals were examined and the chest cavities were examined for signs of pleuritis. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in any of the pigs. On farm A the vaccinated pigs were on average 6 kg heavier at slaughter, and on farm B they were on average 4 kg heavier; on both farms the average daily gain of the pigs was greater than that of the unvaccinated pigs. The prevalence and severity of enzootic pneumonia in the affected lungs were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the unvaccinated pigs.

  19. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in lymph nodes and diaphragms of pigs from one infected herd in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Petr; Kaevska, Marija; Slana, Iva; Bartejsova, Iva; Pavlik, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed on 40 finished pigs from one herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. The aim was to investigate the presence and amount of M. a. avium in samples of lymph nodes and diaphragm tissues collected during routine postmortem inspection using the triplex quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) method. We collected, in total, 107 samples: various lymph nodes affected by gross tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions from 17 pig carcasses, as well as samples of head and mesenteric lymph nodes from 23 carcasses without TB-like lesions. Samples of diaphragm tissues were collected from all carcasses. M. a. avium was detected in one or more tissue samples collected from half of the slaughtered pigs tested. Samples of diaphragm tissues of three pigs with detected TB-like lesions contained M. a. avium (10(2) to 10(3) cells per g of sample); the organism was not detected in diaphragm tissues from pigs without TB-like lesions. The qPCR method may be useful for quantification of M. a. avium in pigs for the purposes of foodborne risk assessment.

  20. Evidence of hemolysis in pigs infected with highly virulent African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaven Karalyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV (genotype II in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs, blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease. Results: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased. Also were detected the trends of decrease in RBC count at terminal stages of ASF. Analysis of blood biochemistry revealed that during ASF development, besides bilirubinemia significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were detected. Analysis of urine biochemistry revealed the presence of bilirubinuria, proteinuria during ASF development. Proteinuria, especially at late stages of the disease reflects a severe kidney damage possible glomerulonefritis. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the characteristics of developing hemolytic anemia observed in acute ASF (genotype II.

  1. A Neutralizing Anti-gH/gL Monoclonal Antibody Is Protective in the Guinea Pig Model of Congenital CMV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Marcy R.; Yan, Donghong; Vij, Rajesh; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Nakamura, Gerald; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Lein, Samantha; Chan, Pamela; Ross, Jed; Carano, Richard; Deng, Rong; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Xu, Min; Feierbach, Becket

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital virus infection. Congenital HCMV infection occurs in 0.2–1% of all births, and causes birth defects and developmental abnormalities, including sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delay. Several key studies have established the guinea pig as a tractable model for the study of congenital HCMV infection and have shown that polyclonal antibodies can be protective [1]–[3]. In this study, we demonstrate that an anti-guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L neutralizing monoclonal antibody protects against fetal infection and loss in the guinea pig. Furthermore, we have delineated the kinetics of GPCMV congenital infection, from maternal infection (salivary glands, seroconversion, placenta) to fetal infection (fetus and amniotic fluid). Our studies support the hypothesis that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody targeting an envelope GPCMV glycoprotein can protect the fetus from infection and may shed light on the therapeutic intervention of HCMV congenital infection in humans. PMID:24722349

  2. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are protective against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Orlinger, Klaus; Watson, Elizabeth M; Aspoeck, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Gerhard; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Monath, Thomas; Bernstein, David I

    2016-04-12

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be life-threatening and often results in significant developmental deficits and/or hearing loss. Thus, there is a critical need for an effective anti-CMV vaccine. To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. Female Hartley strain guinea pigs were divided into three groups: Buffer control group (n = 9), rLCMV-gB group (n = 11), and rLCMV-pp65 (n = 11). The vaccines were administered three times IM at 1.54 × 10(6)FFU per dose at 21-day intervals. At two weeks after vaccination, the female guinea pigs underwent breeding. Pregnant guinea pigs were challenged SQ at ∼ 45-55 days of gestation with 1 × 10(5)PFU of GPCMV. Viremia in the dams, pup survival, weights of pups at delivery, and viral load in both dam and pup tissues were determined. Pup survival was significantly increased in the LCMV-gB vaccine group. There was 23% pup mortality in the gB vaccine group (p = 0.044) and 26% pup mortality in the pp65 vaccine group (p = 0.054) compared to 49% control pup mortality. The gB vaccine induced high levels of gB binding and detectable neutralizing antibodies, reduced dam viremia, and significantly reduced viral load in dam tissues compared to control dams (p < 0.03). Reduced viral load and transmission in pups born to gB-vaccinated dams was observed compared to pups from pp65-vaccinated or control dams. The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hoa Ngo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542 of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542 carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%. 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.

  4. Antibody production by the pig colon during infection with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-09-01

    When 47 pigs were dosed orally with cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae, 44 (94 per cent) developed swine dysentery. Of those which recovered and were rechallenged, nine of 21 (43 per cent) showed clinical signs, as did one of 10 (10 per cent) challenged on a third occasion. Clinical disease was associated with development of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in serum and the local production of IgA in gut mucosal tissues. The appearance of antibody was not directly related to protection but rather indicated either prolonged exposure (in the case of serum IgG) or recent exposure to T hyodysenteriae (for secretory IgA). Infection also resulted in the appearance of IgG and IgA memory cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, these studies indicated that humoral immunity alone is not responsible for the onset of a protective response to T hyodysenteriae in the colon.

  5. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae modifies outcomes of infection with European swine influenza virus of H1N1, but not H1N2, subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblanc, C; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Amenna, N; Cariolet, R; Simon, G

    2012-05-25

    Swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are widespread in farms and are major pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The aim of this experiment was to compare the pathogenicity of European avian-like swine H1N1 and European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 viruses in naïve pigs and in pigs previously infected with Mhp. Six groups of SPF pigs were inoculated intra-tracheally with either Mhp, or H1N1, or H1N2 or Mhp+H1N1 or Mhp+H1N2, both pathogens being inoculated at 21 days intervals in these two last groups. A mock-infected group was included. Although both SIV strains induced clinical signs when singly inoculated, results indicated that the H1N2 SIV was more pathogenic than the H1N1 virus, with an earlier shedding and a greater spread in lungs. Initial infection with Mhp before SIV inoculation increased flu clinical signs and pathogenesis (hyperthermia, loss of appetite, pneumonia lesions) due to the H1N1 virus but did not modify significantly outcomes of H1N2 infection. Thus, Mhp and SIV H1N1 appeared to act synergistically, whereas Mhp and SIV H1N2 would compete, as H1N2 infection led to the elimination of Mhp in lung diaphragmatic lobes. In conclusion, SIV would be a risk factor for the severity of respiratory disorders when associated with Mhp, depending on the viral subtype involved. This experimental model of coinfection with Mhp and avian-like swine H1N1 is a relevant tool for studying the pathogenesis of SIV-associated PRDC and testing intervention strategies for the control of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic design of pigs as experimental models in the combat between chronic diseases and healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    with and without intervention. The genome of different pig breeds have been sequenced, revealing that the pig is genetically more similar to man than conventional laboratory animals - in agreement with the similarities in organ development, physiology and metabolism. Genetically designed minipigs (Göttingen...... pigs. We can also produce clones of pigs, some disease prone and some fluorescing, to perform experiments in regenerative medicine where the fate of healthy fluorescent cells can be followed in the, basically identical, disease prone animals. It is also our hope that our pig models can contribute...

  7. Experiences after Twenty Months with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Infection in the Naïve Norwegian Pig Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerset, B.; Er, C.; Løtvedt, S.; Jørgensen, A.; Hungnes, O.; Lium, B.; Germundsson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus was detected in Norwegian pigs in October 2009. Until then, Norway was regarded free of swine influenza. Intensified screening revealed 91 positive herds within three months. The virus was rapidly transmitted to the susceptible population, including closed breeding herds with high biosecurity. Humans were important for the introduction as well as spread of the virus to pigs. Mild or no clinical signs were observed in infected pigs. Surveillance of SIV in 2010 revealed that 41% of all the Norwegian pig herds had antibodies to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Furthermore, this surveillance indicated that pigs born in positive herds after the active phase did not seroconvert, suggesting no ongoing infection in the herds. However, results from surveillance in 2011 show a continuing spread of the infection in many herds, either caused by new introduction or by virus circulation since 2009. PMID:23074654

  8. Laparoscopic intraperitoneal mesh fixation with fibrin sealant (Tisseel®) vs. titanium tacks: a randomised controlled experimental study in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J.R.; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Linnemann, D.

    2008-01-01

    feasible in a pig model. There is still no evidence that fibrin-sealing alone is appropriate for intraperitoneal mesh fixation in hernia repair, but the technique might become an alternative or supplement to mechanical mesh fixation. Until then, further experimental research in animal hernia models...

  9. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stewart; Choi, K Yeon; Root, Matthew; McGregor, Alistair

    2016-07-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107-179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model.

  10. Herd prevalence of Salmonella enterica infections in Danish slaughter pigs determined by microbiological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Bager, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide programme to survey and control salmonella in pig herds, a microbiological survey of 1363 pig herds was performed in Denmark. A total of 13 468 slaughter pigs were examined at slaughter by culture of 5 g of caecal contents. Overall, 30 different serotypes of Salmonella...

  11. Ascaris Suum Infection Downregulates Inflammatory Pathways in the Pig Intestine In Vivo and in Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L. E.; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    similar transcriptional pathways in human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. DCs exposed to ABF secreted minimal amounts of cytokines and had impaired production of cyclooxygengase-2, altered glucose metabolism, and reduced capacity to induce interferon-gamma production in T cells. Our in vivo and in vitro......Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost 1 billion people. Ascaris is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad downregulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and costimulatory molecules. A. suum body fluid (ABF) suppressed...

  12. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms

  13. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  14. Development and evaluation of a mixed long-chain lipopolysaccharide based ELISA for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6 and 12 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl-Hansen, Jan; Barfod, Kristen; Klausen, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotypes 2, 6 and 12. The assay was designated MIX-ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12 was purified using hot...... of the assay indicate that screening of herds for Ap infection can be performed using this ELISA. Efficient serological surveillance can be achieved by using such mixed antigen ELISAs coated with size-selected LPS-antigens from the most prevalent serotypes....... phenol-water extraction followed by fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography. A mixture of fractions containing molecules with molecular weight above 50 kDa from all three serotypes was used as antigen. The MIX-ELISA was evaluated with sera from pigs experimentally infected with the serotypes 1, 2...

  15. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  16. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP, an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A. suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet significantly increased numbers of eosinophils induced by A. suum infection in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and modulated gene expression in the jejunal mucosa of infected pigs. Both GP-supplementation and A. suum infection induced significant and apparently similar changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota, and both also decreased concentrations of isobutyric and isovaleric acid (branched-chain short chain fatty acids in the colon. Our results demonstrate that while a polyphenol-enriched diet in pigs may not directly influence A. suum establishment, it significantly modulates the subsequent host response to helminth infection. Our results suggest an influence of diet on immune function which may potentially be exploited to enhance immunity to helminths.

  18. Leakage of colon anastomoses: development of an experimental model in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Sørensen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    model has only been developed in one gastric bypass study. The aim of the present study was to develop a leakage model of pig colon anastomoses. This type of study has never been performed before. Materials and Methods: Anastomosis was performed in 22 pigs. In all anastomoses a standardized rupture......: A model of anastomotic leakage on pig colon is developed with creation of a 21-mm rupture in the anastomotic line....

  19. Guinea pigs experimentally infected with vaccinia virus replicate and shed, but do not transmit the virus Cobaias infectadas experimentalmente com vírus vaccínia replicam e excretam, porém não transmitem o vírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of vaccinia viruses (VACV associated with vesicular disease in cattle and humans in Southeast Brazil remains uncertain, yet the role of wild species in virus transmission has been suggested. This study investigated the susceptibility and transmission potential by guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus - phylogenetically close to an abundant Brazilian rodent (Cavia aperea - to two VACV strains (P1V and P2V isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. Eight guinea pigs inoculated intranasally with P1V and P2V (10(6 TCID50.ml-1 did not develop clinical signs, but six animals shed virus in nasal secretions (day 1 to 9 post-inoculation - pi, developed viremia (between days 1 and 10 pi and seroconverted to VACV. In spite of virus replication and shedding, the virus was not transmitted to sentinel animals by direct or indirect contact (aerosols or through food and water contaminated with virus. These results demonstrate that, in spite of replicating and shedding the virus, guinea pigs do not transmit the virus upon experimental inoculation. This finding makes unlikely a possible participation of related species in VACV maintenance and transmission in nature.A origem dos vírus vaccínia (VACV, envolvidos em surtos de doença vesicular em bovinos e humanos no Sudeste do Brasil, permanece desconhecida, e a participação de espécies silvestres na manutenção e transmissão do vírus tem sido sugerida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a susceptibilidade e o potencial de transmissão por cobaias (Cavia porcellus - filogeneticamente relacionada a uma espécie de roedor, conhecido por preá (Cavia aperea, bastante abundante no país - a duas cepas de VACV (P1V e P2V isoladas de um surto de doença cutânea em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Oito cobaias inoculadas pela via intranasal com uma mistura das amostras P1V e P2V (10(6 DICC50.ml-1 não apresentaram sinais clínicos, porém seis animais excretaram o vírus nas

  20. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  1. Naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs studied from weaning to slaughter by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and polymerase chain reaction on faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Sørensen, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    by immunofluorescence antibody test compared to 24% by immunohistochemistry on ileal samples. Thus, applied at the time of slaughter the antibody test appeared to be a highly sensitive ante-mortem diagnostic tool for identifying L. intracelluaris exposed pigs with or without current proliferative enteropathy. (c) 2004......The course of naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection was studied in 41 pigs by testing blood and faeces samples collected four to seven times from before weaning to slaughter 5 months old. At slaughter, a sample of ileum was taken for histopathology. In the first sampling when...... later on shed and/or were seropositive for L. intracellularis. The lowest prevalence of L. intracellularis was observed in 6-13 weeks old pigs and it seemed as though L. intracellularis in early infected pigs only activates a minor antibody response. At slaughter 66% of the pigs were found positive...

  2. The beneficial role of simultaneous splenectomy after extended hepatectomy: experimental study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Papalois, Apostolos; Kontos, Michael; Griniatsos, John; Liakopoulos, Dimitrios; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Agrogiannis, George; Liakakos, Theodoros; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2017-02-01

    The role of hepatic hemodynamic modulation in the development of "small-for-size" syndrome (SFSS) after extended hepatectomy (EH) or living-donor liver transplantation is still controversial. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of hemodynamic parameters of the liver circulation on the development of SFSS after EH in a porcine model. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into two groups: group A has received EH (75%-80%) without splenectomy, and group B with EH and simultaneous splenectomy was carried out. Portal hemodynamics, liver function tests, histologic findings, injury and survival rates were compared between groups A and B. The 7-d survival rate in the splenectomy group was significantly improved compared with group A (88.9% versus 44.4%, P splenectomy group were significantly lower than in group A immediately after splenectomy and postoperatively until the day of sacrifice. Histologic findings in group A clearly illustrate severe inflammation, bridging necrosis, ischemic cholangitis, and severe congestion, while in group B there were less serious histologic changes. Our experimental study indicates that perioperative portal modulation can successfully prevent the manifestation of SFSS after EH. Therefore, by focusing on "flow" rather than on "size," researchers may understand better the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative haematological changes in experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... However, disease such as animal trypanosomiasis possess a great risk to their ... The severity of the infection is influenced by a number of factors .... agrees with a similar work in which a significant fall in packed cell volume ... Heat production, body temperature and body posture in West. African dwarf goats ...

  4. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...... recruiting from more than three supplier herds had three-times higher odds to test seropositive than pigs in herds which breed their own replacement stock or recruit from a maximum of three supplier herds....

  5. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  6. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrati...

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  8. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infections in fattening pigs and association with clinical signs and pathological lesions of Enzootic Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrs, Adrian; Siegenthaler, Salome; Grützner, Niels; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Kuhnert, Peter; Nathues, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory disorders in fattening pigs are of major concern worldwide. Particularly Enzootic Pneumonia remains a problem for the pig industry. This chronic respiratory disease is primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). However, more recently it was hypothesised that M. hyorhinis can also cause similar lung lesions. To investigate the relevance of M. hyorhinis as a cause of pneumonia in fattening pigs 10 farms in Switzerland (considered free of Enzootic Pneumonia) and 20 farms in Germany (regarded as endemic for Enzootic Pneumonia) with a history of chronic and/or recurrent respiratory diseases were included in the study. During a one-time farm visit the coughing index was determined in the batch of oldest fattening pigs in each farm before submission to slaughter. In total, 1375 lungs from these pigs were collected at the abattoir and individually scored for lesions. Furthermore, 600 lungs with, if present, indicative lesions for Enzootic Pneumonia (purple to grey areas of tissue consolidation in the cranio-ventral lung lobes) were tested for mycoplasma species by culture and by real-time PCR for the presence of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. In total, 15.7% of the selected lungs were tested positive for M. hyorhinis by real-time PCR. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis was 10% in Switzerland and 18.5% in Germany and differed significantly between these two countries (p=0.007). M. hyorhinis was detected significantly more often in pneumonic lungs (p=0.004) but no significant association was found between M. hyorhinis and the coughing index or the M. hyopneumoniae status of the pig. M. hyopneumoniae was detected in 0% and 78.5% of the selected lungs in Switzerland and Germany, respectively. We found no evidence that M. hyorhinis alone can lead to similar lung lesions as seen by an infection with M. hyopneumoniae in fattening pigs. In addition, a simultaneous infection with both M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae did not aggravate the observed

  9. Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Detection of Antibodies against the 2C and 3ABC Nonstructural Proteins Induced by Infecting Pigs with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhong; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Zhou, Guangqing; Gao, Shandian; Liu, Wei; Lv, Jianliang; Li, Xiumei; Li, Yangfan; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-08-01

    The potential diagnostic value of chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs) has been accepted in recent years, although their use for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) diagnostics has not been reported. Full-length 3ABC and 2C proteins were expressed in bacteria and purified by affinity chromatography to develop a rapid and accurate approach to distinguish pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from vaccinated pigs. The recombinant proteins were then used as antigens to develop two CLIAs for the detection of antibodies against nonstructural viral proteins. The diagnostic performance of the two assays was compared by analyzing serum from pigs (naive pigs, n = 63; vaccinated, uninfected pigs, n = 532; naive, infected pigs, n = 117) with a known infection status. The 3ABC-2C CLIA had a higher accuracy rate, with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.5%, than the 3ABC CLIA, which had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 96.0%. The results of the 3ABC-2C CLIA also had a high rate of concordance with those of two commercial FMDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits used to assess serum collected from 962 pigs in the field (96.2% and 97.8%, respectively). The 3ABC-2C CLIA detected infection in serum samples from infected pigs earlier than the commercial ELISA kits. In addition, the 3ABC-2C CLIA produced results within 15 min. On the basis of these findings, the 3ABC-2C CLIA could serve as the foundation for the development of penside FMD diagnostics and offers an alternative method to detect FMDV infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder semi-confined pig production is a fast growing practice in sub-Saharan Africa with an unfortunate outcome of high prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses. The widely used anthelmintic for control of endo and ecto-parasites in pigs in the area is ivermectin...

  11. The pig as a large animal model for influenza a virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Brogaard, Louise; Larsen, Lars Erik

    It is increasingly realized that large animal models like the pig are exceptionally human like and serve as an excellent model for disease and inflammation. Pigs are fully susceptible to human influenza, share many similarities with humans regarding lung physiology and innate immune cell...

  12. Epizootic guinea pig herpes-like virus infection in a breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, B L; Keller, G L; Myers, M G

    1987-01-01

    A breeding colony of strain-2 guinea pigs which had been relatively free of indigenous caviid herpesviruses experienced an explosive outbreak of guinea pig herpes-like virus apparently as a consequence of intermixing groups and contamination of the water supply. A new breeding colony has been established and has been maintained apparently free of recognized caviid herpesviruses.

  13. Field experience with two different vaccination strategies aiming to control infections with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a fattening pig herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjölund Marie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of pleurisies recorded at slaughter is increasing in Sweden, and acute outbreaks of actinobacillosis that require antimicrobial treatments have become more frequent. As an increased use of antimicrobials may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance it is essential to develop alternative measures to control the disease. Vaccinations present an appealing alternative to antimicrobial treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of two different vaccination strategies in a specialized fattening herd affected by actinobacillosis. Methods The study was conducted in a specialized fattening herd employing age segregated rearing in eight units. The herd suffered from infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, confirmed by necropsy and serology. The study included 54 batches of pigs grouped into five periods. Batches of pigs of the second period were vaccinated against actinobacillosis twice, and pigs in the fourth period were vaccinated three times. Batches of pigs of the first, third and fifth period were not vaccinated. Concentrations of serum antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae and serum amyloid A (SAA were analysed and production data were recorded. Results Despite vaccinating, medical treatments were required to reduce the impact of the disease. The mean incidence of individual treatments for respiratory diseases during the rearing period ranged from 0 to 4.7 ± 1.8%, and was greatest during the triple vaccination period (period IV; p A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a SAA-response. The prevalence of pleuritis decreased from 25.4 ± 6.5% in the first period to 5.0 ± 3.7% in the fifth period (p Conclusions The vaccine did not effectively prevent clinical expression of A. pleuropneumoniae infections, but seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae in the absence of a SAA-response in a large number pigs indicated that the vaccine had activated the immune

  14. Efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Shen, Hui; Wang, Mei; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert I; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2015-02-01

    Current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases. The effects of N-methanocarbathymidine were evaluated and compared to acyclovir using guinea pig models of acute and recurrent infection. For acute disease following intravaginal inoculation of 10(6 )pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intraperitoneally beginning 24 h post-infection, and the effects on disease severity, vaginal virus replication, subsequent recurrences, and latent virus loads were evaluated. For evaluation of recurrent infection, animals were treated for 21 days beginning 14 days after infection and disease recurrence and recurrent shedding were evaluated. Treatment of the acute disease with N-methanocarbathymidine significantly reduced the severity of acute disease and decreased acute vaginal virus shedding more effectively than acyclovir. Significantly, none of the animals developed visible disease in the high-dose N-methanocarbathymidine group and this was the only group in which the number of days with recurrent virus shedding was reduced. Treatment of recurrent disease was equivalent to acyclovir when acyclovir was continuously supplied in the drinking water. N-methanocarbathymidine was effective as therapy for acute and recurrent genital HSV-2 disease in the guinea pig models. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid pressures resulting from experimental traumatic spinal cord injuries in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire F; Lee, Jae H T; Burstyn, Uri; Okon, Elena B; Kwon, Brian K; Cripton, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Despite considerable effort over the last four decades, research has failed to translate into consistently effective treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI). This is partly attributed to differences between the injury response of humans and rodent models. Some of this difference could be because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the human spine is relatively large, while that of the rodents is extremely thin. We sought to characterize the fluid impulse induced in the CSF by experimental SCIs of moderate and high human-like severity, and to compare this with previous studies in which fluid impulse has been associated with neural tissue injury. We used a new in vivo pig model (n = 6 per injury group, mean age 124.5 days, 20.9 kg) incorporating four miniature pressure transducers that were implanted in pairs in the subarachnoid space, cranial, and caudal to the injury at 30 mm and 100 mm. Tissue sparing was assessed with Eriochrome Cyanine and Neutral Red staining. The median peak pressures near the injury were 522.5 and 868.8 mmHg (range 96.7-1430.0) and far from the injury were 7.6 and 36.3 mmHg (range 3.8-83.7), for the moderate and high injury severities, respectively. Pressure impulse (mmHg.ms), apparent wave speed, and apparent attenuation factor were also evaluated. The data indicates that the fluid pressure wave may be sufficient to affect the severity and extent of primary tissue damage close to the injury site. However, the CSF pressure was close to normal physiologic values at 100 mm from the injury. The high injury severity animals had less tissue sparing than the moderate injury severity animals; this difference was statistically significant only within 1.6 mm of the epicenter. These results indicate that future research seeking to elucidate the mechanical origins of primary tissue damage in SCI should consider the effects of CSF. This pig model provides advantages for basic and preclinical SCI research due to its

  16. Tissue integration of polyacrylamide hydrogel: an experimental study of periurethral, perivesical, and mammary gland tissue in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise H; Nielsen, John B; Mouritsen, Lone

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is a nondegradable water-based polymer with high viscoelasticity. The gel is used as a tissue filler, the only risk being prolonged infection with anaerobic, contaminating microorganisms if not treated early with broad-spectrum antibiotics. OBJECTIVE...... With silicone gel as reference, PAAG tissue integration and migration was studied in a longitudinal study of the pig. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty-one pigs were used. PAAG and silicone gel were injected into mammary tissue, and PAAG was injected into urethral or bladder wall or the anal canal. Tissues...... and regional lymph nodes were examined at 1, 1 1/2, 3, 3 1/2, 6, 12, and 14 months, and other lymph nodes and organs were examined at 1, 6, 12, and 14 months. RESULTS PAAG was invaded by macrophages and giant cells that were gradually replaced by a network of fibrous tissue. Silicone gel was seen inside...

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Danish organic pig farms: seasonal and age-related variation in prevalence, infection intensity and species/genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Jianmin, Wang; Katakam, Kiran K.

    2015-01-01

    Although pigs are commonly infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis, including potentially zoonotic species or genotypes, little is known about age-related infection levels, seasonal differences and genetic variation in naturally infected pigs raised in organic management systems....... Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess seasonal and age-related variations in prevalence and infection intensity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, evaluate zoonotic potential and uncover correlations between species/genotypes, infection intensity and faecal consistency. Shedding of oocysts...... and cysts ((oo-) cysts) was monitored at quarterly intervals (September 2011 to June 2012) in piglets (n=152), starter pigs (n=234), fatteners (n=230) and sows (n=240) from three organic farms in Denmark. (Oo-) cysts were quantified by immunofluorescence microscopy; and 56/75 subsamples from Cryptosporidium...

  18. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  19. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...... results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period....

  20. Experimental infection of Balb/c nude mice with Hepatitis E virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianguo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several animal species can reportedly act as reservoirs for Hepatitis E virus (HEV, a zoonotic pathogen. HEV and antibody to the virus have been detected in a variety of animals including rodents. Pig and rat models for HEV have been established for HEV, but a nude mouse has not yet been developed. Methods Balb/c nude mice were inoculated with swine HEV, both orally and via intravenous injection to insure infection. Negative control and experimental contact-exposed groups of mice were also included in the study. The liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon of each mouse from all three groups were collected for reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR detection, indirect immunofluorescence observation and histopathologic examination. The sera from nude mice were tested for anti-HEV IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Activities of liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, as well as total bilirubin (TBIL were also measured in the sera of the nude mice. Results HEV antigens and HEV RNA were detected in liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum, ileum and colon both by indirect immunofluorescence and by RT-nPCR in all of the inoculated and in one of the contact-exposed nude mice. Histopathological changes were observed in the liver and spleen of these mice. Infected mice showed increased levels of AST, ALP, and anti-HEV IgG in sera. The livers of contact-exposed mice showed obvious histopathological damage. Conclusion Nude mice could be readily infected by HEV isolated from pigs. The nude mouse may therefore be a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of HEV.

  1. Pathogenesis of infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in isogenic guinea pigs after intranasal or intratracheal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; van Amerongen, Geert; van Run, Peter; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; Ladwig, Mechtild; Banneke, Stefanie; Schaefer, Hubert; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the advantages of the mouse and ferret models for influenza virus infection. Strain 2 isogenic guinea pigs were inoculated with H1N1pdm09 influenza virus A/Netherlands/602/09 by the intranasal or intratracheal route. Viral replication kinetics were assessed by determining virus titers in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, which were also used to assess histopathologic changes and the number of infected cells. In all guinea pigs, virus titers peaked in nasal secretions at day 2 after inoculation. Intranasal inoculation resulted in higher virus excretion via the nose and higher virus titers in the nasal turbinates than intratracheal inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, infectious virus was recovered only from nasal epithelium; after intratracheal inoculation, it was recovered also from trachea, lung, and cerebrum. Histopathologic changes corresponded with virus antigen distribution, being largely limited to nasal epithelium for intranasally infected guinea pigs and more widespread in the respiratory tract for intratracheally infected guinea pigs. In summary, isogenic guinea pigs show promise as a model to investigate the role of humoral and cell-mediated immunities to influenza and their effect on virus transmission. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Krych, Lukasz; Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    . suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet......Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet...... supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A...

  3. Pathogenesis of natural and experimental Pseudorabies virus infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Letian; Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Jushi; Lu, Zijie; Liu, Lei; Yang, Wanlian; Lyu, Yanli

    2015-03-18

    Since late 2011, cases of suspected canine pseudorabies have increased in north China with the outbreak of swine pseudorabies in the same area, but the pathogenesis of canine Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infections in China is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of canine pseudorabies. The pathological changes in 13 dogs that died of natural PRV infections (confirmed by pathogen detection) during 2011-2013 in Beijing were evaluated. An experimental study was also conducted in which healthy adult beagle dogs were administered PRV isolate BJ-YT by subcutaneous injection. The dog tissues were subjected to gross and microscopic examinations and immunohistochemical analysis and the dogs' serum cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) was measured. Systemic hemorrhage and/or congestion were the most marked pathological changes in both the naturally and experimentally PRV-infected dogs. Macroscopically, the major lesions consisted of petechiae and ecchymoses in both the endocardium and epicardium, thrombi in the mitral valves, hemorrhage in the lungs and thymus, and incomplete contraction of the spleen. Microscopically, the major histopathological findings were systemic hemorrhage and congestion, nonsuppurative ganglioneuritis (in the experimentally infected dogs, unexamined in the naturally PRV-infected dogs), brainstem encephalitis (in the naturally infected dogs), necrosis or exudation in the myocardium, and lymphoid depletion in many lymphoid organs and tissues. Viral antigens were only detected in the brainstems and peripheral ganglia of the infected dogs. Serum cTn-I was significantly higher in the experimentally PRV-infected dogs with myocardial lesions than in the dogs without myocardial lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that virally induced systemic hemorrhage, peripheral nervous system pathology, and/or cardiac injury can individually or collectively cause death in PRV-infected dogs. The respiratory signs of the disease are attributed to

  4. A comprehensive study of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs entering a slaughterhouse in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, Petra; Toplak, Ivan; Kirbiš, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E is a zoonotic viral disease of pigs with increasing public health concern in industrialized countries. Presented broad study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) presence in pigs in Slovenia is the first attempt to overview the HEV situation in pigs entering a slaughterhouse and, further, to analyse the possibility of HEV entering into the food supply chain. 2433 samples from 811 clinically healthy pigs were collected at four slaughterhouses in Slovenia. Sampling covered three different age groups of pigs and three different types of samples (faeces, bile and liver) important for tracing HEV in a pig population. In addition, 63 swab samples were collected systematically from three different sites on the slaughter line, as well as 22 samples of minced meat and 30 bratwurst samples. All the samples were screened for the presence of HEV nucleic acids by specific real-time RT-PCR assay. In the group of three month old pigs 13.7% of faeces, 13.0% of bile and 2.1% of liver samples were HEV positive. In the group of six months old pigs only 0.25% of liver and 0.25% of bile samples were positive. In the category of sows, no positive samples were found. Two out of 63 swab samples collected on the slaughter line were HEV positive. All tested samples of minced meat and bratwurst were negative. The phylogenetic analysis of 50 HEV positive samples, with comparison of 366 nucleotides in ORF1 region, revealed high diversity of identified strains of HEV in pigs, belonging into subtypes 3a, 3b, 3c and 3e. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of undecylenic acid as a topical microbicide against genital herpes infection in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Ireland, J; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of topical microbicides to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Undecylenic acid (UA), a monosaturated fatty acid, is the active ingredient in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal spray powders, that also exhibits in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activity, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity. We, therefore, evaluated UA as a topical microbicide against genital HSV infection using the murine and guinea pig models of genital herpes. Mice were administered a 20% solution of UA in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle, vehicle alone or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravaginally immediately prior to vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Pre-treatment with UA decreased the number of mice that became infected (P < 0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control), developed symptoms (P <0.001) or died (P <0.001). However, when treatment was extended to either 5 min prior to or after viral inoculation, protection was lost. Similar findings were found using the guinea pig model, where UA treatment completely prevented HSV-2 vaginal infection when given immediately prior to HSV-2 inoculation (P<0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control). Thus, UA, an approved OTC medication, provided significant protection against HSV disease and infection only when applied immediately before viral inoculation, indicating that better formulations were needed to extend the duration of protection.

  6. Putative biomarkers for evaluating antibiotic treatment: an experimental model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Skaanild, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Biomarkers of infection were screened for their possible role as evaluators of antibiotic treatment in an aerosol infection model of porcine pneumonia caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap). Following infection of 12 pigs, clinical signs of pneumonia developed within 20 h, whereafter...... antibiotic treatment of acute Ap-infection ill pigs. The present model provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of antibiotic treatments, offering the advantage of clinical and pathological examinations combined with the use of biochemical infection markers....... recovered clinically within 24h after treatment, whereas tiamulin-treated animals remained clinically ill until the end of the study, 48 h after treatment. A similar Picture was seen for the biomarkers of infection. During the infection period, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and haptoglobin...

  7. The Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA protects against an experimental infection in the swine model of chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, William G; Choudhary, Neelima R; Routh, Patty A; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Smith, Valerie A; Koch, Gary G; Almond, Glen W; Orndorff, Paul E; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2014-06-24

    Adherence of pathogens to cellular targets is required to initiate most infections. Defining strategies that interfere with adhesion is therefore important for the development of preventative measures against infectious diseases. As an adhesin to host extracellular matrix proteins and human keratinocytes, the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA, a proven virulence factor of the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, is a potential target for vaccine development. A recombinant form of the N-terminal passenger domain of DsrA from H. ducreyi class I strain 35000HP, termed rNT-DsrAI, was tested as a vaccine immunogen in the experimental swine model of H. ducreyi infection. Viable homologous H. ducreyi was not recovered from any animal receiving four doses of rNT-DsrAI administered with Freund's adjuvant at two-week intervals. Control pigs receiving adjuvant only were all infected. All animals receiving the rNT-DsrAI vaccine developed antibody endpoint titers between 3.5 and 5 logs. All rNT-DsrAI antisera bound the surface of the two H. ducreyi strains used to challenge immunized pigs. Purified anti-rNT-DsrAI IgG partially blocked binding of fibrinogen at the surface of viable H. ducreyi. Overall, immunization with the passenger domain of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA accelerated clearance of H. ducreyi in experimental lesions, possibly by interfering with fibrinogen binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture i...

  9. Viral Metagenomic Analysis Displays the Co-Infection Situation in Healthy and PMWS Affected Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lie Blomström

    Full Text Available The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed the possibility to investigate and characterise the entire microbiome of individuals, providing better insight to the complex interaction between different microorganisms. This will help to understand how the microbiome influence the susceptibility of secondary agents and development of disease. We have applied viral metagenomics to investigate the virome of lymph nodes from Swedish pigs suffering from the multifactorial disease postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS as well as from healthy pigs. The aim is to increase knowledge of potential viruses, apart from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, involved in PMWS development as well as to increase knowledge on the virome of healthy individuals. In healthy individuals, a diverse viral flora was seen with several different viruses present simultaneously. The majority of the identified viruses were small linear and circular DNA viruses, such as different circoviruses, anelloviruses and bocaviruses. In the pigs suffering from PMWS, PCV2 sequences were, as expected, detected to a high extent but other viruses were also identified in the background of PCV2. Apart from DNA viruses also RNA viruses were identified, among them were a porcine pestivirus showing high similarity to a recently (in 2015 discovered atypical porcine pestivirus in the US. Majority of the viruses identified in the background of PCV2 in PMWS pigs could also be identified in the healthy pigs. PCV2 sequences were also identified in the healthy pigs but to a much lower extent than in PMWS affected pigs. Although the method used here is not quantitative the very clear difference in amount of PCV2 sequences in PMWS affected pigs and healthy pigs most likely reflect the very strong replication of PCV2 known to be a hallmark of PMWS. Taken together, these findings illustrate that pigs appear to have a considerable viral flora consisting to a large extent of

  10. The challenge of using experimental infectivity data in risk assessment for Ebola virus: why ecology may be important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Simons, R R L; Horigan, V; Snary, E L; Fooks, A R; Drew, T W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of published data shows that experimental passaging of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) in guinea pigs changes the risk of infection per plaque-forming unit (PFU), increasing infectivity to some species while decreasing infectivity to others. Thus, a PFU of monkey-adapted EBOV is 10(7) -fold more lethal to mice than a PFU adapted to guinea pigs. The first conclusion is that the infectivity of EBOV to humans may depend on the identity of the donor species itself and, on the basis of limited epidemiological data, the question is raised as to whether bat-adapted EBOV is less infectious to humans than nonhuman primate (NHP)-adapted EBOV. Wildlife species such as bats, duikers and NHPs are naturally infected by EBOV through different species giving rise to EBOV with different wildlife species-passage histories (heritages). Based on the ecology of these wildlife species, three broad 'types' of EBOV-infected bushmeat are postulated reflecting differences in the number of passages within a given species, and hence the degree of adaptation of the EBOV present. The second conclusion is that the prior species-transmission chain may affect the infectivity to humans per PFU for EBOV from individuals of the same species. This is supported by the finding that the related Marburg marburgvirus requires ten passages in mice to fully adapt. It is even possible that the evolutionary trajectory of EBOV could vary in individuals of the same species giving rise to variants which are more or less virulent to humans and that the probability of a given trajectory is related to the heritage. Overall the ecology of the donor species (e.g. dog or bushmeat species) at the level of the individual animal itself may determine the risk of infection per PFU to humans reflecting the heritage of the virus and may contribute to the sporadic nature of EBOV outbreaks. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Infectivity of Trichinella papuae for experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, P.; Malakauskas, A.; Kapel, C. M O

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate infectivity for carnivores as well as other biological characteristics of the newly described Trichinella papuae, eight red foxes were experimentally infected with the parasite. Five weeks after inoculation, T. papuae larvae were recovered from nine different muscle types. The larvae...

  12. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed

  13. Experimental closure of gunshot wounds by fibrin glue with antibiotics in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenić Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, after the primary surgical management, were closed with delayed primary suture during the next four to seven days. This period coincides with the fibroblastic phase of wound healing. Fibrin glue is used as a local hemostatic and as a matrix for the local dosed release of antibiotics. Antibiotics addition to fibrin glue resulted in continuous diffusion into the surrounding next 4 to 7 days. The aim of this study was to create the preconditions for gunshot wounds closing without complications by the application of fibrin glue with antibiotics 24 h after primary surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 14 pigs were wounded in the gluteofemoral region by the bullet M67, initial velocity of 720 m/s. All wounded animals were surgically treated according to the principles of the warsurgery doctrine. Seven wounds were closed with primary delayed suture four days after the primary surgical treatment (traditional approach. Fibrin glue with antibiotics was introduced in seven wounds during the primary surgical treatment and primary delayed suture was done after 24 h. The macroscopic appearance and the clinical assessment of the wound were done during the primary surgical treatment and during its revision after 24 h, as well as histopathological findings at the days 4 and 7 after wounding. Results. Gunshot wounds caused by the automatic rifle M70AB2 (AK-47 7.62 mm, and treated with fibrin glue with antibiotics after primary surgical management, were closed with primary delayed suture after 24 h. In further wound evolution there were no complications. Conclusion. Uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds caused by an automatic M70AB2 rifle may be closed primarily with delayed suture without the risk of developing complications if on revision, 24 h after primary surgery, there were no present necrotic tissues, hematoma, and any signs of infection when fibrin glue with antibiotics

  14. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epithelial Distribution and Replication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus RNA in Infected Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durand, S.; Murphy, C.; Zhang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    experimentally with FMDV serotype O UKG 34/2001 and tissue samples were collected from I to 4 clays post-infection. Samples were stored at -70 degrees C and frozen sections were prepared for in-situ hybridization (ISH). A digoxigenin-labelled RNA probe complementary to a coding part of the RNA-dependent RNA...... negative strand RNA was observed in basal cells above the basement membrane and along the dermal papillae. The basal cells therefore demonstrate the highest signal for detection of the FMDV positive and negative strand RNAs in both tongue and foot epithelium. These novel results Suggest that the epithelial...

  16. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-09-24

    The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decreased. Both the H1N1 and H1N2 infected pigs lacked gross lesions at PID 2, but they showed moderate to severe pneumonia on PID 4, 7 and 14. The pigs infected with H1N1 had significant scores of gross and histopathological lesions when compared with the other pigs infected with H1N2, H3N2, and mock at PID 14. Mean SIV antigen-positive scores were rarely detected for pigs infected with H1N2 and H3N2 from PID 7, whereas a significantly increased amount of viral antigens were found in the bronchioles and alveolar epithelium of the H1N1infected pigs at PID 14. We demonstrated that Korean SIV subtypes had different pulmonary pathologic patterns. The Korean H3N2 rapidly induced acute lung lesions such as broncho-interstitial pneumonia, while the Korean H1N1 showed longer course of infection as compared to other strains.

  17. Primary peak and chronic malaria infection levels are correlated in experimentally infected great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad; Westerdahl, Helena; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-09-01

    Malaria parasites often manage to maintain an infection for several months or years in their vertebrate hosts. In humans, rodents and birds, most of the fitness costs associated with malaria infections are in the short initial primary (high parasitaemia) phase of the infection, whereas the chronic phase (low parasitaemia) is more benign to the host. In wild birds, malaria parasites have mainly been studied during the chronic phase of the infection. This is because the initial primary phase of infection is short in duration and infected birds with severe disease symptoms tend to hide in sheltered places and are thus rarely caught and sampled. We therefore wanted to investigate the relationship between the parasitaemia during the primary and chronic phases of the infection using an experimental infection approach. We found a significant positive correlation between parasitaemia in the primary peak and the subsequent chronic phase of infection when we experimentally infected great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) with Plasmodium ashfordi. The reason for this association remains to be understood, but might arise from individual variation in exoerythrocytic parasite reservoirs in hosts, parasite antigenic diversity and/or host genetics. Our results suggest that the chronic phase parasitaemia can be used to qualitatively infer the parasitaemia of the preceding and more severe primary phase, which is a very important finding for studies of avian malaria in wild populations.

  18. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae in Young Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid D E van Dixhoorn

    Full Text Available Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH and two pens of the enriched housed (EH pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014 and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014. More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048 and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (p<0.001 than those in enriched housed pigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease

  19. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  20. A comparison of early pathogenesis of CSFV-Glentorf and CSFV-Romania in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    forms. Crucial factors for the clinical outcome of infection include strain virulence and host characteristics such as pig age, microbial health status and genetic background. In the presented experimental animal study, we inoculated young conventional Danish pigs with two different strains of CSFV: One...... effect on these two groups, and clinical symptoms resolved after 1-2 days of therapy. For the Romania-infected pigs, CS increased throughout the experiment from PID6 with mean CS=3 until termination of the experiment with mean CS=19 at PID18. Clinical symptoms in this group were dominated by diarrhea......, lethargy, changed body shape, coordination problems and further on respiratory symptoms and ataxia. Antibiotic therapy had no effect in this group. Virus distribution: Control pigs were all negative by RT-PCR analysis for CSFV. In Glentorf-infected pigs, CSFV RNA was found in blood samples of 6/10 pigs...

  1. Cardiac complication after experimental human malaria infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druilhe Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain. She was diagnosed as acute coronary syndrome and treated accordingly. She recovered quickly and her follow-up was uneventful. Whether the event was related to the study procedures such as the preceding vaccinations, malaria infection or antimalarial drugs remains elusive. However, the relation in time with the experimental malaria infection and apparent absence of an underlying condition makes the infection the most probable trigger. This is in striking contrast, however, with the millions of malaria cases each year and the fact that such complication has never been reported in the literature. The rare occurrence of cardiac events with any of the preceding study procedures may even support a coincidental finding. Apart from acute coronary syndrome, myocarditis can be considered as a final diagnosis, but the true nature and patho-physiological explanation of the event remain unclear.

  2. Virus-specific immune memory at peripheral sites of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Xia

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in modulating HSV-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to HSV-2 is not completely understood. We used genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of HSV-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. Memory B cells were detected primarily in the spleen and to a lesser extent in bone marrow but not in the genital tract or neural tissues suggesting that the HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells present at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection represented persisting populations of plasma cells. The antibody produced by these cells isolated from neural tissues of infected animals was functionally relevant and included antibodies specific for HSV-2 glycoproteins and HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A vigorous IFN-γ-secreting T cell response developed in the spleen as well as the sites of HSV-2 infection in the genital tract, lumbosacral ganglia and spinal cord following acute HSV-2 infection. Additionally, populations of HSV-specific tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained at these sites and were readily detected up to 150 days post HSV-2 infection. Unlike the persisting plasma cells, HSV-specific memory T cells were also detected in uterine tissue and cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord and at low levels in the cervicothoracic ganglia. Both HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ resident memory cell subsets were maintained long-term in the genital tract and sensory ganglia/spinal cord following HSV-2 infection. Together these data demonstrate the long-term maintenance of both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune response at the sites of HSV-2 latency and virus shedding and highlight the utility of the guinea pig infection model to investigate tissue-resident memory in the

  3. Virus-specific immune memory at peripheral sites of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingya; Veselenak, Ronald L; Gorder, Summer R; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in modulating HSV-2 pathogenesis, the nature of tissue-resident immune memory to HSV-2 is not completely understood. We used genital HSV-2 infection of guinea pigs to assess the type and location of HSV-specific memory cells at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells were readily detected in the spleen, bone marrow, vagina/cervix, lumbosacral sensory ganglia, and spinal cord of previously-infected animals. Memory B cells were detected primarily in the spleen and to a lesser extent in bone marrow but not in the genital tract or neural tissues suggesting that the HSV-specific antibody-secreting cells present at peripheral sites of HSV-2 infection represented persisting populations of plasma cells. The antibody produced by these cells isolated from neural tissues of infected animals was functionally relevant and included antibodies specific for HSV-2 glycoproteins and HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies. A vigorous IFN-γ-secreting T cell response developed in the spleen as well as the sites of HSV-2 infection in the genital tract, lumbosacral ganglia and spinal cord following acute HSV-2 infection. Additionally, populations of HSV-specific tissue-resident memory T cells were maintained at these sites and were readily detected up to 150 days post HSV-2 infection. Unlike the persisting plasma cells, HSV-specific memory T cells were also detected in uterine tissue and cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord and at low levels in the cervicothoracic ganglia. Both HSV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ resident memory cell subsets were maintained long-term in the genital tract and sensory ganglia/spinal cord following HSV-2 infection. Together these data demonstrate the long-term maintenance of both humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive immune response at the sites of HSV-2 latency and virus shedding and highlight the utility of the guinea pig infection model to investigate tissue-resident memory in the setting of HSV-2 latency

  4. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Mwape, K E; Van Damme, I; Hobbs, E; Phiri, I K; Masuku, M; Zulu, G; Colston, A; Willingham, A L; Devleesschauwer, B; Van Hul, A; Chota, A; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S

    2017-11-16

    Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard). Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half), including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA). Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56%) and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%), out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3%) had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than 10 cysticerci. Depending on the aim of the

  5. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  6. Ultrastructural aspects of experimental cryptosporidiosis in pigs Aspectos ultraestruturais da criptosporidiose experimental em suínos

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    A.P.F.R.L. Bracarense

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine ultrastructural changes on the intestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissues after an experimental infection with Cryptosporidium sp. Twelve piglets dosed orally with 1×10(6 oocysts were slaughtered on days 3, 6, 9 and 12 after inoculation. The ultrastructural lesions in the intestinal cells were irregular with thickened microvilli, cytoplasmic protrusions and vacuolation, swollen mitochondria, hypertrophic organelles and nuclei. The lymphocytes of the Peyer’s patches occasionally were mitotic with a larger number of lymphoblasts in the inoculated animals.O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as alterações ultraestruturais da mucosa intestinal e do tecido linfóide associado na inoculação experimental de Cryptosporidium sp. Doze leitões foram inoculados experimentalmente por via oral com 1×10(6 oocistos e sacrificados 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias depois. Ao exame ultraestrutural de células intestinais observou-se espessamento e irregularidade de microvilosidades, citoplasma vacuolizado e com protrusões, edema mitocondrial, hipertrofia de organelas citoplasmáticas e do núcleo. Nas placas de Peyer observou-se ocasionalmente mitose de células linfóides, verificando-se maior número de células blásticas.

  7. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected from vaccinated pigs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using nonstructural protein 3AB as the antigen and application to an eradication program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Wen Bin; Sørensen, Karl Johan; Liao, Pei Chih

    2002-01-01

    Baculovirus-expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3AB was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This assay allowed the differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs. Serial studies were performed using sera collected from pigs in the field...... in Taiwan showed that the positive reactors steadily decreased over time in both finishers and sows, indicating that the pig population risk of infection by FMDV has decreased....

  8. Induction of a specific strong polyantigenic cellular immune response after short-term chemotherapy controls bacillary reactivation in murine and guinea pig experimental models of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Evelyn; Gil, Olga; Cáceres, Neus; Singh, Mahavir; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2008-08-01

    RUTI is a therapeutic vaccine that is generated from detoxified and liposomed Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell fragments that has demonstrated its efficacy in the control of bacillus reactivation after short-term chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize the cellular immune response generated after the therapeutic administration of RUTI and to corroborate the lack of toxicity of the vaccine. Mouse and guinea pig experimental models were infected with a low-dose M. tuberculosis aerosol. RUTI-treated animals showed the lowest bacillary load in both experimental models. RUTI also decreased the percentage of pulmonary granulomatous infiltration in the mouse and guinea pig models. This was not the case after Mycobacterium bovis BCG treatment. Cellular immunity was studied through the characterization of the intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing cells after the splenocytes' stimulation with M. tuberculosis-specific structural and growth-related antigens. Our data show that the difference between the therapeutic administration of BCG and RUTI resides mainly in the stronger activation of IFN-gamma(+) CD4(+) cells and CD8(+) cells against tuberculin purified protein derivative, ESAT-6, and Ag85B that RUTI generates. Both vaccines also triggered a specific immune response against the M. tuberculosis structural antigens Ag16kDa and Ag38kDa and a marked mRNA expression of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and RANTES in the lung. The results show that RUTI's therapeutic effect is linked not only to the induction of a Th1 response but also to the stimulation of a quicker and stronger specific immunity against structural and growth-related antigens that reduces both the bacillary load and the pulmonary pathology.

  9. Dietary influences on nutrient partitioning and anatomical body composition of growing pigs; modelling and experimental approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halas, V.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of pig performance from data on nutrient intake and animal properties makes it easier to obtain a better productivity. It provides tools to arrive at desired outputs, or to calculate required inputs. Thus it enables production to be flexible, safe and less erratic. It is to be expected

  10. Forensic Geopedology and Micropedology: New Indications and Lookouts from Pigs Experimental Burials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic science is very real and important, above all in the crime scenes when buried remains, both strongly decomposed or skeletal, are found. Thanks to a PhD project on Forensic Geopedology, an interdisciplinary team of the Universities of Milano and Milano Bicocca, has been working for the last four years on several sets of experimental burials of pigs and piglets, in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental responses to the burial, including geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work constitutes a conclusive synthesis of results emerged from comparative soil characterizations, listed as follow: - Grainsize analyses; - Determination of pH in H2O and KCl; - Total Nitrogen and Organic Carbon analyses: - Quantification of Available Phosphorous; - Determination of Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation; - Analyses of Volatile Fatty Acids; - Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analyses; - Petrographic Optical Microscope analyses (including thin sections descriptions). It is proposed a diachronic picture of the project where it is possible to follow the variability of significance of the different kinds of analyses carried out. The achieved results, especially when cross-checked, are very stimulating as regards the setting of analytical protocols for: - The determination of time since burial (TSB); - The discrimination between primary and secondary burials; - The identification of corpses concealments. All the analyses and different approaches discussed and addressed in this work require extreme care when applied to real forensic scenarios; however, the protocols tested can be a piece of a large and articulated puzzle that depicts the major forensic case studies in which Geopedology can be of help in solving problems or in answering some peculiar questions. It is important to understand that a science so

  11. Allogeneic guinea pig mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate neurological changes in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavely, Rhian; Robinson, Ainsley M; Miller, Sarah; Boyd, Richard; Sakkal, Samy; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2015-12-30

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is of great interest because of their immunomodulatory properties. Damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS) is implicated in IBD pathophysiology and disease progression. The most commonly used model to study inflammation-induced changes to the ENS is 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in guinea pigs; however, no studies using guinea pig MSCs in colitis have been performed. This study aims to isolate and characterise guinea pig MSCs and then test their therapeutic potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathy associated with intestinal inflammation. MSCs from guinea pig bone marrow and adipose tissue were isolated and characterised in vitro. In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs received either TNBS for the induction of colitis or sham treatment by enema. MSCs were administered at a dose of 1 × 10(6) cells via enema 3 h after the induction of colitis. Colon tissues were collected 24 and 72 h after TNBS administration to assess the level of inflammation and damage to the ENS. The secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was analysed in MSC conditioned medium by flow cytometry. Cells isolated from both sources were adherent to plastic, multipotent and expressed some human MSC surface markers. In vitro characterisation revealed distinct differences in growth kinetics, clonogenicity and cell morphology between MSC types. In an in vivo model of TNBS-induced colitis, guinea pig bone marrow MSCs were comparatively more efficacious than adipose tissue MSCs in attenuating weight loss, colonic tissue damage and leukocyte infiltration into the mucosa and myenteric plexus. MSCs from both sources were equally neuroprotective in the amelioration of enteric neuronal loss and changes to the neurochemical coding of neuronal subpopulations. MSCs from both sources secreted TGF-β1 which exerted neuroprotective effects in vitro. This study is the first

  12. Effect of feed restriction on performance and postprandial nutrient metabolism in pigs co-infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus.

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    Nathalie Le Floc'h

    Full Text Available As nutritional status and inflammation are strongly connected, feeding and nutritional strategies could be effective to improve the ability of pigs to cope with disease. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of a feed restriction on the ability of pigs to resist and be tolerant to a coinfection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp and the European H1N1 swine influenza virus, and the consequences for nutrient metabolism, with a focus on amino acids. Two groups of specific pathogen-free pigs were inoculated with Mhp and H1N1 21 days apart. One group was fed ad libitum, the other group was subjected to a two-week 40% feed restriction starting one week before H1N1 infection. The two respective mock control groups were included. Three days post-H1N1 infection, 200 g of feed was given to pigs previously fasted overnight and serial blood samples were taken over 4 hours to measure plasma nutrient concentrations. Throughout the study, clinical signs were observed and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Feed-restricted pigs presented shorter hyperthermia and a positive mean weight gain over the 3 days post-H1N1 infection whereas animals fed ad libitum lost weight. Both infection and feed restriction reduced postprandial glucose concentrations, indicating changes in glucose metabolism. Post-prandial plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids histidine, arginine and threonine were lower in co-infected pigs suggesting a greater use of those amino acids for metabolic purposes associated with the immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that modifying feeding practices could help to prepare animals to overcome an influenza infection. Connections with metabolism changes are discussed.

  13. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Blois

    Full Text Available Torque teno viruses (TTVs are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a and 1b (TTSuV1b are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b, has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721, being 62.3% (449/721, 60.6% (437/721, and 11.5% (83/721 the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%. Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  14. High prevalence of co-infection with multiple Torque teno sus virus species in Italian pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Sylvain; Mallus, Francesca; Liciardi, Manuele; Pilo, Cristian; Camboni, Tania; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Manzin, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Torque teno viruses (TTVs) are a large group of vertebrate-infecting small viruses with circular single-stranded DNA, classified in the Anelloviridae family. In swine, two genetically distinct species, Torque teno sus virus 1a (TTSuV1a) and 1b (TTSuV1b) are currently grouped into the genus Iotatorquevirus. More recently, a novel Torque teno sus virus species, named Torque teno sus virus k2b (TTSuVk2b), has been included with Torque teno sus virus k2a (TTSuVk2a) into the genus Kappatorquevirus. In the present study, TTSuV1 (TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b prevalence was evaluated in 721 serum samples of healthy pigs from Sardinian farms, insular Italy. This is the largest study to date on the presence of TTSuV in healthy pigs in Italy. The global prevalence of infection was 83.2% (600/721), being 62.3% (449/721), 60.6% (437/721), and 11.5% (83/721) the prevalence of TTSuV1, TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b, respectively. The rate of co-infection with two and/or three species was also calculated, and data show that co-infections were significantly more frequent than infections with single species, and that TTSuV1+TTSuVk2a double infection was the prevalent combination (35.4%). Quantitative results obtained using species-specific real time-qPCR evidenced the highest mean levels of viremia in the TTSuV1 subgroup, and the lowest in the TTSuVk2b subgroup. Interestingly, multiple infections with distinct TTSuV species seemed to significantly affect the DNA load and specifically, data highlighted that double infection with TTSuVk2a increased the viral titers of TTSuV1, likewise the co-infection with TTSuVk2b increased the titers of TTSuVk2a.

  15. Enriched Housing Reduces Disease Susceptibility to Co-Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Virus (PRRSV) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) in Young Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dixhoorn, Ingrid D E; Reimert, Inonge; Middelkoop, Jenny; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Wisselink, Henk J; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G; Kemp, Bas; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Until today, anti-microbial drugs have been the therapy of choice to combat bacterial diseases. Resistance against antibiotics is of growing concern in man and animals. Stress, caused by demanding environmental conditions, can reduce immune protection in the host, influencing the onset and outcome of infectious diseases. Therefore psychoneuro-immunological intervention may prove to be a successful approach to diminish the impact of diseases and antibiotics use. This study was designed to investigate the effect of social and environmental enrichment on the impact of disease, referred to as "disease susceptibility", in pigs using a co-infection model of PRRSV and A. pleuropneumoniae. Twenty-eight pigs were raised in four pens under barren conditions and twenty-eight other pigs were raised in four pens under enriched conditions. In the enriched pens a combination of established social and environmental enrichment factors were introduced. Two pens of the barren (BH) and two pens of the enriched housed (EH) pigs were infected with PRRSV followed by A. pleuropneumoniae, the other two pens in each housing treatment served as control groups. We tested if differences in disease susceptibility in terms of pathological and clinical outcome were related to the different housing regimes and if this was reflected in differences in behavioural and immunological states of the animals. Enriched housed pigs showed a faster clearance of viral PRRSV RNA in blood serum (p = 0.014) and histologically 2.8 fold less interstitial pneumonia signs in the lungs (p = 0.014). More barren housed than enriched housed pigs developed lesions in the lungs (OR = 19.2, p = 0.048) and the lesions in the barren housed pigs showed a higher total pathologic tissue damage score (ppigs. EH pigs showed less stress-related behaviour and differed immunologically and clinically from BH pigs. We conclude that enriched housing management reduces disease susceptibility to co-infection of PRRSV and A

  16. Prevention of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in pigs by dairy-based nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Jensen, Bent Borg; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2015-01-01

    bacterial disease outbreaks in piglets, the use of antibiotics at subtherapeutic concentrations has been banned in the European Union because of the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in pigs. The removal of in-feed antibiotics from piglet diets has negative economic consequences...... as it dramatically increases the rate of morbidity and mortality due to ETEC as well as the use of antibiotics for therapeutic purposes. Other than subtherapeutic antibiotics, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been reported to ameliorate and/or prevent the development of PWD in piglets, but its excretion may have negative...... impacts on the environment. Thus, other alternatives that can control ETEC infections in piglets postweaning will be of great advantage. A number of nutritional strategies have been proposed as alternative means of preventing ETEC infections, of which feeding dairy-based products to piglets could be one...

  17. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection on a pig farm in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin; Hanzlíková, D.; Cama, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 153, 3/4 (2008), s. 220-224 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Enterocytozoon bieneusi * pigs * microsporidia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  19. Application of a pig ligated intestinal loop model for early Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal; Schauser, Kirsten; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine proliferative enteropathy in pigs is caused by the obligate, intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis. In vitro studies have shown close bacterium-cell interaction followed by cellular uptake of the bacterium within 3 h post inoculation (PI). However, knowledge of the i...

  20. Effect of experimental manipulation on survival and recruitment of feral pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, L.B.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Sparklin, B.D.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lethal removal is commonly used to reduce the density of invasive-species populations, presuming it reduces population growth rate; the actual effect of lethal removal on the vital rates contributing to population growth, however, is rarely tested. We implemented a manipulative experiment of feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations at Fort Benning, Georgia, USA, to assess the demographic effects of harvest intensity. Using markrecapture data, we estimated annual survival, recruitment, and population growth rates of populations in a moderately harvested area and a heavily harvested area for 200406. Population growth rates did not differ between the populations. The top-ranked model for survival included a harvest intensity effect; model-averaged survival was lower for the heavily harvested population than for the moderately harvested population. Increased immigration and reproduction likely compensated for the increased mortality in the heavily harvested population. We conclude that compensatory responses in feral pig recruitment can limit the success of lethal control efforts. ?? 2009 CSIRO.

  1. Chlamydial variants differ in ability to ascend the genital tract in the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2015-08-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even "silent" infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Indirect caudal lymphography using a new water-soluble contrast agent - animal experimental studies in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apitzsch, D.E.; Kroll, H.U.; Zuehlke, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    Animal experiments on caudal lymphography in pigs are presented, using a new water-soluble contrast medium which is renally excreted. Indirect cutaneous administration renders possible the radiological visualization of the entire lymphatic drainage system of the lower limb, the retro-peritoneal space and the thoracic duct. Visualization of the lymphatic system is rapid, homogeneous and can be repeated as often as desired. The quality of the lymphogram is as good as that obtained by the current methods in common use. (orig.)

  3. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.

    2016-01-01

    ), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding...

  4. Experimental otitis media with effusion induced by electron beam irradiation to pharyngeal orifice of auditory tube in guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubu, Michiyo; Amatsu, Mutsuo

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain a more natural tubal insufficiency than that obtained by the conventional methods to clarify the middle ear pathology associated with tubal dysfunction. For this purpose, the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube in the guinea pigs was irradiated with electron beam with a dose of 2,000 rad following the preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate dose. The guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Pryer reflex were used for the present experiment series. A specially devised apparatus was used for avoiding the dipersing beam. Histopathological changes of the middle ear and auditory tube were observed in a series of single specimen with H-E staining 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 months after irradiation. In this study, middle ear with effusion was used to clarify the dynamic process of the pathological changes between the auditory tube and the middle ear. In summary, the present study revealed that the electron beam irradiation to the pharyngeal orifice caused various grades of otitis media with effusion which could be classified into three groups. Of these groups 1) and 2), 3) were likely to be corresponding with so-called serous and purulent otitis media with effusion in human respectively. Infection due to the malfunction caused by the epithelial damage of the auditory tube was an important promoting factor to change the serous type effusion for the purulent type effusion. (J.P.N.)

  5. The impact of maternally derived immunity on influenza A virus transmission in neonatal pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerson, Matt; Deen, John; Detmer, Susan E; Gramer, Marie R; Joo, Han Soo; Romagosa, Anna; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-07

    The commonality of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure and vaccination on swine farms in the United States ensures that the majority of neonatal pigs will have some degree of maternal immunity to IAV. The influence of maternal immunity on IAV transmission in neonatal pig populations will impact virus prevalence and infection dynamics across pig populations. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of maternally derived immunity on IAV transmission in an experimental setting. Neonatal pigs suckled colostrum and derived maternal (passive) immunity from sows in one of three treatment groups: (a) non-vaccinated control (CTRL) or vaccinated with (b) homologous (PASSV-HOM) or (c) heterologous (PASSV-HET) inactivated experimental IAV vaccines. Sentinel neonatal pigs derived from the groups above were challenged with IAV via direct contact with an experimentally infected pig (seeder pig) and monitored for IAV infection daily via nasal swab sampling. A susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) experimental model was used to obtain and estimate transmission parameters in each treatment group via a generalized linear model. All sentinel pigs in the CTRL (30/30) and PASSV-HET (30/30) groups were infected with IAV following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimates (95% confidence interval) were 10.4 (6.6-15.8) and 7.1 (4.2-11.3), respectively. In contrast, 1/20 sentinel pigs in the PASSV-HOM group was infected following contact with the seeder pigs and the reproduction ratio estimate was significantly lower compared to the CTRL and PASSV-HET groups at 0.8 (0.1-3.7). Under the conditions of this study, IAV transmission was reduced in neonatal pigs with homologous maternal immunity compared to seronegative neonatal pigs and pigs with heterologous maternal immunity as defined in this study. This study provides estimates for IAV transmission in pigs with differing types of maternal immunity which may describe the influence of maternal immunity on

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An avirulent chimeric Pestivirus with altered cell tropism protects pigs against lethal infection with classical swine fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Trapp, Sascha; Beer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric Pestivirus was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) [J. Virol. 70 (1996) 8606]. After deletion of the envelope protein E2-encoding region, the respective sequence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort 187 was inserted in-frame resulting in plasmid pA/CP7 E 2alf. After transfection of in vitro-transcribed CP7 E 2alf RNA, autonomous replication of chimeric RNA in bovine and porcine cell cultures was observed. Efficient growth of chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus, however, could only be demonstrated on porcine cells, and in contrast to the parental BVDV strain CP7, CP7 E 2alf only inefficiently infected and propagated in bovine cells. The virulence, immunogenicity, and 'marker vaccine' properties of the generated chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus were determined in an animal experiment using 27 pigs. After intramuscular inoculation of 1 x 10 7 TCID 50 , CP7 E 2alf proved to be completely avirulent, and neither viremia nor virus transmission to contact animals was observed; however, CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected from day 11 after inoculation. In addition, sera from all animals reacted positive in an E2-specific CSFV-antibody ELISA, but were negative for CSFV-E RNS -specific antibodies as determined with a CSFV marker ELISA. After challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Eystrup, pigs immunized with CP7 E 2alf were fully protected against clinical signs of CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus, and almost all animals scored positive in a CSFV marker ELISA. From our results, we conclude that chimeric CP7 E 2alf may not only serve as a tool for a better understanding of Pestivirus attachment, entry, and assembly, but also represents an innocuous and efficacious modified live CSFV 'marker vaccine'

  8. High protective efficacy of probiotics and rice bran against human norovirus infection and diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Lei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been recognized as vaccine adjuvants and therapeutic agents to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. We previously showed that rice bran reduced human rotavirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the major pathogens causing nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN were first screened for their ability to bind HuNoV P particles and virions derived from clinical samples containing HuNoV genotype GII.3 and GII.4, then the effects of LGG+EcN and rice bran on HuNoV infection and diarrhea were investigated using the gnotobiotic pig model. While LGG+EcN colonization inhibited HuNoV shedding, probiotic cocktail regimens in which rice bran feeding started 7 days prior to or 1 day after viral inoculation in the LGG+EcN colonized gnotobiotic pigs exhibited high protection against HuNoV diarrhea and shedding, characterized by significantly reduced incidence (89% versus 20% and shorter mean duration of diarrhea (2.2 versus 0.2 days, as well as shorter mean duration of virus shedding (3.2 versus 1.0 days. In both probiotic cocktail groups, the diarrhea reduction rates were 78% compared with the control group, and diarrhea severity was reduced as demonstrated by the significantly lower cumulative fecal scores. The high protective efficacy of the probiotic cocktail regimens was attributed to stimulation of IFN-γ+ T cell responses, increased production of intestinal IgA and IgG, and maintenance of healthy intestinal morphology (manifested as longer villi compared with the control group. Therefore, probiotic cocktail regimens containing LGG+EcN and rice bran may represent highly efficacious strategies to prevent and treat HuNoV gastroenteritis, and potentially other human enteric pathogens.

  9. Cytochrome P450 2E1 participation in the pathogenesis of experimental metabolic syndrome in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rushchak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the experimental metabolic syndrome on the basis of protamine sulfate modeling in guinea pigs was reproduced and pathological processes in the liver of experimental animals were studied. We determined the level of free radicals and markers of liver damage in the blood of experimental animals. We investigated the liver glycogen content and K+,Na+-ATPase activity in the liver of experimental animals as well as measured the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 expression – one of the main factors of oxidative stress. Evidence of development of hepatotoxic processes, increasing of the CYP2E1 level as well as of the free radical level in the animals with metabolic syndrome were found. Using of CYP2E1 inhibitors had shown that the free radical level in the blood of experimental animals depended on the level of the enzyme expression and activity. The obtained results suggest that the changes in the CYP2E1 expression play an important role in the development of hepatotoxic processes upon experimental metabolic syndrome. It was assumed that pharmacological correction of the enzyme expression may be an important mechanism for the influence on the metabolic syndrome clinical course.

  10. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and risk factors for infection in pigs raised and slaughtered in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabielle Marques-Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Triângulo Mineiro region from Minas Gerais state, is an important meat-exporting region of Brazil and data about Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs raised and slaughtered in this area are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of T. gondii in swine and establish the risk factors associated with the infection. Samples were collected from 600 pigs raised under intensive system in farms located at three different counties (Carmo do Paranaíba, Patrocínio and Perdizes. The samples were submitted to indirect hemagglutination antibody test with dilution of 1:32 and to indirect immunofluorescence antibody test with a cutoff of 1:64. The occurrence of positive pig was 3.3% (n=20 and 51.8% (n=311 respectively. A significant difference was observed between toxoplasmatic infection and factors such as lineage, animal origin, size of the farm, collective raising with others species, presence of rodents and type of water offered (p≤0.05. There was no difference between gender and the farm goals. The results demonstrated an occurrence of anti-T.gondii antibodies higher than expected for intensive pig raising system on the studied area, which could indicate a possible sanitary management problem on the studied proprieties. Improvements on the raising techniques are necessary to reduce T. gondii infection sources.

  11. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Joan; Andresen, Lars Ole; Barfod, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for serological surveillance of infection of pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 5 was developed. The antigen used was prepared from Ap serotype 5b strain L20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis...

  12. Comparison of two real-time RT-PCR assays for differentiation of C-strain vaccinated from classical swine fever infected pigs and wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widén, F.; Everett, H.; Blome, S.

    2014-01-01

    Classical swine fever is one of the most important infectious diseases for the pig industry worldwide due to its economic impact. Vaccination is an effective means to control disease, however within the EU its regular use is banned owing to the inability to differentiate infected and vaccinated a...

  13. Characterization of the immune response and evaluation of the protective capacity of rSsnA against Streptococcus suis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Tarradas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    were evaluated. Moreover the composition of peripheral blood leukocyte populations was studied in infected animals. The results show that the immunization of piglets with rSsnA elicits a significant humoral antibody response. However, the antibody response is not reflected in protection of pigs...

  14. The commercial impact of pig Salmonella spp. infections in border-free markets during an economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, G; Kritas, S; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2015-03-01

    and qualitative costs of man and animal Salmonella infections should be calculated in the light of free trade and open borders. Understandably, accurate calculation of the economic and political costs requires knowledge of the many factors influencing nationally the quality and safety of pork products and internationally free trade. Thus, how Salmonella pig infections affect commerce and public health across open borders depends on a state's ability to accurately calculate costs for the surveillance and control of animal salmonelloses in general, and pig infections as a particular example.

  15. Relationship Between Expression of Interleukin-5 and Interleukin-13 by Epithelial Cells and Bronchiolar Changes in Pigs Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; Batista, M; Hernández, J N; Afonso, A M; Poveda, J B

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is a bacterium that specifically infects the surface of bronchi and bronchioles of pigs without invading the host cells, and it is considered to be the primary agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEN). The present study investigates the morphological and immunohistological changes induced in bronchiolar epithelium by Mh infection. Lungs from 20 pigs with naturally occurring Mh pneumonia were compared with those from 10 uninfected controls. Bronchiolar epithelial height, inflammatory infiltration, hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and mucin subtype MUC5AC-producing cells significantly increased in all infected animals. Mh antigen was detected in association with the cilia of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 were expressed consistently by epithelial and mononuclear cells of the airways of infected animals. The expression of these cytokines in the bronchial and bronchiolar tissues is related to the histological changes of PEN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracranial Pressure Response to Non-Penetrating Ballistic Impact: An Experimental Study Using a Pig Physical Head Model and Live Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Kang, Jianyi; Chen, Jing; Li, Guanhua; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the intracranial pressure response to non-penetrating ballistic impact using a "scalp-skull-brain" pig physical head model and live pigs. Forty-eight ballistic tests targeting the physical head model and anesthetized pigs protected by aramid plates were conducted with standard 9 mm bullets at low (279-297 m/s), moderate (350-372 m/s), and high (409-436 m/s) velocities. Intracranial pressure responses were recorded with pressure sensors embedded in similar brain locations in the physical head model and the anesthetized pigs. Three parameters of intracranial pressure were determined from the measured data: intracranial maximum pressure (Pmax), intracranial maximum pressure impulse (PImax), and the duration of the first positive phase (PPD). The intracranial pressure waves exhibited blast-like characteristics for both the physical model and l live pigs. Of all three parameters, Pmax is most sensitive to impact velocity, with means of 126 kPa (219 kPa), 178 kPa (474 kPa), and 241 kPa (751 kPa) for the physical model (live pigs) for low, moderate, and high impact velocities, respectively. The mean PPD becomes increasingly short as the impact velocity increases, whereas PImax shows the opposite trend. Although the pressure parameters of the physical model were much lower than those of the live pigs, good correlations between the physical model and the live pigs for the three pressure parameters, especially Pmax, were found using linear regression. This investigation suggests that Pmax is a preferred parameter for predicting the severity of the brain injury resulting from behind armor blunt trauma (BABT). PMID:23055817

  17. A cross-sectional study of hepatitis E virus infection in healthy people directly exposed and unexposed to pigs in a rural community in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinjoy, S; Nelson, K E; Gibbons, R V; Jarman, R G; Mongkolsirichaikul, D; Smithsuwan, P; Fernandez, S; Labrique, A B; Patchanee, P

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of the association between occupational pig exposure and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in adult pig farmers and the general population who were not directly exposed to pigs was conducted in Nan Province, Thailand, from November 2010 to April 2011. All participants were interviewed to provide information on their job history, eating habits and other potential confounders. The prevalence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG) among 513 subjects was 23.0%. Hand washing with water and soap was associated with a lower seroprevalence of HEV infection, whereas living in an area with frequent flooding (OR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.00-2.68) and consuming internal pig organs more than twice per week (OR 3.23, 95%CI: 1.15-9.01) were both associated with a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG. There was no association between HEV seroprevalence and frequent, direct occupational pig contact. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Collection of Oral Fluids Using Cotton Ropes as a Sampling Method to Detect Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosloo, W; Morris, J; Davis, A; Giles, M; Wang, J; Nguyen, H T T; Kim, P V; Quach, N V; Le, P T T; Nguyen, P H N; Dang, H; Tran, H X; Vu, P P; Hung, V V; Le, Q T; Tran, T M; Mai, T M T; Le, Q T V; Singanallur, N B

    2015-10-01

    In high-density farming practices, it is important to constantly monitor for infectious diseases, especially diseases that have the potential to spread rapidly between holdings. Pigs are known to amplify foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by excreting large amounts of virus, and it is therefore important to detect the virus quickly and accurately to minimize the spread of disease. Ropes were used to collect oral fluid samples from pigs, and each sample was compared to saliva samples collected from individual animals by detecting FMD virus RNA using real-time PCR. Two different experiments are described where groups of pigs were infected with different serotypes of FMD virus, either with or without vaccination, and unvaccinated pigs were kept in aerosol contact. The sensitivity of the rope sampling varied between 0.67 and 0.92, and the statistical agreement between this method and individual sampling ranged from substantial to moderate for the two different serotypes. The ease of collecting oral fluids using ropes together with the high sensitivity of subsequent FMD detection through PCR indicates that this could be a useful method to monitor pig populations for FMD virus infection. With further validation of the sensitivity of detection of FMD virus RNA, this can be a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Humoral immune response and spreading of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in experimentally infected ponies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Maršálek, M.; Langerová, I.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-6 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ponies * Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II * PCR * Antibodies * Experimental infection Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  20. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Prevents Septic Shock and Brain Barrier Disruption During Bloodstream Infection in Preterm Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunse, Anders; Worsøe, Päivi; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against...... = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11). SE-infected animals showed multiple signs of sepsis, including lethargy, hypotension, respiratory acidosis, internal organ...... hemorrhages, cellular responses (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), brain barrier disruption and neuroinflammation. At 24 h, colostrum supplementation reduced the SE abundance in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, both p colostrum feeding normalized arterial blood pressure (38.5 ± 1.20 vs 30...

  1. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newbo....... coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections....... caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6x108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus...... with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (PE...

  2. Identification of three QTLs with influence on susceptibility to helminth infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Göring, H. H.

      Intestinal helminth infections are causing health and welfare problems in both human and animal populations. A family, in which susceptibility towards Ascaris (large round worm) and Trichuris (whipworm) infections are segregating, was constructed. Our data demonstrate that genetic components...

  3. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection in Pigs: Bacteriological and Genotypic Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moredo, Fabiana A; Piñeyro, Pablo E; Márquez, Gabriela C; Sanz, Marcelo; Colello, Rocío; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora L; Quiroga, María A; Perfumo, Carlos J; Galli, Lucía; Leotta, Gerardo A

    2015-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the major pathogen responsible for neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, and edema disease in pigs. Although it can be harmless, ETEC is also present in the intestines of other animal species and humans, causing occasional diarrhea outbreaks. The evaluation of this pathogen's presence in food sources is becoming an increasingly important issue in human health. In order to determine the prevalence of ETEC in nondiarrheic pigs, 990 animals from 11 pig farms were sampled. Using end-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), eltA, estI genes, or both, were detected in 150 (15.2%) animals. From the positive samples, 40 (26.6%) ETEC strains were isolated, showing 19 antibiotic-resistance patterns; 52.5% of these strains had multiple antibiotic resistances, and 17.5% carried the intI2 gene. The most prevalent genotypes were rfb(O157)/estII/aidA (32.5%) and estI/estII (25.0%). The estII gene was identified most frequently (97.5%), followed by estI (37.5%), astA (20.0%), and eltA (12.5%). The genes coding the fimbriae F5, F6, and F18 were detected in three single isolates. The aidA gene was detected in 20 ETEC strains associated with the estII gene. Among the isolated ETEC strains, stx(2e)/estI, stx(2e)/estI/estII, and stx(2e)/estI/estII/intI2 genotypes were identified. The ETEC belonged to 12 different serogroups; 37.5% of them belonged to serotype O157:H19. Isolates were grouped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR into 5 clusters with 100.0% similarity. In this study, we demonstrated that numerous ETEC genotypes cohabit and circulate in swine populations without clinical manifestation of neonatal diarrhea, postweaning diarrhea, or edema disease in different production stages. The information generated is important not only for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes, but also for understanding the dynamics and ecology of ETEC in pigs in different production stages that can be potentially transmitted to humans

  4. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  5. Experimental Infections of Oryzomys couesi with Sympatric Arboviruses from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Eleanor R.; Forrester, Naomi L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Coues rice rat (Oryzomys couesi), a species abundant throughout Central America, was evaluated experimentally for the ability to serve as an amplifying host for three arboviruses: Patois (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), Nepuyo (Orthobunyavirus), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID (Togaviridae, Alphavirus). These three viruses have similar ecologies and are known to co-circulate in nature. Animals from all three cohorts survived infection and developed viremia with no apparent signs of illness and long-lasting antibodies. Thus, O. couesi may play a role in the general maintenance of these viruses in nature. PMID:20134016

  6. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eStenfeldt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated-natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in

  7. Mercury and antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: an experimental study on pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laub-Kupersztejn, R; Thomas, J; Pohl, P

    1974-01-01

    Tests on faeces from 5 different groups of pigs, showed that 47.2% of the coliforms present were resistant to mercury ions. None of the 3127 bacteria examined were resistant to cadmium ions. The resistance of these strains to mercury was mainly associated with resistance to one or more antibiotics (98%). Feeding the animals with ampicillin (20 ppm) led to modification of the Escherichia coli in the alimentary tract, with ampicillin and mercury resistant strains emerging in great number. These resistance characters could be wholly, or partially, transferred to a sensitive strain of E. coli, thus suggesting that they were mediated by R-factors. The existence of a plasmid resistant only to mercury ions was demonstrated. 9 references, 4 tables.

  8. Temporary CD8(+) T-cell depletion in pigs does not exacerbate infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...... increased disease nor influenced the ability to clear virus in the treated pigs......., confirmed the depletion effect of specific mAb therapy. Almost complete depletion of cell subsets expressing the CD8(+) antigen was obtained on day 2 and 5 post infection (PI) with nadir less than 1 % of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). One week PI, an increase in T-cell subsets was observed...

  9. Comparison of four embolic materials for portal vein embolization: experimental study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, Thierry de [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology, Villejuif (France); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Paradis, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon-Inserm U773, Department of Anatomie Pathologique, Clichy (France)

    2009-06-15

    Different embolic materials for portal vein embolization (PVE) were evaluated. Twenty pigs received left and median PVE. Hydrophilic phosphorylcholine, N-butyl cyanoacrylate, hydrophilic gel, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles measuring either 50-150 {mu}m or 700-900 {mu}m were used in five pigs each. Portography and portal vein pressure measurement were performed before, immediately after PVE, and before being euthanized at day 7. Tissue wedges from embolized, and non-embolized liver were obtained for pathology. After complete embolization, recanalization occurred at 7 days in one gel and one 700-900 PVA embolization. Post-PVE increase in portal pressure was found in all groups (p = 0.01). The area of the hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver was larger than in the embolized liver in all groups (p = 0.001). The ratios of the areas between non-embolized/embolized livers were 1.65, 2.19, 1.57, and 1.32 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively; the ratios of fibrosis between the embolized and non-embolized livers were 1.37, 3.01, 3.49, and 2.11 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively. Hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver were significantly larger with NBCA than in other groups (p = 0.01). Fibrosis in embolized liver was significantly higher for NBCA and 50-150 PVA (p = 0.002). The most severe changes in embolized and non-embolized liver were induced by 50-150 PVA and NCBA PVE. (orig.)

  10. A polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine induces heterologous immunity and protects pigs against pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2013-01-01

    seasonal and emerging influenza viruses. We have developed an alternative influenza vaccine based on DNA expressing selected influenza proteins of pandemic and seasonal origin. In the current study, we investigated the protection of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in pigs. We immunised pigs...... intradermally with a combination of influenza DNA vaccine components based on the pandemic 1918 H1N1 (M and NP genes), pandemic 2009 H1N1pdm09 (HA and NA genes) and seasonal 2005 H3N2 genes (HA and NA genes) and investigated the protection against infection with virus both homologous and heterologous to the DNA...... of this DNA vaccine to limit virus shedding may have an impact on virus spread among pigs which could possibly extend to humans as well, thereby diminishing the risk for epidemics and pandemics to evolve....

  11. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS : APPLICATIONS IN SELECTING BREEDING STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J K

    1936-09-30

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested.

  12. A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, Tanja; O'Neill, Kevin; Gerber, Priscilla F; de Castro, Alessandra M M G; Gimenéz-Lirola, Luis G; Beach, Nathan M; Zhou, Lei; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G

    2013-01-07

    The predominant genotype of porcine circovirus (PCV) in the pig population today is PCV2b yet PCV2a-based commercial vaccines are considered effective in protecting against porcine circovirus associated disease. The objective of this study was to compare the ability of PCV2a- and PCV2b-based vaccines to control PCV2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the U.S. field situation. Sixty-three pigs were randomly assigned to one of eight groups. Sixteen pigs were vaccinated with an experimental live-attenuated chimeric PCV1-2a vaccine based on genotype 2a and another 16 pigs with a chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine based on genotype 2b. Challenge was done 28 days post vaccination (dpv) using PCV2b (or a combination of PCV2a and PCV2b), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) to mimic what commonly occurs in the field. The experiment was terminated 21 days post challenge (dpc) or 49dpv. Pigs vaccinated with the chimeric PCV1-2b vaccine had significantly higher levels of PCV1-2b viremia and shedding of the PCV1-2b vaccine virus in feces and nasal secretions but also a more robust humoral immune response as evidenced by significantly higher ELISA S/P ratios compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Regardless of challenge, the PCV1-2b vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence and amount of PCV2 viremia compared to the PCV1-2a vaccination. Interestingly, in the non-vaccinated pigs concurrent PCV2a infection resulted in clinical disease and increased macroscopic lung lesions compared to pigs challenged with PCV2b alone, further supporting the idea that concurrent PCV2a/PCV2b infection is necessary for optimal PCV2 replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected or coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression profiles in tracheobronchial lymph nodes from pigs singularly infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO), or coinfected with both. Twenty-eight pigs were randomly assigned to one ...

  14. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  15. Ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infection incidence in Dutch hospitals is not associated with provincial pig farming: Results from a national sentinel surveillance, 2009-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie M van Dorp

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the high incidence of ribotype 078 Clostridium difficile infections (CDI in the Netherlands is related to pig farming.We used data of hospitalised CDI patients (>2yrs of age diagnosed between May 2009 and May 2015 in 26 hospitals participating in a national sentinel surveillance. We compared clinical and geographical characteristics of 078 CDI to other CDI. We investigated the association between 078 CDI incidence and four indicators of pig farming (piglet, pig, piglet farm and pig farm density by mixed-effects Poisson regression. We used a space-time permutation model to search for community-onset 078 CDI clusters (using SaTScan.A total of 4,691 CDI were identified. Ribotype 078 was isolated in 493 of 3,756 patients (13.1% including a typing result. These patients had slightly higher community-onset disease and a 35% increase of 30-day mortality compared to non-078 CDI patients. The pooled overall and 078 incidence rates were 2.82 (95% CI, 2.42-3.29 and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.31 CDI per 10,000 patients-days respectively. Hospital 078 CDI incidence was not associated with provincial pig (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.08, piglet (IRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.75-1.19, pig farm (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84-1.39, or piglet farm density (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.56-1.79. No clusters of community-onset ribotype 078 CDI were found.Our results do not indicate that the ribotype 078 CDI incidence in hospitals is related to pig (farm or piglet (farm density. However, transmission beyond provincial borders or in non-hospitalised patients cannot be excluded.

  16. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are

  17. Vaccination with a HSV-2 UL24 mutant induces a protective immune response in murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Robert J; Natuk, Robert J; Kowalski, Jacek; Guo, Min; Blakeney, Susan; Gangolli, Seema; Cooper, David

    2014-03-10

    The rational design and development of genetically attenuated HSV-2 mutant viruses represent an attractive approach for developing both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for genital herpes. Previously, HSV-2 UL24 was shown to be a virulence determinant in both murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models. An UL24-βgluc insertion mutant produced syncytial plaques and replicated to nearly wild type levels in tissue culture, but induced little or no pathological effects in recipient mice or guinea pigs following vaginal infection. Here we report that immunization of mice or guinea pigs with high or low doses of UL24-βgluc elicited a highly protective immune response. UL24-βgluc immunization via the vaginal or intramuscular routes was demonstrated to protect mice from a lethal vaginal challenge with wild type HSV-2. Moreover, antigen re-stimulated splenic lymphocytes harvested from immunized mice exhibited both HSV-2 specific CTL activity and IFN-γ expression. Humoral anti-HSV-2 responses in serum were Th1-polarized (IgG2a>IgG1) and contained high-titer anti-HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Guinea pigs vaccinated subcutaneously with UL24-βgluc or the more virulent parental strain (186) were challenged with a heterologous HSV-2 strain (MS). Acute disease scores were nearly indistinguishable in guinea pigs immunized with either virus. Recurrent disease scores were reduced in UL24-βgluc immunized animals but not to the same extent as those immunized with strain 186. In addition, challenge virus was not detected in 75% of guinea pigs subcutaneously immunized with UL24-βgluc. In conclusion, disruption of the UL24 gene is a prime target for the development of a genetically attenuated live HSV-2 vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative and histological assessment of maternal-fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in guinea pigs: An experimental model of congenital Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatziri Torres-Vargas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on fertility, gestation outcome, and maternal-fetal transmission in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus.Animals were infected with T. cruzi H4 strain (TcI lineage before gestation (IBG or during gestation (IDG. Tissue and sera samples of dams and fetuses were obtained near parturition.All IBG and IDG dams were seropositive by two tests, and exhibited blood parasite load of 1.62±2.2 and 50.1±62 parasites/μl, respectively, by quantitative PCR. Histological evaluation showed muscle fiber degeneration and cellular necrosis in all infected dams. Parasite nests were not detected in infected dams by histology. However, qPCR analysis detected parasites-eq/g heart tissue of 153±104.7 and 169.3±129.4 in IBG and IDG dams, respectively. All fetuses of infected dams were positive for anti-parasite IgG antibodies and tissue parasites by qPCR, but presented a low level of tissue inflammatory infiltrate. Fetuses of IDG (vs. IBG dams exhibited higher degree of muscle fiber degeneration and cellular necrosis in the heart and skeletal tissues. The placental tissue exhibited no inflammatory lesions and amastigote nests, yet parasites-eq/g of 381.2±34.3 and 79.2±84.9 were detected in IDG and IBG placentas, respectively. Fetal development was compromised, and evidenced by a decline in weight, crow-rump length, and abdominal width in both groups.T. cruzi TcI has a high capacity of congenital transmission even when it was inoculated at a very low dose before or during gestation. Tissue lesions, parasite load, and fetal under development provide evidence for high virulence of the parasite during pregnancy. Despite finding of high parasite burden by qPCR, placentas were protected from cellular damage. Our studies offer an experimental model to study the efficacy of vaccines and drugs against congenital transmission of T. cruzi. These results also call for T. cruzi screening in pregnant women and adequate follow up of

  19. Efficacy of sulfonamides and Baycox(®) against Isospora suis in experimental infections of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Anja; Mundt, Hans-Christian

    2011-12-01

    Sulfonamide treatment of piglets against neonatal coccidiosis has frequently been suggested in the literature. In order to evaluate the efficacy of sulfonamides against experimental Isospora suis infections in suckling piglets (oral infection with 1,500 sporulated oocysts of I. suis per piglet on the fourth day of life), two trials were conducted. In trial I, oral sulfadimidine (group Sulfa-Oral) was applied in doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight (BW) 1 day before infection and 75 mg/kg BW daily for the following 5 days, and sulfamethoxypyrimidine (SMP) was applied parenterally in daily doses of 75 mg/kg BW for the same time period. In trial II, SMP was applied parenterally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW (a) from the day of infection daily for 7 days (SMP-Standard), (b) for 2 days starting on the day of infection (SMP-Early), (c) for 3 days starting 2 days post-infection (d.p.i.; SMP-Middle), (d) for 2 days starting 5 d.p.i. (SMP-Late), and (e) every other day from the day of infection until 6 d.p.i. (SMP-Alternating), as well as (f) orally in doses of 75 mg/kg BW from the day of infection for 7 days (SMP-Oral). The sulfonamide-treated groups were compared to a toltrazuril-treated group (single oral treatment with Baycox® 5% suspension, 20 mg/kg BW 2 d.p.i.) and to a water-treated Control group. Each group consisted of seven to nine piglets. The parameters evaluated were oocyst excretion and fecal consistency/diarrhea from 4 to 15 d.p.i. Sulfa-Oral, SMP-Early, and SMP-Late had no significant effect in reduction of oocyst excretion and diarrhea, whereas treatment for 3-7 days with SMP reduced both parasite shedding and diarrhea significantly. Oral treatment with SMP was comparable to parenteral application. Baycox® in a single application had the most pronounced effect and completely suppressed oocyst excretion and diarrhea during the examination period. It could be shown that repeated application of sulfonamides, provided that the appropriate time period after infection

  20. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Downs, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis

  1. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  2. An experimental model of mycobacterial infection under corneal flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B.D. Adan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a new experimental animal model of infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in keratomileusis, we conducted a double-blind prospective study on 24 adult male New Zealand rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was submitted to automatic lamellar keratotomy with the automatic corneal shaper under general anesthesia. Eyes were immunosuppressed by a single local injection of methyl prednisolone. Twelve animals were inoculated into the keratomileusis interface with 1 µl of 10(6 heat-inactivated bacteria (heat-inactivated inoculum controls and 12 with 1 µl of 10(6 live bacteria. Trimethoprim drops (0.1%, w/v were used as prophylaxis for the surgical procedure every 4 h (50 µl, qid. Animals were examined by 2 observers under a slit lamp on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 16th, and 23rd postoperative days. Slit lamp photographs were taken to document clinical signs. Animals were sacrificed when corneal disease was detected and corneal samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Eleven of 12 experimental rabbits developed corneal disease, and M. chelonae could be isolated from nine rabbits. Eleven of the 12 controls receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum did not develop corneal disease. M. chelonae was not isolated from any of the control rabbits receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum, or from the healthy cornea of control rabbits. Corneal infection by M. chelonae was successfully induced in rabbits submitted to keratomileusis. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of M. chelonae infection following corneal flaps for refractive surgery to be described in the literature and can be used for the analysis of therapeutic responses.

  3. The effects of simvastatin or interferon-α on infectivity of human norovirus using a gnotobiotic pig model for the study of antivirals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwonil Jung

    Full Text Available The lack of an animal model for human norovirus (HuNoV has hindered the development of therapeutic strategies. This study demonstrated that a commonly used cholesterol-lowering statin medication, simvastatin, which increases HuNoV replication in an in vitro replicon system, also enhances HuNoV infectivity in the gnotobiotic (Gn pig model. In contrast, oral treatment with interferon (IFN-α reduces HuNoV infectivity. Young piglets, all with A or H1 histo-blood group antigens on enterocytes, were treated orally with 8 mg/kg/day of simvastatin; 5 days later, the pigs were inoculated orally with a GII.4 HuNoV (HS194/2009/US strain and then treated with simvastatin for 5 more days. Simvastatin induced significantly earlier onset and longer duration of HuNoV fecal shedding in treated pigs, frequently with higher fecal viral titers. Simvastatin impaired poly (I:C-induced IFN-α expression in macrophages or dendritic cells, possibly due to lowered toll-like receptor (TLR 3 expression; however, the mechanisms were not related to interferon regulatory factor 3 or nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Thus, the enhanced, earlier infectivity of HuNoV in simvastatin-treated pigs coincided with the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on innate immunity. In contrast to the increased HuNoV shedding that simvastatin induced, viral shedding during the treatment period was reduced or curtailed in the HuNoV-inoculated pigs pre-treated/treated with human IFN-α. Our findings are the first to indicate that IFN-α has potential as antiviral therapy against HuNoV. Based on these intriguing and novel findings using the Gn pig model, we confirmed that HuNoV infectivity is altered by treatment with simvastatin or IFN-α. Collectively, these findings indicate that Gn pigs are a useful model to test immunomodulators or efficacy of antivirals against HuNoV.

  4. [Analysis of Koch phenomenon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs vaccinated with recombinant tuberculosis vaccine AEC/BC02].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J B; Cheng, B W; Deng, H Q; Su, C; Shen, X B; Du, W X; Yang, L; Wang, G Z; Xu, M

    2016-07-01

    To observe the Koch phenomenon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB)-infected guinea pigs after vaccinated with killed H37Ra bacteria or tuberculosis vaccine candidate AEC/BC02. Eighteen guinea pigs were challenged subcutaneously with 5.0×10(3) CFU MTB and after 40 days were divided into 3 groups (6 per group): NS group, AEC/BC02 group and H37Ra group, which were injected intramuscularly 3 times at 1 day interval with normal saline, AEC/BC02 vaccine and killed H37Ra bacteria respectively. Three weeks after the first vaccination, all guinea pigs were sacrificed to evaluate gross pathological scores for liver, spleen and lung, bacterial loads in lung and spleen, and lung inflammation. The gross pathological score in H37Ra group (48±26) was lower than that in NS group(62±15), but the difference was not significant (t=1.093, P=0.300). The AEC/BC02 group had a significantly lower gross pathological score (36±15) than NS group (t=2.980, P=0.014). No significant difference between H37Ra group and AEC/BC02 group was observed (t=1.009, P=0.337). The spleen bacterial load [(5.31±0.80) log10 CFU]in H37Ra group was slightly lower than that in NS group[(5.57±0.75) log10 CFU] but the difference was not significant (t=1.581, P=0.574). In AEC/BC02 group bacterial load in the spleen was (4.64±0.64) log10 CFU and significantly lower than NS group (t=2.306, P=0.044) and no significant difference between H37Ra group and AEC/BC02 group was observed (t=1.602, P=0.140). Meanwhile, the lung bacterial load in AEC/BC02 group was (3.71±1.01) log10 CFU and in H37Ra group was (3.82±1.25) log10 CFU. Compared to (4.15±0.69) log10 CFU in the NS group, no significant differences were found (t=0.881, P=0.399; t=0.566, P=0.584, respectively). For the lung inflammation, the inflamed areas in H37Ra group were significantly larger [(33.0±4.4%)] than those in both NS group [(14.8±8.4) %, t=4.719, P=0.001] and AEC/BC02 group [(14.8±8.4) %, t=3.616, P=0.005], and no significant differences were

  5. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotonin markers show altered transcription levels in an experimental pig model of mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Signe Emilie; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    surgically induced MR or sham-operation, resulting in three MR groups: control (CON, n = 12), mild MR (mMR, n = 10) and severe MR (sMR, n = 6). The gene expression levels of 5-HT1BR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2BR, SERT and TPH-1 were analysed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the mitral valve (MV), anterior papillary......-uptake transporter (SERT) in MMVD-affected valves, increased valvular 5-HT synthesis and decreased clearance have been suggested. It remains unknown how haemodynamic changes associated with mitral regurgitation (MR) affect 5-HT markers in the mitral valve, myocardium and circulation. Twenty-eight pigs underwent...... muscle (AP) and left ventricle (LV). MV 5-HT2BR was also analysed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in relation to histological lesions and valvular myofibroblasts. All 5-HTR mRNAs were up-regulated in MV compared to AP and LV (P SERT and TPH-1 were up-regulated in AP and LV compared...

  7. Analysis of intraosseous samples in endotoxemic shock--an experimental study in the anaesthetised pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G; Larsson, A; Lipcsey, M; Berglund, L; Eriksson, M

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is used in emergency situations to allow rapid initiation of treatment. IO access is also sometimes used for blood sampling, although data on accuracy of such sampling in critical illness are limited. There is also a potential risk that bone marrow fragments in IO samples may damage laboratory equipment. It is ethically questionable to perform a simultaneous comparison between IO and arterial/venous sampling in critically ill humans. We have, thus, studied the analytical performance of IO sampling in a porcine septic shock model using a cartridge-based analyser. Eight pigs with endotoxin-induced septic shock were sampled hourly for 6 h, and analysed for blood gases, acid base status, haemoglobin, glucose and lactate using point of care instruments. Samples were taken from three IO cannulae (tibia bilaterally, one with infusion, and humerus), one arterial and one venous. An interaction test was used to assess changes in agreement between methods over time. Bland–Altman plots were constructed to study bias between methods. There were, to a varying extent, differences between IO and arterial/venous levels for all studied variables, but agreement did not change significantly during the experiment. A general finding was a large dispersion of differences between methods. IO sample values should be treated with caution in this setting but may add useful information to the clinical picture. The tibia or humerus may be used for sampling. IO infusion decreases agreement, thus sampling during infusion should be avoided.

  8. Expression of microRNAs and innate immune factor genes in lung tissue of pigs infected with influenza virus (H1N2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, S.; Vasby, D.

    A infection. The present work aimed of providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors including miRNA in the host response to establishment and progression of influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by aerosol containing H1N2 (A/swine/Denmark/12687/03) influenza......Swine influenza is a highly infectious respiratory disease in pigs caused by influenza A virus. Activation of a frontline of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed by epithelial cells as well as immune cells of the upper respiratory tract, leads to a potent type 1 interferon (IFN) release......, this response must be tightly regulated. Recently, microRNA (miRNA) has been proposed to play an important role in modulating and fine tuning the innate immune response in order to avoid such harmful overreactions. Little is known about the significance of miRNA regulation in the lung during acute influenza...

  9. Chloroquine inhibited Ebola virus replication in vitro but failed to protect against infection and disease in the in vivo guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Bosworth, Andrew; Watson, Robert; Bewley, Kevin; Taylor, Irene; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Pearson, Geoff; Easterbrook, Linda; Pitman, James; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W

    2015-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is highly pathogenic, with a predisposition to cause outbreaks in human populations accompanied by significant mortality. Owing to the lack of approved therapies, screening programmes of potentially efficacious drugs have been undertaken. One of these studies has demonstrated the possible utility of chloroquine against EBOV using pseudotyped assays. In mouse models of EBOV disease there are conflicting reports of the therapeutic effects of chloroquine. There are currently no reports of its efficacy using the larger and more stringent guinea pig model of infection. In this study we have shown that replication of live EBOV is impaired by chloroquine in vitro. However, no protective effects were observed in vivo when EBOV-infected guinea pigs were treated with chloroquine. These results advocate that chloroquine should not be considered as a treatment strategy for EBOV.

  10. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents...

  11. Tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2014-01-01

    Tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. The morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the Tupaiidae. Genomic analysis has revealed that the genus Tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. In addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. The only other experimental animal that has been demonstrated to be sensitive to both of these viruses is the chimpanzee, but restrictions on animal testing have meant that experiments using chimpanzees have become almost impossible. Consequently, the development of the tupaia for use as an animal infection model could become a powerful tool for hepatitis virus research and in preclinical studies on drug development.

  12. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteavaro Cristina Esther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization and evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, cellular detritus and inside the macrophages. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in the reproductive tract of infected mice using an IHC technique. Female BALB/c mice were infected with a suspension of T. foetus by intravaginal route, in the estrum phase, detected by exfoliative vaginal cytology. After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; uterus and vagina were fixed and histologically processed. Some slides were stained with HE. The rest of the slides were processed for IHC. An immunoadsorbed polyclonal serum against T. foetus was used. The avidine-biotine technique (HistoMouse, Zymed[tm] was employed. The histopathological studies showed a dilation of the uterine glands, presence of macrophages in the lumen of the organ and inner part of the endometrial glands. No T. foetus was identified using this method. The IHQ allowed additionally the identification of the protozoan in the endometrium, endometrial glands, uterine lumen and inside neutrophils and macrophages. The cytological studies stained with IHC showed either isolated T. foetus adhered to epithelial cells or inside macrophages. This technique proves to be a useful tool for the study of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT in an experimental model.

  13. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias

    2015-01-01

    -confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition......, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3......An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi...

  14. Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovsky-Akhsanov, Nicole; Keating, M Kelly; Spivey, Pamela; Lathrop, George W; Powell, Nathaniel; Levin, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence-the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a

  15. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.

  16. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Lauren C; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J; Ingalls, Robin R; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  17. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  18. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in an Experimental Model of Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Salomão

    Full Text Available The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been shown as a promising non-invasive technique for assessing the cardiac autonomic modulation in trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV during hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, comparing to traditional hemodynamic and metabolic parameters.Twenty anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were submitted to hemorrhagic shock (60% of estimated blood volume and evaluated for 60 minutes without fluid replacement. Surviving animals were treated with Ringer solution and evaluated for an additional period of 180 minutes. HRV metrics (time and frequency domain as well as hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were evaluated in survivors and non-survivors animals.Seven of the 20 animals died during hemorrhage and initial fluid resuscitation. All animals presented an increase in time-domain HRV measures during haemorrhage and fluid resuscitation restored baseline values. Although not significantly, normalized low-frequency and LF/HF ratio decreased during early stages of haemorrhage, recovering baseline values later during hemorrhagic shock, and increased after fluid resuscitation. Non-surviving animals presented significantly lower mean arterial pressure (43±7 vs 57±9 mmHg, P<0.05 and cardiac index (1.7±0.2 vs 2.6±0.5 L/min/m2, P<0.05, and higher levels of plasma lactate (7.2±2.4 vs 3.7±1.4 mmol/L, P<0.05, base excess (-6.8±3.3 vs -2.3±2.8 mmol/L, P<0.05 and potassium (5.3±0.6 vs 4.2±0.3 mmol/L, P<0.05 at 30 minutes after hemorrhagic shock compared with surviving animals.The HRV increased early during hemorrhage but none of the evaluated HRV metrics was able to discriminate survivors from non-survivors during hemorrhagic shock. Moreover, metabolic and hemodynamic variables were more reliable to reflect hemorrhagic shock severity than HRV metrics.

  19. ITIH4 (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4) is a new acute-phase protein isolated from cattle during experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.; Iturralde, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated from calf serum a protein with an apparent M, of 120,000. The protein was detected by using antibodies against major acute-phase protein in pigs with acute inflammation. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment revealed that this protein is the bovine counterpart of ITIH4......, and Peptostreptococcus indolicus to induce an acute-phase reaction. All animals developed moderate to severe clinical mastitis and exhibited remarkable increases in ITIH4 concentration in serum (from 3 to 12 times the initial values, peaking at 48 to 72 h after infection) that correlated with the severity of the disease....... Animals with experimental infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) also showed increases in ITIH4 concentration (from two- to fivefold), which peaked at around 7 to 8 days after inoculation. Generally, no response was seen after a second infection of the same animals with the virus...

  20. A longitudinal study of cell-mediated immunity in pigs infected with porcine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen, A.S.; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is an ubiquitous pathogen causing reproductive failure in swine. Protection against reproductive failure caused by acute PPV infection has commonly been related to the presence of specific antibodies in the dam. However, the role of cell-mediated immunity during chronic PPV...

  1. Parasites may exit immunocompromised northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina infected with SIVmac239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Zhang Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can increase infection rates andpathogenicity in immunocompromised humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. However, invitro studies and epidemiological investigationsalso suggest that parasites might escapeimmunocompromised hosts during HIV infection.Due to the lack of direct evidence from animalexperiments, the effects of parasitic infections onimmunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here,we detected 14 different parasites in six northernpig-tailed macaques (NPMs before or during the50th week of post-simian immunodeficiency virus(SIV infection by ELISA. The NPMs all carriedparasites before viral injection. At the 50th week afterviral injection, the individuals with negative resultsin parasitic detection (i.e., 08247 and 08287 werecharacterized as the Parasites Exit (PE group, withthe other individuals (i.e., 09203, 09211, 10205, and10225 characterized as the Parasites Remain (PRgroup. Compared with the PR group, the NPMs in thePE group showed higher viral loads, lower CD4+ Tcells counts, and lower CD4/CD8 rates. Additionally,the PE group had higher immune activation andimmune exhaustion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Pathological observation showed greater injury tothe liver, cecum, colon, spleen, and mesentericlymph nodes in the PE group. This study showedmore seriously compromised immunity in the PEgroup, strongly indicating that parasites might exit animmunocompromised host.

  2. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M.I.; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; van Dorsten, L.; Azzawi, R.; van Zuilekom, H.I.; Peters, P.P.; van Opzeeland, F.J.; Dijk, L..; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verwey, P.J.; van Duijnhoven, W.G.; van den Bosch, J.F.; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  3. Composting as a biosecure disposal method for PEDv-infected pig carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric disease of swine, has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine health and production. Little is known about virus persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. Two studies were conducted to quantify the persistence of ...

  4. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Fatal disease associated with Swine Hepatitis E virus and Porcine circovirus 2 co-infection in four weaned pigs in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Mao, Jingjing; Zhao, Yue; Du, Fang; Liu, Can; Liu, Jianchai; Cheng, Minheng; Zhu, Rining; Li, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Soomro, Majid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent decades, Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) infection has been recognized as the causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, and has become a threat to the swine industry. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is another high prevalent pathogen in swine in many regions of the world. PCV2 and HEV are both highly prevalent in pig farms in China. Case presentation In this study, we characterized the HEV and PCV2 co-infection in 2?3 month-old piglets, based on pathogen identifi...

  6. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    modulation in several innate immunity markers particularly associated with NK cells and Th1/Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines in immunized guinea pigs...reduced antigen-specific activation (IL-12 and IFN-c production) of CD4+ T cells isolated from lymphoid tissues and genital tract, and an associated...CD4+ T cells [12, 13]. However, due to differences in immunological responses [23, 24, 25, 26], and chlamydial strain susceptibilities between mice

  7. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  8. Herd-level risk factors for the seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia among fattening pigs in areas of endemic infection and high pig density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, H; Chang, Y M; Wieland, B; Rechter, G; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Kreienbrock, L; Grosse Beilage, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in a case-control study. Data were collected through personal interview with the farmers, clinical examination of pigs and their environments, and serological testing for M. hyopneumoniae, swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There were 40 case herds (coughing index high, seroprevalence high) with a mean coughing index of 4.3 and a seroprevalence of 86.6%. There were two control groups. Control group I consisted of 25 herds (coughing index low, seroprevalence low) with mean values of 0.7 and 11.2%, and 35 herds were allocated to control group II (coughing index low, seroprevalence high) where the mean coughing index was 0.9 and seroprevalence 86.3%. Case herds and control II herds had an increased age of piglets at weaning compared to control I herds. Any contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments increased the risk for the occurrence of EP in a herd. Finally, farms that use living animals for the exposure to gilts during the acclimatization and farms that had increased number of weaned piglets per sow and year were less likely to test positive for M. hyopneumoniae and less likely to develop clinical symptoms of EP in fattening pigs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of endo- and ectoparasitic infections in smallholder pigs in Angónia district, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chilundo, Abel G.; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Pondja, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    their knowledge and perceptions of health and pig management and an observational study was conducted to determine their pig management practices. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA was 12.6%, GI nematodes 21.4%, Eimeria spp. 8.0% and ectoparasites 37.8%. Four helminths species namely...

  11. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex. The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility.

  12. Evaluation of the infectivity of Trichinella spp. for reptiles (Caiman sclerops)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Bjørn, H.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental inoculation with nine well-characterised Trichinella isolates was performed on caimans (Caiman sclerops) to determine their infectivity for reptiles belonging to the family Crocodilidae. As controls, the same larval batches of Trichinella isolates were inoculated into mice and guinea...... pigs, It was suggested that Trichinella pseudospiralis was more likely to infect reptiles than encapsulating species, but whereas all Trichinella species established in mice and guinea pigs, the caimans remained negative. The finding that caimans could not be experimentally infected contrasts...

  13. Seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats, dogs, pigs and equines of the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando J R; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Souza, Fátima M; Lima Filho, Carlos D F; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about toxoplasmosis in animals of the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the total population of pet cats (n=348), dogs (n=320), pigs (n=27), equines (n=101), as well as a significant portion of the population of feral cats (n=247) of the Island by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 71.26%, 54.74%, 48.75%, 51.85% and 22.7%, of the pet and feral cats, dogs, pigs and equines, respectively, demonstrating a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in the wild and domestic animals of the Island. The Kernel intensity estimator showed a correlation between areas with high prevalence of infection in cats and occurrence of infection in the other studied species. We suggest that the island's health authorities should develop initiatives to reduce the population of cats and alert the island's population about the risk of T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Profiling microRNAs in lung tissue from pigs infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Anthon, Christian; Bak, Mads

    2012-01-01

    significantly up-regulated in the necrotic sample and 12 were down-regulated. The expression analysis of a number of candidates revealed microRNAs of potential importance in the innate immune response. MiR-155, a known key player in inflammation, was found expressed in both samples. Moreover, miR-664-5p, mi......R-451 and miR-15a appear as very promising candidates for microRNAs involved in response to pathogen infection. Conclusions: This is the first study revealing significant differences in composition and expression profiles of miRNAs in lungs infected with a bacterial pathogen. Our results extend......Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding genes that play a crucial regulatory role in mammalian development and disease. Whereas a large number of miRNAs have been annotated at the structural level during the latest years, functional annotation is sparse. Actinobacillus...

  15. Immunity to infection with porcine parvovirus in pigs inoculated with the attenuated HT- strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Y; Murakami, Y

    1982-01-01

    Swine were inoculated once with the attenuated HT- strain of porcine parvovirus. Several months later they were challenged by oral inoculation with a field strain of the virus to examine an ability to prevent infection. After challenge inoculation unimmunized control swine exhibited an increase in antibody titer, viremia, and virus discharge. The virus was recovered from many organs. The swine preinoculated with the attenuated HT- strain, however, manifested none of these symptoms and were negative for virus recovery from any organ.

  16. Aspects of resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease, a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has a wide distribution in Latin America and extends from the southern part of the United States to Argentina. A number of 10 million of infected people is estimated and another 25 million exposed to the risk. Although discovered over a century, Chagas disease is still a serious infection that causes great socioeconomic impact, with no effective treatment at the chronic phase and in which, a lack of scientific knowledge can be observed. The main goal of this work was that obtaining and using consomic strain of mice, the resistance could be investigated. Consomic strains were produced by programmed mating, in which the animals were monitored with DNA polymorphic markers, and one of his chromosomes was replaced by his homologue from another strain. As parental, were used, the inbred strains C57BL/6/J Unib with resistant phenotype (donor) and as receiver, the A/JUnib strain, that has a susceptible phenotype. These models were used to produce five consomic strains: for the chromosomes 7 (CSs7), 11 (CSs11), 14 (CSs14), 17 (CSs17) and 19 (CSs19), described by Passos et al. (2003) as important in controlling infection caused by the Y strain of T. cruzi. In experimental testing, the consomics were inoculated intraperitoneally at doses of 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 and 10 4 using as control, animals from both parental lines. In all consomics, resistance was higher than that observed in the susceptible parental. In a second protocol, the consomics were mated with scheduled associations and the progenies were challenged with inocula employing increasing doses of trypomastigotes. The resistance observed in this group was also higher than that observed in the parental with susceptible phenotype. The observed results demonstrate that the use of the consomic strains that were produced order to assess the contribution of each chromosome in the resistance, as well as the effects of association between chromosomes are an

  17. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  18. Studies on the sensitivity of guinea pigs and golden hamsters irradiated with different doses of gamma rays to infections with R and S forms of Pseudomonas pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenski, Kh.M.; Velyanov, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Whole-body gamma irradiation was carried out on guinea pigs of both sexes with 2 Gy (sublethal dose), 2 Gy fractionated (4 x 0.5 Gy a day) and 0.5 Gy, and on golden hamsters with 6 Gy (sublethal dose) and 0.5 Gy. The animals were injected i.p. 24 h after irradiation with bacterial suspensions of P. pseudomallei R 7 and R 15 . The results showed a great increase of sensitivity to infection in the animals irradiated with sublethal dose, both as regards the R and S forms. Susceptibility rose appreciably also in guinea pigs irradiated fractionally with a dose of 2 Gy and to a relatively lower degree upon irradiation with 0.5 Gy. For the golden hamsters the sensitivity toward both investigated strains was extremely high and it remained unchanged upon irradiation with 6 Gy and 0.5 Gy. The data obtained provided grounds for the existence of a certain correlation between the different radioresistance of guinea pigs and golden hamsters and the changes established in their sensitivity to infections with R and S forms of Ps. pseudomallei after whole-body gamma irradiation

  19. Effect of Experimental Coccidiosis Infections on Body Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with E. tenella in broiler breeder males showed that body weight gains of the uninfected males were significantly greater (p< 0.05) at 5, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) than those of the infected groups. Sperm productions at 0, 5 and 7 dpi (0=day of inoculation with infected oocysts) for the uninfected controls ...

  20. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis: absence of neonatal transmission and protection by maternal antibodies in experimental infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Jansen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. One alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. This possibility was investigated in five T. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young. The influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. Our results show that neonatal transmission is probably not responsible for the high rate of natural T. cruzi infection among opossums. In addition antibodies of maternal origin confer a partial protection to the young. This was demonstrated by the finding of a double prepatency period and 4,5 fold lower levels of circulating parasites, in experimentally infected pouch young from infected as compared to control uninfected mothes. On the other hand, the duration of patent parasitemia was twice as long as that observed in the control group.

  2. Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler Chicken Meat, Broiler Chickens, Pork, and Pigs Share Phylogroups and Antimicrobial Resistance with Community-Dwelling Humans and Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.; Kurbasic, A.; Skjot-Rasmussen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance......, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n...... resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat...

  3. Repeated examination of natural sapovirus infections in pig litters raised under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hansen, Mette Sif; Johnsen, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    Porcine sapovirus, belonging to the family Caliciviridae, is an enteric virus that is widespread in the swine industry worldwide. A total of 14 sapovirus genogroups have been suggested and the most commonly found genogroup in swine is genogroup III (GIII). The goal of the present experiment was t...

  4. ETIOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER : VII. DEMONSTRATION OF LEPTOSPIRA ICTEROIDES IN THE BLOOD, TISSUES, AND URINE OF YELLOW FEVER PATIENTS AND OF ANIMALS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH THE ORGANISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H

    1919-08-01

    the lungs and kidneys). This specimen showed no leptospira by dark-field examination. In experimental infection of guinea pigs with Leptospira icteroides the blood became infective in many instances 48 hours after inoculation, and was always infective after 72 hours. The liver and kidney become infective simultaneously with the blood. Detection of the organism by means of the dark-field microscope has seldom been accomplished before the 5th day. The organisms are most abundant on the 6th to the 7th day, but become fewer or completely disappear before death. In the meanwhile the number of organisms increases in the liver and kidney, from which they disappear as the jaundice and other symptoms become aggravated. When death occurs these organs seem to have lost most of the leptospira) and positive transfer by means of them is less certain. At the later stage of the disease the blood is often free from the organisms and ceases to be infective. Positive transmission with blood obtained from moribund animals is not impossible, however, even when no leptospira can be detected under the dark-field microscope.

  5. Favipiravir (T-705 inhibits Junín virus infection and reduces mortality in a guinea pig model of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Gowen

    Full Text Available Junín virus (JUNV, the etiologic agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF, is classified by the NIAID and CDC as a Category A priority pathogen. Presently, antiviral therapy for AHF is limited to immune plasma, which is readily available only in the endemic regions of Argentina. T-705 (favipiravir is a broadly active small molecule RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. We have previously reported on the in vitro activity of favipiravir against several strains of JUNV and other pathogenic New World arenaviruses.To evaluate the efficacy of favipiravir in vivo, guinea pigs were challenged with the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV, and then treated twice daily for two weeks with oral or intraperitoneal (i.p. favipiravir (300 mg/kg/day starting 1-2 days post-infection. Although only 20% of animals treated orally with favipiravir survived the lethal challenge dose, those that succumbed survived considerably longer than guinea pigs treated with placebo. Consistent with pharmacokinetic analysis that showed greater plasma levels of favipiravir in animals dosed by i.p. injection, i.p. treatment resulted in a substantially higher level of protection (78% survival. Survival in guinea pigs treated with ribavirin was in the range of 33-40%. Favipiravir treatment resulted in undetectable levels of serum and tissue viral titers and prevented the prominent thrombocytopenia and leucopenia observed in placebo-treated animals during the acute phase of infection.The remarkable protection afforded by i.p. favipiravir intervention beginning 2 days after challenge is the highest ever reported for a small molecule antiviral in the difficult to treat guinea pig JUNV challenge model. These findings support the continued development of favipiravir as a promising antiviral against JUNV and other related arenaviruses.

  6. Surveillance Data Highlights Feed Form, Biosecurity, and Disease Control as Significant Factors Associated with Salmonella Infection on Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Argüello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the zoonotic pathogens affecting pigs, Salmonella stands out due to the high number of human cases linked to pork consumption. In the last two decades many countries have put considerable effort into the control of the infection by surveillance and control strategies on farm. Despite this effort, many herds still have a high Salmonella prevalence and they require guidance to address this problem. The present study, using the serological surveillance data of finishing pigs from the Irish National pig Salmonella Control Programme, aimed to highlight factors associated with increased risk or that might mitigate Salmonella occurrence on farm. A questionnaire with 33 questions regarding herd characteristics, management, feeding, biosecurity, and health was completed for 61 individual herds. After the multivariate analysis by linear regression, nine variables were retained in the final model and linked to herd seroprevalence. Home produced-feed linked to the use of meal showed an eight points reduction in Salmonella prevalence compared to purchased feed (p = 0.042. Different biosecurity measures were associated to lower seroprevalence. Changing of footwear from outside to inside the farm decreased seroprevalence nearly 20 units (p = 0.014 and policies not permitting access to the farmyard to feed trucks (p = 0.048 or avoiding the presence of cats on the farm (p = 0.05 were estimated in 10 units less of seroprevalence. In contrast, the lack of perimeter fence increased the chance to have higher seroprevalence in five units (p = 0.05. Finally, intestinal diseases such as swine dysentery (p = 0.044 and E. coli diarrhea (p = 0.1 were estimated to increase Salmonella prevalence in ~20 and 10 units, respectively, demonstrating the importance of controlling other enteric pathogens in an on-farm Salmonella control programme. These results show the usefulness of surveillance data to improve on-farm control and confirm that Salmonella infection in pigs is

  7. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swenson, Dana L; Warfield, Kelly L; Larsen, Tom; Alves, D. A; Coberley, Sadie S; Bavari, Sina

    2008-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs vaccinated with marburgvirus (m)VLPs or inactivated MARV (iMARV) develop homologous humoral and T cell responses and are completely protected from a lethal homologous MARV challenge...

  8. Myocardial oxygenation and transmural lactate metabolism during experimental acute coronary stenosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonschior, P; Gonschior, G M; Conzen, P F; Hobbhahn, J; Goetz, A E; Peter, K; Brendel, W

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of surface tissue pO2 (ptO2) with surface electrodes is increasingly applied in experimental medicine. Its use on the beating heart may seem to be problematic because transmural gradients of tissue pO2 would reduce the validity of pO2 determinations in the epicardial layers. This study attempted to determine whether ptO2 may be a valid and sensitive indicator of transmural myocardial oxygenation. In order to measure ptO2, two eight-channel Clark-type electrodes were placed on a beating porcine left ventricle (n = 13). Measurements were made at different degrees of acute stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). A 24-F cannula was inserted into the great cardiac vein, draining the poststenotic myocardium to obtain coronary venous blood samples. Transmural metabolic changes were detected simultaneously by coronary venous blood gas parameters and lactate levels. Epicardial tissue pO2 was 49 +/- 2 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) before stenosis and decreased to a mean value of 25 +/- 2 mm Hg during stenosis. Different degrees of LAD stenosis (ptO2 range: 12-35 mm Hg) were substantial enough to alter arterio-coronary venous lactate difference (avd lactate) from +0.31 +/- 0.07 mmol/l (control) to -0.62 +/- 0.15 mmol/l (stenosis). A significant linear correlation between changes of ptO2 (delta ptO2) and changes of avd lactate (delta avd lactate) resulted (y = 0.59 + 0.62x; r = 0.86; p less than or equal to 0.001). However, linear regression analysis between delta ptO2 correlated with the corresponding data from coronary venous pO2 (delta pO2cv) oxygen content (delta O2contcv), and oxygen saturation (delta O2satcv) showed no significant correlations. We conclude that measurement of ptO2 is a sensitive and valuable indicator of transmural oxygenation in ischemic myocardium, whereas pO2cv, O2contcv and O2satcv do not seem to be valid predictors of ischemia in myocardial oxygenation.

  9. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not mitigate disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Sarah N; Lager, Kelly M; Brockmeier, Susan L; Loving, Crystal L; Miller, Laura C; Vorwald, Ann C; Yang, Han-Chun; Kehrli, Marcus E; Faaberg, Kay S

    2016-10-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for one of the most economically important diseases in swine worldwide. It causes reproductive failure in sows and pneumonia in pigs that predisposes them to secondary bacterial infections. Methods to control PRRSV and/or limit secondary bacterial infections are desired to reduce the impact of this virus on animal health. Neutrophils play a major role in combatting infection; they can act as phagocytes as well as produce and release lytic enzymes that have potent antimicrobial effects leading to the destruction and clearance of bacterial pathogens. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation and function of granulocytes (including neutrophils) from the bone marrow. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that encoding porcine G-CSF in a replication-defective adenovirus (Ad5-G-CSF) and delivering a single dose to pigs induced a neutrophilia lasting more than two weeks. As secondary bacterial infection is a common occurrence following PRRSV infection, particularly following challenge with highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRSV, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single prophylactic dose of adenovirus-encoded G-CSF to mitigate secondary bacterial disease associated with HP-PRRSV infection. Administration of Ad5-G-CSF induced a significant neutrophilia as expected. However, between 1 and 2days following HP-PRRSV challenge the number of circulating neutrophils decreased dramatically in the HP-PRRSV infected group, but not the non-infected Ad5-G-CSF group. Ad5-G-CSF administration induced monocytosis as well, which was also reduced by HP-PRRSV challenge. There was no difference in the progression of disease between the Ad5-G-CSF and Ad5-empty groups following HP-PRRSV challenge, with pneumonia and systemic bacterial infection occurring in both treatment groups. Given the impact of HP-PRRSV infection on the

  10. Studies on the Leucocytic Response to Experimental Infection with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, neutrophil numbers declined significantly (P < 0.05) in red fronted gazelles infected either singly with Trypanosoma brucei or concurrently with both parasites while those infected singly with Haemonchus contortus experienced a significant (P <0.05) rise in neutrophil counts which became evident from day 30 post ...

  11. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  12. Detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 12 in pig serum using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Klausen, Joan; Barfod, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    and from herds declared free of infection with Ap. The Ap serotype 12 blocking ELISA showed a herd sensitivity of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.88) and a herd specificity of 1.00 (0.95-1.00) with a cut-off value at 40% relative absorbance or 60% inhibition. The assay may be used advantageously......The objective was to develop a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotype 12 in pig serum. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotype 12 was purified and used as antigen in the assay. Antibodies to the LPS antigen...... in samples of pig serum were detected by inhibition of the binding of polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against Ap serotype 12. The assay was evaluated against sera from experimentally infected pigs, from pig herds naturally infected with Ap and from herds declared free of Ap serotypc 12 infection...

  13. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  14. IFN-λ and microRNAs are important modulators of the pulmonary innate immune response against influenza A (H1N2) infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Louise; Larsen, Lars E.; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg

    2018-01-01

    the expression of miRNAs and protein coding genes in the lungs of pigs 1, 3, and 14 days after challenge with swine IAV (H1N2). Through RT-qPCR we observed a 400-fold relative increase in IFN-lambda 3 gene expression on day 1 after challenge, and a strong interferon-mediated antiviral response was observed......The innate immune system is paramount in the response to and clearance of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in non-immune individuals. Known factors include type I and III interferons and antiviral pathogen recognition receptors, and the cascades of antiviral and pro- and anti-inflammatory gene...

  15. Comparative pathology of pigs infected with Korean H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Song, Daesub

    2014-01-01

    Background The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, respectively. Comparative pathogenesis caused by Korean H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV was evaluated in this study. Findings The H3N2 infected pigs had severe scores of gross and histopathological lesions at post-inoculation days (PID) 2, and this then progressively decrease...

  16. The use of ELISAs for monitoring exposure of pig herds to Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine dysentery (SD, a mucohaemorrhagic diarrhoeal disease of pigs, results from infection of the large intestine with the spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. ELISA systems using whole spirochaete cells (WC and the B. hyodysenteriae outer membrane lipoprotein Bhlp29.7 previously have been established as potential diagnostic tools for SD. However, their true value in identifying infected herds remains unclear. The present study aimed to compare the performance of whole-cell and Bhlp29.7 based ELISAs in detecting specific immunoglobulin class IgG and IgM to B. hyodysenteriae in growing pigs, and additionally evaluated whether meat juice could serve as a source of specific antibodies. Results Levels of circulating IgG and IgM reacting with WC spirochaete preparations and recombinant Bhlp29.7 peaked 4-6 weeks post-infection in the experimentally challenged pigs, and remained elevated in the present study. In a cohort of pigs on an infected farm levels of antibody directed against both antigens showed a progressive increase with time. However, other than for the level of IgG against WC antigen, a significant increase in antibody levels also was observed in a cohort of pigs on a non-infected farm. In addition, assays using meat juice had 100% specificity and equivalent sensitivity to those based on serum, and likewise the best performance was achieved using the WC IgG ELISA. Conclusions IgG ELISAs using either WC or Bhlp29.7 as plate-coating antigens were shown to be useful for monitoring the dynamics of B. hyodysenteriae infection in grower pigs. Of the two antigens, the WC preparation tended to give better discrimination between pigs from infected and non-infected farms. Testing of meat juice was shown to have potential for identifying infected herds.

  17. Effects of dietary additives (potassium diformate/organic acids) as well as influences of grinding intensity (coarse/fine) of diets for weaned piglets experimentally infected with Salmonella Derby or Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, V A; Neu, M E; Hassan, Y; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Kamphues, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether and to what extent the addition of potassium diformate (pdf) or free organic acids (fpa) to the diet and the grinding intensity might affect the course of infection and the passage of orally applied Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pigs. Experiments were carried out using 80 reared piglets allotted to four groups. Pigs were fed pelleted diets ad libitum (except during a 15 h feed-withholding-period before infection). The control diet contained finely ground cereals (2 mm screen). To two test diets (also finely ground) 1.2% pdf, 0.9% organic acids (75% formic and 25% propionic acid, fpa) respectively were added. The fourth diet (without acids) was based on coarsely ground cereals (6-mm screen). After experimental infection alternately with S. Derby or E. coli, the course of infection was examined (rectal swab technique). Pigs were sacrificed 4-5 h after a further oral application of approximately 10(9)-10(10) CFU S. Derby or E. coli to determine the counts of Salmonella or E. coli in chyme (classical culture methods). Adding pdf or fpa to the diet led to reduced Salmonella shedding and resulted in significantly lower counts of Salmonella and E. coli in the stomach content indicating an improved efficacy of the stomach barrier. In the distal parts of the digestive tract, the effect was less obvious concerning counts of E. coli, whereas counts of Salmonella were reduced markedly as well. The diet based on coarsely ground cereals failed to demonstrate positive effects concerning infection and passage of orally applied bacteria as well, but this diet was also pelleted and showed unintentionally, comparable amounts of fine particles. Results obtained in this study allow the recommendation of using pdf or organic acids as additives when dietary measures against Salmonella or E. coli in pigs are required.

  18. Efficacy of linezolid compared to vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ventilated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Olondris, Pilar; Rigol, Montserrat; Soy, Dolors; Guerrero, Laura; Agusti, Carlos; Quera, Maria Angels; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Liapikou, Manto; Filella, Xavier; Marco, Francesc; de la Bellacasa, Jordi Puig; Torres, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of linezolid compared with vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ventilated pigs. Forty pigs (30 kg) were intubated and challenged via bronchoscopy with a suspension of 106 colony forming units of MRSA into every lobe. Afterwards, pigs were ventilated up to 96 hours. Twelve hours after bacterial inoculation, the animals were randomized into 4 groups of treatment: group 1, control; group 2, vancomycin twice daily; group 3, continuous infusion of vancomycin; and group 4, linezolid. Clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored throughout the study. Bacterial cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples were performed at the end of the study. Measurements of histopathology derangements of lung samples and studies of intrapulmonary drug penetration were performed. A total of 34 animals completed the study. No differences in clinical and laboratory parameters were observed. The percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples with positive cultures for MRSA in controls and groups 2, 3, and 4 was respectively 75%, 11%, 11%, and 0% (p pneumonia in 95%, 69%, 58%, and 57% and signs of severe pneumonia in 48%, 29%, 22%, and 0% of controls and groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p treatments. In this animal model of MRSA pneumonia, linezolid showed a better efficacy than vancomycin showed because of a better pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics index.

  19. Purified natural pig immunoglobulins can substitute dietary zinc in reducing piglet post weaning diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2017-01-01

    antibiotic resistance and pose environmental problems. Recently, in an experimental model of PWD, we observed that oral administration of purified porcine immunoglobulin G (ppIgG) from pooled natural pig plasma could reduce enteric infection. In the present study we were able to reproduce these results...... as it was observed that oral ppIgG accelerated clearance of faecal haemolytic bacteria in pigs challenged with E. coli in comparison with pigs not receiving ppIgG. This effect was observed upon feeding ppIgG for seven days postweaning suggesting that ppIgG does not have to be used prophylactically for several days...

  20. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  1. Association of Serpulina hyodysenteriae with the colonic mucosa in experimental swine dysentery studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette; Møller, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    The localization of Serpulina hyodysenteriae in experimental swine dysentery was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using an oligonucleotide probe targeting the 23S rRNA of S. hyodysenteriae. Nine 8-week-old pigs were challenged. Seven of the pigs were intragastrically dosed with 1......x10(9) cfu S. hyodysenteriae for 3 consecutive days, whereas two pigs were infected by contact. Six non-challenged pigs served as negative controls. The challenged pigs developed clinical swine dysentery from 8 to 14 days postinfection with typical gross lesions. By FISH S. hyodysenteriae cells...

  2. Lassa virus infection in experimentally infected marmosets: liver pathology and immunophenotypic alterations in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Mansfield, Keith; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Ticer, Anysha; Lukashevich, Igor; Tardif, Suzette; Patterson, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Lassa virus causes thousands of deaths annually in western Africa and is considered a potential biological weapon. In an attempt to develop a small nonhuman primate model of Lassa fever, common marmosets were subcutaneously inoculated with Lassa virus strain Josiah. This inoculation resulted in a systemic disease with clinical and morphological features mirroring those in fatal human Lassa infection: fever, weight loss, high viremia and viral RNA load in tissues, elevated liver enzymes, and severe morbidity between days 15 and 20. The most prominent histopathology findings included multifocal hepatic necrosis with mild inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation, lymphoid depletion, and interstitial nephritis. Cellular aggregates in regions of hepatocellular necrosis were largely composed of HAM56-positive macrophages, devoid of CD3-positive and CD20-positive cells, and characterized by marked reductions in the intensity of HLA-DP, DQ, DR staining. A marked reduction in the major histocompatibility complex class II expression was also observed in the lymph nodes. Immunophenotypic alterations in spleen included reductions in overall numbers of CD20-positive and CD3-positive cells and the disruption of lymphoid follicular architecture. These findings identify the common marmoset as an appropriate model of human Lassa fever and present the first experimental evidence that replication of Lassa virus in tissues is associated with alterations that would be expected to impair adaptive immunity.

  3. Comparative genome analysis of clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected poultry and diseased pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Lyhs, Ulrike; Stegger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    to be important for the development of NE in chickens and piglets, respectively, while the role of these toxins is less well elucidated in diseased turkeys. Methods: We carried out comparative genomic analysis of 40 C. perfringens genomes from healthy and NE-suffering chickens and turkeys, and diseased pigs using......B, NELoc-1 and -3 seem to play an important role in the NE pathogenesis in chickens, whereas cpb2 is important in diseased pigs. • The VirSR two-component system is involved in regulating NE-associated virulence genes. • Conjugative plasmid genes are widely spread among C. perfringens. • WGS is a powerful...

  4. An ultrasonic study of experimental infected hydronephrosis in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Yu, Yun Jeong; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonography of rabbit kidney was performed after induction of infected hydronephrosis to evaluate the sequential sonographic changes in 15 rabbits. Infected hydronephrosis was induced by ligation of the distal ureter and ureteral inoculation of Escherichia coli. Ultrasonography was performed daily during the first two weeks and weekly during the following 4 weeks after induction of infected hydronephrosis. The results are as follows: 1. The earliest abnormal ultrasonographic findings was appearance of internal echoes in dependent portion of the pelvis, which appeared within 4 days after inoculation in all cases. 2. Degree of internal echoes within the pelvis increased progressively with lapse of time and the entire pelvis was filled with internal echoes within 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases. 3. Echogenecity of internal echoes within the pelvis was similar to that of renal parenchyma in the first week after inoculation, however was weaker than that of renal parenchyma 2 weeks after inoculation in all cases

  5. Comparison of calculated and experimentally determined SID of CP and AA in complex diets differing in AA contents for grower finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsing, K; Berk, A; Müller, S; Kieckhäven, S; Krüger, K; Zeyner, A

    2017-10-01

    In practice, the content of standardized ileal digestible AA in complex feeds for pigs is calculated on the basis of tabulated values for individual feedstuffs. It comes into question, however, whether this truly reflects an accurate content based upon the estimate made for the individual feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and selected AA in complex feeds for grower and finisher pigs either calculated or experimentally determined. Six diets with increasing AA levels were prepared for grower (BW from 30 to 70 kg) and finisher (BW from 70 to 120 kg) feed. Crystalline L-lys, DL-met and L-thr were added to both diets, L-trp and L-val only to the grower feed. SID of both CP and AA was calculated from feed tables and experimentally determined in six adult minipigs (MINILEWE) with ileorectal anastomosis. With increasing AA levels, experimentally determined SID of supplemented AA increased (p AA via tabulated values for individual feedstuffs, however, seems to be acceptable for practical use. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and Zinc Oxide Stimulate Immune Reactions to Trivalent Influenza Vaccination in Pigs but Do Not Affect Virological Response upon Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Znhigh; 50 ppm, Znlow). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Znhigh and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Znlow) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Znhigh+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Znhigh and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Znlow control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology. PMID:24489827

  7. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenya; Burwinkel, Michael; Chai, Weidong; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Breithaupt, Angele; Hoffmann, Bernd; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn) oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high); 50 ppm, Zn(low)). Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC) twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high) and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low)) lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers were also observed in the Zn(high)+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high) and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low) control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  8. Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenya Wang

    Full Text Available Swine influenza viruses (SIV regularly cause significant disease in pigs worldwide. Since there is no causative treatment of SIV, we tested if probiotic Enterococcus (E. faecium NCIMB 10415 or zinc (Zn oxide as feed supplements provide beneficial effects upon SIV infection in piglets. Seventy-two weaned piglets were fed three different diets containing either E. faecium or different levels of Zn (2500 ppm, Zn(high; 50 ppm, Zn(low. Half of the piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (VAC twice with an inactivated trivalent SIV vaccine, while all piglets were then infected intranasally with H3N2 SIV. Significantly higher weekly weight gains were observed in the E. faecium group before virus infection, and piglets in Zn(high and E. faecium groups gained weight after infection while those in the control group (Zn(low lost weight. Using ELISA, we found significantly higher H3N2-specific antibody levels in the E. faecium+VAC group 2 days before and at the day of challenge infection as well as at 4 and 6 days after challenge infection. Higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI titers were also observed in the Zn(high+VAC and E. faecium+VAC groups at 0, 1 and 4 days after infection. However, there were no significant differences in virus shedding and lung lesions between the dietary groups. Using flow cytometry analysis significantly higher activated T helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte percentages in the PBMCs were detected in the Zn(high and E. faecium groups at single time points after infection compared to the Zn(low control group, but no prolonged effect was found. In the BAL cells no influence of dietary supplementation on immune cell percentages could be detected. Our results suggest that feeding high doses of zinc oxide and particularly E. faecium could beneficially influence humoral immune responses after vaccination and recovery from SIV infection, but not affect virus shedding and lung pathology.

  9. Effect of Exposure Dose on Ichthyophonus Prevalence and Infection Intensity in Experimentally Infected Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the effect of increasing exposure dose on Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection intensity in experimentally infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Specific-pathogen free trout were exposed per os to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts obtained from naturally infected donor fish, then sampled after 30 and 60 days post-exposure. Both in vitro explant culture and histology revealed that as the number of schizonts per dose increased there was a proportionate increase in the number of infected fish, as well as an increase in the number of infected organs; parasite density in individual infected organs also increased with dose. Explant culture revealed that all fish exposed to the highest dose (≥2,080 schizonts) became infected, while only 67% of those exposed to the intermediate dose (1,040-1,153 schizonts) were Ichthyophonus-positive after 60 days; Ichthyophonus was not detected in fish exposed to the 2 lowest doses (≤280 schizonts). Histologic examination of individual infected organs also revealed increasing infection prevalence and parasite density in response to exposure to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts.

  10. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  11. Lactobacillus paracasei feeding improves the control of secondary experimental meningococcal infection in flu-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Taha, Muhamed-Kkeir

    2018-04-10

    The use of probiotics to improve anti-microbial defence, such as for influenza infections, is increasingly recommended. However, no data are available on the effect of probiotics on flu-associated secondary bacterial infections. There is strong evidence of a spatiotemporal association between influenza virus infection and invasive Neisseria meningitidis. We thus investigated the effect of feeding mice Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1518 in a mouse model of sequential influenza-meningococcal infection. We intranasally infected BALB/c mice with a strain of influenza A virus (IAV) H3N2 that was first adapted to mice. Seven days later, a secondary bacterial infection was induced by intranasal administration of bioluminescent N. meningitidis. During the experiment, mice orally received either L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 or PBS as a control. The effect of L. paracasei administration on secondary bacterial infection by N. meningitidis was evaluated. Oral consumption of L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 reduced the weight loss of infected mice and lowered the bioluminescent signal of infecting meningococci. This improvement was associated with higher recruitment of inflammatory myeloid cells, such as interstitial monocytes and dendritic cells, to the lungs. Our data highlight the role of the gut-lung axis. L. paracasei CNCM I-1518 may boost the defence against IAV infection and secondary bacterial infection, which should be further studied and validated in clinical trials.

  12. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis in mice: a model of intranasal infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, P. J.; van der Poll, T.; Florquin, S.; van Deventer, S. J.; Roord, J. J.; van Furth, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Effective laboratory animal models of bacterial meningitis are needed to unravel the pathophysiology of this disease. Previous models have failed to simulate human meningitis by using a directly intracerebral route of infection. Hyaluronidase is a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae impairs cerebral bioenergetics in experimentally infected silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-10-01

    It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental infection of Ethiopian highland sheep by different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult worm population and the egg excretion positively and significantly correlated together, whereas they were .... Figure 1: Nematode egg excretion from sheep infected with different doses of H. contortus L3. Total worm burden .... further drop in haematological parameters until the end of the experiment. Eosinophils are ...

  15. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  16. Salmonella Enteritidis experimental infection in chickens: Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... challenge dose of Salmonella Enteritidis on detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... Two groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected ... Since chickens may be exposed to variable quantities ... A second group of 8 hens was orally .... where presence of serum antibodies by most birds that.

  17. Iron storage proteins are essential for the survival and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in THP-1 macrophages and the guinea pig model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Vineel; Puri, Rupangi Verma; Khera, Aparna; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-02-01

    Iron is one of the crucial elements required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, excess free iron becomes toxic for the cells because it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen radicals, leading to oxidative damage. Hence, it is essential for the pathogen to have the ability to store intracellular iron in an iron-rich environment and utilize it under iron depletion. M. tuberculosis has two iron storage proteins, namely BfrA (Rv1876; a bacterioferritin) and BfrB (Rv3841; a ferritin-like protein). However, the demonstration of biological significance requires the disruption of relevant genes and the evaluation of the resulting mutant for its ability to survive in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have disrupted bfrA and bfrB of M. tuberculosis and demonstrated that these genes are crucial for the storage and supply of iron for the growth of bacteria and to withstand oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the bfrA bfrB double mutant (H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB) exhibited a marked reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. Guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited a marked diminution in the dissemination of the bacilli to spleen compared to that of the parental strain. Moreover, guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited significantly reduced pathological damage in spleen and lungs compared to that of animals infected with the parental strain. Our study clearly demonstrates the importance of these iron storage proteins in the survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis in the host and establishes them as attractive targets for the development of new inhibitors against mycobacterial infections.

  18. Effect of aerial ammonia on porcine infection of the respiratory tract with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Bækbo, P.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the experimental study was to examine whether aerial ammonia alone could predispose the respiratory system of pigs to infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type A. Two groups of 5 pigs each were continuously exposed to 50 ppm ammonia and less than 5 ppm ammonia...

  19. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  20. Experimental Infection of Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto with Two Portuguese African Swine Fever Virus Strains. Study of Factors Involved in the Dynamics of Infection in Ticks.

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    Rita Ribeiro

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present.

  1. Detection of a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance to infection with Trichuris suis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    diarrhoea. A significant proportion of the variation in Trichuris faecal egg count (FEC) has been attributed to the host's genetic make-up. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic loci associated with resistance to T. suis in pigs. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to perform...

  2. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

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    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  3. Detection of Foot and mouth disease virus infected pigs still RT-PCR positive four weeks after challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsel, K.; Roest, H.I.J.; Elzinga-Bril, E.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Dekker, A.

    2008-01-01

    FOOT-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals including ruminants and pigs. The occurrence of disease in livestock has a great economic impact, especially for exporting countries. Export limitations are based partly on the existence of FMD carrier animals.

  4. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

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    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  5. Determination of regional flow by use of intravascular PET tracers: microvascular theory and experimental validation for pig livers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Feng, H

    2003-01-01

    Today, the standard approach for the kinetic analysis of dynamic PET studies is compartment models, in which the tracer and its metabolites are confined to a few well-mixed compartments. We examine whether the standard model is suitable for modern PET data or whether theories including more...... physiologic realism can advance the interpretation of dynamic PET data. A more detailed microvascular theory is developed for intravascular tracers in single-capillary and multiple-capillary systems. The microvascular models, which account for concentration gradients in capillaries, are validated and compared...... with the standard model in a pig liver study. METHODS: Eight pigs underwent a 5-min dynamic PET study after (15)O-carbon monoxide inhalation. Throughout each experiment, hepatic arterial blood and portal venous blood were sampled, and flow was measured with transit-time flow meters. The hepatic dual...

  6. Immunoglobulin subclass in experimental murine Toxocara cati infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to detect specific immunoglobulin (Ig that could be used to determine monoclonal antibody in conjugate-making an effort for the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic kit of toxocariasis in human. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted to assess the Ig profile, based on ELISA-isotyping, in mice infected with second stage larvae eggs of Toxocara cati. The optical density values of anti-T. cati mice serum IgG subclasses were analyzed by applying ANOVA factorial. Results: The specific IgG subclass in mice infected with T. cati mice was found to be IgG2β. Conclusion: Subclass of IgG, especially IgG2β, can provide leads about the use of the monoclonal antibody in conjugate making an effort for the indirect ELISA diagnostic kit.

  7. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  8. Growth performance of broilers in experimental Reovirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar P. Awandkar

    Full Text Available Background: The avian reoviruses have emerged to induce various manifestations in chickens. They are associated with disease conditions including malabsorption syndrome, tenosynovitis etc. Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in broilers, resulting in poor growth performance. Poultry industry in India is facing a catastrophe due to such infections which go unnoticed in field due to masking of the symptoms by secondary infections and commonly observed nutritional disorders. Aim: To investigate the effect of reovirus infection on overall performance of broiler birds. Material and Methods: The broiler birds were challenged with homologous strains of malabsorption syndrome and tenosynovitis syndrome of reovirus. The growth performance was recorded. Results and conclusion: The growth performance and immune response to NDV did not differ in the birds challenged with tenosynovitis syndrome strain of reo virus as compared to un challenged birds. However, poor live body weight, feed intake, FCR, PE and BPEI and better serum NDV titres were found in chicks challenged with malabsorption syndrome strain of reovirus as compared to the chicks from control group. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 685-689

  9. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  10. [Experimental infection of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) by Colombian isolates of Giardia duodenalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Adriana; Duque, Sofía; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Natural and experimental Giardia infections have been reported from bovines, equines, goats, canines, felines and rodents such as mice, rats and gerbils. The latter have provided successful animal models for Giardia duodenalis and Giardia muris experimental infections. The gerbil model was used to establish the pattern of infection of Colombian Giardia human isolates. Giardia cysts were obtained from stool specimens of symptomatic giardiasis patients by means of sucrose-percoll gradients. Animal inoculation was performed by gastric intubation and injection with 5 x 10(3) Giardia cysts. The course of infection was established by counting cysts every day and trophozoites weekly throughout a period of 30 days. The pattern of cyst excretion was found to be intermittent. Cysts were released during the second and third weeks of infection but not during the first or fourth weeks. The mean minimal number of cysts released per 2-hr collection period was 79 and the mean maximum number was 17,943. Colonization of the small intestine by trophozoites was observed with a mean number ranging from 15,000 to 6,577,778 trophozoites/ml. Gerbils inoculated with G. duodenalis isolates obtained from geographical areas outside Colombia resolved the infection between 86 and 114 days after infection, whereas gerbils infected with Colombian G. duodenalis isolates resolved the infection at 30 days. The gerbil proved to be a good animal model for experimental infection with Colombian isolates of G. duodenalis. Experimental Giardia infection of gerbils permit a sufficient yield of cysts and trophozoites to be used as antigens for the immunization of other animals and to obtain Giardia antibodies that could be used for Giardia antigen detection assays in stool specimens.

  11. Efficacy of a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pneumonia of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska-Daniel, I; Pejsak, Z

    1999-12-01

    Amoksiklav was used in the therapy of mixed respiratory tract infections in weaned pigs under field conditions. Positive effects of therapy with Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid were observed in the majority of treated pigs. The production losses due to pneumonia in pigs treated with this combination were lower than among control pigs treated with Oxytetracycline, also a significantly lower ratio of death was observed among experimental weaners in comparison to the controls. Thirty days after the end of the therapy it was found that the body weight gain (b. w. g) of the experimental animals was on average 800 g higher after this period and the experimental piglets grew daily in average 20 g more than the controls. Experimental pigs were slaughtered 3 days earlier than the controls and the average weight gain at slaughter was highest by 1.1 kg in this group. Average daily b. w. g. of experimental pigs during the period from birth to slaughter was 13 g higher in comparison to the controls.

  12. Replication and Transmission of the Novel Bovine Influenza D Virus in a Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Chithra; Thomas, Milton; Sheng, Zizhang; Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Knudsen, David E B; Pillatzki, Angela; Nelson, Eric; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Li, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel influenza virus that infects cattle and swine. The goal of this study was to investigate the replication and transmission of bovine FLUDV in guinea pigs. Following direct intranasal inoculation of animals, the virus was detected in nasal washes of infected animals during the first 7 days postinfection. High viral titers were obtained from nasal turbinates and lung tissues of directly inoculated animals. Further, bovine FLUDV was able to transmit from the infected guinea pigs to sentinel animals by means of contact and not by aerosol dissemination under the experimental conditions tested in this study. Despite exhibiting no clinical signs, infected guinea pigs developed seroconversion and the viral antigen was detected in lungs of animals by immunohistochemistry. The observation that bovine FLUDV replicated in the respiratory tract of guinea pigs was similar to observations described previously in studies of gnotobiotic calves and pigs experimentally infected with bovine FLUDV but different from those described previously in experimental infections in ferrets and swine with a swine FLUDV, which supported virus replication only in the upper respiratory tract and not in the lower respiratory tract, including lung. Our study established that guinea pigs could be used as an animal model for studying this newly emerging influenza virus. Influenza D virus (FLUDV) is a novel emerging pathogen with bovine as its primary host. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus are not yet known. FLUDV also spreads to swine, and the presence of FLUDV-specific antibodies in humans could indicate that there is a potential for zoonosis. Our results showed that bovine FLUDV replicated in the nasal turbinate and lungs of guinea pigs at high titers and was also able to transmit from an infected animal to sentinel animals by contact. The fact that bovine FLUDV replicated productively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts of guinea pigs

  13. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  14. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  15. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M; van Wagenberg, C P A; Wisselink, H J

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equaled the cost of averted human disease burden and cost-of-illness minus the costs of a T. gondii surveillance program. The surveillance program comprised serological testing of blood samples taken at slaughter. Break-even points were determined given alternative levels of the effectiveness of the intervention program (10% up to 90% in steps of 10%), the value of an averted DALY (20,000, 50,000 and 80,000 Euro), and threshold of sample prevalence for a farm to be under intervention (5% up to 50% out of 20 samples in steps of 5%). Since test characteristics are a determining factor in the break-even analysis, and literature is inconclusive concerning sensitivity (se) and specificity (sp) of the serological test kit used, two alternative sets of assumptions were analysed. The estimated maximum costs of an intervention if only benefits for domestic consumers were accounted amounted approximately 2981 Euro (se=98.9% and sp=92.7%) versus 4389 Euro (se=65.2% and sp=97.4%) per year per fattening pig farm under intervention assuming an effectiveness of 50%, 50,000 Euro per averted DALY and threshold T. gondii sample prevalence of 5% for a farm to be under intervention. Since almost 80% of the gross domestic production is exported corresponding break-even values increased up to 12,034 Euro and 18,366 Euro if benefits for consumers abroad were included as well. Empirical research to strengthen the knowledge about the efficacy of a farm intervention measures is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen restriction increases the infective potential of Listeria monocytogenes in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licht Tine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in several food borne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases of disease. Increased understanding of the biology of this organism is important in the prevention of food borne listeriosis. The infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA, cultivated with and without oxygen restriction, was compared in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescent protein labels were applied to allow certain identification of Listeria cells from untagged bacteria in in vivo samples, and to distinguish between cells grown under different conditions in mixed infection experiments. Results Infection of Caco-2 cells revealed that Listeria cultivated under oxygen-restricted conditions were approximately 100 fold more invasive than similar cultures grown without oxygen restriction. This was observed for exponentially growing bacteria, as well as for stationary-phase cultures. Oral dosage of guinea pigs with Listeria resulted in a significantly higher prevalence (p Listeria in fecal samples was observed after dosage with oxygen-restricted bacteria. These differences were seen after challenge with single Listeria cultures, as well as with a mixture of two cultures grown with and without oxygen restriction. Conclusion Our results show for the first time that the environmental conditions to which L. monocytogenes is exposed prior to ingestion are decisive for its in vivo infective potential in the gastrointestinal tract after passage of the gastric barrier. This is highly relevant for safety assessment of this organism in food.

  17. Detection of toxoplasma gondii antigens in sera from experimentally infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rezaian, M.; Mohebali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma antigen in serum of mice by Immunoblotting. strain. IgG isolated from rabbits that were immunized with T. gondii Immunoblotting was performed to detect T. gondii antigens in sera of mice. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with T. gondii RH strain. The value of Immunoblotting in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in acute stage of infection. The antigen bands detected in serum sample of mice were experimentally infected with T. gondii tachyzoite in immunoblotting. Six bands demonstrated on seventh post infection day six bands were identified. Similarly on sixth day four bands, on day five three bands and on fourth post infection day two bands were identified. No band was detected in control group sera. Immunoblotting is a sensitive method for diagnosis of acute stage of toxoplasmosis. (author)

  18. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tabasum Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE infection, and Escherichia coli (EC infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05. Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05. The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2, and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1 and SE group (day 4 during different experimental periods (p<0.05. The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05. The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5 compared to the control (p<0.05, whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05. Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05. During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z

  19. Metafillactic efficiency of florfenicol, applied to the fodder of the pigs from the fattening infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pepovich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The field research has been conducted with 390 pigs, which have are the same weight and age and are affected by a subclinical form of enzootic pneumonia. The pigs have been divided into two groups. First group has been receiving concentrated forage, combined with the antibiotic medicine Florfenicol in dose 2.0 kg Feniveex-2% premix/1000 kg fodder, for 7 days. Second group has been receiving the same fodder, but with the supplement Tylosin in dose 1.0 kg Tylovet-10% premix/1000 kg, for 21 days (positive control. The pigs from both groups have been observed for a period of 30 days, aftere the beginning of the treatment with medical fodder. The field research has demonstrated, that the Florfenicol used in the beginning of the fattening has proved effective in the control of the enzootic pneumonia, in comparison with the group that has been receiving Tylosin. It is established improvement of the clinical status of the animals, decrease in death, lowering the damage of the lungs and an increase in the average daily growth.

  20. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  1. Serum levels of cytokines in water buffaloes experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Kai; Guo, Ai-Jiang; Hou, Jun-Ling; Sun, Miao-Miao; Sheng, Zhao-An; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Wei-Yi; Elsheikha, Hany M; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-09-15

    Fasciola gigantica infection in water buffaloes causes significant economic losses especially in developing countries. Although modulation of the host immune response by cytokine neutralization or vaccination is a promising approach to control infection with this parasite, our understanding of cytokine's dynamic during F. gigantica infection is limited. To address this, we quantified the levels of serum cytokines produced in water buffaloes following experimental infection with F. gigantica. Five buffaloes were infected via oral gavage with 500 viable F. gigantica metacercariae and blood samples were collected from buffaloes one week before infection and for 13 consecutive weeks thereafter. The levels of 10 cytokines in serum samples were simultaneously determined using ELISA. F. gigantica failed to elicit the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-γ. On the other hand, evidence of a Th2 type response was detected, but only early in the course of parasite colonization and included modest increase in the levels of IL-10 and IL-13. The results also revealed suppression of the immune responses as a feature of chronic F. gigantica infection in buffaloes. Taken together, F. gigantica seems to elicit a modest Th2 response at early stage of infection in order to downregulate harmful Th1- and Th17-type inflammatory responses in experimentally infected buffaloes. The full extent of anti-F. gigantica immune response and its relation to pathogenesis requires further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...... changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination...... of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain...

  3. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  4. Genetic Resistance to Scrapie Infection in Experimentally Challenged Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis

    2014-01-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie. PMID:24284317

  5. Extended hepatectomy using the bipolar tissue sealer: an experimental model of small-for-size syndrome in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Kontos, Michael; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Griniatsos, John; Papalois, Apostolos; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Moris, Demetrios; Felekouras, Evangelos; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    After liver transplantation with a small-for-size liver graft or after extensive hepatectomy for liver malignancies or other non malignant conditions with an insufficient liver volume, the survival of patients depends on liver regeneration. This study was carried out in order to create a new porcine model for the study of small-for-size syndrome (SFSS) after extensive hepatectomy. In the present study we used 23 domestic Landrace pigs weighing 28.3±3 kg and aged 19-21 weeks. We describe our detailed surgical procedure for 75% partial hepatectomy a in porcine model, using the saline-coupled bipolar sealing device (Aquamantys®) for hepatectomy. The Aquamantis 2.3 bipolar sealer was connected to the Aquamantis generator and was adjusted to produce 150 watts at a medium flow rate of 20 ml/min. The device temperature was programmed to remain at approximately 100° C and, as a consequence, it produced a tissue ablation without charring. The mean operating time was 153.8 min and the mean blood loss 81.9 ml. The estimated residual liver weight (ERL) was 177 g, whereas the mean proportion of ERL was 24.5%. There was no perioperative mortality. A large animal model, such as pig, is extremely useful in order to reproduce and understand the SFSS. Our simple technique for successful resection of 75% of the liver in pigs, using the Aquamantys system, achieves effective and safe liver parenchymal transection with significant decrease of intraoperative blood loss and can provide useful information for researchers.

  6. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-05

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions.Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively.While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%, the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively. The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively. Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid result indicated the

  8. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs...... of amoxicillin may be appropriate for administration in drinking water during a 4-hour period on the first day that pigs have diarrhea attributable to E coli 0149:F4....

  9. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  10. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  11. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with oth...

  12. Therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizawa, Y; Okonogi, K; Hayashi, R; Iwahi, T; Yamazaki, T; Imada, A

    1993-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of cefozopran (SCE-2787), a new semisynthetic parenteral cephalosporin, against experimental infections in mice was examined. Cefozopran was more effective than cefpiramide and was as effective as ceftazidime and cefpirome against acute respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae DT-S. In the model of chronic respiratory tract infection caused by K. pneumoniae 27, cefozopran was as effective as ceftazidime. The therapeutic effect of cefozopran against urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa P9 was superior to that of cefpirome and was equal to those of ceftazidime and cefclidin. In addition, cefozopran was more effective than ceftazidime and was as effective as flomoxef in a thigh muscle infection caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus 308A-1. Against thigh muscle infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus N133, cefozopran was the most effective agent. The potent therapeutic effect of cefozopran in those experimental infections in mice suggests that it would be effective against respiratory tract, urinary tract, and soft tissue infections caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in humans. PMID:8431004

  13. Expression of innate immune genes, proteins and microRNAs in lung tissue and leukocytes of pigs infected with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Cirera, Susanna; Vasby, Ditte

    This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors including microRNA (miRNA) in the local and systemic host response to influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by influenza A virus subtype H1N2. Expression of miRNA, mRNA and proteins...... of genes were significantly regulated according to time point and infection status: Pattern recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR7, RIG1, MDA5), IFN and IFN induced genes (IFNB, IFNG, IRF7, STAT1, ISG15 and OASL), cytokines (IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL7, IL10, IL12A, TNF, CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL10), and several...... to the control group, and haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were at significantly increased at day three pi. MiRNA are small non coding RNA molecules, that regulate gene expression in a wide range of organisms. Cellular miRNAs might be involved in influenza infection, both by targeting immune related host...

  14. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  15. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  16. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A

    2015-10-16

    Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is

  17. Praziquantel treatment decreases Schistosoma mansoni genetic diversity in experimental infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ. Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers. METHODOLOGY: Infected mice were treated with increasing PZQ doses until the highest dose of 3 × 300 mg/Kg was reached. The effect of PZQ treatment on the parasite population was assessed using five polymorphic microsatellite markers. Parasitological and genetic data were compared with those of the untreated control. After six parasite generations submitted to treatment, it was possible to obtain a S. mansoni population with decreased susceptibility to PZQ. In our experiments we also observed that female worms were more susceptible to PZQ than male worms. CONCLUSIONS: The selective pressure exerted by PZQ led to decreased genetic variability in S. mansoni and increased endogamy. The understanding of how S. mansoni populations respond to successive drug pressure has important implications on the appearance and maintenance of a PZQ resistance phenotype in endemic regions.

  18. Efficacy of different instrumentation techniques on reducing Enterococcus faecalis infection in experimentally infected root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Özsezer Demiryürek

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that instruments with a greater taper play an important role in maximizing the effectiveness of mechanical preparation. However, since using mechanical instrumentation alone is insufficient to completely eliminate root canal infection, the use of complementary antibacterial compounds is necessary.

  19. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  20. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  1. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  2. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  3. E-ADA activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Fausto, Guilherme C; Grando, Thirssa H; Cadore, Carlos A; Pimentel, Victor C; Jaques, Jeandre A; Schetinger, Maria R C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Leal, Marta L R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activity in sera of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. We used 12 lambs divided into 2 groups; Group A had 5 healthy, non-infected animals (control) and Group B had 7 healthy animals infected with H. contortus . Lambs were infected orally with 500 larvae (L3) per animal every 2 days, for a period of 20 days, and later the infection was confirmed by examination of feces (eggs per gram [EPG] via fecal egg count). Blood collection was performed at days 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 post-infection (PI) for analysis of E-ADA activity. Animals in Group A showed negative EPG throughout the experiment unlike those from Group B that had elevated EPG counts. E-ADA activity was reduced in the serum of animals infected with H. contortus when compared to non-infected controls at days 20, 40, 60, and 80 PI. Therefore, it is concluded that infection with H. contortus influences the E-ADA activity in lambs.

  4. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Sweden and Denmark with a Swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslung, F.; Wallgren, P.; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær

    2005-01-01

    An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). A Swed......An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...

  5. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rochelle Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, affecting 0.5–1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  6. Effects of Experimental Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Infection on Immunity in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S Rochelle; Ellison, Siobhan P; Dascanio, John J; Lindsay, David S; Gogal, Robert M; Werre, Stephen R; Surendran, Naveen; Breen, Meghan E; Heid, Bettina M; Andrews, Frank M; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

  7. Antifungal activity of caspofungin in experimental infective endocarditis caused by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Gerardo Becerra; Bourdon, Lorena Michele Brennan; Benavides, Leonel García; Huerta-Olvera, Selene G; Plascencia, Arturo; Villanueva, José; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Hernández-Cañaveral, Iván Isidro

    2017-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a disease characterised by heart valve lesions, which exhibit extracellular matrix proteins that act as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of antimicrobial agents. The genus Candida has acquired clinical importance given that it is increasingly being isolated from cases of nosocomial infections. To evaluate the activity of caspofungin compared to that of liposomal amphotericin B against Candida albicans in experimental infective endocarditis. Wistar rats underwent surgical intervention and infection with strains of C. albicans to develop infective endocarditis. Three groups were formed: the first group was treated with caspofungin, the second with liposomal amphotericin B, and the third received a placebo. In vitro sensitivity was first determined to further evaluate the effect of these treatments on a rat experimental model of endocarditis by semiquantitative culture of fibrinous vegetations and histological analysis. Our semiquantitative culture of growing vegetation showed massive C. albicans colonisation in rats without treatment, whereas rats treated with caspofungin showed significantly reduced colonisation, which was similar to the results obtained with liposomal amphotericin B. The antifungal activity of caspofungin is similar to that of liposomal amphotericin B in an experimental model of infective endocarditis caused by C. albicans.

  8. The suitability of visual taphonomic methods for digital photographs: An experimental approach with pig carcasses in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribéreau-Gayon, Agathe; Rando, Carolyn; Morgan, Ruth M; Carter, David O

    2018-05-01

    In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of 2D colour digital photographs for evaluating decomposition of exposed human analogues (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a tropical savanna environment (Hawaii), using two published scoring methods; Megyesi et al., 2005 and Keough et al., 2017. It was found that there were significant differences between the real-time and photograph decomposition scores when the Megyesi et al. method was used. However, the Keough et al. method applied to photographs reflected real-time decomposition more closely and thus appears more suitable to evaluate pig decomposition from 2D photographs. The findings indicate that the type of scoring method used has a significant impact on the ability to accurately evaluate the decomposition of exposed pig carcasses from photographs. It was further identified that photographic taphonomic analysis can reach high inter-observer reproducibility. These novel findings are of significant importance for the forensic sciences as they highlight the potential for high quality photograph coverage to provide useful complementary information for the forensic taphonomic investigation. New recommendations to develop robust transparent approaches adapted to photographs in forensic taphonomy are suggested based on these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of some parasitic infection on neurotransmitters in the brain of experimentally infected mice before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Ghafar, A E; Elkowrany, S E; Salem, S A; Menaisy, A A; Fadel, W A; Awara, W M

    1996-08-01

    The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

  10. Experimental infection of ponies with Sarcocystis fayeri and differentiation from Sarcocystis neurona infections in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, W J A; Dubey, J P; Oglesbee, M J; Sofaly, C D; Marsh, A E; Elitsur, E; Vianna, M C; Lindsay, D S; Reed, S M

    2004-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis fayeri infections are common in horses in the Americas. Their antemortem diagnosis is important because the former causes a neurological disorder in horses, whereas the latter is considered nonpathogenic. There is a concern that equine antibodies to S. fayeri might react with S. neurona antigens in diagnostic tests. In this study, 4 ponies without demonstrable serum antibodies to S. neurona by Western immunoblot were used. Three ponies were fed 1 x 10(5) to 1 x 10(7) sporocysts of S. fayeri obtained from dogs that were fed naturally infected horse muscles. All ponies remained asymptomatic until the termination of the experiment, day 79 postinoculation (PI). All serum samples collected were negative for antibodies to S. neurona using the Western blot at the initial screening, just before inoculation with S. fayeri (day 2) and weekly until day 79 PI. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from each pony were negative for S. neurona antibodies. Using the S. neurona agglutination test, antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in 1:25 dilution of sera from any samples, except that from pony no. 4 on day 28; this pony had received 1 X 10(7) sporocysts. Using indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFATs), 7 serum samples were found to be positive for S. neurona antibodies from 1:25 to 1:400 dilutions. Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts were found in striated muscles of all inoculated ponies, with heaviest infections in the tongue. All sarcocysts examined histologically appeared to contain only microcytes. Ultrastructurally, S. fayeri sarcocysts could be differentiated from S. neurona sarcocysts by the microtubules (mt) in villar protrusions on sarcocyst walls; in S. fayeri the mt extended from the villar tips to the pellicle of zoites, whereas in S. neurona the mt were restricted to the middle of the cyst wall. Results indicate that horses with S. fayeri infections may be misdiagnosed as being S. neurona infected using IFAT, and further research

  11. PCR diagnostics underestimate the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally-infected passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Schultz, Jeffrey J.; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have recently been developed for diagnosing malarial infections in both birds and reptiles, but a critical evaluation of their sensitivity in experimentally-infected hosts has not been done. This study compares the sensitivity of several PCR-based methods for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in captive Hawaiian honeycreepers using microscopy and a recently developed immunoblotting technique. Sequential blood samples were collected over periods of up to 4.4 yr after experimental infection and rechallenge to determine both the duration and detectability of chronic infections. Two new nested PCR approaches for detecting circulating parasites based on P. relictum 18S rRNA genes and the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene are described. The blood smear and the PCR tests were less sensitive than serological methods for detecting chronic malarial infections. Individually, none of the diagnostic methods was 100% accurate in detecting subpatent infections, although serological methods were significantly more sensitive (97%) than either nested PCR (61–84%) or microscopy (27%). Circulating parasites in chronically infected birds either disappear completely from circulation or to drop to intensities below detectability by nested PCR. Thus, the use of PCR as a sole means of detection of circulating parasites may significantly underestimate true prevalence.

  12. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other...... respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption. The purpose of the study was to evaluate...... the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...

  13. Virological and clinico-pathological features of orf virus infection in experimentally infected rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, J F; Masuda, E K; Martins, M; Diel, D G; Rock, D L; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2011-01-01

    Many aspects of the biology of orf virus (ORFV) infection remain poorly understood and attempts to establish animal models have yielded conflicting and non-reproducible results. We herein describe the characterization of ORFV infection and disease in rabbits and mice. A protocol of intradermal inoculation was employed to inoculate 10(8.5)TCID₅₀/mL of ORFV strain IA-82 in the skin of ears, of the back and labial commissures. All inoculated rabbits presented a clinical course characterized by erythema, macules, papules/vesicles or pustules that eventually dried originating scabs. Local signs started around days 3 and 4 post-inoculation (pi) and lasted 3-10 days. Virus was recovered from lesions between days 2 and 14pi. Histological examination of lesions revealed focal proliferative dermatitis with ballooning degeneration and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in keratinocytes, histological hallmarks of contagious ecthyma in sheep. A similar, albeit milder clinical course occurred in 5/10 inoculated mice; virus was recovered from lesions from three animals. Inoculated lambs - used as controls - developed severe lesions of contagious ecthyma. VN tests performed at day 28pi failed to detect neutralizing antibodies in all inoculated animals. In contrast, convalescent rabbit sera were positive by ELISA at dilutions from 100 to 400. These results show that rabbits are susceptible to ORFV infection and thus may be used to study selected aspects of ORFV biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspects of Toxoplasma Infection on the Reproductive System of Experimentally Infected Rams (Ovis Aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight reproductive rams with no prior reproductive disease were distributed into three groups of infection with T. gondii: GI, 3 rams, 2.0×105 P strain oocysts; GII, 3 rams, 1.0×106 RH strain tachyzoites; GIII, 2 control rams. Clinical parameters were measured and serological evaluations (IIF were performed. Presence of the parasite in the semen was investigated by PCR and bioassay techniques. The rams presented clinical alterations (hyperthermia and apathy related to toxoplasmosis in both groups infected with Toxoplasma gondii. All the inoculated rams responded to antigenic stimulus, producing antibodies against T. gondii from postinoculation day 5 onwards. In ovine groups I and II, the greatest titers observed were 1 : 4096 and 1 : 8192, respectively. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was detected by bioassay and PCR. This coccidian was isolated (bioassay and PCR in tissue pools (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostrate from two rams infected presenting oocysts and in one presenting tachyzoites.

  15. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  16. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  17. Serological evidence of rotavirus infection in guinea pig colony Evidência sorológica de infecção por rotavírus em uma clônia de cobaios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Castro

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies reacting with simian rotavirus SAII were detected by enzyme immunoassay (EIA and Western blot assay (WBA in sera from guinea pigs bred for experimental use at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The proportion of antibody-positive animals and the antibody titres rose sharply in 1985, were maintained at a high levels in 1986 and declined in 1987. There were no obvious signs of disease coinciding with serological evidence of infection. Results of WBA suggest that the virus involved belongs to subgroup 1 of group A rotaviruses.Anticorpos reagindo com rotavírus símio SA11 foram demonstrados por ensaio imuno-enzimático (EIE e por "Western blot assay" (WBA em soros de cobaios mantidos para fins experimentais na Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A proporção de animais soro-positivos e os níveis de anticorpos subiram rapidametne em 1985, mantiveram-se altos em 1986 e baixaram em 1987. Não foram observados sinais de doença coincidente com a elevação de anticorpos. Resultados de WBA sugerem que o rotavírus responsável pela resposta sorológica pertence ao subgrupo do grupo A.

  18. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Aline Luciano Horta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n=40 were grouped: (i not infected, (ii infected, (iii infected + carvedilol, and (iv not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or n