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Sample records for pig embryonic implants

  1. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    Porcine and bovine cell lines derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) or epiblasts of blastocysts have been maintained over extended periods of time and characterized by morphology, identification of some stem cell markers and, in few cases, by production of chimaeric offspring. However, germ line...... transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation......, or immunosurgery, and they are generally cultured on feeder cells. The resulting ES-like cells may be differentiated in vivo by chimaera and teratoma formation or in vitro by embryoid body formation and monolayer induction. It is likely that more well characterized and stable porcine and bovine ES cell lines...

  2. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  3. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  4. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Sorrell, Alice M.; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Woo, Jae-Seok; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Chang, Won-Kyong; Shim, Hosup

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  5. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  6. Survival of partially differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells in the scala media of the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Hardman, Jennifer; Coleman, Bryony; Shepherd, Robert K; de Silva, Michelle G

    2005-12-01

    The low regenerative capacity of the hair cells of the mammalian inner ear is a major obstacle for functional recovery following sensorineural hearing loss. A potential treatment is to replace damaged tissue by transplantation of stem cells. To test this approach, undifferentiated and partially differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were delivered into the scala media of the deafened guinea pig cochlea. Transplanted cells survived in the scala media for a postoperative period of at least nine weeks, evidenced by histochemical and direct fluorescent detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Transplanted cells were discovered near the spiral ligament and stria vascularis in the endolymph fluid of the scala media. In some cases, cells were observed close to the damaged organ of Corti structure. There was no evidence of significant immunological rejection of the implanted ES cells despite the absence of immunosuppression. Our surgical approach allowed efficient delivery of ES cells to the scala media while preserving the delicate structures of the cochlea. This is the first report of the survival of partially differentiated ES cells in the scala media of the mammalian cochlea, and it provides support for the potential of cell-based therapies for sensorineural hearing impairment.

  7. Feeder-cell-independent culture of the pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line, PICM-31

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the subclonal cell line, PICM-31A1. P...

  8. Melatonin prevents postovulatory oocyte aging and promotes subsequent embryonic development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Schatten, Heide; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2017-06-26

    Oxidative stress is known as a major contributing factor involved in oocyte aging, which negatively affects oocyte quality and development after fertilization. Melatonin is an effective free radical scavenger and its metabolites AFMK and AMK are powerful detoxifiers that eliminate free radicals. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that melatonin could scavenge free radicals produced during oocyte aging, thereby maintaining oocyte quality. We compared reactive oxygen species levels, apoptosis levels, mitochondrial membrane potential ratios, total glutathione contents and expression levels in fresh, aged and melatonin-treated aged porcine oocytes and observed the percentage of blastocyst formation following parthenogenetic activation. We found that melatonin could effectively maintain the morphology of oocytes observed in control oocytes, alleviate oxidative stress, markedly decrease early apoptosis levels, retard the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and significantly promote subsequent embryonic development in oocytes aged for 24 hr in vitro . These results strongly suggest that melatonin can prevent postovulatory oocyte aging and promote subsequent embryonic development in the pig, which might find practical applications to control oocyte aging in other mammalian species including humans to maintain the quality of human oocytes when performing clinical assisted reproductive technology.

  9. Comparison of surface modified zirconia implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants: a histological study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kubasiewicz-Ross, Pawel; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    New biomaterials and their various surface modifications should undergo in vitro and in vivo evaluation before clinical trials. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly created zirconium implant surfaces after implantation in the lower jaw of pigs and compare the osseointegration of these dental implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants. After a healing period of 12 weeks, a histological analysis of the soft and hard tissues and a histomorphometric analysis of the bone-implant contact (BIC) were performed. The implant surfaces showed an intimate connection to the adjacent bone for all tested implants. The 3 newly created zirconium implant surfaces achieved a BIC of 45% on average in comparison with a BIC of 56% from the reference zirconium implants and 35% from titanium implants. Furthermore, the new zirconium implants had a better attachment to gingival and bone tissues in the range of implant necks as compared with the reference implants. The results suggest that the new implants comparably osseointegrate within the healing period, and they have a good in vivo biocompatibility.

  10. [Gene clone and expression of Barx1 in different tooth of the mini-pig at embryonic day 40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Ji-rong; Yang, Kai

    2012-10-01

    To partially clone and compare the quantitative expression of tooth development-related gene Barx1 in different teeth of the mini-pig embryo at embryonic day 40, and to investigate the relationship between Barx1 spatial quantitative expression and tooth morphogenesis. The mini-pig Barx1 genes was partially cloned and the mRNA sequences of human Barx1 genes was aligned with expressed sequence tags (EST) of pig by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), which were assembled with DNAman v5.2.2. With designed primers, Barx1 was partially cloned in use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and tested by BLAST with all the species in NCBI database and confirmed as one part of target gene. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect tooth samples from frozen sections which were prepared before in -80°C freezer. Real-time PCR was carried out to analyze quantitative expression in different teeth. Partial mini-pig Barx1 gene of 698 bp was cloned. Real-time PCR showed that, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase used as loading control, the figures of 2(-ΔCT) of lower deciduous incisor, canine, the third premolar and molar were 0.000 249, 0.000 715, 0.026 096 and 0.112 656, respectively. There was a trend of increasing expression from anterior to posterior teeth. Barx1 gene could be related to the number or differentiation of tooth cusps.

  11. Subretinal Implantation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Improved Survival When Implanted as a Monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Bruno; Thomas, Padmaja; Thomas, Biju; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Hu, Yuntao; Brant, Rodrigo; Ahuja, Ashish; Zhu, Danhong; Liu, Laura; Koss, Michael; Maia, Mauricio; Chader, Gerald; Hinton, David R.; Humayun, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate cell survival and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cell–derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE) transplantation in immunocompromised nude rats. Cells were transplanted as a cell suspension (CS) or as a polarized monolayer plated on a parylene membrane (PM). Methods. Sixty-nine rats (38 male, 31 female) were surgically implanted with CS (n = 33) or PM (n = 36). Cohort subsets were killed at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Both ocular tissues and systemic organs (brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and lungs) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Every fifth section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histologically. Adjacent sections were processed for immunohistochemical analysis (as needed) using the following antibodies: anti-RPE65 (RPE-specific marker), anti-TRA-1-85 (human cell marker), anti-Ki67 (proliferation marker), anti-CD68 (macrophage), and anti-cytokeratin (epithelial marker). Results. The implanted cells were immunopositive for the RPE65 and TRA-1-85. Cell survival (P = 0.006) and the presence of a monolayer (P < 0.001) of hESC-RPE were significantly higher in eyes that received the PM. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the eye and the systemic organs after the surgery revealed no evidence of tumor or ectopic tissue formation in either group. Conclusions. hESC-RPE can survive for at least 12 months in an immunocompromised animal model. Polarized monolayers of hESC-RPE show improved survival compared to cell suspensions. The lack of teratoma or any ectopic tissue formation in the implanted rats bodes well for similar results with respect to safety in human subjects. PMID:23833067

  12. In vitro culture and characterization of putative porcine embryonic germ cells derived from domestic breeds and yucatan mini pig embryos at days 20-24 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev; Marks, Hendrik; Klein, Tino

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic germ cells (EGC) are cultured pluripotent cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGC). This study explored the possibility of establishing porcine EGC from domestic breeds and Yucatan mini pigs using embryos at Days 17-24 of gestation. In vitro culture of PGC from both pooled...

  13. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For

  14. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enøe Claes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV. Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable transponders were compared with rectal temperatures, recorded by a conventional digital thermometer. Methods In a preliminary study, transponders were inserted subcutaneously at 6 different positions of the body of 5 pigs. The transponders positioned by the ear base provided the best correlation to rectal temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1°C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs. In contrast, however, the tested system did not constitute a suitable tool to measure body temperatures of individual animals in the present pig infection experiment.

  15. [Conception rate and embryo development in guinea pigs with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1994-01-01

    Observations were made on the timing of mating and the pre-implantation development of fertilized eggs in guinea pigs synchronized by long-term progesterone treatment. Females received a subcutaneous implant of progesterone-filled silastic tubing for 14 days. Copulation was observed from the evening of day 4 to the morning of day 6 in 53 of 54 females (98%). Most of them (47/53, 89%) copulated on day 5 after removal of the tubing. Designating the day of copulation (day 5 after removal of the tubing) as day 0 of gestation, embryos collected from the genital tract were at the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages on days 1, 3, 4 and 5 of gestation, respectively. Eggs were recovered at high incidence (85-100%) from days 1 to 5 of gestation. On day 6 gestation, no eggs were recovered from the genital tract, suggesting that implantation had occurred. The mean litter size (+/- S. D.) was 4.0 +/- 0.8 pups, which were born normally after a mean gestation period of 67 +/- 1 days in 7 synchronized females. Since the female guinea pigs synchronized by the long-term progesterone treatment had normal reproductive ability similar to that of cyclic females, this technique would make it possible to obtain animals at a scheduled time even in smaller-sized colonies. In addition, observations on the pre-implantation development of embryos in females with synchronized estrus might be a useful aid in the field of reproductive research.

  16. Implantable Self-Powered Low-Level Laser Cure System for Mouse Embryonic Osteoblasts' Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Jingjing; Zheng, Qiang; Yan, Lin; Wang, Jiangxue; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment is usually a long-term process. It is highly desirable to speed up the process for effective medical treatment. In this work, a self-powered low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis is developed using the power generated by the triboelectric nanogenerator. It is found that the system significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, which is essential for bone and tooth healing. The system is further demonstrated to be driven by a living creature's motions, such as human walking or a mouse's breathing, suggesting its practical use as a portable or implantable clinical cure for bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment.

  17. Composition and function of macroencapsulated human embryonic stem cell-derived implants: comparison with clinical human islet cell grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motté, Evi; Szepessy, Edit; Suenens, Krista; Stangé, Geert; Bomans, Myriam; Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Daniel; Ling, Zhidong; Kroon, Evert; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    β-Cells generated from large-scale sources can overcome current shortages in clinical islet cell grafts provided that they adequately respond to metabolic variations. Pancreatic (non)endocrine cells can develop from human embryonic stem (huES) cells following in vitro derivation to pancreatic endoderm (PE) that is subsequently implanted in immune-incompetent mice for further differentiation. Encapsulation of PE increases the proportion of endocrine cells in subcutaneous implants, with enrichment in β-cells when they are placed in TheraCyte-macrodevices and predominantly α-cells when they are alginate-microencapsulated. At posttransplant (PT) weeks 20-30, macroencapsulated huES implants presented higher glucose-responsive plasma C-peptide levels and a lower proinsulin-over-C-peptide ratio than human islet cell implants under the kidney capsule. Their ex vivo analysis showed the presence of single-hormone-positive α- and β-cells that exhibited rapid secretory responses to increasing and decreasing glucose concentrations, similar to isolated human islet cells. However, their insulin secretory amplitude was lower, which was attributed in part to a lower cellular hormone content; it was associated with a lower glucose-induced insulin biosynthesis, but not with lower glucagon-induced stimulation, which together is compatible with an immature functional state of the huES-derived β-cells at PT weeks 20-30. These data support the therapeutic potential of macroencapsulated huES implants but indicate the need for further functional analysis. Their comparison with clinical-grade human islet cell grafts sets references for future development and clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Matrix change of bone grafting substitute after implantation into guinea pig bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Ch; Zehlicke, T; Just, T; Holzhüter, G; Gerber, T; Pau, H W

    2012-05-01

    Many different surgical techniques have been developed to remove open mastoid cavities. In addition to autologous materials, alloplastic substances have been used. A very slow absorption of these materials and extrusion reactions have been reported. We investigated a newly developed, highly porous bone grafting material to eliminate open mastoid cavities, in an animal model. To characterise the transformation process, the early tissue reactions were studied in relation to the matrix transformation of the bone material. NanoBone (NB), a highly porous bone grafting material based on calcium phosphate and silica, was filled into the open bullae from 20 guinea pigs. The bullae were examined histologically. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate the change in the elemental composition at different sampling times. The surface topography of the sections was examined by electron microscopy. After 1 week, periodic acid-Schiffs (PAS) staining demonstrated accumulation of glycogen and proteins, particularly in the border area of the NB particles. After 2 weeks, the particles were evenly coloured after PAS staining. EDX analysis showed a rapid absorption of the silica in the bone grafting material. NanoBone showed a rapid matrix change after implantation in the bullae of guinea pigs. The absorption of the silica matrix and replacement by PAS-positive substances like glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides seems to play a decisive role in the degradation processes of NB. This is associated with the good osteoinductive properties of the material.

  19. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  20. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of peri-implant defects: an in vitro study on native pig mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Reiner; Kruse, Björn; Flores-de-Jacoby, Lavin

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study of native pig mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of peri-implant defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computer tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT). The examination was carried out on 19 native pig mandibles. In the toothless sections of the mandibles, one or two implants were inserted. Following the standardized preparation of peri-implant defects (11 each of dehiscences, fenestrations, and 2- to 3-walled intrabony defects), IR, PR, CT, and DVT were performed. The peri-implant defects were measured using appropriate software on the digitized IR and PR image programs. As a control method, the peri-implant bone defects were measured directly using a reflecting stereomicroscope with measuring ocular. The statistical comparison between the measurements of the radiographic scans and those of the direct readings of the peri-implant defects was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The quality of the radiographic scans was determined through the subjective perception and detectability of the peri-implant defects by five independent observers. In the DVT and CT scans, it was possible to measure all the bone defects in three planes. Comparison with the direct peri-implant defect measurements yielded a mean deviation of 0.17+/-0.11 mm for the DVT scans and 0.18+/-0.12 mm for the CT scans. On the IR and PR images, the defects could be detected only in the mesio-distal and cranio-caudal planes. In comparison with the direct measurements of the peri-implant defects, the IR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.34+/-0.30 mm, and the PR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.41+/-0.35 mm. The quality rating of the radiographic images was highest for the DVT scans. Overall, the CT and DVT scans displayed only a slight deviation in the extent of the peri-implant defects. Both radiographic imaging techniques permitted imaging of peri-implant defects in three

  1. Measurements of RF Heating during 3.0T MRI of a Pig Implanted with Deep Brain Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Presti, Michael F; Goerss, Stephan J; Hwang, Sun C; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Inyong; Shu, Yunhong; Favazza, Christopher P; Lee, Kendall H; Bernstein, Matt A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To present preliminary, in vivo temperature measurements during MRI of a pig implanted with a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system. Materials and Methods DBS system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) was implanted in the brain of an anesthetized pig. 3.0T MRI was performed with a T/R head coil using the low-SAR GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences (SAR: 0.42 W/kg and 0.39 W/kg, respectively), and the high-SAR 4-echo RF spin echo (SAR: 2.9 W/kg). Fluoroptic thermometry was used to directly measure RF-related heating at the DBS electrodes, and at the implantable pulse generator (IPG). For reference the measurements were repeated in the same pig at 1.5T and, at both field strengths, in a phantom. Results At 3.0T, the maximal temperature elevations at DBS electrodes were 0.46 °C and 2.3 °C, for the low- and high-SAR sequences, respectively. No heating was observed on the implanted IPG during any of the measurements. Measurements of in-vivo heating differed from those obtained in the phantom. Conclusion The 3.0T MRI using GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences resulted in local temperature elevations at DBS electrodes of no more than 0.46°C. Although no extrapolation should be made to human exams and much further study will be needed, these preliminary data are encouraging for the future use 3.0T MRI in patients with DBS. PMID:23228310

  2. Measurements of RF heating during 3.0-T MRI of a pig implanted with deep brain stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Presti, Michael F; Goerss, Stephan J; Hwang, Sun C; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Inyong; Min, Hoon-Ki; Shu, Yunhong; Favazza, Christopher P; Lee, Kendall H; Bernstein, Matt A

    2013-06-01

    To present preliminary, in vivo temperature measurements during MRI of a pig implanted with a deep brain stimulation (DBS) system. DBS system (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) was implanted in the brain of an anesthetized pig. 3.0-T MRI was performed with a T/R head coil using the low-SAR GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences (SAR: 0.42 and 0.39 W/kg, respectively), and the high-SAR 4-echo RF spin echo (SAR: 2.9 W/kg). Fluoroptic thermometry was used to directly measure RF-related heating at the DBS electrodes, and at the implantable pulse generator (IPG). For reference the measurements were repeated in the same pig at 1.5 T and, at both field strengths, in a phantom. At 3.0T, the maximal temperature elevations at DBS electrodes were 0.46 °C and 2.3 °C, for the low- and high-SAR sequences, respectively. No heating was observed on the implanted IPG during any of the measurements. Measurements of in vivo heating differed from those obtained in the phantom. The 3.0-T MRI using GRE EPI and IR-prepped GRE sequences resulted in local temperature elevations at DBS electrodes of no more than 0.46 °C. Although no extrapolation should be made to human exams and much further study will be needed, these preliminary data are encouraging for the future use 3.0-T MRI in patients with DBS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors associated with hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model of Hybrid cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiemi; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Loera, Katherine; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI), also known as Electro-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS), is a new type of CI that preserves residual acoustic hearing and enables combined cochlear implant and hearing aid use in the same ear. However, 30-55% of patients experience acoustic hearing loss within days to months after activation, suggesting that both surgical trauma and electrical stimulation may cause hearing loss. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine the contributions of both implantation surgery and EAS to hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model; 2) determine which cochlear structural changes are associated with hearing loss after surgery and EAS. Two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no direct acoustic or electric stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were followed over time at 1, 2, 6, and 16 kHz. At the end of the study, the following cochlear measures were quantified: hair cells, spiral ganglion neuron density, fibrous tissue density, and stria vascularis blood vessel density; the presence or absence of ossification around the electrode entry was also noted. After surgery, implanted animals experienced a range of 0-55 dB of threshold shifts in the vicinity of the electrode at 6 and 16 kHz. The degree of hearing loss was significantly correlated with reduced stria vascularis vessel density and with the presence of ossification, but not with hair cell counts, spiral ganglion neuron density, or fibrosis area. After 10 weeks of stimulation, 67% of implanted, stimulated animals had more than 10 dB of additional threshold shift at 1 kHz, compared to 17% of implanted, non-stimulated animals and 0% of non-implanted animals. This 1-kHz hearing loss was not associated with changes in any of the cochlear measures

  4. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  5. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan NW

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Naiwen Tan,1–3,* Xiangwei Liu,1,2,* Yanhui Cai,4 Sijia Zhang,1,2 Bo Jian,1,2 Yuchao Zhou,1,2 Xiaoru Xu,1,2 Shuai Ren,1,2 Hongbo Wei,1,2 Yingliang Song1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 2Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 3Department of Stomatology, Hospital 463 of PLA, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Methods: Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO. A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg, and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. Results: The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months

  6. Neurotrophic treatment of the degenerating auditory nerve; cochlear implants in deafened guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To date, the cochlear implant is the most successful sensorineural prosthesis. The device consists of a small array with a number of electrodes implanted in the cochlea of profoundly hearing impaired people. Some people with an implant are able to use the telephone. Unfortunately, others hardly

  7. Time course of fibronectin in the peri-implant tissue and neointima formation after functional implantation of polyester-based vascular prostheses with different porosity in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrzyk, Maciej; Hoene, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Str. 23, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Jarchow, Raymond [Computation Centre, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 12, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wilhelm, Lutz [Department of Surgery, Hospital Demmin, Loitzer Str. 1, D-17109 Demmin (Germany); Walschus, Uwe; Schlosser, Michael [Research Group of Predictive Diagnostics of the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute of Pathophysiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswalder Str. 11c, D-17495 Karlsburg (Germany); Zippel, Roland, E-mail: schlosse@uni-greifswald.d [Department of Surgery, Elbland Hospital Center, Weinbergstr. 8, D-01589 Riesa (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Intima hyperplasia, resulting from extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, can lead to vascular prosthesis occlusion and is a major problem in vascular surgery. Fibronectin might contribute to ongoing ECM secretion. However, the exact role of fibronectin and its influence on neointima formation remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the time course of the fibronectin area fraction and neointima formation following the functional implantation of three different polyester vascular prostheses into pigs. The infrarenal aorta from 15 animals (n = 5/group) was replaced by prosthesis segments with low, medium and high primary porosity. After 7, 14, 21, 28 and 116 days, the prostheses were morphometrically examined. Overall, the fibronectin area fraction was inversely correlated with the neointima thickness, demonstrating high fibronectin levels in the early phase (days 7 and 14) and low levels in the later phase with almost complete neointima formation (days 21-116). Throughout the study, fibronectin levels were highest at the proximal anastomosis region. The low porosity prosthesis had the highest fibronectin area fraction and a delayed neointima formation in the middle phase (days 21 and 28) but the highest neointima lining on day 116. The results indicate a relationship between fibronectin and neointima formation with the prosthesis porosity, demonstrating the importance of the textile design for tissue reactions following implantation.

  8. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  9. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  10. Primary Bovine Extra-Embryonic Cultured Cells: A New Resource for the Study of In Vivo Peri-Implanting Phenotypes and Mesoderm Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Hue

    Full Text Available In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs contribute to early embryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC, endoderm (bXEC, and mesoderm (bXMC cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify "cores" of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent genes that were shared between in vitro and in vivo samples. In addition, many cellular phenotypes were cell-type-specific with regard to extracellular adhesion. We evaluated the ability of individual bXMCs to migrate and spread on micro-patterns, and observed that they easily adapted to diverse environments, similar to in vivo EE mesoderm cells, which encounter different EE epithelia to form chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. With these tissue interactions, different functions arose that were detected in silico and corroborated in vivo at D21-D25. Moreover, analysis of bXMCs allowed us to identify the EE cell ring surrounding the embryonic disc (ED at D14-15 as mesoderm cells, which had been hypothesized but not shown prior to this study. We envision these data will serve as a major resource for the future in the analysis of peri-implanting phenotypes in response to the maternal metabolism and contribute to subsequent studies of placental/fetal development in

  11. The Effect of Systemic Steroid on Hearing Preservation After Cochlear Implantation via Round Window Approach: A Guinea Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mun Young; Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, Jun Jae; Woo, Shin Wook; Hwang, Yu-Jung; Eastwood, Hayden; O'Leary, Stephen J; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-08-01

    When administered perioperatively, systemic dexamethasone will reduce the hearing loss associated with cochlear implantation (CI) performed via the round window approach. The benefits of electroacoustic stimulation have led to interest in pharmacological interventions to preserve hearing after CI. Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a control group; a 3-day infusion group; and a 7-day infusion group. Dexamethasone was delivered via a mini-osmotic pump for either 3 or 7 days after CI via the round window. Pure tone-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were monitored for a period of 12 weeks after CI. The cochleae were then collected for histology. At 4 and 12 weeks after CI, ABR threshold shifts were significantly reduced in both 7-day and 3-day infusion groups compared with the control group. Furthermore, the 7-day infusion group has significantly reduced ABR threshold shifts compared with the 3-day infusion group. The total tissue response, including fibrosis and ossification, was significantly reduced in the 7-day infusion group compared with the control group. On multiple regression the extent of fibrosis predicted hearing loss across most frequencies, while hair cell counts predicted ABR thresholds at 32 kHz. Hearing protection after systemic administration of steroids is more effective when continued for at least a week after CI. Similarly, this treatment approach was more effective in reducing the fibrosis that encapsulates the CI electrode. Reduced fibrosis seemed to be the most likely explanation for the hearing protection.

  12. Influence of radiation (Co60) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author)

  13. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  14. Interspecies chimera between primate embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos: monkey ESCs engraft into mouse embryos, but not post-implantation fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin; McFarland, Dave; Castro, Carlos; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Redinger, Carrie; Jacoby, Ethan; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Orwig, Kyle; Mills, Parker; Ahrens, Eric; Navara, Chris; Schatten, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Unequivocal evidence for pluripotency in which embryonic stem cells contribute to chimeric offspring has yet to be demonstrated in human or nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, rhesus and baboons ESCs were investigated in interspecific mouse chimera generated by aggregation or blastocyst injection. Aggregation chimera produced mouse blastocysts with GFP-nhpESCs at the inner cell mass (ICM), and embryo transfers (ETs) generated dimly-fluorescencing abnormal fetuses. Direct injection of GFP-nhpESCs into blastocysts produced normal non-GFP-fluorescencing fetuses. Injected chimera showed >70% loss of GFP-nhpESCs after 21 h culture. Outgrowths of all chimeric blastocysts established distinct but separate mouse- and NHP-ESC colonies. Extensive endogenous autofluorescence compromised anti-GFP detection and PCR analysis did not detect nhpESCs in fetuses. NhpESCs localize to the ICM in chimera and generate pregnancies. Because primate ESCs do not engraft post-implantation, and also because endogenous autofluorescence results in misleading positive signals, interspecific chimera assays for pluripotency with primate stem cells is unreliable with the currently available ESCs. Testing primate ESCs reprogrammed into even more naïve states in these inter-specific chimera assays will be an important future endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ribosomal RNA and nucleolar proteins from the oocyte are to some degree used for embryonic nucleolar formation in cattle and pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Svarcova, Olga; Laurincik, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosome production. In the bovine primordial follicle oocyte, this organelle is inactive, but in the secondary follicle an active fibrillo-granular nucleolus develops and proteins involved in rDNA transcription (topoisomerase I, RNA polymerase...... I and upstream binding factor) and early (fibrillarin) or late rRNA processing (nucleolin and nucleophosmin) localize to it. At the end of the oocyte growth phase, the nucleolus is inactivated again and transforms into a solid remnant. The nucleolar remnant is dissolved when meiosis is resumed. Upon...... fertilization, structures resembling the nucleolar remnant, now referred to as nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), are established in the pronuclei. These entities are engaged in the re-establishment of fibrilo-granular nucleoli at the major activation of the embryonic genome. This nucleolar formation can...

  16. Morphological correlates of hearing loss after cochlear implantation and electro-acoustic stimulation in a hearing-impaired Guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Stark, Gemaine; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T; Spear, Kayce A; Zhang, Hongzheng; Tanaka, Chiemi; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid or electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) cochlear implants (CIs) are designed to provide high-frequency electric hearing together with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. However, 30-50% of EAS CI recipients lose residual hearing after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of EAS-induced hearing loss in an animal model with high-frequency hearing loss. Guinea pigs were exposed to 24 h of noise (12-24 kHz at 116 dB) to induce a high-frequency hearing loss. After recovery, two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded biweekly to monitor changes in hearing. The organ of Corti was immunolabeled with phalloidin, anti-CtBP2, and anti-GluR2 to quantify hair cells, ribbons and post-synaptic receptors. The lateral wall was immunolabeled with phalloidin and lectin to quantify stria vascularis capillary diameters. Bimodal or trimodal diameter distributions were observed; the number and location of peaks were objectively determined using the Aikake Information Criterion and Expectation Maximization algorithm. Noise exposure led to immediate hearing loss at 16-32 kHz for all groups. Cochlear implantation led to additional hearing loss at 4-8 kHz; this hearing loss was negatively and positively correlated with minimum and maximum peaks of the bimodal or trimodal distributions of stria vascularis capillary diameters, respectively. After chronic stimulation, no significant group changes in thresholds were seen; however, elevated thresholds at 1 kHz in implanted, stimulated animals were significantly correlated with decreased presynaptic ribbon and postsynaptic receptor counts. Inner and outer hair cell counts did not differ between groups and

  17. Association of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum and Inflammation With Coronary Hyperconstriction After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Pigs In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimiya, Kensuke; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Shindo, Tomohiko; Hanawa, Kenichiro; Hasebe, Yuhi; Tsuburaya, Ryuji; Shiroto, Takashi; Takahashi, Jun; Ito, Kenta; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yasuda, Satoshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The importance of adventitial inflammation has been implicated for the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. However, the roles of adventitial changes in drug-eluting stent (DES)-induced coronary hyperconstriction remain largely unknown. In the present study, this issue in pigs in vivo with a special reference to adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) formation and Rho-kinase activation, a central mechanism of coronary vasospasm, was examined. Each animal received a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and a biolimus A9-eluting stent (BES), one in the left anterior descending and another in the left circumflex coronary arteries in a randomized manner (n=18). After 1, 3 and 6 months, coronary vasomotion was examined. At 1 month, coronary vasoconstriction to serotonin was significantly enhanced at the SES edges as compared with the BES edges (SES, 52±7% vs. BES, 22±3%, Pmicro-CT showed VV augmentation at the SES site, extending to the proximal and distal edges. Immunostainings demonstrated that VV formation, macrophage infiltration in the adventitia and Rho-kinase expressions/activation were significantly enhanced at the SES edges as compared with the BES edges. The DES with durable polymers enhances VV formation and inflammation in the adventitia, associating with the pathogenesis of DES-induced coronary hyperconstriction through Rho-kinase activation in pigs in vivo.

  18. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.D.; Lyon, M.F.

    1975-01-01

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  19. The effect of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation via the round window approach: A guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mun Young; Gwon, Tae Mok; Lee, Ho Sun; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Sung June; Park, Min-Hyun

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation. Twelve Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the lipoic acid group. Animals in the lipoic acid group received lipoic acid intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. A sterilised silicone electrode-dummy was inserted through the round window to a depth of approximately 5 mm. The hearing level was measured using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) prior to electrode-dummy insertion, and at 4 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. The threshold shift was defined as the difference between the pre-operative threshold and each of the post-operative thresholds. The cochleae were examined histologically 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. Threshold shifts changed with frequency but not time. At 2kHz, ABR threshold shifts were statistically significantly lower in the lipoic acid group than the control group. At 8, 16 and 32kHz, there was no significant difference in the ABR threshold shift between the two groups. Histologic review revealed less intracochlear fibrosis along the electrode-dummy insertion site in the lipoic acid group than in the control group. The spiral ganglion cell densities of the basal, middle and apical turns were significantly higher in the lipoic acid group compared with the control group. Therefore, systemic lipoic acid administration appears to effectively preserve hearing at low frequencies in patients undergoing cochlear implantation. These effects may be attributed to the protection of spiral ganglion cells and prevention of intracochlear fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    considerable amounts of foreign DNA preferably at the post-acrosomal region, suggesting that transgenic animals can be obtained more efficiently than with the usual microinjection procedure. To increase gene transfer efficiency, considerable research efforts have been made to establish embryonic stem (ES) cells, but so far there is no definite proof of totipotency of the generated pig ES-like cells through viable chimaeras. In general, biotechnological procedures are much less advanced in pigs than in cows.

  1. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  2. From zygote to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev

    2009-01-01

    . The ICM differentiates into epiblast and hypoblast approximately at the time of hatching from the zona pellucida, and subsequently the loss of the Rauber's layer results in an uncovered epiblast establishing the embryonic disc again in contrast to mice. This particular and protracted ICM/epiblast biology...... of the somatic germ layers and germline, i.e. the primordial germ cells. The latter remain pluripotent for a period and may be isolated and cultured as embryonic germ cells in vitro.......The increasing focus on the pig as a biomedical model calls for studies which investigate morphological and molecular mechanisms during initial embryonic development in this species. In the pig, the paternal genome is actively demethylated in the zygote, whereas the maternal genome remains...

  3. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  4. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig | Muenthaisong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now more than 8 years, since the first cloned pig from nuclear transfer was reported. Success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig is still low compared to that in bovine. Embryonic and neonatal abnormalities of cloned piglets are probably a result of incorrect or incomplete reprogramming of the transferred ...

  5. Effect of controlled early implant loading on bone healing and bone mass in guinea pigs, as assessed by micro-CT and histology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, E. De; Jaecques, S.V.; Wevers, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Jacobs, R.; Sloten, J. van der; Naert, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    Without controlled loading, the failure of early loaded oral implants is higher than in delayed loading, unless loading regimens can be identified that stimulate bone formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether controlled early loading optimizes osseointegration. Six series of

  6. Estudo experimental do implante transcateter de prótese valvada autoexpansível na via de saída do ventrículo direito em porcos Transcatheter implantation of self-expandable valved prosthesis in outlet right ventricle an experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cícero Stocco Guilhen

    2011-09-01

    right heart failure with clinical deterioration. These children require multiple interventions throughout their lives, which impose a high rate of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop a less invasive technique for implantation of a valved prosthesis through the right ventricle. METHODS: The valved prosthesis consists of an auto expanding metal stent built with nitinol, surrounded with polyester, where the three leaflets of bovine pericardium were mounted. Twelve pigs were used to perform the implants. Echocardiographic control was performed immediately after implantation and one, four, eight and 12 weeks. RESULTS: One animal showed reflux of moderate to severe and three mild reflux. Transvalvular gradients measured before implantation ranged from 3 to 6 mmHg and that soon after the implant was increased, ranging from 7 to 45 mmHg. There was a decrease in these gradients during follow up and in only four of the twelve animals the gradients were above 20 mmHg. Thrombus formation occurred in the prosthesis of six animals, and this was the most frequent complication. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need for studies with the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet, an attempt to reduce this event. The study aims to contribute for the start of the use of prosthetic heart valves that could be implanted through minimally invasive techniques without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

  7. Effect of diode lasers with wavelength of 445 and 980 nm on a temperature rise when uncovering implants for second stage surgery: An ex-vivo study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Jacek; Flieger, Rafał; Dominiak, Marzena

    2017-07-01

    Many surgical procedures in soft tissue are performed using diode lasers. Recently, a novel diode laser operating at 445 nm wavelength was introduced in dentistry. The aim of our study was to evaluate the time of surgery and an increase in temperature of titanium implants during its uncovering using 445 and 980 nm wavelengths. The research included 45 pig mandibles (n = 45). The specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 15) according to the laser irradiation mode and wavelength; G1 - 445 nm laser, power: 3 W, continuous wave (CW), distance: 2 mm, power density: 7460 W/cm2, fiber: 320 μm, noncontact mode; G2 - 445 nm laser (power: 2 W, CW, power density: 4970 W/cm2, fiber: 320 μm, contact mode; G3 (control) - 980 nm laser, power: 2.5 W, CW, power density: 15920 W/cm2, fiber: 200 μm, contact mode. The temperature was measured with a 2 K-type thermocouples (a P1 at collar and a P2 at mid height of the implant). The mean temperature rises measured by the P1 thermocouple were 16.9°C, 36.1°C and 21.6°C in the G1, G2 and G3 group, respectively. Significant differences in temperature rise were found between the G1 and G2 group (p = 0.0007) and the G2 and G3 group (p = 0.01). The mean temperature rises measured by the P2 thermocouple were 1.8°C, 1.4°C and 5.6°C in the G1, G2 and G3 group, respectively. Significant differences in temperature rise were found between the G1 and the G2 or G3 group (p = 0.0001). The significant differences among the study groups in average time necessary for uncovering the implants amounted to 69.7, 54.4 and 83.6 s, respectively (p diode laser in non-contact mode reduced the temperature rise of the implants. The additional pulse intervals during laser irradiation with wavelength of 445 nm when operating in contact mode are needed.

  8. Morphometric analysis of the intimal reaction after stent implantation in iliac arteries submitted to angioplasty in pigs Análise morfométrica da reação intimal secundária ao implante de stent em artérias ilíacas submetidas à angioplastia em suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyro Castro Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare through digital morphometry, the intimal thickening of the common ilíac arteries (CIA in pigs, submitted to angioplasty and angioplasty followed by stent implantation. METHODS: Angioplasty was performed in 10 pigs in both CIA, followed by a stent implantation in the left CIA. After four weeks, the aorto-iliac segment was dissected. Histologic slices where divided in three groups: left CIA in the area of the proximal (group 1 and distal (group 2 implantation site of the stent and the region of angioplasty in the right CIA (group 3. The histological slices were digitalized to be analyzed by morphometry with calculation of the luminal, intimal and media layers areas. Descriptive statistics analysis was performed through average and standard deviation of areas on each group, using ANOVA, with LSD Post-Hoc test (pOBJETIVO: Analisar, por meio da morfometria digital, o espessamento intimal das artérias ilíacas comuns (AIC de suínos, submetidas à angioplastia e à angioplastia seguida do implante de stent. MÉTODOS: Em dez suínos, foi realizada a angioplastia da AIC bilateral, seguida do implante do stent na AIC esquerda. Após quatro semanas, o segmento aorto-ilíaco foi retirado. As lâminas histológicas foram divididas em três grupos: segmento proximal (grupo 1 e distal (grupo 2 do local de implante do stent na AIC esquerda e a área da angioplastia da AIC direita (grupo 3. As imagens das lâminas foram digitalizadas e analisadas por programa de morfometria com cálculo das áreas luminal, da camada íntima e da camada média dos cortes histológicos. A análise estatística foi realizada através de média e desvio padrão das áreas em cada grupo, utilizando ANOVA, com teste Post-Hoc LSD (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Na análise das médias das áreas obtidas, foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto à camada íntima dos grupos 1 e 2, quando comparados ao grupo 3 e em relação à camada média dos grupos

  9. [Studies on the tolerance of the organism to X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel (Königsee). II. Light microscopic studies of the surrounding tissue of metal implants (X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel) in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhndorf, H; Drössler, K; Stiehl, P

    1977-06-01

    The tissue around X 5 CrNiMo 18.10-steel implantates with different surfaces was examined in 72 guinea-pigs. Aside from controls, these animals were preoperatively sensibilized against chromium and nickel. The results can be summarized since the histologic findings showed no different peculiarities. The authors describe an intussusception of the implantate in connective tissue which evidently depends on time and surface. Further the spreading of alien material in the surrounding of the implantate, and morphologic findings are reported. The morphologic evidences are described and discussed in detail, since they are interpreted as signs of cell-mediated immune reactions. The presence of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, histiocytes (mostly carrying alien material), and granulocytes, as well as proliferations at the arterioles suggest an overlapping of immune reactions.

  10. Embryo implantation: Shedding light on the roles of ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implantation is a crucial step in mammalian reproduction, as it is a gateway to further embryonic development and successful pregnancy. Successful implantation requires coordinated interactions between the blastocyst and uterus. Uterine receptivity for embryo implantation is regulated by the ovarian hormones estrogen ...

  11. Evaluation of plant available nitrogen in concentrated pig slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.; Comas, J.; Pujola, M.

    2009-01-01

    In Northeast Spin the expansion of the pig industry has brought as a result the production of vast amounts of pig slurry that exceeds field crops fertilization needs and consequently has contributed to the environmental deterioration of the region particularly ground water with NO 3 pollution. Under such circumstances, it is needed to treat and/or export pig slurry. During the last year the implantation of cogeneration plants that take advantage of the surplus of energy to produce concentrate pig slurry by water evaporation that could easily transported. (Author)

  12. Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins and MicroRNAs in the Etiology of Germ Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eini (Ronak)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1980s, a population of unique cells was isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse pre-implantation embryo named embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells were generated by removing the ICM from pre-implantation blastocysts. The resulting cells were found to be

  13. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... considered to better understanding of pig embryonic development. .... Booth PJ, Tan SJ, Holm P, Callesen H (2001). Application of the .... Li GP, Tan JH, Sun QY, Meng QG, Yue KZ, Sun XS, Li ZY, Wang HB,. Xu LB (2000).

  14. Analysis of nuclear reprogramming in cloned miniature pig embryos by expression of Oct-4 and Oct-4 related genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eugine; Lee, So Hyun; Kim, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is a rapidly expanding field of research and cloned miniature pigs have been considered as a model animal for it. However, the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is extremely low, with most clones resulting in early lethality and several kinds of aberrant development. A possible explanation for the developmental failure of SCNT embryos is insufficient reprogramming of the somatic cell nucleus by the oocyte. In order to test this, we analyzed the reprogramming capacity of differentiated fibroblast cell nuclei and embryonic germ cell nuclei with Oct-4 and Oct-4 related genes (Ndp5211, Dppa2, Dppa3, and Dppa5), which are important for embryonic development, Hand1 and GATA-4, which are important for placental development, as molecular markers using RT-PCR. The Oct-4 expression level was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in cloned hatched blastocysts derived from fibroblasts and many of fibroblast-derived clones failed to reactivate at least one of the tested genes, while most of the germ cell clones and control embryos correctly expressed these genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that the reprogramming of fibroblast-derived cloned embryos is highly aberrant and this improper reprogramming could be one reason of the early lethality and post-implantation anomalies of somatic cell-derived clones

  15. Impact of nutritional stress on early embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Mondal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low reproductive efficiency is the most critical problem faced by the livestock industry across the globe. Early embryonic loss is one the major cause of poor reproductive efficiency resulting in delayed pregnancy, fewer calves born, reduced milk production, slower genetic progress and substantial financial loss to the beef or dairy industry. The establishment of pregnancy results from the interaction between the embryo and the dam and is the culmination of a series of events initiated with development of the follicle and gametes. Among numerous internal and external factors nutrition has the potency to alter the micro-environment of the oocyte and the embryo, making it more hostile to optimal fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic growth. Understanding the impact of nutritional stress on oocyte function, embryo development and reciprocal signaling networks between the embryo and uterus will lead to alleviation of the problems of early embryonic mortality.

  16. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  17. PTBP1 is required for embryonic development before gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, Jakob; Wendling, Olivia; Masjkur, Jimmy; Jäger, Melanie; Münster, Carla; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Stewart, A Francis; Solimena, Michele

    2011-02-17

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is an important cellular regulator of messenger RNAs influencing the alternative splicing profile of a cell as well as its mRNA stability, location and translation. In addition, it is diverted by some viruses to facilitate their replication. Here, we used a novel PTBP1 knockout mouse to analyse the tissue expression pattern of PTBP1 as well as the effect of its complete removal during development. We found evidence of strong PTBP1 expression in embryonic stem cells and throughout embryonic development, especially in the developing brain and spinal cord, the olfactory and auditory systems, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the brown fat and cartilage primordia. This widespread distribution points towards a role of PTBP1 during embryonic development. Homozygous offspring, identified by PCR and immunofluorescence, were able to implant but were arrested or retarded in growth. At day 7.5 of embryonic development (E7.5) the null mutants were about 5x smaller than the control littermates and the gap in body size widened with time. At mid-gestation, all homozygous embryos were resorbed/degraded. No homozygous mice were genotyped at E12 and the age of weaning. Embryos lacking PTBP1 did not display differentiation into the 3 germ layers and cavitation of the epiblast, which are hallmarks of gastrulation. In addition, homozygous mutants displayed malformed ectoplacental cones and yolk sacs, both early supportive structure of the embryo proper. We conclude that PTBP1 is not required for the earliest isovolumetric divisions and differentiation steps of the zygote up to the formation of the blastocyst. However, further post-implantation development requires PTBP1 and stalls in homozygous null animals with a phenotype of dramatically reduced size and aberration in embryonic and extra-embryonic structures.

  18. Early implant-associated osteomyelitis results in a peri-implanted bacterial reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Koch, Janne; Aalbæk, Bent

    2017-01-01

    weight of Staphylococcus aureus or saline was inserted into the right tibial bone of 12 pigs. The animals were consecutively killed on day 2, 4 and 6 following implantation. Bone tissue around the implant was histologically evaluated. Identification of S. aureus was performed immunohistochemically...... on tissue section and with scanning electron microscopy and peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization on implants. The distance of the peri-implanted pathological bone area (PIBA), measured perpendicular to the implant, was significantly larger in infected animals compared to controls (p = 0...

  19. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  20. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  1. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intramuscular Midazolam in Guinea Pigs Challenged With Soman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capacio, Benedict R; Byers, C. E; Merk, K. A; Smith, J. R; McDonough, J. H

    2004-01-01

    ...) activity following intramuscular (im) injection to soman-exposed guinea pigs (Crl:(HA)BR). Prior to experiments, the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity...

  2. Peculiarities of Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Оesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda, Strongylidae Larvae Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3 on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01 and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01, and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001.

  3. Embryo implantation: Shedding light on the roles of ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huda

    Implantation is a crucial step in mammalian reproduction, as it is a gateway to further embryonic development and successful pregnancy. Successful implantation requires coordinated interactions between .... Interestingly, LIF expression is suppressed in stressed mice. .... a role, under the influence of sex hormones, in the.

  4. A novel porcine model of implant associated osteomyelitis: a comprehensive analysis of local, regional and systemic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Koch, Janne; Dich-Jorgensen, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are favorable experimental animals for infectious diseases in humans. However, implant associated osteomyelitis (IAO) models in pigs have only been evaluated using high-inoculum infection (>108 CFU) models in 1975 and 1993. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to present a new low inoculum...... porcine model of human IAO based on 42 experimental pigs. The model was created by drilling an implant cavity in the tibial bone followed by insertion of a small steel implant and simultaneous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (n = 32) or saline (n = 10). The infected pigs were either...... inoculated with 104 CFU (n = 26) or 102 and 103 CFU (n = 6). All animals were euthanized five days after insertion of implants. Pigs receiving the high-inoculum infections showed a significantly higher volume of bone lesion, number of neutrophils around the implant, concentrations of acute phase proteins...

  5. Somatic donor cell type correlates with embryonic, but not extra-embryonic, gene expression in postimplantation cloned embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned from three different cell types (cumulus cells, neonatal Sertoli cells and fibroblasts. The embryos retrieved from the uteri were separated into embryonic (epiblast and extraembryonic (extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone tissues and were subjected to gene microarray analysis. Genotype- and sex-matched embryos produced by in vitro fertilization were used as controls. Principal component analysis revealed that whereas the gene expression patterns in the embryonic tissues varied according to the donor cell type, those in extraembryonic tissues were relatively consistent across all groups. Within each group, the embryonic tissues had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs (>2-fold vs. controls than did the extraembryonic tissues (P<1.0 × 10(-26. In the embryonic tissues, one of the common abnormalities was upregulation of Dlk1, a paternally imprinted gene. This might be a potential cause of the occasional placenta-only conceptuses seen in SCNT-generated mouse embryos (1-5% per embryos transferred in our laboratory, because dysregulation of the same gene is known to cause developmental failure of embryos derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. There were also some DEGs in the extraembryonic tissues, which might explain the poor development of SCNT-derived placentas at early stages. These findings suggest that SCNT affects the embryonic and extraembryonic development differentially and might cause further deterioration in the embryonic lineage in a donor cell-specific manner. This could explain donor cell-dependent variations in cloning efficiency using SCNT.

  6. Initial embryology and pluripotent stem cells in the pig - the quest for establishing the pig as a model for cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan; Callesen, Henrik; Freude, Karla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    genetically modified pigs emerged. Over the past years, renewed interest in porcine PSCs has sparked activities in deriving in particular porcine induced pluripotent stem cells to develop the pig as a faithful model for studying the potentials and risks associated with induced pluripotent stem cell......The quest for porcine pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) was initiated in the early 90s. Initially, it was the intention to benefit from these cells for production of genetically modified pigs using homologous recombination followed by derivation of chimeric offspring; a technology that has been used...... to produce genetically modified mice since the mid-80s. However, no convincing reports on the generation of bona fide porcine embryonic stem cells or embryonic germ cells resulted from these activities, and with the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer during the late 90s, alternative methods for creating...

  7. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs...... in the uterus of the maternal adult during the early stages of gestation. Biomedical pig models could serve as genetic backgrounds for establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or other pluripotent stem cells (such as iPSC), which may be used to model and study diseases in vitro. This chapter provides...... insight into the current knowledge of pluripotent states in the developing pig embryo and the current status in establishment of bona fide porcine ESC (pESC) and piPSCs. It reflects the potential causes underlying the difficulty in establishing pluripotent stem cells and reviews recent data on global...

  8. Embryonic duplications in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, S M

    1975-02-01

    Twenty-seven embryonic duplications were examined during a 3-year investigation into the causes of perinatal lamb mortality. Twenty of the 27 were anomalous twins with 19 being conjoined (diplopagus 9 and heteropagus 10). The various duplications were: haloacardius acephalus 1, diprosopus 2, dicephalus 2, dipypus 3, diprosopus dipygus 1, syncephalus dipygus 1, pygopagus parasiticus 1, heteropagus dipygus 3, melodidymus 6, polyury 4, penile duplication 2, and bilateral otognathia 1. Four lambs were living and the time of death of the others was: parturient 8, and post-parturient 15. Average dry weight of the lambs was 3.35 kg (range 1.59 to 5.45 kg). Breed distribution was: Merino 77.8%, Crossbred 14.8%, Dorset Horn 3.7%, and Corriedale 3.7%. The caudal region was involved in 10 of the conjoined twins (52.6%), anterior region in 7 (36.9%), and both anterior and caudal regions in 2 (10.5%). Associated defects were present in 70.4% of the 27 lambs, the most common being atresia ani.

  9. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovic, Martin; Strejcek, Frantisek; Nakagawa, Shoma; Deshmukh, Rahul S; Murin, Matej; Benc, Michal; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Pendovski, Lazo; Fulka, Josef; Laurincik, Jozef

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF)). Our results show that the re-injection of isolated oocyte nucleoli, either from the pig (P + P) or mouse (P + M), into previously enucleolated and subsequently matured porcine oocytes rescues their development after parthenogenetic activation and some of these develop up to the blastocyst stage (P + P, 11.8%; P + M, 13.5%). In nucleolus re-injected 8-cell and blastocyst stage embryos the number of nucleoli labeled with C23 in P + P and P + M groups was lower than in control (non-manipulated) group. UBF was localized in small foci within the nucleoli of blastocysts in control and P + P embryos, however, in P + M embryos the labeling was evenly distributed in the nucleoplasm. The TEM and autoradiographic evaluations showed the formation of functional nucleoli and de novo rRNA synthesis at the 8-cell stage in both, control and P + P group. In the P + M group the formation of comparable nucleoli was delayed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the mouse nucleolus can rescue embryonic development of enucleolated porcine oocytes, but the localization of selected nucleolar proteins, the timing of transcription activation and the formation of the functional nucleoli in NuTE compared with control group show evident aberrations.

  10. Developing guinea pig brain as a model for cortical folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Sato, Haruka; Shimamura, Kenji

    2017-05-01

    The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification. Here, we investigated the gyrification processes using developing guinea pig brains that form a simple but fundamental pattern of gyri. In addition, we established an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method for guinea pig embryos. We introduce the guinea pig brain as a useful model system to understand the mechanisms and basic principle of cortical folding. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood Cells of Pigs Cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Shengting; Lin, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development...... in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls....... In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes...

  12. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... implant, including: • How long a person has been deaf, •The number of surviving auditory nerve fibers, and • ... Implant, Severe Sensoryneurial Hearing Loss Get Involved Professional Development Practice Management ENT Careers Marketplace Privacy Policy Terms ...

  13. Embryonic miRNA profiles of normal and ectopic pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dominguez

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the miRNA profile of embryonic tissues in ectopic pregnancies (EPs and controlled abortions (voluntary termination of pregnancy; VTOP. Twenty-three patients suffering from tubal EP and twenty-nine patients with a normal ongoing pregnancy scheduled for a VTOP were recruited. Embryonic tissue samples were analyzed by miRNA microarray and further validated by real time PCR. Microarray studies showed that four miRNAs were differentially downregulated (hsa-mir-196b, hsa-mir-30a, hsa-mir-873, and hsa-mir-337-3p and three upregulated (hsa-mir-1288, hsa-mir-451, and hsa-mir-223 in EP compared to control tissue samples. Hsa-miR-196, hsa-miR-223, and hsa-miR-451 were further validated by real time PCR in a wider population of EP and control samples. We also performed a computational analysis to identify the gene targets and pathways which might be modulated by these three differentially expressed miRNAs. The most significant pathways found were the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis and the ECM-receptor-interaction pathways. We also checked that the dysregulation of these three miRNAs was able to alter the expression of the gene targets in the embryonic tissues included in these pathways such as GALNT13 and ITGA2 genes. In conclusion, analysis of miRNAs in ectopic and eutopic embryonic tissues shows different expression patterns that could modify pathways which are critical for correct implantation, providing new insights into the understanding of ectopic implantation in humans.

  14. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  15. Identification of SSEA-1 expressing enhanced reprogramming (SEER) cells in porcine embryonic fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong; Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Juhl, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells...... are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. To address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast...... populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers. Strikingly, we discovered a small population of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 positive cells (SSEA-1+) in Danish Landrace and Göttingen minipig pEFs, which were absent in the Yucatan pEFs. Furthermore...

  16. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  17. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  18. Mechanobiology of embryonic limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, Niamh C; Murphy, Paula; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2007-04-01

    Considerable evidence exists to support the hypothesis that mechanical forces have an essential role in healthy embryonic skeletal development. Clinical observations and experimental data indicate the importance of muscle contractions for limb development. However, the influence of these forces is seldom referred to in biological descriptions of bone development, and perhaps this is due to the fact that the hypothesis that mechanical forces are essential for normal embryonic skeletal development is difficult to test and elaborate experimentally in vivo, particularly in humans. Computational modeling has the potential to address this issue by simulating embryonic growth under a range of loading conditions but the potential of such models has yet to be fully exploited. In this article, we review the literature on mechanobiology of limb development in three main sections: (a) experimental alteration of the mechanical environment, (b) mechanical properties of embryonic tissues, and (c) the use of computational models. Then we analyze the main issues, and suggest how experimental and computational fields could work closer together to enhance our understanding of mechanobiology of the embryonic skeleton.

  19. Novel implant design improves implant survival in multirooted extraction sites: a preclinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan-Gildor, Adi; Machtei, Eli E; Gabay, Eran; Frankenthal, Shai; Levin, Liran; Suzuki, Marcelo; Coelho, Paulo G; Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim is to evaluate clinical, radiographic, and histologic parameters of novel implants with "three roots" design that were inserted into fresh multirooted extraction sockets. A secondary aim is to compare this new implant to standard root-form dental implants. Immediate implantation of novel or standard design 6 × 6-mm implants was performed bilaterally into multirooted sockets in mandibles of mini-pigs. Twelve weeks later, clinical, radiographic, stability, histomorphometric, and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analyses were performed. Survival rates were significantly higher in the test implants compared with control (92.8% versus 33.3%, respectively; P micro-CT analyses demonstrated bone fill in the inner part of the test implants. Moreover, bone-to-implant contact was higher in the test implants (55.50% ± 3.68% versus 42.47% ± 9.89%). Contrary to the clinical, radiographic, and histomorphometric results, resonance frequency analysis measurements were greater in the control group (77.74 ± 3.21 implant stability quotient [ISQ]) compared with the test group (31.09 ± 0.28 ISQ), P = 0.008. The novel design implants resulted in significantly greater survival rate in multirooted extraction sites. Further studies will be required to validate these findings.

  20. Dental Implant Macro-Design Features Can Impact the Dynamics of Osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; Vandamme, Katleen; Chaudhari, Amol; De Rycker, Judith; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Duyck, Joke

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performance of two dental implant types possessing a different macro-design in the in vivo pig model. Titanium Aadva(TM) implants (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were compared with OsseoSpeed(TM) implants (Astra, Mölndal, Sweden), with the Aadva implant displaying significant larger inter-thread dimensions than the OsseoSpeed implant. Implants were installed in the parietal bone of 12 domestic pigs and left for healing for either 1 or 3 months. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by quantitative histology (bone volume relative to the tissue volume [BV/TV]; bone-to-implant contact [BIC]) for distinct implant regions (collar, body, total implant length) with specific implant thread features. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test with α = 0.05 was performed. An inferior amount of bone enveloping the Aadva implant compared with the OsseoSpeed implant was observed, in particular at the implant body part with its considerable inter-thread gaps (p macro-design negatively affected the amount of bone in direct contact with the implant for this specific implant part (p implant osseointegration at the initial healing stage (total implant length; 1-month healing; p implant displayed a clinically acceptable level of osseointegration, the findings demonstrate that implant macro-design features can impact the dynamics of implant osseointegration. Consideration of specific implant macro-design features should be made relative to the biological and mechanical microenvironment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on development of nanotechnology in the field of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy that can improve the quality of life for patients with refractory diseases. However, this option is limited by the scarcity of tissues, ethical problem, and tumorigenicity. Nanotechnology is another promising therapy that can be used to mimic the extracellular matrix, label the implanted cells, and also can be applied in the tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce implementation of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research. Finally, the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also discussed.

  2. Gene targeting and cloning in pigs using fetal liver derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Estrada, Jose; Reyes, Luz; Li, Ping; Ivary, Bess; Sidner, Richard A; Burlak, Chris; Tector, A Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Since there are no pig embryonic stem cells, pig genetic engineering is done in fetal fibroblasts that remain totipotent for only 3 to 5 wk. Nuclear donor cells that remain totipotent for longer periods of time would facilitate complicated genetic engineering in pigs. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of using fetal liver-derived cells (FLDC) to perform gene targeting, and create a genetic knockout pig. FLDC were isolated and processed using a human liver stem cell protocol. Single copy α-1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout (GTKO) FLDCs were created using electroporation and neomycin resistant colonies were screened using PCR. Homozygous GTKO cells were created through loss of heterozygosity mutations in single GTKO FLDCs. Double GTKO FLDCs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to create GTKO pigs. FLDCs grew for more than 80 population doublings, maintaining normal karyotype. Gene targeting and loss of heterozygosity mutations produced homozygous GTKO FLDCs. FLDCs used in SCNT gave rise to homozygous GTKO pigs. FDLCs can be used in gene targeting and SCNT to produce genetically modified pigs. The increased life span in culture compared to fetal fibroblasts may facilitate genetic engineering in the pig. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Lewandowski, Albert H; Skowronek, Anthony J

    2007-03-01

    An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure-like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft tissue tumor of humans, and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals.

  4. Ochratoxin A Inhibits Mouse Embryonic Development by Activating a Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Der Hsuuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA, a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 μM for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 μM OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 μM OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development.

  5. Somatic Donor Cell Type Correlates with Embryonic, but Not Extra-Embryonic, Gene Expression in Postimplantation Cloned Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogura, Atsuo

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of embryos generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) display defined abnormal phenotypes after implantation, such as an increased likelihood of death and abnormal placentation. To gain better insight into the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles of day 6.5 postimplantation mouse embryos cloned from three different cell types (cumulus cells, neonatal Sertoli cells and fibroblasts). The embryos retrieved from the uteri were separated into embryonic (epiblast) and extraembryonic (extraembryonic ectoderm and ectoplacental cone) tissues and were subjected to gene microarray analysis. Genotype- and sex-matched embryos produced by in vitro fertilization were used as controls. Principal component analysis revealed that whereas the gene expression patterns in the embryonic tissues varied according to the donor cell type, those in extraembryonic tissues were relatively consistent across all groups. Within each group, the embryonic tissues had more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (>2-fold vs. controls) than did the extraembryonic tissues (Pcloning efficiency using SCNT. PMID:24146866

  6. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  7. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...

  8. Effect of implant design and bioactive glass coating on biomechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composite implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Ahmed M; Akca, Eralp; Ozen, Tuncer; Moritz, Niko; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Närhi, Timo

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of implant design and bioactive glass (BAG) coating on the response of bone to fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) implants. Three different FRC implant types were manufactured for the study: non-threaded implants with a BAG coating; threaded implants with a BAG coating; and threaded implants with a grit-blasted surface. Thirty-six implants (six implants for each group per time point) were installed in the tibiae of six pigs. After an implantation period of 4 and 12 wk, the implants were retrieved and prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), push-out testing, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Micro-CT demonstrated that the screw-threads and implant structure remained undamaged during the installation. The threaded FRC/BAG implants had the highest bone volume after 12 wk of implantation. The push-out strengths of the threaded FRC/BAG implants after 4 and 12 wk (463°N and 676°N, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the threaded FRC implants (416°N and 549°N, respectively) and the nonthreaded FRC/BAG implants (219°N and 430°N, respectively). Statistically significant correlation was found between bone volume and push-out strength values. This study showed that osseointegrated FRC implants can withstand the static loading up to failure without fracture, and that the addition of BAG significantly improves the push-out strength of FRC implants. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Impaired embryonic development in mice overexpressing the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TIA-1-related (TIAR protein is a shuttling RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism. While in the nucleus TIAR participates to alternative splicing events, in the cytoplasm TIAR acts as a translational repressor on specific transcripts such as those containing AU-Rich Elements (AREs. Due to its ability to assemble abortive pre-initiation complexes coalescing into cytoplasmic granules called stress granules, TIAR is also involved in the general translational arrest observed in cells exposed to environmental stress. However, the in vivo role of this protein has not been studied so far mainly due to severe embryonic lethality upon tiar invalidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine potential TIAR tissue-specificity in various cellular contexts, either embryonic or adult, we constructed a TIAR transgenic allele (loxPGFPloxPTIAR allowing the conditional expression of TIAR protein upon Cre recombinase activity. Here, we report the role of TIAR during mouse embryogenesis. We observed that early TIAR overexpression led to low transgene transmission associated with embryonic lethality starting at early post-implantation stages. Interestingly, while pre-implantation steps evolved correctly in utero, in vitro cultured embryos were very sensitive to culture medium. Control and transgenic embryos developed equally well in the G2 medium, whereas culture in M16 medium led to the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha that accumulated in cytoplasmic granules precluding transgenic blastocyst hatching. Our results thus reveal a differential TIAR-mediated embryonic response following artificial or natural growth environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the importance of the tightly balanced expression of the RNA-binding protein TIAR for normal embryonic development, thereby emphasizing the role of post-transcriptional regulations in early embryonic programming.

  10. Carmustine Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body. ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving carmustine implant, call your doctor. Carmustine may harm the fetus.

  11. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCD A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense ... Hearing Aids Retinitis Pigmentosa - National Eye Institute Telecommunications Relay Services Usher Syndrome Your Baby's Hearing Screening News ...

  12. How the embryonic chick brain twists

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left–right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic m...

  13. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  14. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J

    1974-03-26

    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  15. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment of surfaces are described. These are: collision, thermal, electronic and photon-induced sputtering. 135 refs.; 36 figs.; 9 tabs

  16. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    2016-01-01

    in Göttingen minipigs.Both male and female pigs were used to evaluate eventual gender specific infectivity. Storage at 30 °C up to 14 weeks and subsequent embryonation for 14 weeks at 25 °C did not significantly reduce the overall larval establishment in minipigs, as compared to storage at 5 °C and subsequent...... analysis (OvaSpec), and an egg hatching assay prior to the final testing in minipigs (Trial 1). These methods showed that the development started earlier at higher temperatures, but the long-term storage at higher temperature affected the egg development. The present study further documents tolerance...

  17. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  18. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  19. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in ...

  20. Hip Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Implants and Prosthetics Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants Hip Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hip implants are medical devices intended to restore mobility ...

  1. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  2. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  3. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  4. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  5. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  6. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  7. Analysis of the influence of the macro- and microstructure of dental zirconium implants on osseointegration: a minipig study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Cornelia Katharina; Solcher, Philipp; Peisker, Andrè; Mtsariashvilli, Maia; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Rost, Juergen; Liefeith, Klaus; Chen, Jiang; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to analyze the influence of implant design and surface topography on the osseointegration of dental zirconium implants. Six different implant designs were tested in the study. Nine or 10 test implants were inserted in the frontal skull in each of 10 miniature pigs. Biopsies were harvested after 2 and 4 months and subjected to microradiography. No significant differences between titanium and zirconium were found regarding the microradiographically detected bone-implant contact (BIC). Cylindric zirconium implants showed a higher BIC at the 2-month follow-up than conic zirconium implants. Among zirconium implants, those with an intermediate Ra value showed a significantly higher BIC compared with low and high Ra implants 4 months after surgery. Regarding osseointegration, titanium and zirconium showed equal properties. Cylindric implant design and intermediate surface roughness seemed to enhance osseointegration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice—it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness. PMID:23615030

  9. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D; Renfree, Marilyn B; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2013-04-24

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice-it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness.

  10. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  11. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  12. [Embryonic stem cells. Future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, M; David, R; Franz, W M

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are able to differentiate into any cell type, and therefore represent an excellent source for cellular replacement therapies in the case of widespread diseases, for example heart failure, diabetes, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury. A major prerequisite for their efficient and safe clinical application is the availability of pure populations for direct cell transplantation or tissue engineering as well as the immunological compatibility of the transplanted cells. The expression of human surface markers under the control of cell type specific promoters represents a promising approach for the selection of cardiomyocytes and other cell types for therapeutic applications. The first human clinical trial using ES cells will start in the United States this year.

  13. Transcriptome architecture across tissues in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folch Josep M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial selection has resulted in animal breeds with extreme phenotypes. As an organism is made up of many different tissues and organs, each with its own genetic programme, it is pertinent to ask: How relevant is tissue in terms of total transcriptome variability? Which are the genes most distinctly expressed between tissues? Does breed or sex equally affect the transcriptome across tissues? Results In order to gain insight on these issues, we conducted microarray expression profiling of 16 different tissues from four animals of two extreme pig breeds, Large White and Iberian, two males and two females. Mixed model analysis and neighbor – joining trees showed that tissues with similar developmental origin clustered closer than those with different embryonic origins. Often a sound biological interpretation was possible for overrepresented gene ontology categories within differentially expressed genes between groups of tissues. For instance, an excess of nervous system or muscle development genes were found among tissues of ectoderm or mesoderm origins, respectively. Tissue accounted for ~11 times more variability than sex or breed. Nevertheless, we were able to confidently identify genes with differential expression across tissues between breeds (33 genes and between sexes (19 genes. The genes primarily affected by sex were overall different than those affected by breed or tissue. Interaction with tissue can be important for differentially expressed genes between breeds but not so much for genes whose expression differ between sexes. Conclusion Embryonic development leaves an enduring footprint on the transcriptome. The interaction in gene × tissue for differentially expressed genes between breeds suggests that animal breeding has targeted differentially each tissue's transcriptome.

  14. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  15. DIFFERENTIATION OF EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS: LESSONS FROM EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMOKE PALL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells, the undifferentiated cells of early embryos are established as permanent lines and are characterised by their self-renewal capacity and the ability to retain their developmental capacity in vivo and in vitro. The pluripotent properties of ES cells are the basis of gene targeting technologies used to create mutant mouse strains with inactivated genes by homologous recombination. There are several methods to induce the formation of EBs. One of them the formation by aggregating ES cells in hanging drops, using gravity as an aggregation force. This method presents the advantage of obtaining well-calibrated EBs almost identical in size. We used at our experiment the mouse ES cell line KA1/11/C3/C8 with a normal karyotype, at 14th passages. Immunohistochemical examination was aimed to identify tissue-restricted proteins for the two differentiated lineages: titin as a cell-specific antigen for cardiac and skeletal muscle, betaIII-tubulin for the neuronal differentiation, cytokeratin Endo-A (TROMA for the presence of mesenchymal progenitor cells, Oct-4 for the presence of the undifferentiated ES cells. The beating cardiac muscle clumps showed more synchronous rhythm than those seen in EBs obtained from suspension culture method, where the beating cardiac muscle clumps appeared later, had a lower frequency and were uneven. The synaptic networks of neuronal cells were best developed in EBs from suspension, compared to those observed in EBs from hanging-drop method.

  16. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  17. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  18. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  19. Guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, National Research Council

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, the volume of research being conducted using human embryonic stem (hES) cells has expanded primarily using private funds because of restrictions on the use of federal funds for such research...

  20. Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Luigi; Naveiras, Olaia; Wenzel, Pamela L.; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon; Mack, Peter J.; Gracia-Sancho, Jorge; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Lensch, M. William; Yoder, Mervin C.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Daley, George Q.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system1,2. After initiation of the heartbeat in vertebrates, cells lining the ventral aspect of the dorsal aorta, the placental vessels, and the umbilical and vitelline arteries initiate expression of the transcription factor Runx1 (refs 3–5), a master regulator of haematopoiesis, and give rise to haematopoietic cells4. It remains unknown whether the biomechanical forces imposed on the vascular wall at this developmental stage act as a determinant of haematopoietic potential6. Here, using mouse embryonic stem cells differentiated in vitro, we show that fluid shear stress increases the expression of Runx1 in CD41+c-Kit+ haematopoietic progenitor cells7,concomitantly augmenting their haematopoietic colony-forming potential. Moreover, we find that shear stress increases haematopoietic colony-forming potential and expression of haematopoietic markers in the paraaortic splanchnopleura/aorta–gonads–mesonephros of mouse embryos and that abrogation of nitric oxide, a mediator of shear-stress-induced signalling8, compromises haematopoietic potential in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data reveal a critical role for biomechanical forces in haematopoietic development. PMID:19440194

  1. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  2. Differential bone-forming capacity of osteogenic cells from either embryonic stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Sanne Karijn; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Jukes, J.M.; Englund, Mikael C.O.; Hyllner, Johan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used in bone tissue-engineering research. More recently some of the focus in this field has shifted towards the use of embryonic stem cells. While it is well known that hMSCs are able to form bone when implanted subcutaneously in

  3. Effect of Recycling Protocol on Mechanical Strength of Used Mini-Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Estelita, Sérgio; Janson, Guilherme; Chiqueto, Kelly; Ferreira, Eduardo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the influence of recycling process on the torsional strength of mini-implants. Materials and Methods. Two hundred mini-implants were divided into 4 groups with 50 screws equally distributed in five diameters (1.3 to 1.7 mm): control group (CG): unused mini-implants, G1: mini-implants inserted in pig iliac bone and removed, G2: same protocol of group 1 followed by sonication for cleaning and autoclave sterilization, and G3: same insertion protocol of group 1 follo...

  4. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ... to find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring ...

  5. Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Karimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available People with profound hearing loss are not able to use some kinds of conventional amplifiers due to the nature of their loss . In these people, hearing sense is stimulated only when the auditory nerve is activated via electrical stimulation. This stimulation is possible through cochlear implant. In fact, for the deaf people who have good mental health and can not use surgical and medical treatment and also can not benefit from air and bone conduction hearing aids, this device is used if they have normal central auditory system. The basic parts of the device included: Microphone, speech processor, transmitter, stimulator and receiver, and electrode array.

  6. Influence of radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no indice mitotico e malformacoes no polo embrionario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-03-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs

  8. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  9. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  10. Fibroblast implantation enhances wound healing as indicated by breaking strength determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W W; Goepfert, H; Romsdahl, M; Hersen, J; Withers, R H; Jesse, R H

    1978-09-01

    Irradiation of normal tissues at the dose/time factor employed in the treatment of solid tumors impairs the subsequent healing of surgical wounds made in those tissues. Irreversible radiation damage to regional fibroblasts is one cause of impared healing. This study was conducted to determine whether syngeneic guinea pig fibroblasts is one cause of impared healing. This study was conducted to determine whether syngeneic guinea pig fibroblasts, harvested from tissue culture when injected into irradiated guinea pig skin at the time of wound closure, could improve wound healing. Breaking strength determinations indicate that irradiated wounds demonstrate enhanced wound healing if implanted with fibroblasts.

  11. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Braam, S.R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired

  12. Protective effects of resveratrol on ethanol-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells and disruption of embryonic development in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.-H.; Shiao, N.-H.; Hsuuw, Y.-D.; Chan, W.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have established that ethanol induces apoptosis, but the precise molecular mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we show that 0.3-1.0% (w/v) ethanol induces apoptosis in mouse blastocysts and that resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, ethanol-treated blastocysts show normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro but a reduced ability to reach the later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented ethanol-induced disruption of embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro cell-based assay, we further found that ethanol increases the production of reactive oxygen species in ESC-B5 embryonic stem cells, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ and NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis. These changes were blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol. Based on these results, we propose a model for the protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced cell injury in blastocysts and ESC-B5 cells

  13. Myocardial hypertrophy after pulmonary regurgitation and valve implantation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter; Søndergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    : The results were compared with age-matched sham-operated animals. RESULTS: At euthanasia, RV weight was increased compared to sham-animals, median 127g (115-137) vs. 71g (69.5-76.5), p=0.0007. RV myocyte diameters corrected for individual variation with the RV/LV ratio were enlarged, 1.06 (1.02-1.13) vs. 0...

  14. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  15. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Saini, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  16. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  17. Luteal cell steroidogenesis in relation to delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakumari, Karukayil J; Banerjee, Arnab; Krishna, Amitabh

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the possible cause of slow or delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx by investigating morphological and steroidogenic changes in the corpus luteum (CL) and circulating hormone concentrations during two pregnancies of a year. This species showed delayed post-implantational embryonic development during gastrulation of the first pregnancy. Morphological features of the CL showed normal luteinization during both pregnancies. The CL did not change significantly in luteal cell size during the delay period of the first pregnancy as compared with the second pregnancy. The circulating progesterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were significantly lower during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the same stage of embryonic development during the second pregnancy. We also showed a marked decline in the activity of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, and steroidogenic acute regulatory peptide in the CL during the delay period. This may cause low circulating progesterone and estradiol synthesis and consequently delay embryonic development. What causes the decrease in steroidogenic factors in the CL during the period of delayed development in C. sphinx is under investigation.

  18. Evidence of increased endometrial vascular permeability at the time of implantation in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cyanopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrasi, Pranab Lal; Tiwari, Anjana

    2007-09-01

    Early embryonic development and implantation were studied in tropical short-nosed fruit bat Cyanopterus sphinx. We report preimplantation development and embryo implantation. Different stages of cleavage were observed in embryo by direct microscopic examination of fresh embryos after retrieving them either from the oviduct or the uterus at different days, up to the day of implantation. Generally, the embryos enter the uterus at the 8-cell stage. Embryonic development continued without any delay and blastocyst were formed showing attachment to the uterine epithelium at the mesometrial side of the uterus. A distinct blue band was formed in the uterus. The site of blastocyst attachment was visualized as a blue band following intravenous injection of pontamine blue. Implantation occurred 9+/-0.7 days after mating. This study reports that bat embryonic development can be studied like other laboratory animals and that this bat shows blue dye reaction, indicating the site and exact time of implantation. This blue dye reaction can be used to accurately find post-implantational delay. We prove conclusively that this species of tropical bat does not have any type of embryonic diapause.

  19. CNS embryonal tumours: WHO 2016 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, J C; Hawkins, C; Pietsch, T; Jacques, T S

    2018-02-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) present a significant clinical challenge. Many of these neoplasms affect young children, have a very high mortality and therapeutic strategies are often aggressive with poor long-term outcomes. There is a great need to accurately diagnose embryonal tumours, predict their outcome and adapt therapy to the individual patient's risk. For the first time in 2016, the WHO classification took into account molecular characteristics for the diagnosis of CNS tumours. This integration of histological features with genetic information has significantly changed the diagnostic work-up and reporting of tumours of the CNS. However, this remains challenging in embryonal tumours due to their previously unaccounted tumour heterogeneity. We describe the recent revisions made to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours and review the main changes, while highlighting some of the more common diagnostic testing strategies. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  20. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  1. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  2. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  3. Chromatin in embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshorer, E

    2007-03-01

    Chromatin, the basic regulatory unit of the eukaryotic genetic material, is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Cellular differentiation involves large changes in gene expression concomitant with alterations in genome organization and chromatin structure. Such changes are particularly evident in self-renewing pluripotent embryonic stem cells, which begin, in terms of cell fate, as a tabula rasa, and through the process of differentiation, acquire distinct identities. Here I describe the changes in chromatin that accompany neuronal differentiation, particularly of embryonic stem cells, and discuss how chromatin serves as the master regulator of cellular destiny.

  4. Nucleoli from two-cell embryos support the development of enucleolated germinal vesicle oocytes in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Ogushi, Sugako; Miyano, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has shown that nucleoli of oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage (GV nucleoli) are not necessary for oocyte maturation but are essential for early embryonic development. Nucleoli of 2-cell embryos (2-cell nucleoli) have morphology similar to that of nucleoli in oocytes at the GV stage. In this study, we examined the ability of 2-cell nucleoli to substitute for GV nucleoli in terms of supporting early embryonic development by nucleolus aspiration (enucleolation) and transfer into metaphase II (MII) oocytes or 2-cell embryos that were derived from enucleolated oocytes at the GV stage in the pig. When 2-cell embryos were centrifuged to move the lipid droplets to one side of the blastomere, multiple nucleoli in the nucleus fused into a single nucleolus. The nucleoli were then aspirated from the 2-cell embryos by micromanipulation. The injection of 2-cell nucleoli to GV enucleolated oocytes at the MII stage rescued the embryos from the early embryonic arrest, and the resulting oocytes developed to blastocysts. However, the injection of 2-cell and GV nucleoli to 2-cell embryos derived from GV enucleolated oocytes rarely restored the development to blastocysts. These results indicate that 2-cell nucleoli support early embryonic development as GV nucleoli and that the presence of nucleoli is essential for pig embryos before the 2-cell stage.

  5. Retrograde peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jumshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

  6. Analysis of the expression of putatively imprinted genes in bovine peri-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been shown to induce changes in the methylation of the embryonic genome, leading to aberrant gene expression, including that of imprinted genes. Aberrant methylation and gene expression has been linked to the large offspring syndrome...... (LOS) in bovine embryos resulting in increased embryonic morbidity and mortality. In the bovine, limited numbers of imprinted genes have been studied and studies have primarily been restricted to pre-implantation stages. This study reports original data on the expression pattern of 8 putatively...... imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos...

  7. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio......Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made......-economic, material, and bacterial passages between humans and animals that constitute the various publics of public health and profoundly shape the health of human and animal populations in a globalized world....

  8. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... hepatocyte transplantation therapy and toxicity screening in drug discovery. Key words: Embryonic stem cells, hepatic-like cells, in vitro differentiation, sodium butyrate, ... from embryonic stem (ES) cell or induced pluripotent.

  9. Individual titanium zygomatic implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Ryabov, K. N.; Avdeev, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    Custom individual implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better qualitative characteristics over their generic counterparts – plates, which should be bent according to patient needs. The Additive Manufacturing of individual implants allows reducing cost and improving quality of implants. In this paper, the authors describe design of zygomatic implant models based on computed tomography (CT) data. The fabrication of the implants will be carried out with 3D printing by selective laser melting machine SLM 280HL.

  10. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells ... cells into the cavity of the blastocyst, it will be possible to test the effect of .... to the use of efficient immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporin – was ...

  11. Testicular Embryonic Rhabdomyosarcoma, Case report with brief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular Embryonic Rhabdomyosarcoma, Case report with brief literature review. AM Adam, MMAM Ibnouf, IAF Allah. Abstract. Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a malignant solid tumour arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites.

  12. How the embryonic chick brain twists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Forsch, Nickolas; Taber, Larry A

    2016-11-01

    During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion. Our theoretical analysis showed that the force is of the order of 10 micronewtons. We also designed an experiment to use fluid surface tension to replace the mechanical role of the VM, and the estimated magnitude of the force owing to surface tension was shown to be consistent with the above theoretical analysis. We further discovered that the asymmetry of the looping heart determines the chirality of the twisted brain via physical mechanisms, demonstrating the mechanical transfer of left-right asymmetry between organs. Our experiments also implied that brain flexure is a necessary condition for torsion. Our work clarifies the mechanical origin of torsion and the development of left-right asymmetry in the early embryonic brain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix | Ocheke | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botyroides) of the cervix, which is rare, is described in a 16-yearold. The combined use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery has markedly improved survival in those with this condition. However, our patient did not benefit from this treatment modality due to late presentation ...

  14. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  15. Transcriptome Landscapes of Mammalian Embryonic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes research on gene expression profiles from different embryonic stages and cell types to identify genes involved in pluripotency or differentiation in bovine and porcine cells. The results are compared with data from other mammals. RNA expression profiles of morula and blastocyst

  16. Annotation of the Domestic Pig Genome by Quantitative Proteogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Harald; Hahne, Hannes; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Schnieke, Angelika; Rottmann, Oswald; Frishman, Dmitrij; Kuster, Bernhard

    2017-08-04

    The pig is one of the earliest domesticated animals in the history of human civilization and represents one of the most important livestock animals. The recent sequencing of the Sus scrofa genome was a major step toward the comprehensive understanding of porcine biology, evolution, and its utility as a promising large animal model for biomedical and xenotransplantation research. However, the functional and structural annotation of the Sus scrofa genome is far from complete. Here, we present mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics data of nine juvenile organs and six embryonic stages between 18 and 39 days after gestation. We found that the data provide evidence for and improve the annotation of 8176 protein-coding genes including 588 novel and 321 refined gene models. The analysis of tissue-specific proteins and the temporal expression profiles of embryonic proteins provides an initial functional characterization of expressed protein interaction networks and modules including as yet uncharacterized proteins. Comparative transcript and protein expression analysis to human organs reveal a moderate conservation of protein translation across species. We anticipate that this resource will facilitate basic and applied research on Sus scrofa as well as its porcine relatives.

  17. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method: Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted, resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  19. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF)failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method:Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted,resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  20. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole.

  1. Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5–20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5–20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1, IL-1 β and IL-8, were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has

  2. Human implantation: the last barrier in assisted reproduction technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    Implantation processes are highly complex involving the actions of numerous hormones, immunoglobulins, cytokines and other factors in the endometrium. They are also essential matters for the success of assisted reproduction. The nature of early embryonic development is of equal significance. It involves ovarian follicle growth, ovulation, fertilization and preimplantation growth. These processes are affected by imbalanced chromosomal constitutions or slow developmental periods. Post-implantation death is also a significant factor in cases of placental insufficiency or recurrent abortion. Clearly, many of these matters can significantly affect birth rates. This review is concerned primarily with the oocyte, the early embryo and its chromosomal anomalies, and the nature of factors involved in implantation. These are clearly among the most important features in determining successful embryonic and fetal growth. Successive sections cover the endocrine stimulation of follicle growth in mice and humans, growth of human embryos in vitro, their apposition and attachment to the uterus, factors involved in embryo attachment to uterine epithelium and later stages of implantation, and understanding the gene control of polarities and other aspects of preimplantation embryo differentiation. New aspects of knowledge include the use of human oocyte maturation in vitro as an approach to simpler forms of IVF, and new concepts in developmental genetics.

  3. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil G.; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses (“pseudoimplantation”) that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. PMID:25931120

  4. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S; Tilton, Susan C; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Piehowski, Paul D; Monroe, Matthew E; Jegga, Anil G; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-06-12

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses ("pseudoimplantation") that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Imai

    Full Text Available Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  6. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  7. Fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon graft. Determination of the optimal gestational age for implantation in Parkinsonian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, RI; Koopmans, J; Copray, JCVM; van Roon, WMC; Kema, [No Value; Molenaar, G; Go, KG; Staal, MJ

    Human fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue has been used as dopaminergic striatal implants in Parkinsonian patients, so far with variable effects. Fetuses from animals that breed in large litters, e.g., pigs, have been considered as alternative donors of dopaminergic tissue. The optimal gestational

  8. Single-Dose Bone Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in a Porcine Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue, Mats; Hanberg, Pelle; Koch, Janne

    2018-01-01

    , vancomycin bone and soft tissue penetration during infection remains unclear. In eight pigs, implant-associated osteomyelitis was induced on day 0, using a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Following administration of 1,000 mg of vancomycin on day 5, vancomycin concentrations were obtained with microdialysis...

  9. Mouse androgenetic embryonic stem cells differentiated to multiple cell lineages in three embryonic germ layers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Takeshi; Onodera, Yuta; Murakami, Hideki; Ito, Syunsuke; Mihara, Toshihiro; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Kato, Hiromi; Mitani, Tasuku; Anzai, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kanji; Sagawa, Norimasa; Osoi, Yoshihiko

    2009-06-01

    The embryos of some rodents and primates can precede early development without the process of fertilization; however, they cease to develop after implantation because of restricted expressions of imprinting genes. Asexually developed embryos are classified into parthenote/gynogenote and androgenote by their genomic origins. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from asexual origins have also been reported. To date, ESCs derived from parthenogenetic embryos (PgESCs) have been established in some species, including humans, and the possibility to be alternative sources for autologous cell transplantation in regenerative medicine has been proposed. However, some developmental characteristics, which might be important for therapeutic applications, such as multiple differentiation capacity and transplantability of the ESCs of androgenetic origin (AgESCs) are uncertain. Here, we induced differentiation of mouse AgESCs and observed derivation of neural cells, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes in vitro. Following differentiated embryoid body (EB) transplantation in various mouse strains including the strain of origin, we found that the EBs could engraft in theoretically MHC-matched strains. Our results indicate that AgESCs possess at least two important characteristics, multiple differentiation properties in vitro and transplantability after differentiation, and suggest that they can also serve as a source of histocompatible tissues for transplantation.

  10. A study of the occurrence of monochorionic and monozygotic twinning in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Thorup, F.; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2009-01-01

    the investigation of porcine monochorionic embryos from 76 sows at days 26-29 post-insemination (p.i.), as well as an examination of 10 whole litters at days 21-22 p.i. In the former group, 29% of the sows carried monochorionic embryos. Based on DNA profiling using microsatellite markers, one monozygotic twin pair...... was found among these embryos. In the latter group, three monozygotic twin pairs were identified. Thus, it can be concluded that although the occurrence of monozygotic twins in pigs is a sporadic event, the fusion of extra-embryonic membranes is relatively common....

  11. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  12. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Qiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25. We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models.

  14. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  15. Biocorrosion of magnesium alloys: a new principle in cardiovascular implant technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, B; Rohde, R; Kaese, V; Niemeyer, M; Hartung, W; Haverich, A

    2003-06-01

    To develop and test a new concept of the degradation kinetics of newly developed coronary stents consisting of magnesium alloys. Design of a coronary stent prototype consisting of the non-commercial magnesium based alloy AE21 (containing 2% aluminium and 1% rare earths) with an expected 50% loss of mass within six months. Eleven domestic pigs underwent coronary implantation of 20 stents (overstretch injury). No stent caused major problems during implantation or showed signs of initial breakage in the histological evaluation. There were no thromboembolic events. Quantitative angiography at follow up showed a significant (p biocorrosion seem to be a realistic alternative to permanent implants.

  16. Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Sep 16,2016 For Rhythm Control ... a Heart Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack ...

  17. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  18. Embryonic vaccines against cancer: an early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Bradley G; Mitchell, Robert A; Harandi, Amir; Eaton, John W

    2009-06-01

    Almost 100 years have passed since the seminal observations of Schöne showing that vaccination of animals with fetal tissue would prevent the growth of transplantable tumors. Many subsequent reports have affirmed the general idea that immunologic rejection of transplantable tumors, as well as prevention of carcinogenesis, may be affected by vaccination with embryonic/fetal material. Following a decade of intense research on this phenomenon during approximately 1964-1974, interest appears to have waned. This earlier experimental work may be particularly pertinent in view of the rising interest in so-called cancer stem cells. We believe that further work - perhaps involving the use of embryonic stem cells as immunogens - is warranted and that the results reviewed herein support the concept that vaccination against the appearance of cancers of all kinds is a real possibility.

  19. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  20. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  1. Efficient transfection of primarily cultured porcine embryonic fibroblasts using the Amaxa Nucleofection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Asuka; Sato, Masahiro; Shinohara, Mariko; Matsubara, Shyuichiro; Yokomine, Takaaki; Akasaka, Eri; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi; Takao, Sonshin

    2007-01-01

    Porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF) are important as donor cells for nuclear transfer for generation of genetically modified pigs. In this study, we determined an optimal protocol for transfection of PEF with the Amaxa Nucleofection system, which directly transfers DNA into the nucleus of cells, and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection and electroporation. Cell survival and transfection efficiency were assessed using dye-exclusion assay and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct, respectively. Our optimized nucleofection parameters yielded survival rates above 60%. Under these conditions, FACS analysis demonstrated that 79% of surviving cells exhibited transgene expression 48 h after nucleofection when program U23 was used. This efficiency was higher than that of transfection of PEFs with electroporation (ca. 3-53%) or lipofection (ca. 3-8%). Transfected cells could be expanded as stably transgene-expressing clones over a month. When porcine nuclear transfer (NT) was performed using stable transformant expressing GFP as a donor cell, 5-6% of reconstituted embryos developed to blastocysts, from which 30-50% of embryos exhibited NT-embryo-derived green fluorescence. Under the conditions evaluated, nucleofection exhibited higher efficiency than conventional electroporation and lipofection, and may be a useful alternative for generation of genetically engineered pigs through nuclear transfer.

  2. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  3. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  4. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  5. Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Keuzenkamp, D.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual

  6. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barbarulo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility complex (MHC-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC development, and thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.

  7. Ear embryonic rabdomiosarcoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.; Canabal, A.; Blanco, A.; Sabate, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of embryonic rabdomiosarcoma in the ear of a 5-year-old girl who initially shows clinical symptoms of otitis media. The CT reveals a dense lesion of soft tissue which shows up slightly in the right external auditory channel. Also of interest were osteolytic areas in the petrous, clivus and zygomatic arch. A hypointensive lesion with marked enhancement after Gd-DPTA injection is observed. Discussed are the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of this tumor. (Author) 10 refs

  8. The Use of Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Corkery, Padraig

    2002-01-01

    Over the past year there has been great interest, optimism and anxiety in many societies about developments in the use of embryonic stem cells (ES cells). Within the scientific community there has been debate for some time on the merits and ethical implications of using ES cells. The discussion entered the public domain inthe decisive way during the past year when there were significant changes in legislation governing the use of such cells in Britain and the United States. These changes c...

  9. Do embryonic polar bodies commit suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Čikoš, Štefan; Rehák, Pavol; Koppel, Juraj

    2014-02-01

    The extrusion and elimination of unnecessary gametic/embryonic material is one of the key events that determines the success of further development in all living organisms. Oocytes produce the first polar body to fulfill the maturation process just before ovulation, and release the second polar body immediately after fertilization. The aim of this study was to compile a physiological overview of elimination of polar bodies during early preimplantation development in mice. Our results show that three-quarters of the first polar bodies were lost even at the zygotic stage; the 4-cell stage embryos contained only one (second) polar body, and the elimination of second polar bodies proceeded continuously during later development. Both first and second polar bodies showed several typical features of apoptosis: phosphatidylserine redistribution (observed for the first time in the first polar body), specific DNA degradation, condensed nuclear morphology, and inability to exclude cationic dye from the nucleus during the terminal stage of the apoptotic process. Caspase-3 activity was recorded only in the second polar body. From the morphological point of view, mouse polar bodies acted very similarly to damaged embryonic cells which have lost contact with their neighboring blastomeres. In conclusion, polar bodies possess all the molecular equipment necessary for triggering and executing an active suicide process. Furthermore, similarly as in dying embryonic cells, stressing external conditions (culture in vitro) might accelerate and increase the incidence of apoptotic elimination of the polar bodies in embryos.

  10. Mechanical signaling coordinates the embryonic heartbeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Kevin K.; Rocks, Jason W.; Chen, Christina Yingxian; Cho, Sangkyun; Merkus, Koen E.; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Robison, Patrick; Tewari, Manorama; Vogel, Kenneth; Majkut, Stephanie F.; Prosser, Benjamin L.; Discher, Dennis E.; Liu, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    In the beating heart, cardiac myocytes (CMs) contract in a coordinated fashion, generating contractile wave fronts that propagate through the heart with each beat. Coordinating this wave front requires fast and robust signaling mechanisms between CMs. The primary signaling mechanism has long been identified as electrical: gap junctions conduct ions between CMs, triggering membrane depolarization, intracellular calcium release, and actomyosin contraction. In contrast, we propose here that, in the early embryonic heart tube, the signaling mechanism coordinating beats is mechanical rather than electrical. We present a simple biophysical model in which CMs are mechanically excitable inclusions embedded within the extracellular matrix (ECM), modeled as an elastic-fluid biphasic material. Our model predicts strong stiffness dependence in both the heartbeat velocity and strain in isolated hearts, as well as the strain for a hydrogel-cultured CM, in quantitative agreement with recent experiments. We challenge our model with experiments disrupting electrical conduction by perfusing intact adult and embryonic hearts with a gap junction blocker, β-glycyrrhetinic acid (BGA). We find this treatment causes rapid failure in adult hearts but not embryonic hearts—consistent with our hypothesis. Last, our model predicts a minimum matrix stiffness necessary to propagate a mechanically coordinated wave front. The predicted value is in accord with our stiffness measurements at the onset of beating, suggesting that mechanical signaling may initiate the very first heartbeats. PMID:27457951

  11. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  12. The guinea pig as an animal model for developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Meredith S; Wehner, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies require selection of "relevant" animal models as determined by kinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological data. Traditionally, rats, mice, and rabbits are the preferred animal models for these studies. However, for test articles that are pharmacologically inactive in the traditional animal models, the guinea pig may be a viable option. This choice should not be made lightly, as guinea pigs have many disadvantages compared to the traditional species, including limited historical control data, variability in pregnancy rates, small and variable litter size, long gestation, relative maturity at birth, and difficulty in dosing and breeding. This report describes methods for using guinea pigs in DART studies and provides results of positive and negative controls. Standard study designs and animal husbandry methods were modified to allow mating on the postpartum estrus in fertility studies and were used for producing cohorts of pregnant females for developmental studies. A positive control study with the pregnancy-disrupting agent mifepristone resulted in the anticipated failure of embryo implantation and supported the use of the guinea pig model. Control data for reproductive endpoints collected from 5 studies are presented. In cases where the traditional animal models are not relevant, the guinea pig can be used successfully for DART studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. High-dose external beam irradiation inhibits neointima formation in stented pig coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheye, Stefan; Coussement, Patrick K.; Salame, Mahomed Y.; Fallahi, Payam; Cui Jianhua; Chronos, Nicolas A.F.; King, Spencer B.; Crocker, Ian R.; Robinson, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose external beam irradiation (EBRT) in a pig coronary stent preparation because low and intermediate-dose EBRT failed to show inhibition of neointima formation in stented animal models. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 17 pigs. Seven pigs were exposed to a single dose of 21 Gy EBRT immediately after stenting. Ten stented, nonirradiated pigs served as controls. After 4 weeks, the study arteries and myocardium were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Compared with controls, 21 Gy EBRT resulted in a larger lumen area (7.57±1.67 mm 2 vs. 4.00±1.63 mm 2 , p 2 vs. 3.36±2.26 mm 2 , p<0.001) and a smaller maximal intimal thickness (0.16±0.09 mm vs. 0.68±0.31 mm, p<0.001). Unresorbed intramural hemorrhages and adherent mural thrombi were present in the irradiated vessels, which also showed incomplete re-endothelialization. The irradiated hearts demonstrated diffuse interstitial and perivascular inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions: EBRT at 21 Gy to the entire heart significantly inhibited neointima formation in stented pig coronary arteries but also resulted in incomplete re-endothelialization, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. Improvements in localization and delivery techniques are required to allow clinical implementation of this technique

  14. Study of embryonic ploidy: a probable embryo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundt, Miriam S; Cabrini, Romulo L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia

    2001-07-01

    The second polar body (PB) studies in preimplantation mouse embryos were carried out to evaluate the possibility as reference cell to analyze ploidy. For that purpose embryos in a one cell stage [obtained by crossing hybrid females (CBAxC57BL) to NIH males] were cultured in vitro during 72 hs, individually fixed at morula stage and stained with Feulgen. The DNA content of 263 individual nucleus was evaluated cytophotometrically corresponding to 22 compact morulas of normal development. As haploid PB is present in all pre implanted stage, only embryos with one haploid nuclei were considered as normal. In 95.5% (n = 21) of the embryos the PB was present. DNA measurement of 21 PB was 1n {+-} 0.1. By the height sensibility of PB ploidy, the abnormalities were detected by the criterion of >4.1 n and <1.9 n. The results showed that one embryo was completely haploid (1n). The rest of the embryos (n = 20) 222 blastomeres and 20 PB were analyzed. The DNA measurement showed that 92,7% of the blastomeres (n = 206) are between 2 n and 4 n and 7.3% showed ploidy anomalies, regarding the value n of their PB. The period of the cellular cycle was studied in the normal cell ploidy. This study showed that 16.5% of the blastomeres (n = 34) were in the period G1, 70.39% (n =34) in the period S and 13.2% in the period G2 (n = 27). It is concluded that the PB study showed that it has properties as an excellent indicator of internal ploidia: it is present from the moment of the conception, easily recognizable in the perivitelin space in the embryo of one-two cells, remains in interface during the preimplantation development, it is haploid and digitalized pixel by pixel PB study showed the homogeneity of this type of cell, giving a reliable value of ploidy. The properties of the PB and the results showed that the PB could be an excellent indicator for embryonic ploidy studies on genotoxicity, maintaining its original ploidia during the preimplantation development while the blastomeres are

  15. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... on different continents, namely Denmark, USA, Uganda, Ecuador, China and St. Kitts (Caribbean). Additional sequences available from GenBank were incorporated into the analyses. RESULTS: We found no differentiation between human-derived Trichuris in Uganda and the majority of the Trichuris samples from non...

  16. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  17. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  18. Culture conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells isolated from blastocysts after external fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Muzi; Wu, Asga; Dorzhin, Sergei; Yue, Qunhua; Ma, Yuzhen; Liu, Dongjun

    2012-01-01

    Although isolation and characterization of embryonic stem cells have been successful in cattle, maintenance of bovine embryonic stem cells in culture remains difficult. In this study, we compared different methods of cell passaging, feeder cell layers and medium conditions for bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. We found that a murine embryonic fibroblast feeder layer is more suitable for embryonic stem cell-like cells than bovine embryonic fibroblasts. When murine embryonic fibroblasts we...

  19. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C Y Phua

    Full Text Available The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  20. Trends in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management.

  1. Coping Style Modifies General and Affective Autonomic Reactions of Domestic Pigs in Different Behavioral Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Krause

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on individual adaptive strategies (coping, animals may react differently to environmental challenges in terms of behavior and physiology according to their emotional perception. Emotional valence as well as arousal may be derived by measuring vagal and sympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. We investigated the situation-dependent autonomic response of 16 domestic pigs with either a reactive or a proactive coping style, previously selected according to the backtest which is accepted in piglets to assess escape behavior. At 11 weeks of age, the pigs were equipped with an implantable telemetric device, and heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and their respective variabilities (HRV, BPV were recorded for 1 h daily over a time period of 10 days and analyzed in four behavioral contexts (resting, feeding, idling, handling. Additionally, the first minute of feeding and handling was used for a short-term analysis of these parameters in 10-s intervals. Data from day 1–3 (period 1 and day 8–10 (period 2 were grouped into two separate periods. Our results revealed general differences between the coping styles during feeding, resting and handling, with proactive pigs showing higher HR compared to reactive pigs. This elevated HR was based on either lower vagal (resting or elevated sympathetic activation (feeding, handling. The short-term analysis of the autonomic activation during feeding revealed a physiological anticipation reaction in proactive pigs in period 1, whereas reactive pigs showed this reaction only in period 2. Food intake was characterized by sympathetic arousal with concurrent vagal withdrawal, which was more pronounced in proactive pigs. In contrast, neither coping style resulted in an anticipation reaction to handling. Vagal activation increased in reactive pigs during handling, while proactive pigs showed an increase in sympathetically driven arousal in period 2. Our findings confirm significant context

  2. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin ... the Use of Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ...

  3. Nodal signals mediate interactions between the extra-embryonic and embryonic tissues in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Fan; Hagos, Engda G.; Xu, Bo; Sias, Christina; Kawakami, Koichi; Burdine, Rebecca D.; Dougan, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    In many vertebrates, extra-embryonic tissues are important signaling centers that induce and pattern the germ layers. In teleosts, the mechanism by which the extra-embryonic yolk syncytial layer (YSL) patterns the embryo is not understood. Although the Nodal-related protein Squint is expressed in the YSL, its role in this tissue is not known. We generated a series of stable transgenic lines with GFP under the control of squint genomic sequences. In all species, nodal-related genes induce thei...

  4. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.

  5. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by adopting different strategies for meat production ... lates to some specific nutritional considerations. ... allowances were made for the correlated effects of any change. ... end of her reproductive life the sow is also usually sold for meat ... the experimental work. ... on pigs of up-to-date genotype fed on modern balanced diets.

  6. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  7. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  8. Minute changes to the culture environment of mouse pre-implantation embryos affect the health of the conceptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Koustas

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Exposing mouse pre-implantation embryos to ambient air at 37.0 °C, even for brief periods for routine micromanipulations is detrimental to normal embryonic development. Our results highlight the importance of how small alterations in the culture environment can have major consequences for the health of the embryo.

  9. Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, J A; Kalishman, J; Golos, T G; Durning, M; Harris, C P; Becker, R A; Hearn, J P

    1995-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells have the ability to remain undifferentiated and proliferate indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Here we report the derivation of a cloned cell line (R278.5) from a rhesus monkey blastocyst that remains undifferentiated in continuous passage for > 1 year, maintains a normal XY karyotype, and expresses the cell surface markers (alkaline phosphatase, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, st...

  10. Sex Differences in Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived β Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nelly; Bruin, Jennifer E; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Schuster, Hellen; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate that pancreatic progenitor cells can mature into a mixed population of endocrine cells, including glucose-responsive β cells several months after implantion. However, it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these hESC-derived cells. Here, we investigated the effects of (1) pregnancy on the maturation of human stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and (2) the impact of host sex on both S4 cells and more mature stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-beige mice. Pregnancy led to increased proliferation of endogenous pancreatic β cells, but did not appear to affect proliferation or maturation of S4 cells at midgestation. Interestingly, S4 and S7 cells both acquired glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretion in females before males. Moreover, S4 cells lowered fasting blood glucose levels in females sooner than in males, whereas the responses with S7 cells were similar. These data indicate that the host sex may impact the maturation of hESC-derived cells in vivo and that this effect can be minimized by more advanced differentiation of the cells before implantation.

  11. Swine influenza virus infection dynamics in two pig farms; results of a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon-Grifé Meritxell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to assess the dynamics of influenza virus infection in pigs, serological and virological follow-ups were conducted in two whole batches of pigs from two different farms (F1 and F2, from 3 weeks of age until market age. Anti-swine influenza virus (SIV antibodies (measured by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition and nasal virus shedding (measured by RRT-PCR and isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells were carried out periodically. SIV isolates were subtyped and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were partially sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. In F1, four waves of viral circulation were detected, and globally, 62/121 pigs (51.2% were positive by RRT-PCR at least once. All F1 isolates corresponded to H1N1 subtype although hemagglutination inhibition results also revealed the presence of antibodies against H3N2. The first viral wave took place in the presence of colostral-derived antibodies. Nine pigs were positive in two non-consecutive sampling weeks, with two of the animals being positive with the same isolate. Phylogenetic analyses showed that different H1N1 variants circulated in that farm. In F2, only one isolate, H1N2, was detected and all infections were concentrated in a very short period of time, as assumed for a classic influenza outbreak. These findings led us to propose that influenza virus infection in pigs might present different patterns, from an epidemic outbreak to an endemic form with different waves of infections with a lower incidence.

  12. Cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells resemble cardiomyocytes of the embryonic heart tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnvandraat, Arnoud C.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; de Boer, Piet A. J.; Ruijter, Jan M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Lekanne Deprez, Ronald H.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: After formation of the linear heart tube a chamber-specific program of gene expression becomes active that underlies the formation of the chamber myocardium. To assess whether this program is recapitulated in in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells, we performed qualitative and

  13. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEF) Exhibit a Similar but not Identical Phenotype to Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (BMSC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Hamid; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Aldahmash, Abdullah M

    2012-01-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts have been utilized as a surrogate stem cell model for the postnatal bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC) to study mesoderm-type cell differentiation e.g. osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. However, no formal characterization of MEF phenotype has been...... by real-time PCR analysis. Compared to BMSC, MEF exhibited a more enhanced differentiation into adipocyte and chondrocyte lineages. Interestingly, both MEF and BMSC formed the same amount of heterotopic bone and bone marrow elements upon in vivo subcutaneous implantation with hydroxyapatite...... and differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes....

  14. Optical effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    The review concerns the effects of ion implantation that specifically relate to the optical properties of insulators. Topics which are reviewed include: ion implantation, ion range and damage distributions, colour centre production by ion implantation, high dose ion implantation, and applications for integrated optics. Numerous examples are presented of both diagnostic and industrial examples of ion implantation effects in insulators. (U.K.)

  15. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.; Gusevova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The historical development is described of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material, ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions. (M.S.)

  16. Ion implantation in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, V; Gusevova, M

    1980-06-01

    The historical development of the method of ion implantation, the physical research of the method, its technological solution and practical uses is described. The method is universally applicable, allows the implantation of arbitrary atoms to an arbitrary material and ensures high purity of the doping element. It is linked with sample processing at low temperatures. In implantation it is possible to independently change the dose and energy of the ions thereby affecting the spatial distribution of the ions.

  17. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic as...

  18. Contribution of immunology to implantation failure of euploid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    Outcomes in assisted reproduction have seen marked improvement. With increased ability in the embryology laboratory to use extended embryo culture which in turn enables other selective techniques, such as trophectoderm biopsy and comprehensive chromosome screening, the chance of success per embryo transfer is increased. However, even the selection of a euploid blastocyst, which selects out many embryonic factors, does not yield successful implantation and ultimately delivery in all cases. Among the factors that affect implantation failure of apparently reproductively competent embryos, the immune system has been perhaps both the most plausible and the most debated. There are data on T-helper cells, in particular the T H 1-T H 2 balance, peripheral and uterine natural killer cells, and autoantibodies, all of which have been shown to have variable effects on implantation. Many investigators have developed and used a wide range of immune tests and treatments aimed at manipulating the milieu to favor implantation. Although it is certain that the immune system plays a role in implantation, our understanding of the physiology, let alone the pathophysiology, remains incomplete. It is imperative that we gain more clear evidence of causes and test and implement treatment paradigms. In the meantime, immune testing or empirical treatment with the use of immune modulators must be approached with caution. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  20. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  1. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  2. [Silastic implant and synovitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennwald, G

    1989-07-22

    The silastic implant based on siloxane polymere induces granulomatous synovitis in certain predisposed individuals, a reaction which may continue even after removal of the implant. This is also true of a prosthesis of the trapezium in two of our patients, though to a lesser degree. This is probably the reason why the problem has not yet been widely recognized. The hypothesis is put forward that an enzymatic predisposition may allow chemical degradation of the fragmented silastic implant into a toxic component responsible for the pathologic condition. The slow progression of the lesions is a challenge for the future and puts in question the further use of silastic implants.

  3. Cochlear implant magnet retrofit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N L; Breda, S D; Hoffman, R A

    1988-06-01

    An implantable magnet is now available for patients who have received the standard Nucleus 22-channel cochlear implant and who are not able to wear the headband satisfactorily. This magnet is attached in piggy-back fashion to the previously implanted receiver/stimulator by means of a brief operation under local anesthesia. Two patients have received this magnet retrofit, and are now wearing the headset with greater comfort and satisfaction. It is felt that the availability of this magnet will increase patient compliance in regard to hours of implant usage.

  4. Influence of extracellular matrix coatings on implant stability and osseointegration: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlinger, Bernd; Pilling, Eckart; Huhle, Matthias; Mai, Ronald; Bierbaum, Susanne; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Hempel, Ute; Eckelt, Uwe

    2007-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the application of components of the extracellular matrix such as glycosaminoglycans used as implant surface coatings in combination with collagen, with and without growth factor, can lead to enhanced ossification and thus improve implant stability compared with collagen coatings alone. Twenty miniature pigs received 120 experimental titanium implants in the mandible. Three types of surface coatings were created: (1) collagen type I (coll), (2) collagen type I/chondroitin sulphate (coll/CS), (3) collagen type I/chondroitin sulphate/BMP-4 (coll/CS/BMP). Periimplant bone formation was assessed within a defined recess along the length axis of the implant. Bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone volume density (BVD) were determined, using both histomorphometry and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SRmicroCT). To measure implant stability, resonance frequency analysis was applied after implantation and 1, 3, 7, and 22 weeks after placement. BIC was highest for coll/CS coated implants, followed by coll, p = 0.082. Histomorphometric BVD did not significantly change for any coating. SRmicroCT analysis showed an increased BVD for collagen coated implants, compared with the other two surface coatings. Implant stability showed a decrease for all coatings up to the third week. At 22 weeks, all coatings showed an increase in stability without reaching their initial level. Highest stability was reached for coll coated implants, p = 0.051. It was concluded that collagen and coll/CS implant coatings have advantageous characteristics for peri-implant bone formation, compared with the further integration of BMP-4.

  5. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Unc.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: Unc.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  19. Stress and its influence on reproduction in pigs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The manifestations of stress, defined as a biological response to an event that the individual perceives as a threat to its homeostasis, are commonly linked to enhanced activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and the activation of the sympathetic adreno-medullary (SA system. Activation of the HPA system results in the secretion of peptides from the hypothalamus, principally corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and beta-endorphin. ACTH induces the secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex, which can be seen in pigs exposed to acute physical and/or psychological stressors. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of stressors on reproduction in pigs. The effects of stress on reproduction depend on the critical timing of stress, the genetic predisposition to stress, and the type of stress. The effect of stress on reproduction is also influenced by the duration of the responses induced by various stressors. Prolonged or chronic stress usually results in inhibition of reproduction, while the effects of transient or acute stress in certain cases is stimulatory (e.g. anoestrus, but in most cases is of impairment for reproduction. Most sensitive of the reproductive process are ovulation, expression of sexual behaviour and implantation of the embryo, since they are directly controlled by the neuroendocrine system.

  20. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...

  1. Accumulation of RNA in blastocysts during embryonic diapause and the periimplantation period in the western spotted skunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, R.A.; Rourke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was studied in delayed implanting and activated blastocysts obtained from 33 western spotted skunks. 3 H-uridine was incorporated into RNA by all blastocysts; however, significantly more label was incorporated as blastocyst diameter increased. Activated blastocysts with diameters of 1.6 mm or greater on average incorporated 65 times more 3 H-precursor in 5 hr than diapausing blastocysts with diameters of 1.1 mm or less. Polyadenylated RNA was likewise synthesized by delayed implanting and activated skunk blastocysts; however, the proportion of polyadenylated RNA synthesized by the former was greater than in the latter. The data suggest that the transition from embryonic diapause to fully activated blastocysts first occurs gradually for several days before entering a 1-2-day period of rapid development characterized by an abrupt increase in RNA accumulation

  2. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  3. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...

  4. Influence of demineralized bone matrix's embryonic origin on bone formation: an experimental study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Andreas; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Mardas, Nicolaos; Karring, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    There are results suggesting that differences regarding bone-inducing potential, in terms of amount and/or rate of bone formation, exist between demineralized bone matrices (DBMs) of different embryonic origins. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the embryonic origin of DBM affects bone formation when used as an adjunct to guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Endomembranous (EM) and endochondral (ECH) DBMs were produced from calvarial and long bones of rats, respectively. Prior to the study the osteoinductive properties of the DBMs were confirmed in six rats following intramuscular implantation. Following surgical exposure of the mandibular ramus, a rigid hemispheric Teflon capsule loosely packed with a standardized quantity of DBM was placed with its open part facing the lateral surface of the ramus in both sides of the jaw in 30 rats. In one side of the jaw, chosen at random, the capsule was filled with EM-DBM, whereas in the other side ECH-DBM was used. Groups of 10 animals were sacrificed after healing periods of 1, 2, and 4 months, and undecalcified sections of the capsules were produced and subjected to histologic analysis and computer-assisted planimetric measurements. During the experiment increasing amounts of newly formed bone were observed inside the capsules in both sides of the animals' jaws. Limited bone formation was observed in the 1- and 2-month specimens, but after 4 months of healing, the newly formed bone in the ECH-DBM grafted sides occupied 59.1% (range 45.6-74.7%) of the area created by the capsule versus 46.9% (range 23.0-64.0%) in the EM-DBM grafted sides (p =.01). It is concluded that the embryonic origin of DBM influences bone formation by GTR and that ECH-DBM is superior to EM-DBM.

  5. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  6. Decidualization and syndecan-1 knock down sensitize endometrial stromal cells to apoptosis induced by embryonic stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jean Boeddeker

    Full Text Available Human embryo invasion and implantation into the inner wall of the maternal uterus, the endometrium, is the pivotal process for a successful pregnancy. Whereas disruption of the endometrial epithelial layer was already correlated with the programmed cell death, the role of apoptosis of the subjacent endometrial stromal cells during implantation is indistinct. The aim was to clarify whether apoptosis plays a role in the stromal invasion and to characterize if the apoptotic susceptibility of endometrial stromal cells to embryonic stimuli is influenced by decidualization and Syndecan-1. Therefore, the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 was used to first generate a new cell line with a stable Syndecan-1 knock down (KdS1, and second to further decidualize the cells with progesterone. As a replacement for the ethically inapplicable embryo all cells were treated with the embryonic factors and secretion products interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1 and anti-Fas antibody to mimic the embryo contact. Detection of apoptosis was verified via Caspase ELISAs, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were investigated via antibody arrays and underlying signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Non-decidualized endometrial stromal cells showed a resistance towards apoptosis which was rescinded by decidualization and Syndecan-1 knock down independent of decidualization. This was correlated with an altered expression of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and connected to a higher activation of pro-survival Akt in non-differentiated St-T1 as an upstream mediator of apoptotis-related proteins. This study provides insight into the largely elusive process of implantation, proposing an important role for stromal cell apoptosis to successfully establish a pregnancy. The impact of Syndecan-1 in attenuating the apoptotic signal is particularly interesting in the

  7. Mechanical control of notochord morphogenesis by extra-embryonic tissues in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imuta, Yu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Shi, Dongbo; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Mammalian embryos develop in coordination with extraembryonic tissues, which support embryonic development by implanting embryos into the uterus, supplying nutrition, providing a confined niche, and also providing patterning signals to embryos. Here, we show that in mouse embryos, the expansion of the amniotic cavity (AC), which is formed between embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, provides the mechanical forces required for a type of morphogenetic movement of the notochord known as convergent extension (CE) in which the cells converge to the midline and the tissue elongates along the antero-posterior (AP) axis. The notochord is stretched along the AP axis, and the expansion of the AC is required for CE. Both mathematical modeling and physical simulation showed that a rectangular morphology of the early notochord caused the application of anisotropic force along the AP axis to the notochord through the isotropic expansion of the AC. AC expansion acts upstream of planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which regulates CE movement. Our results highlight the importance of extraembryonic tissues as a source of the forces that control the morphogenesis of embryos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of TSA and VPA treatment on long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zu-Xing; Huang, Gao-Bo; Luo, Jun; Ning, Shu-Fang; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2012-03-01

    Long-tailed macaque-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is beneficial to yield embryonic stem cells from iSCNT embryos with similar genetic background as human, which can be used as materials for medical and basic research. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of concentrations and treatment duration of two histone deacetylase inhibitors-Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic acid (VPA) and two different embryo culture media (PZM-3 and HECM-10) on the in vitro development of iSCNT embryos. The results suggested that when PZM-3 was used as the embryo culture medium, the blastocyst rate of 10 nmol/L TSA treatment for 48 h was significantly higher than the control group (22.78% vs 9.86%, PTSA treatment could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of long-tailed macaque-pig iSCNT embryos.

  10. Transcriptomic changes in the pre-implantation uterus highlight histotrophic nutrition of the developing marsupial embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; O'Meally, Denis; Laird, Melanie K; Belov, Katherine; Thompson, Michael B; McAllan, Bronwyn M

    2018-02-05

    Early pregnancy is a critical time for successful reproduction; up to half of human pregnancies fail before the development of the definitive chorioallantoic placenta. Unlike the situation in eutherian mammals, marsupial pregnancy is characterised by a long pre-implantation period prior to the development of the short-lived placenta, making them ideal models for study of the uterine environment promoting embryonic survival pre-implantation. Here we present a transcriptomic study of pre-implantation marsupial pregnancy, and identify differentially expressed genes in the Sminthopsis crassicaudata uterus involved in metabolism and biosynthesis, transport, immunity, tissue remodelling, and uterine receptivity. Interestingly, almost one quarter of the top 50 genes that are differentially upregulated in early pregnancy are putatively involved in histotrophy, highlighting the importance of nutrient transport to the conceptus prior to the development of the placenta. This work furthers our understanding of the mechanisms underlying survival of pre-implantation embryos in the earliest live bearing ancestors of mammals.

  11. Percutaneous and skeletal biocarbon implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, V.

    1977-01-01

    Review of carbon implants developed by NASA discussed four different types of implants and subsequent improvements. Improvements could be of specific interest to rehabilitation centers and similar organizations.

  12. Degradable Implantate: Entwicklungsbeispiele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffieux, Kurt; Wintermantel, Erich

    Resorbierbare Implantate werden seit mehreren Jahrzehnten in der Implantologie eingesetzt. Bekannt wurden diese Biomaterialien mit dem Aufkommen von sich selbst auflösenden Nahtfäden auf der Basis von synthetisch hergestellten Polylactiden und Polyglycoliden in den 70er Jahren. In einem nächsten Schritt wurden Implantate wie Platten und Schrauben zur Gewebefixation aus den gleichen Biomaterialien hergestellt.

  13. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a risk of developing a type of cancer called breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) in the breast tissue surrounding the implant. BIA-ALCL is not breast cancer. Women diagnosed with BIA-ALCL may need to ...

  14. Ion implantation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this part of the paper descriptions are given of the effects of ion implantation on (a) friction and wear in metals; and (b) corrosion of metals. In the study of corrosion, ion implantation can be used either to introduce a constituent that is known to convey corrosion resistance, or more generally to examine the parameters which control corrosion. (U.K.)

  15. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Number of implants for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Yol; Kim, Ha-Young; Bryant, S. Ross

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review is to address treatment outcomes of Mandibular implant overdentures relative to implant survival rate, maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted by a PubMed search strategy and hand-searching of relevant journals from included studies. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) and comparative clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were selected. Eleven studies from 1098 studies were finally selected and data were analyzed relative to number of implants. RESULTS Six studies presented the data of the implant survival rate which ranged from 95% to 100% for 2 and 4 implant group and from 81.8% to 96.1% for 1 and 2 implant group. One study, which statistically compared implant survival rate showed no significant differences relative to the number of implants. The most common type of prosthetic maintenance and complications were replacement or reattaching of loose clips for 2 and 4 implant group, and denture repair due to the fracture around an implant for 1 and 2 implant groups. Most studies showed no significant differences in the rate of prosthetic maintenance and complication, and patient satisfaction regardless the number of implants. CONCLUSION The implant survival rate of mandibular overdentures is high regardless of the number of implants. Denture maintenance is likely not inflenced substantially by the number of implants and patient satisfaction is typically high again regardless os the number of implants. PMID:23236572

  17. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...... of reactivity for all antibodies against both ES and EC cells, suggesting that these markers will afford recognition of unique sub-states within the undifferentiated stem cell compartment....... and EC cells, and herein describe their characterization. The reactivity of these antibodies against a range of cell lines is reported, as well as their developmental regulation, basic biochemistry and reactivity in immunohistochemistry of testicular germ cell tumours. Our data reveal a range...

  18. Ion implantation into iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of implanted ions in iron, the friction characteristics and the corrosion of iron were studied. The distribution of Ni or Cr ions implanted into mild steel was measured. The accelerated voltage was 150 keV, and the beam current density was about 2 microampere/cm 2 . The measurement was made with an ion microanalyzer. The measured distribution was compared with that of LSS theory. Deep invasion of Ni was seen in the measured distribution. The distribution of Cr ions was different from the distribution calculated by the LSS theory. The relative friction coefficient of mild steel varied according to the dose of implanted Cu or N ions, and to the accelerating voltage. Formation of compound metals on the surfaces of metals by ion-implantation was investigated for the purpose to prevent the corrosion of metals. The resistance of mild steel in which Ni ions were implanted was larger than that of mild steel without any treatment. (Kato, T.)

  19. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  20. Epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Nicolaj Strøyer; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo and are pluripotent, as they are able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism. Once established, the pluripotent ES cells can be maintained under defined culture conditions, but can also...... be induced rapidly to differentiate. Maintaining this balance of stability versus plasticity is a challenge, and extensive studies in recent years have focused on understanding the contributions of transcription factors and epigenetic enzymes to the "stemness" properties of these cells. Identifying...... the molecular switches that regulate ES cell self-renewal versus differentiation can provide insights into the nature of the pluripotent state and enhance the potential use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Here, we review the latest models for how changes in chromatin methylation can modulate ES cell...

  1. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  2. The induction by X-rays of chromosome aberrations in male guinea-pigs, golden hamsters and rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.D.; Lyon, M.F.

    1975-01-01

    Translocations induced by X-rays in post-meiotic germ cells of male guinea-pigs, golden hamsters and rabbits were studied cytologically in the F 1 sons of the irradiated males. The percentage of spermatocytes displaying multivalent configurations varied with the translocation, but the average percentage appeared to depend on the species: fewer quadrivalents were observed in hamster than in guinea-pig heterozygotes and most were recorded for rabbit heterozygotes. Chain quadrivalents were more abundant than ring quadrivalents at meiosis for the guinea-pig and hamster in contrast to the mouse. Too few translocation heterozygotes were examined to determine which meiotic configuration was the more prevalent in the rabbit. In all three species, as in the mouse, translocations were found which caused male sterility, due to partial or complete failure of spermatogenesis, although most translocations caused semi-sterility. For these semi-sterile males both the frequency and time of embryonic death in the progeny appeared to be the same as in the mouse. It is concluded that similar types of chromosome aberrations are induced by X-rays in post-meiotic germ cells of male guinea-pigs, rabbits, golden hamsters and mice

  3. Influence of Palatal Coverage and Implant Distribution on Implant Strain in Maxillary Implant Overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Mizuno, Yoko; Fujinami, Yozo; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary implant overdentures are often used in clinical practice. However, there is no agreement or established guidelines regarding prosthetic design or optimal implant placement configuration. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of palatal coverage and implant number and distribution in relation to impact strain under maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants and experimental overdentures with and without palatal coverage was fabricated. Four strain gauges were attached to each implant, and they were positioned in the anterior, premolar, and molar areas. A vertical occlusal load of 98 N was applied through a mandibular complete denture, and the implant strains were compared using one-way analysis of variance (P = .05). The palatolabial strain was much higher on anterior implants than on other implants in both denture types. Although there was no significant difference between the strain under dentures with and without palatal coverage, palateless dentures tended to result in higher implant strain than dentures with palatal coverage. Dentures supported by only two implants registered higher strain than those supported by four or six implants. Implants under palateless dentures registered higher strain than those under dentures with palatal coverage. Anterior implants exhibited higher palatolabial strain than other implants regardless of palatal coverage and implant configuration; it is therefore recommended that maxillary implant overdentures should be supported by six implants with support extending to the distal end of the arch.

  4. A preliminary study in osteoinduction by a nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite in the mini pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Götz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the probable osteoinductive properties of NanoBone®, a new highly non-sintered porous nano-crystallinehydroxylapatite bone substitute embedded into a silica gel matrix, granules were implanted subcutaneously and intramuscularlyinto the back region of 18 mini pigs. After periods of 5 and 10 weeks as well as 4 and 8 months, implantation siteswere investigated using histological and histomorphometric procedures. Signs of early osteogenesis could already be detectedafter 5 weeks. The later periods were characterized by increasing membranous osteogenesis in and around the granulesleading to the formation of bone-like structures showing periosteal and tendon-like structures with bone marrow and focalchondrogenesis. Bone formation was better in the subcutaneous than in the intramuscular implantation sites. This ectopicosteogenesis is discussed with regard to the nanoporosity and microporosity of the material, physico-chemical interactionsat its surface, the differentiation of osteoblasts, the role of angiogenesis and the probable involvement of growth factors. Theresults of this preliminary study indicate that this biomaterial has osteoinductive potential and induces the formation of bonestructures, mainly in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the pig.

  5. Early Performance and Safety of the Micra Transcatheter Pacemaker in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Matthew; Eggen, Michael; Haddad, Tarek; Sheldon, Todd; Williams, Eric

    2015-11-01

    The Micra® Transcatheter Pacing System (TPS; Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a miniaturized single-chamber pacemaker system that is delivered via catheter through the femoral vein. In this study, the electrical performance was compared between the TPS and a traditional leaded pacemaker. In addition, the safety profile of the two systems was compared by thorough monitoring for a number of adverse events. The TPS was implanted in the right ventricular apex of 10 Yucatan mini pigs and a Medtronic single-lead pacemaker (SLP) was implanted in the right ventricular apex of another 10 pigs and connected to a traditional pacemaker. The electrical performance of all devices was monitored for 12 weeks. The safety profile of each system was characterized using x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, blood work, and necropsy to monitor for a variety of adverse events. At implant the mean pacing thresholds were 0.58 ± 0.17 V @0.24 ms and 0.75 ± 0.29 V @0.21 ms for the TPS and the SLP respectively. After 12 weeks, mean thresholds were 0.94 ± 0.46 V and 1.85 ± 0.75 V (P pacemaker system. © 2015 Medtronic PLC. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A preliminary study in osteoinduction by a nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite in the mini pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten K H Gundlach

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the probable osteoinductive properties of NanoBone, a new highly non-sintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxylapatite bone substitute embedded into a silica gel matrix, granules were implanted subcutaneously and intramuscularly into the back region of 18 mini pigs. After periods of 5 and 10 weeks as well as 4 and 8 months, implantation sites were investigated using histological and histomorphometric procedures. Signs of early osteogenesis could already be detected after 5 weeks. The later periods were characterized by increasing membranous osteogenesis in and around the granules leading to the formation of bone-like structures showing periosteal and tendon-like structures with bone marrow and focal chondrogenesis. Bone formation was better in the subcutaneous than in the intramuscular implantation sites. This ectopic osteogenesis is discussed with regard to the nanoporosity and microporosity of the material, physico-chemical interactions at its surface, the differentiation of osteoblasts, the role of angiogenesis and the probable involvement of growth factors. The results of this preliminary study indicate that this biomaterial has osteoinductive potential and induces the formation of bone structures, mainly in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the pig.

  7. A preliminary study in osteoinduction by a nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite in the mini pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Werner; Lenz, Solvig; Reichert, Christoph; Henkel, Kai-Olaf; Bienengräber, Volker; Pernicka, Laura; Gundlach, Karsten K H; Gredes, Tomasz; Gerber, Thomas; Gedrange, Tomasz; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2010-12-01

    To test the probable osteoinductive properties of NanoBone, a new highly non-sintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxylapatite bone substitute embedded into a silica gel matrix, granules were implanted subcutaneously and intramuscularly into the back region of 18 mini pigs. After periods of 5 and 10 weeks as well as 4 and 8 months, implantation sites were investigated using histological and histomorphometric procedures. Signs of early osteogenesis could already be detected after 5 weeks. The later periods were characterized by increasing membranous osteogenesis in and around the granules leading to the formation of bone-like structures showing periosteal and tendon-like structures with bone marrow and focal chondrogenesis. Bone formation was better in the subcutaneous than in the intramuscular implantation sites. This ectopic osteogenesis is discussed with regard to the nanoporosity and microporosity of the material, physico-chemical interactions at its surface, the differentiation of osteoblasts, the role of angiogenesis and the probable involvement of growth factors. The results of this preliminary study indicate that this biomaterial has osteoinductive potential and induces the formation of bone structures, mainly in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the pig.

  8. Animal Models for Evaluation of Bone Implants and Devices: Comparative Bone Structure and Common Model Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancket, L M

    2015-09-01

    Bone implants and devices are a rapidly growing field within biomedical research, and implants have the potential to significantly improve human and animal health. Animal models play a key role in initial product development and are important components of nonclinical data included in applications for regulatory approval. Pathologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate these models at the initial developmental and nonclinical biocompatibility testing stages, and it is important to understand the relative merits and deficiencies of various species when evaluating a new material or device. This article summarizes characteristics of the most commonly used species in studies of bone implant materials, including detailed information about the relevance of a particular model to human bone physiology and pathology. Species reviewed include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, sheep, goats, and nonhuman primates. Ultimately, a comprehensive understanding of the benefits and limitations of different model species will aid in rigorously evaluating a novel bone implant material or device. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Suppurative Inflammation and Local Tissue Destruction Reduce the Penetration of Cefuroxime to Infected Bone Implant Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L Kruse; Koch, J; Henriksen, N Lind

    2017-01-01

    with Staphylococcus aureus IAO present for 5 days. In the present study, a comprehensive histopathological characterization of the peri-implant bone tissue was performed and correlated with the reduced penetration of cefuroxime. In two pigs, the levels of oxygen, pyruvate and lactate was estimated in the implant...... cavity. A peri-implant pathological bone area (PIBA) developed with a width of 1.2 up to 3.8 mm. PIBAs included: (1) suppuration, resulting in destruction of the implant cavity contour, and (2) a non-vascular zone of primarily necrotic bone tissue. A strong negative correlation was seen between PIBA...... width and cefuroxime area under the concentration time curves (AUC[0-last]) and peak concentration of cefuroxime (Cmax). All metabolic measurements demonstrated hypoxia. In conclusion, subacute suppurative bone inflammation with local tissue destruction can result in decreased penetration of antibiotics...

  10. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    the specifics of modern datasets available on the Web, which often use the RDF data model. Graph patterns, for instance, are one of the core concepts of SPARQL but have to be formulated as explicit joins, which burdens the user with the details of efficient query processing strategies. In this paper, we address......In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user...

  11. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  12. The unsuitability of implantable Doppler probes for the early detection of renal vascular complications - a porcine model for prevention of renal transplant loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdisen, Chris; Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe...... and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion. Methods: In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were....../3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular...

  13. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  14. Implants for orthodontic anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Sun, Yannan; Zhang, Yimei; Cai, Ting; Sun, Feng; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Implantanchorage continues to receive much attention as an important orthodontic anchorage. Since the development of orthodontic implants, the scope of applications has continued to increase. Although multiple reviews detailing implants have been published, no comprehensive evaluations have been performed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of implants based on data published in review articles. An electronic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Ebsco and Sicencedirect for reviews with “orthodontic” and “systematic review or meta analysis” in the title, abstract, keywords, or full text was performed. A subsequent manual search was then performed to identify reviews concerning orthodontic implants. A manual search of the orthodontic journals American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO), and Angle Othodontist was also performed. Such systematic reviews that evaluated the efficacy and safety of orthodontic implants were used to indicate success rates and molar movements. A total of 23 reviews were included in the analysis. The quality of each review was assessed using a measurement tool for Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and the review chosen to summarize outcomes had a quality score of >6. Most reviews were less than moderate quality. Success rates of implants ranged in a broad scope, and movement of the maxillary first molar was superior with implants compared with traditional anchorage. PMID:29595673

  15. Maintenance in dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Póvoa Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In implants, maintenance is a decisive factor for obtaining success when implant supported overdentures and dentures are used. The present stud presents, a clinical case of a patient, a 70 year-old white man, with a completely edentulous mandibular alveolar ridge, severe bone resorption with presence of basal bone only, and absence of vestibule. Initially, treatment consisted of the placement of a mandibular overdenture, supported on three implants in the anterior inter-foramen region, as the left implant was transfixed in the basal bone of 2 to 3 millimeters. Eleven years later, another two implants were placed in the anterior area and an immediate load was performed up to the first molars, for the placement of an implant supported fixed. Throughout the entire treatment, meticulous maintenance was carried out, with follow-up for fourteen years, interrupted by the patient’s death. From the third month after the opening the three implants initially placed, the presence of keratinized mucosa, definition of the vestibule, maturation of the alveolar ridge and bone formation in the mento region were observed. It was concluded that good planning, allied to mastery of the technique and adequate maintenance were the prerequisites necessary for obtaining favorable results, success of the present case, and for the patient to have a better quality of life.

  16. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  17. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  18. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  19. Selected hematological and immunological parameters in pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected from 64 healthy growing pigs one week before and one week after they were transferred to the finishing house. The following tests were performed: complete blood count with machine differential, immunoglobulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and cortisol level. Pigs were divided into two groups.

  20. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  1. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  2. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  3. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  4. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasupen, K

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional

  6. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  7. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  8. Function of JARID2 in bovines during early embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine modifications are important epigenetic modifications in early embryonic development. JARID2, which is a member of the jumonji demethylase protein family, is a regulator of early embryonic development and can regulate mouse development and embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation by modifying histone lysines. JARID2 can affect early embryonic development by regulating the methylation level of H3K27me3, which is closely related to normal early embryonic development. To investigate the expression pattern of JARID2 and the effect of JARID2-induced H3K27 methylation in bovine oocytes and early embryonic stages, JARID2 mRNA expression and localization were detected in bovine oocytes and early embryos via qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence in the present study. The results showed that JARID2 is highly expressed in the germinal vesicle (GV, MII, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stages, but the relative expression level of JARID2 in bovine GV oocytes is significantly lower than that at other oocyte/embryonic stages (p < 0.05, and JARID2 is expressed primarily in the nucleus. We next detected the mRNA expression levels of embryonic development-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc after JARID2 knockdown through JARID2-2830-siRNA microinjection to investigate the molecularpathwayunderlying the regulation of H3K27me3 by JARID2 during early embryonic development. The results showed that the relative expression levels of these genes in 2-cell embryos weresignificantly higher than those in the blastocyst stage, and expression levels were significantly increased after JARID2 knockdown. In summary, the present study identified the expression pattern of JARID2 in bovine oocytes and at each early embryonic stage, and the results suggest that JARID2 plays a key role in early embryonic development by regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2 and c-myc via modification of H3K27me3 expression. This work provides new data for improvements in the

  9. Ion implantation for microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1977-01-01

    Ion implantation has proved to be a versatile and efficient means of producing microelectronic devices. This review summarizes the relevant physics and technology and assesses the advantages of the method. Examples are then given of widely different device structures which have been made by ion implantation. While most of the industrial application has been in silicon, good progress continues to be made in the more difficult field of compound semiconductors. Equipment designed for the industrial ion implantation of microelectronic devices is discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  10. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  11. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  12. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  14. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  15. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  16. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  17. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant downregulates PDGFR-α and upregulates caveolin-1 in experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cehofski, Lasse Jørgensen; Kruse, Anders; Magnusdottir, Sigriður Olga

    2018-01-01

    while the left control eye was given an identical injection without an implant. Fifteen days after BRVO and DEX implant intervention the retinas were excised and analyzed with tandem mass tag based mass spectrometry. A total of 26 significantly changed proteins were identified. Dexamethasone...... following an intervention with a dexamethasone (DEX) implant this study combined an experimental model of BRVO with proteomic techniques. In six Danish Landrace pigs experimental BRVO was induced in both eyes using argon laser. After inducing BRVO a DEX implant was injected in the right eye of each animal......-α and caveolin-1 were confirmed with immunohistochemistry. DEX implant intervention may inhibit PDGF signaling by decreasing the retinal level of PDGFR-α while an increased content of caveolin-1 may help maintain the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier....

  18. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Essential role of chromatin remodeling protein Bptf in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Landry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor, the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf(-/- embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf(-/- embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo.

  20. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  1. Suppression of decidual cell response induced by tributyltin chloride in pseudopregnant rats: a cause of early embryonic loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harazono, A.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Osaka Branch (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    In our previous studies, tributyltin chloride (TBTC1) at doses of 16.3 mg/kg and above caused implantation failure (preimplantation embryonic loss) and postimplantation embryonic loss in rats following administration on gestational day (GD) 0 through GD 3 and GD 4 through GD 7, respectively. This study was designed to assess the effects of TBTC1 on uterine function as a cause of early embryonic loss in pseudopregnant rats. TBTC1 was given orally to pseudopregnant rats at doses of 4.1, 8.1, 16.3 and 32.5 mg/kg on pseudopregnant day (PPD) 0 to PPD 3 or 8.1, 16.3, 32.5 and 65.1 mg/kg on PPD 4 to PPD 7. The decidual cell response was induced by bilateral scratch trauma on PPD 4. The uterine weight on PPD 9 served as an index of uterine decidualization. Uterine weight and serum progesterone levels on PPD 9 were significantly decreased after administration of TBTC1 at doses of 16.3 mg/kg and above on PPD 0 to PPD 3 or PPD 4 to PPD 7. Administration of TBTC1 at doses of 8.1 mg/kg and above on PPD 0 to 3 also significantly decreased serum progesterone levels on PPD 4. TBTC1 had no effect on ovarian weight and number of corpora lutea. It can be concluded that TBTC1 suppresses the uterine decidual cell response and decreases progesterone levels, and these effects are responsible for early embryonic loss due to TBTC1 exposure. (orig.)

  2. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  3. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in

  4. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  5. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your surgical options and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of implant-based reconstruction, and may show you ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  7. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  8. Precipitation processes in implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a nonequilibrium process. It is possible to implant materials with impurities to concentration levels which exceed the solid solubilities. The return of the system to thermodynamic equilibrium is often accomplished by precipitation of the implanted species or a compound involving atoms of both the host and the implanted species. This may involve long time scales when taking place at room temperature or it may take place during the implantation

  9. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  10. The use of shape memory compression anastomosis clips in cholecystojejunostomy in pigs – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of compression anastomosis clips (CAC in cholecystoenterostomy in an animal model. Cholecystojejunostomy was performed in 6 pigs using implants made of nickel-titanium alloy in the form of elliptical springs with two-way shape memory. The applied procedure led to the achievement of tight anastomosis with a minimal number of complications and positive results of histopathological evaluations of the anastomotic site. The results of the study indicate that shape memory NiTi clips are a promising surgical tool for cholecystoenterostomy in cats and dogs.

  11. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  12. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  13. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Laralynne; Voldman, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Although stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling environment, the endogenous autocrine and paracrine signals produced by the cells also contribute to their two essential processes: self-renewal and differentiation. Autocrine and/or paracrine signals are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature and contributions of these signals are often difficult to fully define using conventional methods. Microfluidic techniques have been used to explore the effects of cell-secreted signals by controlling cell organization or by providing precise control over the spatial and temporal cellular microenvironment. Here we review how such techniques have begun to be adapted for use with embryonic stem cells, and we illustrate how many remaining questions in embryonic stem cell biology could be addressed using microfluidic technologies.

  14. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  15. Graphene for enhanced embryonic stem cell photo-transfection efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to their pluripotency properties, embryonic stem (ES) cells possess great potential in regenerative therapy. Since reported a promising tissue engineering scaffold material, here, graphene is demonstrated to significantly improve the ES cell...

  16. A toolbox to explore the mechanics of living embryonic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campàs, Otger

    2016-01-01

    The sculpting of embryonic tissues and organs into their functional morphologies involves the spatial and temporal regulation of mechanics at cell and tissue scales. Decades of in vitro work, complemented by some in vivo studies, have shown the relevance of mechanical cues in the control of cell behaviors that are central to developmental processes, but the lack of methodologies enabling precise, quantitative measurements of mechanical cues in vivo have hindered our understanding of the role of mechanics in embryonic development. Several methodologies are starting to enable quantitative studies of mechanics in vivo and in situ, opening new avenues to explore how mechanics contributes to shaping embryonic tissues and how it affects cell behavior within developing embryos. Here we review the present methodologies to study the role of mechanics in living embryonic tissues, considering their strengths and drawbacks as well as the conditions in which they are most suitable. PMID:27061360

  17. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  18. Anodized dental implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  19. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to carcino-embryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Jinghee; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of producing new MoAb to colorectal carcinoma, immunization with cell suspensions of a fresh colonic tumour was performed and MoAb 17C4 was obtained. To produce other MoAb to colon cancer, an immunization protocol using fresh tumour, colonic cell lines and sera from patients with colonic tumours was employed and resulted in MoAb JGT-13, LK-4 and XPX-13. MoAb I-1 and O-1 were raised against sera from patients with colon cancer to produce MoAb directed against circulating tumour associated antigens. The six antibodies gave a range of reactions with normal and malignant tissues, indicating that they most likely reacted with different epitopes. Thus, apart from the reactions of 17C4, LK-4 and XPX-13 with fresh and formalin-fixed granulocytes, none of the antibodies reacted with formalin-fixed normal tissues. Despite the apparent specificity of these MoAb for colon cancer, serum testing using MoAb gave similar results to carcino-embryonic antigen polyclonal antibodies, that is the MoAb gave no obvious advantage. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. The epigenomics of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess an open and highly dynamic chromatin landscape, which underlies their plasticity and ultimately maintains ESC pluripotency. The ESC epigenome must not only maintain the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes but must also, through gene priming, facilitate rapid and cell type-specific activation of developmental genes upon lineage commitment. Trans-generational inheritance ensures that the ESC chromatin state is stably transmitted from one generation to the next; yet at the same time, epigenetic marks are highly dynamic, reversible and responsive to extracellular cues. Once committed to differentiation, the ESC epigenome is remodeled and resolves into a more compact chromatin state. A thorough understanding of the role of chromatin modifiers in ESC fate and differentiation will be important if they are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Recent technical advances, particularly in next-generation sequencing technologies, have provided a genome-scale view of epigenetic marks and chromatin modifiers. More affordable and faster sequencing platforms have led to a comprehensive characterization of the ESC epigenome and epigenomes of differentiated cell types. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress that has highlighted the central role of histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin modifiers in ESC pluripotency and ESC fate. We provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of genome-wide studies that are pertinent to our understanding of mammalian development.

  2. Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, B; Ferrari, R; Stefanello, D; Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Faverzani, S; Longo, M; Zani, D D; Ravasio, G; Caniatti, M; Grieco, V

    2017-11-01

    A 17-month-old female doberman pinscher was referred for an abdominal mass and ascites. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the presence of a large neoplastic mass replacing the right ovary and associated with multiple mesovarian, mesometrial and peritoneal nodules. An ovariohysterectomy was performed. Grossly, the tumour was soft and multilocular with large areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. Microscopically, it was infiltrative and composed of round and polygonal cells arranged respectively in solid sheets or forming distorted tubular structures separated by thick fibrovascular septae. Tubules contained necrotic debris, proteinaceous fluid or small endoluminal papillary structures. Marked cellular atypia, multiple neoplastic emboli and high mitotic count were observed. Immunohistochemically, the round cells uniformly expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, while the polygonal cells arranged in tubules and papillae expressed cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and CK7. A final diagnosis of metastasizing ovarian embryonal carcinoma (EC), a primitive germ cell tumour characterized by rudimentary epithelial differentiation was made. Canine ovarian EC should be considered as a differential diagnosis for undifferentiated aggressive ovarian tumours in young dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  4. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  5. Targeting embryonic signaling pathways in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Pamela Jo; Speranza, Giovanna; Dansky Ullmann, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic signaling pathways (ESP), Hedgehog, Notch and Wnt, are critical for the regulation of normal stem cells and cellular development processes. They are also activated in the majority of cancers. ESP are operational in putative cancer stem cells (CSC), which drive initial tumorigenesis and sustain cancer progression and recurrence in non-CSC bulk subpopulations. ESP represent novel therapeutic targets. A variety of inhibitors and targeting strategies are being developed. This review discusses the rationale for targeting ESP for cancer treatment, as well as specific inhibitors under development; mainly focusing on those approaching clinical use and the challenges that lie ahead. The data sources utilized are several database search engines (PubMed, Google, Clinicaltrials.gov), and the authors' involvement in the field. CSC research is rapidly evolving. Expectations regarding their therapeutic targeting are rising quickly. Further definition of what constitutes a true CSC, proper validation of CSC markers, a better understanding of cross-talk among ESP and other pathways, and interactions with tumor non-CSC and the tumor microenvironment are needed. The appropriate patient population, the right clinical setting and combination strategies to test these therapies, as well as the proper pharmacodynamic markers to measure, need to be further established.

  6. ALTERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING TESTIS TRANSCRIPTOME FOLLOWING EMBRYONIC VINCLOZOLIN EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Tracy M.; Savenkova, Marina I.; Settles, Matthew; Anway, Matthew D.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigates the direct effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the developing F1 generation rat testis transcriptome. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to vinclozolin during embryonic gonadal sex determination induces epigenetic modifications of the germ line and transgenerational adult onset disease states. Microarray analyses were performed to compare control and vinclozolin treated testis transcriptomes at embryonic day 13, 14 and 16. A total of 576 di...

  7. Progress in ion implantation equipment for semiconductor manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Naito, Masao

    1987-01-01

    In the semiconductor device manufacturing industry, ion implantation systems are used to dope semiconductor substrates with impurities that act as donor or acceptor. In an ion implantation system, required impurity ions are generated from an ion source, subjected to mass analysis, accelerated, converged and implanted in semiconductor wafers. High-tension arc tends to cause troubles in these systems, but improvement in design increased the average operation rate of medium-power systems from bout 70 percent to 90 percent during the past 10 years. Freeman type ion sources have replaced most RF ion sources and cold cathode PIG sources, which had been widely used until the early 1970s. Many of the recent ion sources are equipped with a P and As vaporizer to increase the beam intensity. By an increased beam intensity or decreased handling time in combination with an automatic handling system, the throughput has reached 330 wafers per hour for 10 second implantation. The yield has increased due to the development of improved scanning methods, vacuum devices such as cryopump, and processes and apparatus that serve for preventing particles from being contained in micro-devices. Various other improvements have been made to permit efficient production. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Short dental implants: an emerging concept in implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashedi, Ashwaq Ali; Taiyeb Ali, Tara Bai; Yunus, Norsiah

    2014-06-01

    Short implants have been advocated as a treatment option in many clinical situations where the use of conventional implants is limited. This review outlines the effectiveness and clinical outcomes of using short implants as a valid treatment option in the rehabilitation of edentulous atrophic alveolar ridges. Initially, an electronic search was performed on the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and DARE using key words from January 1990 until May 2012. An additional hand search was included for the relevant articles in the following journals: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, Clinical Oral Implants Research, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, International Journal of Periodontics, Journal of Periodontology, and Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. Any relevant papers from the journals' references were hand searched. Articles were included if they provided detailed data on implant length, reported survival rates, mentioned measures for implant failure, were in the English language, involved human subjects, and researched implants inserted in healed atrophic ridges with a follow-up period of at least 1 year after implant-prosthesis loading. Short implants demonstrated a high rate of success in the replacement of missing teeth in especially atrophic alveolar ridges. The advanced technology and improvement of the implant surfaces have encouraged the success of short implants to a comparable level to that of standard implants. However, further randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  9. Generation of hematopoietic lineage cells from embryonic like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Khamisipour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells into embryonic stem cells has attracted much attention, because of the potential for stem cell transplantation and compatibility with recipient. However, the therapeutic application of either nuclear transfer or nuclear fusion of somatic cell has been hindered by technical complications as well as ethical objections. Recently, a new method is reported whereby ectopic expression of embryonic specific transcription factors was shown to induce fibroblasts to become embryonic like SCs (induced pluripotent stem cells. A major limitation of this method is the use of potentially harmful genome integrating viruses such as reto- or lentivirus. The main aim of this investigation was generation of human hematopoietic stem cells from induced fibroblasts by safe adenovectors carrying embryonically active genes. Material and Methods: Isolated fibroblasts from foreskin were expanded and recombinant adenoviruses carrying human Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, cMyc genes were added to culture. After formation of embryonic like colonies and cell expansion, they were transferred to embryonic media without bFGF, and embryoid bodies were cultured on stromal and non-stromal differentiation media for 14 days. Results: Expression of CD34 gene and antigenic markers, CD34, CD38 & CD133 in stromal culture showed significant difference with non-differentiation and non-stromal media. Conclusion: These findings show high hematopoietic differentiation rate of Adeno-iPS cells in stromal culture and no need to use growth factors. While, there was no difference between non-differentiation and non-stromal media.

  10. Why Danish pig farms have far more land and pigs than Dutch farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Jaap; van Grinsven, H.J.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands and Denmark are the two biggest pig meat exporters in Europe, both with a strong focus on the German market. The structure of pig farms is very different: an average Danish pig farm has 3500 pigs, 170 ha of agricultural land on which a major part of the feed cereals are grown...... holdings using external sources of feed supply, and Danish farmers on efficient production of feed cereals on large holdings. Due to a gradual lowering of manure and fertiliser application standards, Dutch farmers increasingly have to process manure and export manure, further increasing the total costs...... pig farmers are less sensitive to nutrient policies and feed prices than those in the Netherlands, but the high debt rate makes the sector vulnerable to low pig prices....

  11. The ontogenetic development of neurons containing calcium-binding proteins in the septum of the guinea pig: Late onset of parvalbumin immunoreactivity versus calbindin and calretinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Beata; Robak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The study describes the immunoreactivity of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), their distribution pattern and the co-distribution of CB and CR as well as CB and PV in the septum of the guinea pig during development. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on embryonic (E40, E50, E60), newborn (P0) and postnatal (P5, P10, P20, P40, P100) guinea pig brains. The presence of both CB and CR was detected at E40, while PV began to be observed at E60. Immunoreactivity for CB was constant throughout ontogeny. In contrast to CR immunoreactivity, PV immunoreactivity was higher in the postnatal stages than in the prenatal and newborn stages. Double immunostaining showed that CB co-localized with CR from E40 onwards, while with PV from P5 onwards, suggesting that CB co-operates with these proteins in the guinea pig septum during different periods of ontogeny. Our results also indicate that among the studied CaBPs, CB exhibited the highest immunoreactivity during both embryonic and postnatal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Notch signaling activation in human embryonic stem cells is required for embryonic but not trophoblastic lineage commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaobing; Zou, Jizhong; Ye, Zhaohui; Hammond, Holly; Chen, Guibin; Tokunaga, Akinori; Mali, Prashant; Li, Yue-Ming; Civin, Curt; Gaiano, Nicholas; Cheng, Linzhao

    2008-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in cell fate determination during embryonic development and adult life. In this study, we focus on the role of Notch signaling in governing cell fate choices in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we achieved both blockade and conditional activation of Notch signaling in several hES cell lines. We report here that activation of Notch signaling is required for undifferentiated hES cells to form the pr...

  13. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Ppig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Pguinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Ppig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3guinea pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  14. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  15. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  16. Hybrid micro/nanostructural surface offering improved stress distribution and enhanced osseointegration properties of the biomedical titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Jen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Wang, Chin-Chieh; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Ruslin, Muhammad; Sugiatno, Erwan; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Chou, Hsin-Hua

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the surface characteristic, biomechanical behavior, hemocompatibility, bone tissue response and osseointegration of the optimal micro-arc oxidation surface-treated titanium (MST-Ti) dental implant. The surface characteristic, biomechanical behavior and hemocompatibility of the MST-Ti dental implant were performed using scanning electron microscope, finite element method, blood dripping and immersion tests. The mini-pig model was utilized to evaluate the bone tissue response and osseointegration of the MST-Ti dental implant in vivo. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using the Student's t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The hybrid volcano-like micro/nanoporous structure was formed on the surface of the MST-Ti dental implant. The hybrid volcano-like micro/nanoporous surface played an important role to improve the stress transfer between fixture, cortical bone and cancellous bone for the MST-Ti dental implant. Moreover, the MST-Ti implant was considered to have the outstanding hemocompatibility. In vivo testing results showed that the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio significantly altered as the implant with micro/nanoporous surface. After 12 weeks of implantation, the MST-Ti dental implant group exhibited significantly higher BIC ratio than the untreated dental implant group. In addition, the MST-Ti dental implant group also presented an enhancing osseointegration, particularly in the early stages of bone healing. It can be concluded that the micro-arc oxidation approach induced the formation of micro/nanoporous surface is a promising and reliable alternative surface modification for Ti dental implant applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  18. Nucleosome Organization in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available The fundamental repeating unit of eukaryotic chromatin is the nucleosome. Besides being involved in packaging DNA, nucleosome organization plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and cellular identity. Currently, there is much debate about the major determinants of the nucleosome architecture of a genome and its significance with little being known about its role in stem cells. To address these questions, we performed ultra-deep sequencing of nucleosomal DNA in two human embryonic stem cell lines and integrated our data with numerous epigenomic maps. Our analyses have revealed that the genome is a determinant of nucleosome organization with transcriptionally inactive regions characterized by a "ground state" of nucleosome profiles driven by underlying DNA sequences. DNA sequence preferences are associated with heterogeneous chromatin organization around transcription start sites. Transcription, histone modifications, and DNA methylation alter this "ground state" by having distinct effects on both nucleosome positioning and occupancy. As the transcriptional rate increases, nucleosomes become better positioned. Exons transcribed and included in the final spliced mRNA have distinct nucleosome profiles in comparison to exons not included at exon-exon junctions. Genes marked by the active modification H3K4m3 are characterized by lower nucleosome occupancy before the transcription start site compared to genes marked by the inactive modification H3K27m3, while bivalent domains, genes associated with both marks, lie exactly in the middle. Combinatorial patterns of epigenetic marks (chromatin states are associated with unique nucleosome profiles. Nucleosome organization varies around transcription factor binding in enhancers versus promoters. DNA methylation is associated with increasing nucleosome occupancy and different types of methylations have distinct location preferences within the nucleosome core particle. Finally, computational

  19. [Bilateral cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J

    2017-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) are standard for the hearing rehabilitation of severe to profound deafness. Nowadays, if bilaterally indicated, bilateral implantation is usually recommended (in accordance with German guidelines). Bilateral implantation enables better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, and restores directional and spatial hearing. Children with bilateral CI are able to undergo hearing-based hearing and speech development. Within the scope of their individual possibilities, bilaterally implanted children develop faster than children with unilateral CI and attain, e.g., a larger vocabulary within a certain time interval. Only bilateral implantation allows "binaural hearing," with all the benefits that people with normal hearing profit from, namely: better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, as well as directional and spatial hearing. Naturally, the developments take time. Binaural CI users benefit from the same effects as normal hearing persons: head shadow effect, squelch effect, and summation and redundancy effects. Sequential CI fitting is not necessarily disadvantageous-both simultaneously and sequentially fitted patients benefit in a similar way. For children, earliest possible fitting and shortest possible interval between the two surgeries seems to positively influence the outcome if bilateral CI are indicated.

  20. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  1. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...... underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...

  2. Relationship Between the Estimated Breeding Values for Litter Traits at Birth and Ovarian and Embryonic Traits and Their Additive Genetic Variance in Gilts at 35 Days of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. A. Da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between the estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter traits at birth and ovulation rate (OR, average corpora luteal weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits in gilts at 35 days of pregnancy by linear regression, (2 the genetic variance of OR, average corpora lutea (CL weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits at 35 days of pregnancy, and (3 the genetic correlations between these traits. Landrace (n = 86 and Yorkshire × Landrace (n = 304 gilts were inseminated and slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy. OR was assessed by dissection of the CL on both ovaries. Individual CL was weighed and the average CL weight calculated. The number of embryos (total and vital were counted and the vital embryos were individually weighed for calculation of within litter average and standard deviation (SD of the embryo weight. Length of the uterine implantation site of the vital embryos was measured and the average per gilt calculated. Results suggests that increasing the EBV for total number of piglets born would proportionally increase OR and number of embryos, while decreasing the average CL weight. On the contrary, increasing the EBV for average piglet birth weight and for within litter birth weight standard deviation would increase the average CL weight. There was no relationship between the EBVs for BW and for BWSD and vital embryonic weight at 35 days of pregnancy. OR, average CL weight, number of embryos, average weight and implantation length of the vital embryos had all moderate to high heritabilities, ranging from 0.36 (±0.18 to 0.70 (±0.17. Thus, results indicate that there is ample genetic variation in OR, average CL weight and embryonic development traits. This knowledge could be used to optimize the balance between selection for litter size, average piglets birth weight and within litter birth weight uniformity.

  3. Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Sears, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unequivocal, but a subgroup of patients experiences emotional difficulties following implantation. For this subgroup, some form of psychological intervention may be warranted. This review provides an overview of current ...

  4. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-glycoprotein: further validation of its usefulness in drug biotransformation/transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibu, Ibrahim; Patoine, Dany; Pilote, Sylvie; Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale

    2015-04-01

    The guinea-pig is an excellent animal model for studying cardiopulmonary physiology/pharmacology. Interestingly, it also possesses a number of drug-metabolizing enzymes found in humans, such as CYP1A, CYP2D and CYP3A. To evaluate the hypothesis that the guinea-pig also expresses a functional CYP2C drug-metabolizing enzyme and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter in various tissues. cDNAs encoding CYP2C and P-gp were obtained from guinea-pig liver or small intestine and sequenced. Western blotting was performed to confirm the expression of CYP2C and P-gp. The functional enzymatic activity of guinea-pig CYP2C was evaluated with microsomal preparations using diclofenac and tolbutamide as specific drug substrates in HPLC analyses. To further study both P-gp and CYP2C functional activities, the guinea-pig ABCB1/MDR1 and CYP2C genes were cloned. The recombinant plasmids were then transfected in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and either calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) accumulation assays or 14,15-EET/DHET formation experiments were performed to evaluate either P-gp transport activity or CYP2C epoxygenase activity, respectively. The guinea-pig tissue distribution of P-gp was studied by Western blotting. Functional expression of CYP2C was demonstrated in guinea-pig liver microsomal preparations. CYP2C-mediated biotransformation of diclofenac and tolbutamide were shown. Expression of P-gp protein was detected in guinea-pig liver and small intestine. Functional activity of guinea-pig P-gp was demonstrated in ABCB1/MDR1-transfected cells. GP-CYP2C-transfected cells also showed functional epoxygenase activity. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-gp, thus suggesting its usefulness for further validating data obtained with other animal models in drug biotransformation/transport studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  6. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals ... 2Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Executive ... with both the European and Asian pig breeds; the genetic exchange ...

  7. Management of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless the origin is the result of simple mechanical overload. Diagnosis is based on changes of color in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, suppuration, X-ray, and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the detoxification of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone. This review article deals with the various treatment options in the management of peri-implantitis. The article also gives a brief description of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis.

  8. Heat generation during implant placement in low-density bone: effect of surgical technique, insertion torque and implant macro design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Aleksa; Mišić, Tijana; Miličić, Biljana; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Aleksić, Zoran; Ðinić, Ana

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of surgical technique, implant macrodesign and insertion torque on bone temperature changes during implant placement. In the in vitro study, 144 self-tapping (blueSKY(®) 4 × 10 mm; Bredent) and 144 non-self-tapping (Standard implant(®) 4.1 × 10 mm; Straumann) were placed in osteotomies prepared in pig ribs by lateral bone condensing or bone drilling techniques. The maximum insertion torque values of 30, 35 and 40 Ncm were used. Real-time bone temperature measurement during implant placement was performed by three thermocouples positioned vertically, in tripod configuration around every osteotomy, at a distance of 5 mm from it and at depths of 1, 5 and 10 mm. Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U-tests and Regression analysis. Significant predictor of bone temperature at the osteotomy depth of 1 mm was insertion torque (P = 0.003) and at the depth of 10-mm implant macrodesign (P = 0.029), while no significant predictor at depth of 5 mm was identified (P > 0.05). Higher insertion torque values as well as non-self-tapping implant macrodesign were related to higher temperatures. Implant placement in sites prepared by bone drilling induced significantly higher temperature increase (P = 0.021) compared with bone condensing sites at the depth of 5 mm, while no significant difference was recorded at other depths. Compared with 30 Ncm, insertion torque values of 35 and 40 Ncm produced significantly higher temperature increase (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively) at the depth of 1 mm. There was no significant difference in temperature change induced by 35 and 40 Ncm, neither by implant macrodesign at all investigated depths (P > 0.05). Placement of self-tapping implants with low insertion torque into sites prepared by lateral bone condensing technique might be advantageous in terms of thermal effect on bone. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  10. Ion implantation control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, R. B.; Keutzer, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A control system is disclosed for an ion implantation system of the type in which the wafers to be implanted are mounted around the periphery of a disk which rotates and also moves in a radial direction relative to an ion beam to expose successive sections of each wafer to the radiation. The control system senses beam current which passes through one or more apertures in the disk and is collected by a Faraday cup. This current is integrated to obtain a measure of charge which is compared with a calculated value based upon the desired ion dosage and other parameters. The resultant controls the number of incremental steps the rotating disk moves radially to expose the adjacent sections of each wafer. This process is continued usually with two or more traverses until the entire surface of each wafer has been implanted with the proper ion dosage

  11. Implantation for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutenecker, R.; Cao-Minh, U.; Overbeck, R.

    1992-08-01

    Empirical results on the strength enhancement of steels by N- and B-implantation should be explained from a materials science point of view. The methods applied were X-ray diffractometry and element depth profiling. The investigations of N-implanted steels focussed on the nitride formation in selected model materials and, with respect to applications, in: X90 CrMoV and S 6-5-2 tool steels, austenite X10 CrNiTi189 as well as in hard chromium plates. Main topic in B-implanted steels were the transformations: crystalline Fe-phase - amorphous Fe-B-phase - crystalline boride phases. The result is an improvement in process control by first an insight into the strength enhancing mechanisms and second in into their generation depending on the materials microstructure and the process parameter. (orig.). 101 figs., 16 tabs., 15 refs [de

  12. Dental implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, B

    2016-12-01

    A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four American subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Contemporary dental implants made with titanium have been proven safe and effective in large series of patients. This review considers the main historical facts concerned with dental implants and present the different critical factors that will ensure a good osseo-integration that will ensure a stable prosthesis anchorage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. mRNA fragments in in vitro culture media are associated with bovine preimplantation embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for fragments of mRNA POSTN and VSNL-1, in four additional biological replicates of media. To better understand the mechanisms of mRNA secretion into the media, the expression of a predicted RNA binding protein of POSTN, PUM2, was knocked down using an antisense oligonucleotide gapmer. Supplementation of a PUM2 gapmer significantly reduced blastocyst development and decreased secretion of POSTN mRNA into the media. Overall, differential mRNA expression in the media was repeatable and sets the framework for future study of mRNA biomarkers in in vitro culture media to improve predictability of reproductive performance.

  14. Tribology of implantation bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of implantation films must be analysed in terms of bilayer rheology (laws of mechanical behaviour). Tribology takes into account thermodynamical, chemical and metallurgical parameters to interpret the friction properties of a system as a whole. One can distinguish between alloying effects of ion implantation and structural modifications. Alloying affects the basic properties of the crystal: elasticity, cohesion, mobility of planar defects, and its surface electronic structure, which determines the reactivity with the atmosphere or the friction counterpart (adhesion). Radiation damage and phase changes act more particularly on the modes of gliding and climbing of dislocations, and fracture mechanisms. 105 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 table

  15. [Tinnitus and implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despreaux, G; Tison, P; Van Den Abbeele, T; Moine, A; Frachet, B

    1990-01-01

    The experience with cochlear implantation at Avicenne hospital prompted us to carry out a retrospective study on tinnitus in a population of operated patients. Improvement or disappearance of the symptoms was noted in all cases. These results, which partly match those found in the literature, are probably produced by rehabilitation inhibiting the "deafferentation" mechanisms in analogy with pain phenomena. In some precise cases, which are described, they led us to proposing implantation even though the main, if not sole, complaint of the patient was tinnitus.

  16. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior

  17. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two

  18. Are there factors preventing cancer development during embryonic life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, L.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the following literature observations, a hypothesis is advanced that the development of cancer is actively inhibited during embryonic life. Although the processes of cell differentiation and proliferation are - without comparison - most pronounced during embryonic life, cancer is rarely found in the newborn and is seldom a cause of neonatal death or spontaneous abortion. Attempts to induce cancer in early-stage animal embryos by irradiation or by transplacental chemical carcinogenesis have been unsuccessful, even when exposed animals have been observed throughout their lifetime. After the period of major organogenesis, however, the embryos become susceptible to carcinogenesis. In humans, the most common embryonic tumors arise in tissues which have an unusually late ongoing development and are still partly immature at or shortly before birth. For many human embryonic tumors the survival rates are higher, and spontaneous regression more frequent, in younger children, i.e. prognosis is age-dependent. Thus, although cancer generally appears in tissues capable of proliferation and differentiation, induction of malignancy in the developmentally most active tissues seems to be beset with difficulty. One possible explanation for this paradox could be that cancer is controlled by the regulators influencing development, regulators that are most active during embryonic life. (Auth.)

  19. Endolymphatic potassium of the chicken vestibule during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, Sergio; Zucca, Giampiero; Bottà, Luisa; Valli, Paolo

    2005-08-01

    The endolymph fills the lumen of the inner ear membranous labyrinth. Its ionic composition is unique in vertebrates as an extracellular fluid for its high-K(+)/low-Na(+) concentration. The endolymph is actively secreted by specialized cells located in the vestibular and cochlear epithelia. We have investigated the early phases of endolymph secretion by measuring the endolymphatic K(+) concentration in the chicken vestibular system during pre-hatching development. Measurements were done by inserting K(+)-selective microelectrodes in chicken embryo ampullae dissected at different developmental stages from embryonic day 9 up to embryonic day 21 (day of hatching). We found that the K(+) concentration is low (<10mM/L) up to embryonic day 11, afterward it increases steeply to reach a plateau level of about 140 mM/L at embryonic day 19--21. We have developed a short-term in vitro model of endolymph secretion by culturing vestibular ampullae dissected from embryonic day 11 chicken embryos for a few days. The preparation reproduced a double compartment system where the luminal K(+) concentration increased along with the days of culturing. This model could be important for (1) investigating the development of cellular mechanisms contributing to endolymph homeostasis and (2) testing compounds that influence those mechanisms.

  20. Tension (re)builds: Biophysical mechanisms of embryonic wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Embryonic tissues display an outstanding ability to rapidly repair wounds. Epithelia, in particular, serve as protective layers that line internal organs and form the skin. Thus, maintenance of epithelial integrity is of utmost importance for animal survival, particularly at embryonic stages, when an immune system has not yet fully developed. Rapid embryonic repair of epithelial tissues is conserved across species, and involves the collective migration of the cells around the wound. The migratory cell behaviours associated with wound repair require the generation and transmission of mechanical forces, not only for the cells to move, but also to coordinate their movements. Here, we review the forces involved in embryonic wound repair. We discuss how different force-generating structures are assembled at the molecular level, and the mechanisms that maintain the balance between force-generating structures as wounds close. Finally, we describe the mechanisms that cells use to coordinate the generation of mechanical forces around the wound. Collective cell movements and their misregulation have been associated with defective tissue repair, developmental abnormalities and cancer metastasis. Thus, we propose that understanding the role of mechanical forces during embryonic wound closure will be crucial to develop therapeutic interventions that promote or prevent collective cell movements under pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies...... are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    and screw press on average produced approximately 220l [CH4]kg-1 [VS]. Initial methane production can be described using a first-order kinetic model. The average rate constant for manure fibres was 0.030d-1 and for pig slurry 0.071d-1, showing that pig slurry is digested much faster than manure fibres....

  3. Recent advances in dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Do Gia Khang; Oh, Ji-Hyeon

    2017-12-01

    Dental implants are a common treatment for the loss of teeth. This paper summarizes current knowledge on implant surfaces, immediate loading versus conventional loading, short implants, sinus lifting, and custom implants using three-dimensional printing. Most of the implant surface modifications showed good osseointegration results. Regarding biomolecular coatings, which have been recently developed and studied, good results were observed in animal experiments. Immediate loading had similar clinical outcomes compared to conventional loading and can be used as a successful treatment because it has the advantage of reducing treatment times and providing early function and aesthetics. Short implants showed similar clinical outcomes compared to standard implants. A variety of sinus augmentation techniques, grafting materials, and alternative techniques, such as tilted implants, zygomatic implants, and short implants, can be used. With the development of new technologies in three-dimension and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized implants can be used as an alternative to conventional implant designs. However, there are limitations due to the lack of long-term studies or clinical studies. A long-term clinical trial and a more predictive study are needed.

  4. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  5. Differentiation of the guinea pig eye: nuclear ultrastructure, template activity and DNA content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalenberger, B.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclei of various cell types in the eye of embryonal and adult Guinea pigs were studied by means of electron microscopy, cytophotometry and autoradiography. Striking differences in condensation and arrangement of chromatin were found between the different tissues and cells. Several nuclear types were analyzed quantitatively with regard to their content of condensed and decondensed chromatin by means of electron microscopic morphometry. Structural differences in chromatin organization coincided with different nuclear DNA contents in various cell types of the retina, such as bipolar cells, Mueller cells, rods and cones, and the pigmented epithelium. The differences between DNA-Feulgen means obtained by cytophotometric analysis were highly significant. Template activity as shown by 3 H-uridine incorporation made evident than the rate of RNA synthesis is positively correlated with the quantity of decondensed chromatin. It is speculated that differentiation of the Guinea pig eye involves differential DNA synthesis, and that the extra-DNA could have some ''trigger'' function for the pattern of chromatin condensation and thus the pattern of gene expression. (author)

  6. Application of a TNF-alpha-inhibitor into the scala tympany after cochlear electrode insertion trauma in guinea pigs: preliminary audiologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihler, Friedrich; Pelz, Sabrina; Coors, Melanie; Matthias, Christoph; Canis, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Cochlear implantation trauma causes both macroscopic and inflammatory trauma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the TNF-alpha inhibitor etanercept applied after cochlear implantation trauma on the preservation of acoustic hearing. Guinea pigs were randomly assigned to three groups receiving cochlear implantation trauma by cochleostomy. In one group, the site was sealed by bone cement with no further treatment. A second group was additionally implanted with an osmotic minipump delivering artificial perilymph into the scala tympani for seven days. In the third group, etanercept 1 mg/ml was added to artificial perilymph. Hearing was assessed by auditory brainstem responses at 2, 4, 6, and 8 kHz prior to and after surgery and on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 28. Fifteen healthy guinea pigs. The trauma led to threshold shifts from 50.3 dB ± 16.3 dB to 68.0 dB ± 19.3 dB. Hearing thresholds were significantly lower in etanercept-treated animals compared to controls on day 28 at 8 kHz and from day 3 onwards at 4 and 2 kHz (p < 0.01; two-way RM ANOVA / Bonferroni t-test). The application of etanercept led to preservation of acoustic hearing after cochlear implantation trauma.

  7. Two-stage implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, M E

    1999-06-01

    Since the advent of osseointegration approximately 20 years ago, there has been a great deal of scientific data developed on two-stage integrated implant systems. Although these implants were originally designed primarily for fixed prostheses in the mandibular arch, they have been used in partially dentate patients, in patients needing overdentures, and in single-tooth restorations. In addition, this implant system has been placed in extraction sites, in bone-grafted areas, and in maxillary sinus elevations. Often, the documentation of these procedures has lagged. In addition, most of the reports use survival criteria to describe results, often providing overly optimistic data. It can be said that the literature describes a true adhesion of the epithelium to the implant similar to adhesion to teeth, that two-stage implants appear to have direct contact somewhere between 50% and 70% of the implant surface, that the microbial flora of the two-stage implant system closely resembles that of the natural tooth, and that the microbiology of periodontitis appears to be closely related to peri-implantitis. In evaluations of the data from implant placement in all of the above-noted situations by means of meta-analysis, it appears that there is a strong case that two-stage dental implants are successful, usually showing a confidence interval of over 90%. It also appears that the mandibular implants are more successful than maxillary implants. Studies also show that overdenture therapy is valid, and that single-tooth implants and implants placed in partially dentate mouths have a success rate that is quite good, although not quite as high as in the fully edentulous dentition. It would also appear that the potential causes of failure in the two-stage dental implant systems are peri-implantitis, placement of implants in poor-quality bone, and improper loading of implants. There are now data addressing modifications of the implant surface to alter the percentage of

  8. Intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in neonatal pigs compared to rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure intestinal absorption and retention of cadmium in the newborn pig and to compare data from the pig, rat and guinea pig, three species that differ greatly in their ability to absorb macromolecules at birth. Newborn pigs were administered a single oral dose of 50 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd 24 hours after birth and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after dosing. Cd absorption and gastrointestinal retention were then determined; these data were compared with similar data from the rat and guinea pig. Cd absorption in the neonate appears to be a two-step process; mucosal uptake of Cd from the lumen, probably by pinocytosis, followed by transfer of a portion of this Cd into the body. This transfer process is similar, but does not entirely coincide with changes associated with protein absorption in the neonate

  9. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  10. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  11. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  12. Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-05-15

    The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...

  14. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  15. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified...

  16. Remote actuated valve implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  17. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  18. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  19. Comparison of bone-implant contact and bone-implant volume between 2D-histological sections and 3D-SRµCT slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bernhardt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Histological imaging is still considered the gold standard for analysing bone formation around metallic implants. Generally, a limited number of histological sections per sample are used for the approximation of mean values of peri-implant bone formation. In this study we compared statistically the results of bone-implant contact (BIC and bone-implant volume (BIV obtained by histological sections, with those obtained by X-ray absorption images from synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRµCT using osseointegrated screw-shaped implants from a mini-pig study. Comparing the BIC results of 3-4 histological sections per implant sample with the appropriate 3-4 SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference of 1.9 % (p = 0.703. The contact area assessed by the whole 3D information from the SRµCT measurement in comparison to the histomorphometric results showed a non-significant difference in BIC of 4.9 % (p = 0.171. The amount of the bone-implant volume in the histological sections and the appropriate SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference by only 1.4 % (p = 0.736 and also remains non-significant with 2.6 % (p = 0.323 using the volumetric SRµCT information. We conclude that for a clinical evaluation of implant osseointegration with histological imaging at least 3-4 sections per sample are sufficient to represent the BIC or BIV for a sample. Due to the fact that in this study we have found a significant intra-sample variation in BIC of up to ± 35 % the selection of only one or two histological sections per sample may strongly influence the determined BIC.

  20. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  1. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  2. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...

  3. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  4. Effects of Increasing Space Allowance by Removing a Pig or Gate Adjustment on Finishing Pig Growth Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey B; Holder, Cheyenne J; Wu, Fanghou; Woodworth, Jason C; DeRouchey, Joel M; Tokach, Mike D; Goodband, Robert D; Dritz, Steve S

    2018-05-03

    A total of 256 pigs (initially 55.9 ± 4.88 kg) were used in a 71-d study to determine the effects of increasing space allowance and pig removal on pig growth performance. Pens of pigs were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to one of four space allowance treatments, initially with 8 pigs per pen and 8 pens per treatment. First two treatments included pens with 0.91 m2 per pig or 0.63 m2 per pig for the entire study; two additional treatments initially provided 0.63 m2 per pig, but either a gate was adjusted on d 28, 45, and 62 or the heaviest pig in the pen was removed from the pen on d 28 and 45 to provide more space and keep pigs in accordance with their predicted minimum space requirement [(m2) = 0.0336 × (BW, kg)0.67]. From d 0 to 14 (56 to 69 kg), there was no effect of stocking density observed for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F). From d 14 to 28 (69 to 83 kg), pigs provided 0.91 m2 had increased (P space adjustment treatments had greater (P space adjustments intermediate. In summary, pigs with 0.91 m2 grew faster and consumed more feed than pigs restricted in space. As pigs reached the critical k value, gate adjustments and pig removals affected growth similarly. As pigs grew to the predicted space requirement and were subsequently allowed more space, performance was greater than those provided 0.63 m2 but less than those allowed 0.91 m2. It appears that the industry accepted critical k value, 0.0336, may not be adequate for optimal pig performance across multiple BW ranges.

  5. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  6. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Shao, Rong; Rao, C V; Akoum, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Deep functional changes occurring within the endometrium during implantation are orchestrated by embryonic and maternal signals. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major embryonic signal, plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin (IL) 1, one of the earliest embryonic signals, appears to exert a direct impact on the receptive endometrium and to induce major molecular changes that are essential for embryo implantation. Herein we investigate whether hCG can modulate endometrial stromal cell (ESC) receptivity to IL1 during the implantation window and assess the impact on angiogenesis in vitro. Primary cultures of ESCs from normal fertile women during the implantation window were treated for 24 h with different concentrations of hCG (0-100 ng/ml) and stimulated for 24 h with IL1B (0-0.1 ng/ml). IL1 receptors (IL1Rs), IL1R antagonist (IL1RA), and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 were analyzed by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was studied using human microvascular endothelial cell line, scratch wound assay, and cell proliferation via BrdU incorporation into DNA. Human CG induced a dose-dependent imbalance in ESC receptivity to IL1 by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B. Prior exposure to hCG amplified MCP1 secretion by ESCs in response to IL1B and triggered the release of angiogenic activity in vitro in which MCP1 appeared to play a significant role. Overexpression of IL1R2 using cell transfection inhibited IL1 and hCG/IL1B-mediated MCP1 secretion. These findings suggest that hCG coordinates embryonic signal interaction with the maternal endometrium, and point to a new possible pathway by which it may promote embryonic growth.

  8. haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZE J I

    values obtained could be used as reference values for pigs in South-eastern Nigeria. The clinical importance of the ... Key words: haematology, pigs, intensive management, south-eastern Nigeria ..... Medicine: A textbook of Diseases of Cattle ...

  9. appraisal of indigenous pig procution and management practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesope

    Key words: indigenous pig production, management systems, disease profile, pig production constraints. ... The soil is rich and suitable for the cultivation of wide range .... advocated because of its durability and high level of hygiene. Table 3: ...

  10. Antimicrobial residues screening in pigs and goats slaughtered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka

    2012-07-17

    Jul 17, 2012 ... Samples of tissues/organs from pigs and goats slaughtered at the Nsukka. Municipal abattoir .... Pig and goat farming are the major food producing livestock farming in ... Northern part of Nigeria and locally reared West African.

  11. The repeatability of individual nutrient digestibility in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Verschuren, L.M.G.; Pijlman, J.; Bergsma, R.; Schokker, D.; Knol, E.F.; Aar, van der P.J.; Molist, F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2018-01-01

    Digestibility of nutrients in pig diets is an important component of overall feed efficiency. Targeted improvement of digestibility is currently mainly achieved by optimization of pig diets, based on information generated from digestibility trials that aim to establish fecal digestibility

  12. Behavioural genetic differences between Chinese and European pigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aggression is a heritable trait and genetically related to neurotransmitter-related genes. ... indigenous Mi pigs and 100 landrace-large white (LLW) cross pigs with 32 SNPs localized in 11 neurotransmitter-related genes. ... Current Issue : Vol.

  13. Improved Pig Production and Performance in the Tropics | Enem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig production can yield relatively rapid rate of economic return on capital due to the ... of production, housing, feeding, health, and product marketing were discussed to enable a prospective pig farmer have a wonderful return on investment.

  14. Effects of road transportation on excitability scores of pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... excitability scores of pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) during the hot-dry season in Northern. Nigeria. Thirteen .... the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria for transportation of pigs was .... modern swine production.

  15. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  16. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat ... pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, ...

  17. Behavioural genetic differences between Chinese and European pigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QINGPO CHU

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. 96, No. ... In this study, we have confirmed that Chinese Mi pigs are less active and less aggressive than European LLW pigs, and the genetic polymorphisms of ...... Academic Press, San Diego, USA.

  18. Maintenance and induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation using E-cadherin-Fc substrata without colony formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Yuan; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    Induced embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be promising cell resources for the observation of the cell behaviors in developmental biology as well as the implantation in cell treatments in human diseases. A recombinant E-cadherin substratum was developed as a cell recognizable substratum to maintain the ES cells' self-renewal and pluripotency at single cell level. Furthermore, the generation of various cell lineages in different germ layers, including hepatic or neural cells, was achieved on the chimeric protein layer precisely and effectively. The induction and isolation of specific cell population was carried out with the enhancing effect of other artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) in enzyme-free process. The murine ES cell-derived cells showed highly morphological similarities and functional expressions to matured hepatocytes or neural progenitor cells.

  19. Colistin in pig production: Chemistry, Mechanism of antibacterial action, Microbial resistance emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rhouma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colistin (Polymyxin E is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum- β-lactamase (ESBL genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close

  20. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close cooperation between physicians

  1. Colistin in Pig Production: Chemistry, Mechanism of Antibacterial Action, Microbial Resistance Emergence, and One Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Letellier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread. Co-localization of the mcr-1 gene and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase genes on a unique plasmid has been also identified in many isolates from animal origin. The use of colistin in pigs as a growth promoter and for prophylaxis purposes should be banned, and the implantation of sustainable measures in pig farms for microbial infection prevention should be actively encouraged and financed. The scientific research should be encouraged in swine medicine to generate data helping to reduce the exacerbation of colistin resistance in pigs and in manure. The establishment of guidelines ensuring a judicious therapeutic use of colistin in pigs, in countries where this drug is approved, is of crucial importance. The implementation of a microbiological withdrawal period that could reduce the potential contamination of consumers with colistin resistant bacteria of porcine origin should be encouraged. Moreover, the management of colistin resistance at the human-pig-environment interface requires the urgent use of the One Health approach for effective control and prevention. This approach needs the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines and close cooperation between physicians

  2. Self-organization phenomena in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies: axis formation and breaking of symmetry during cardiomyogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christiane; Scheinast, Matthias; Pasteiner, Waltraud; Lagger, Sabine; Hofner, Manuela; Hoellrigl, Alexandra; Schultheis, Martina; Weitzer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation of embryonic stem cells gives rise to embryoid bodies (EBs) which undergo developmental processes reminiscent of early eutherian embryonic development. Development of the three germ layers suggests that gastrulation takes place. In vivo, gastrulation is a highly ordered process but in EBs only few data support the hypothesis that self-organization of differentiating cells leads to morphology, reminiscent of the early gastrula. Here we demonstrate that a timely implantation-like process is a prerequisite for the breaking of the radial symmetry of suspended EBs. Attached to a surface, EBs develop a bilateral symmetry and presumptive mesodermal cells emerge between the center of the EBs and a horseshoe-shaped ridge of cells. The development of an epithelial sheet of cells on one side of the EBs allows us to define an 'anterior' and a 'posterior' end of the EBs. In the mesodermal area, first cardiomyocytes (CMCs) develop mainly next to this epithelial sheet of cells. Development of twice as many CMCs at the 'left' side of the EBs breaks the bilateral symmetry and suggests that cardiomyogenesis reflects a local or temporal asymmetry in EBs. The asymmetric appearance of CMCs but not the development of mesoderm can be disturbed by ectopic expression of the muscle-specific protein Desmin. Later, the bilateral morphology becomes blurred by an apparently chaotic differentiation of many cell types. The absence of comparable structures in aggregates of cardiovascular progenitor cells isolated from the heart demonstrates that the self-organization of cells during a gastrulation-like process is a unique feature of embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Photo-transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with plasmid DNA using femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thobakgale, Lebogang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is about the photo-transfection of mouse embryonic stem cells with plasmid DNA using femtosecond laser pulses. It outlines the background on embryonic stem cells (ES) and phototransfection....

  4. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  5. RepSox improves viability and regulates gene expression in rhesus monkey-pig interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Qi-Rong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p  0.05), this was not significant. RepSox can improve the developmental potential of rhesus monkey-pig iSCNT embryos by regulating the expression of pluripotency-related genes.

  6. Reproductive Toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill in Rats: The Fertility and Early Embryonic Development Study (Segment I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill (ZYP on fertility and early embryonic development in rats. Methods. SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: vehicle control group (distilled water, i.g., positive control group (80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, i.p., and three ZYP-treated groups (3, 6, and 12 g/kg/d, i.e., 12x, 24x, and 48x clinical doses, i.g.. The high dose was set as the maximum gavage dosage. Results. Cyclophosphamide showed diverse hazards, such as decreased weight of male reproductive organs and sperm density (P<0.05. However, there were no obvious effects of ZYP on physical signs, animal behavior, and survival rate, as well as on weight and food intake during the premating and gestation periods. Importantly, there were no significant adverse effects of ZYP on indexes of copulation, fecundity and fertility indexes, weights and coefficients of male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm number and motility, estrous cycle, preimplantation loss rate, and implantation rate. Besides, the numbers of live and resorbed fetuses per litter were not significantly altered. Conclusions. ZYP had no reproductive toxicities on fertility and early embryonic development in rats at 48x equivalent clinical doses.

  7. mRNA Fragments in In-Vitro Culture Media are Associated with Bovine Preimplantation Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna eKropp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro production (IVP systems have been used to bypass problems of fertilization and early embryonic development. However, embryos produced by IVP are commonly selected for implantation based on morphological assessment, which is not a strong indicator of establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, there is a need to identify additional indicators of embryonic developmental potential. Previous studies have identified microRNA expression in in vitro culture media to be indicative of embryo quality in both bovine and human embryos. Like microRNAs, mRNAs have been shown to be secreted from cells into the extracellular environment, but it is unknown whether or not these RNAs are secreted by embryos. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine whether mRNAs are secreted into in vitro culture media and if their expression in the media is indicative of embryo quality. In vitro culture medium was generated and collected from both blastocyst and degenerate (those which fail to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage embryos. Small-RNA sequencing revealed that many mRNA fragments were present in the culture media. A total of 17 mRNA fragments were differentially expressed between blastocyst and degenerated conditioned media. Differential expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR for

  8. The Application of Internet of Things in Pig Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Shang , Minghua; Dong , Gang; Mu , Yuanjie; Wang , Fujun; Ruan , Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A pig breeding IoT system is designed, in view of the human resources, natural resources consumption, the quality and safety problems occurred frequently, the management mode is backward and so on. In this paper, the system architecture, information awareness, system application of the three aspects of pig farming system is introduced. The system can use all aspects of pig farming to sales, has some reference to the intensive farming of pigs.

  9. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group......, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use....

  10. Biotechnology. Perseverance leads to cloned pig in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E; Normile, D

    2000-08-18

    Low success rates and unpredictable results have plagued cloning researchers, particularly those trying to clone pigs. Now, on page 1188, Japanese researchers offer the first scientific report of a cloned pig, named Xena, raising hopes that pigs could one day provide an unlimited supply of organs for transplantation thanks to their close physiological relationship to humans. But this week those hopes were dealt a blow by more evidence suggesting that pig retroviruses can infect human cells.

  11. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells

  12. Totipotent Embryonic Stem Cells Arise in Ground-State Culture Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgani, Sophie M; Canham, Maurice A; Nichols, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from mammalian embryos during the transition from totipotency, when individual blastomeres can make all lineages, to pluripotency, when they are competent to make only embryonic lineages. ESCs maintained with inhibitors of MEK and GSK3 (2i) are thought...... not directly support Nanog-positive epiblast-like ESCs. Thus, 2i and LIF support a totipotent state comparable to early embryonic cells that coexpress embryonic and extraembryonic determinants....

  13. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  14. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  15. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of the Chinese Erhualian pig breed | Yue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chinese Erhualian is one of the most prolific pig breeds in the world, but it is in danger of being replaced by other exotic pig breeds because of its slow growth rate and high fat content in the body. To obtain some genetic information for conservation, we analysed the Erhualian pigs by using a PCR-RFLP for the ...

  17. Ovarian activity and early embryonic development in the rusty bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...

  18. Early Embryonic Heart Rate in Normal Pregnancies In Memory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the appearance and development of embryonic heart rate a total of n = 317 Nigerian pregnant women were studied in the very early pregnancy from 23 – 56 days from the onset of last menstrual period (LMP). All pregnancies had a subsequent successful outcome. Transvaginal ultrasonography was ...

  19. optimization of protocol for m apical meristem of embryonic axes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The hypocotyl segments, prima were removed and embryonic axes were placed in culture bott nd Skoog basal + B5 vitamins (MSB5) fortified with 22.2µM, 26.6µM opurine (BAP) to induce multiple shoots. Elongated shoots we tion media consisting of MSB5 supplemented with low concentrati one free media promoted direct ...

  20. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  1. Improved genetic manipulation of human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, S.R.; Denning, C.; van den Brink, S.; Kats, P.; Hochstenbach, R.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Low efficiency of transfection limits the ability to genetically manipulate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and differences in cell derivation and culture methods require optimization of transfection protocols. We transiently transferred multiple independent hESC lines with different growth

  2. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that the ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the...

  3. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Molenaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature, egg weight loss, and CO2 concentration on hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance are discussed from an embryonic point of view. In addition, new insights related to the incubation process are described. Several studies have shown that a constant eggshell temperature (EST of 37.5 to 38.0°C throughout incubation results in the highest hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance. Egg weight loss must be between 6.5 and 14.0% of the initial egg weight, to obtain an adequate air cell size before the embryo internally pips. An increased CO2 concentration during the developmental phase of incubation (first 10 days can accelerate embryonic development and hatchability, but the physiological mechanisms of this acceleration are not completely understood. Effects of ar increased CO2 concentration during late incubation also need further investigation. The preincubation warming profile, thermal manipulation, and in ovo feeding are new insights related to the incubation process and show that the optimal situation for the embryo during incubation highly depends on the conditions of the eggs before (storage duration and during incubation (environmental conditions and on the conditions of the chickens after hatching (environmental temperature.

  4. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  5. Impact of 2-bromopropane on mouse embryonic stem cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that 2-BP (5 to 10 μM) induces apoptotic processes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC-B5), but exerts no effects at treatment dosages below 5 μM. In ESC-B5 cells, 2-BP directly increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), significantly increased the cytoplasmic free calcium and nitric oxide ...

  6. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined conditions, ES cells ...

  7. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  8. Ultrastructure, development, and homology of insect embryonic cuticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopová, Barbora; Zrzavý, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 264, č. 3 (2005), s. 339-362 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : embryonic development * cuticle * metamorphosis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2005

  9. On the phylogeny of the embryonic apparatus of some Foraminifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijn, A.J.

    1942-01-01

    In the following pages data will be given about the size of the megalospheric embryonic apparatus, and of the size of the shell, of some Foraminifera. By comparing these data for a certain species from different samples, the relative ages of which are known, it will be possible, to get an insight

  10. Effects of Exogenous Oxytocin on Embryonic Survival in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yildiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxytocin on embryonic survival in dairy cows. Pregnancy was verified using the early pregnancy factor (EPF activity on Day 4 after artificial insemination (AI. Pregnant cows were randomly allotted to two groups: treated (n = 8 and control (n = 8. Oxytocin (100 IU, 5 ml, DIF Turkey was administered twice daily by intravenous injections to treated cows and sterile saline (5 ml to control cows immediately before milking on days 4 to 7 after AI. Blood samples were taken via jugular vein every day from day 4 to 8 and every other day until Day 20 following insemination to evaluate the effect of oxytocin on embryonic survival. The embryonic loss was diagnosed in 3 of the 8 cows treated with oxytocin, and embryonic survival rate was 62.5% in this group versus 87.5% in controls. Short cycles occurred in 37.5% of oxytocin-treated cows. At the same time their serum progesterone concentrations rose more slowly than in controls. It was concluded that cows administered oxytocin on days 4 to 7 after insemination are at a higher risk of pregnancy loss.

  11. Alterations to embryonic serotonin change aggression and fearfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal environment, including maternal hormones, affects the development of the serotonin (5-HT) system, with long-lasting effects on mood and behavioral exhibition in children and adults. The chicken provides a unique animal model to study the effects of embryonic development on childhood and ado...

  12. Innovative virtual reality measurements for embryonic growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground Innovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique. Methods In a longitudinal study, three-dimensional

  13. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  14. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  15. Piezosurgery in implant dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübinger, Stefan; Stricker, Andres; Berg, Britt-Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Piezosurgery, or the use of piezoelectric devices, is being applied increasingly in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The main advantages of this technique are precise and selective cuttings, the avoidance of thermal damage, and the preservation of soft-tissue structures. Through the application of piezoelectric surgery, implant-site preparation, bone grafting, sinus-floor elevation, edentulous ridge splitting or the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve are very technically feasible. This clinical overview gives a short summary of the current literature and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric bone surgery in implant dentistry. Overall, piezoelectric surgery is superior to other methods that utilize mechanical instruments. Handling of delicate or compromised hard- and soft-tissue conditions can be performed with less risk for the patient. With respect to current and future innovative surgical concepts, piezoelectric surgery offers a wide range of new possibilities to perform customized and minimally invasive osteotomies. PMID:26635486

  16. Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. Adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR1) abundance was first observed to be lower during the delayed versus non-delayed periods of utero-embryonic unit development. The effects of adiponectin treatment on embryonic development were then evaluated during the period of delayed development. Exogenous treatment increased the in vivo rate of embryonic development, as indicated by an increase in weight, ADIPOR1 levels in the utero-embryonic unit, and histological changes in embryonic development. Treatment with adiponectin during embryonic diapause showed a significant increase in circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and in production of their receptors in the utero-embryonic unit. The adiponectin-induced increase in estradiol synthesis was correlated with increased cell survival (BCL2 protein levels) and cell proliferation (PCNA protein levels) in the utero-embryonic unit, suggesting an indirect effect of adiponectin via estradiol synthesis by the ovary. An in vitro study further confirmed the in vivo findings that adiponectin treatment increases PCNA levels together with increased uptake of glucose by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro study also revealed that adiponectin, together with estradiol but not alone, significantly increased ADIPOR1 protein levels. Thus, adiponectin works in concert with estradiol to increase glucose transport to the utero-embryonic unit and promote cell proliferation, which together accelerate embryonic development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  9. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic palates http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic palates ERX650...310 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_palates.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic palates ERX650...310 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_palates.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX1437350...RX1437340,SRX1437357,SRX1437344,SRX1437336,SRX1437356,SRX377685,SRX022494,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652...RX967654,SRX377683,SRX185886,SRX698167,SRX244285,SRX377687,SRX377685 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,SRX106...2968,SRX1062966,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,S...RX1062968,SRX1062966,SRX1062967,SRX1062972,SRX1062971,SRX1062970,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,SRX106...2968,SRX1062966,SRX1062965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Histone Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062965,SRX106...2966,SRX1062968,SRX1062969 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062967,...SRX1062972 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062972,...SRX1062967 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062969,S...RX1062968,SRX1062966,SRX1062971,SRX1062967,SRX1062972,SRX1062965,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 All antigens Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062972,S...RX1062971,SRX1062966,SRX1062969,SRX1062968,SRX1062965,SRX1062967,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.10.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 TFs and others Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062971...,SRX1062970 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin mm9 Input control Embryo embryonic skin SRX1062967,...SRX1062972 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.embryonic_skin.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX143735...RX377685,SRX377687,SRX967654,SRX077933,SRX377683,SRX967652,SRX244285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX112938,...7,SRX967654,SRX967653,SRX1100404,SRX244285,SRX112936,SRX1100405,SRX022494,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic heart SRX248279,...SRX190172,SRX112936,SRX022494 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...02,SRX1100404,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652,...4,SRX1437348,SRX377683,SRX377685,SRX377687,SRX190172,SRX244285,SRX1100405,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652...RX077933,SRX377683,SRX377685,SRX377681,SRX377687,SRX967654,SRX244285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic heart SRX112938,...52,SRX967653,SRX112936,SRX1100405,SRX112937,SRX185857,SRX244285,SRX022494,SRX337963 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 RNA polymerase Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11293...9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Unclassified Embryo Embryonic heart SRX248279,...SRX190172,SRX112936,SRX022494 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic heart SRX967652...RX698167,SRX377681,SRX967654,SRX377683,SRX377685,SRX377687,SRX244285 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...02,SRX1100404,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...04,SRX1100402,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic heart SRX11004...02,SRX1100404,SRX1100405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_heart.bed ...

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric CNS embryonal tumors are a collection of heterogeneous lesions (medulloblastoma, and nonmedulloblastoma). Molecular genetic studies are used to classify embryonal tumors, stratify risk, and plan treatment. Get detailed information about tumor biology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of untreated and recurrent CNS embryonal tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  4. File list: His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_limb [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_limb mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic limb SRX191032,SRX19...1037 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_limb.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic eye SRX804057,SRX...804055 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_eye.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_limb [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_limb mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic limb SRX804047,S...69,SRX083262,SRX083272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_limb.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic flank SRX804059... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_flank.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic trunk ERX40226...7,ERX402264 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_face [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_face mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic face SRX330164,...SRX139877 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_face.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX191030 htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk mm9 Histone Embryo Embryonic trunk SRX093317,SRX09...3316 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_trunk.bed ...

  13. Dynamic changes in energy metabolism upon embryonic stem cell differentiation support developmental toxicant identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, van D.A.M.; Schulpen, S.H.; Theunissen, P.T.; Bunschoten, A.; Piersma, A.H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are widely used to study embryonic development and to identify developmental toxicants. Particularly, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is well known as in vitro model to identify developmental toxicants. Although it is clear that energy metabolism plays a crucial role in

  14. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic pancreas SRX2...87023,SRX287022,SRX287021,SRX287020,SRX287016,SRX287026,SRX287017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic pancreas SR...X287017,SRX287023,SRX287022,SRX287021,SRX287020,SRX287016 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic pancreas SRX2...87021,SRX287020,SRX287023,SRX287016,SRX287022,SRX287026,SRX287017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 TFs and others Embryo Embryonic pancreas SR...X287021,SRX287020,SRX287023,SRX287016,SRX287022,SRX287017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic pancreas SRX...287026 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic pancreas SRX...287026 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.50.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas mm9 No description Embryo Embryonic pancreas ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_pancreas.bed ...