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Sample records for pig embryonic implants

  1. Survival of human embryonic stem cells implanted in the guinea pig auditory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Lee, Min; Hackelberg, Sandra; Green, Kari L.; Lunghamer, Kelly G.; Kurioka, Takaomi; Loomis, Benjamin R.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Duncan, R. Keith; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-01-01

    Hair cells in the mature cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate. One potential approach for restoring hair cells is stem cell therapy. However, when cells are transplanted into scala media (SM) of the cochlea, they promptly die due to the high potassium concentration. We previously described a method for conditioning the SM to make it more hospitable to implanted cells and showed that HeLa cells could survive for up to a week using this method. Here, we evaluated the survival of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) constitutively expressing GFP (H9 Cre-LoxP) in deaf guinea pig cochleae that were pre-conditioned to reduce potassium levels. GFP-positive cells could be detected in the cochlea for at least 7 days after the injection. The cells appeared spherical or irregularly shaped, and some were aggregated. Flushing SM with sodium caprate prior to transplantation resulted in a lower proportion of stem cells expressing the pluripotency marker Oct3/4 and increased cell survival. The data demonstrate that conditioning procedures aimed at transiently reducing the concentration of potassium in the SM facilitate survival of hESCs for at least one week. During this time window, additional procedures can be applied to initiate the differentiation of the implanted hESCs into new hair cells. PMID:28387239

  2. Enhancement of pig embryonic implants in factor VIII KO mice: a novel role for the coagulation cascade in organ size control.

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    Anna Aronovich

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to organ size differences between species. In the present study, we used a mouse model of embryonic pig tissue implantation to define the role of host Factor VIII in controlling the final size attained by the implant. We show here that pig embryonic spleen, pancreas, and liver all grow to an increased size in mice that are deficient in the Factor VIII clotting cascade. Similar results were obtained using the transplantation model after treatment with the low molecular weight heparin derivative Clexane which markedly enhanced transplant size. Likewise, enhanced size was found upon treatment with the direct thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran, suggesting that organ size regulation might be mediated by thrombin, downstream of Factor VIII. Considering that thrombin was shown to mediate various functions unrelated to blood clotting, either directly by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs or indirectly by cleaving osteopontin (OPN on stroma cells, the role of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonists as well as treatment with cleaved form of OPN (tcOPN were tested. While the former was not found to have an impact on overgrowth of embryonic pig spleen implants, marked reduction of size was noted upon treatment with the (tcOPN. Collectively, our surprising set of observations suggests that factors of the coagulation cascade have a novel role in organ size control.

  3. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation...... will be available over the coming years. However, in order to reach this goal further systematic research is needed. Such cell lines hold promises for developing adequate models for human ES cell therapy and they may open for new avenues for the production of genetically modified animals as the ES cells ahve...

  4. Physiopathology of human embryonic implantation: clinical incidences.

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    Pauline Demailly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryo implantation consists of a series of events promoting the invasion of the endometrium and then the uterine arterial system by the extra-embryonic trophoblast. In order for this semi-heterologous implantation to succeed, the endometrium has to first undergo a number of structural and biochemical changes (decidualization. The decidua's various constituents subsequently play a role in the embryonic implantation. The third step is the transformation of the uterine vascular system and the growth of the placenta, which will provide the foetoplacental unit with nutrients. Several physiopathological aspects will be discussed: 1 the implantation window, regulated by maternal and embryonic hormonal secretions and thus influenced by any defects in the latter: dysharmonic luteal phase, 21-hydroxylase block, abnormal integrin expression, 2 the successive trophoblast invasions of uterine vessels which, when defective, lead to early embryo loss or late-onset vascular pathologies, as preeclampsia, 3 the pregnancy's immunological equilibrium, with a spontaneously tolerated semi-allogeneic implant, 4 the impact of pro-coagulant factors (thrombophilia on the pregnancy's progression, 5 the environment of the uterus, ranging from hydrosalpinx to uterine contractions. In summary, the least anatomical or physiological perturbation can interfere with human embryonic implantation - a very particular phenomenon and a true biological paradox.

  5. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felt, Renee H. M.; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Luchinger, Annemarie B.; van Kan, Colette M.; Taverne, Marcel A. M.; de Vries, J. I. P.

    2012-01-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is cycl

  6. Spontaneous cyclic embryonic movements in humans and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Renée H M; Mulder, Eduard J H; Lüchinger, Annemarie B; van Kan, Colette M; Taverne, Marcel A M; de Vries, Johanna I P

    2012-08-01

    Motility assessment before birth can be used to evaluate the integrity of the nervous system. Sideways bending (SB) of head and/or rump, the earliest embryonic motility in both humans and guinea pigs, can be visualized sonographically. We know from other species that early embryonic motility is cyclic. This study explores the distribution of SB-to-SB intervals in human and guinea pig embryos before the appearance of more complex movements such as general movements. We hypothesized that the activity in both species is cyclic. We made 15-min sonographic recordings of SBs between 5 weeks and 0 days (5wk0d) and 7wk0d conceptional age (CA) in 18 human embryos of uncomplicated IVF pregnancies (term 38 weeks) and in 20 guinea pig embryos between 3wk4d and 4wk0d CA (term 9 weeks). SB-to-SB interval durations were categorized as long (≥10 s) or short (guinea pigs 38 s (range, 10-288 s) and 5 s (range, 1-9 s), respectively. During development, the duration of long intervals decreased while the number of short intervals increased for both species. The earliest embryonic motility in the human and guinea pig is performed cyclically with distinct developmental milestones. The resemblance of their interval development offers promising possibilities to use the guinea pig as a noninvasive animal model of external influences on motor and neural development.

  7. Developing implantable neuroprosthetics: a new model in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Agha, Naubahar; Minxha, Juri; Komar, Jacob; Patterson, William; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A new model has been established in the domestic pig for neural prosthetic device development and testing. To this end, we report on a complete neural prosthetic developmental system using a wireless sensor as the implant, a pig as the animal model, and a novel data acquisition paradigm for actuator control. A new type of stereotactic frame with clinically-inspired fixations pins that place the pig brain in standard surgical plane was developed and tested with success during the implantation of the microsystem. The microsystem implanted was an ultra-low power (12.5 mW) 16-channel intracortical/epicranial device transmitting broadband (40 kS/s) data over a wireless infrared telemetric link. Pigs were implanted and neural data was collected over a period of 5 weeks, clearly showing single unit spiking activity.

  8. Xenotransplantation of Embryonic Pig Kidney or Pancreas to Replace the Function of Mature Organs

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    Marc R. Hammerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of donor availability limits the number of human donor organs. The need for host immunosuppression complicates transplantation procedures. Ultrastructurally precise kidneys differentiate in situ following xenotransplantation in mesentery of embryonic pig renal primordia. The developing organ attracts its blood supply from the host, obviating humoral rejection. Engraftment of pig renal primordia transplanted directly into rats requires host immune suppression. However, insulin-producing cells originating from embryonic pig pancreas obtained very early following initiation of organogenesis [embryonic day 28 (E28] engraft long term in nonimmune-suppressed diabetic rats or rhesus macaques. Engraftment of morphologically similar cells originating from adult porcine islets of Langerhans (islets occurs in rats previously transplanted with E28 pig pancreatic primordia. Here, we review recent findings germane to xenotransplantation of pig renal or pancreatic primordia as a novel organ replacement strategy.

  9. Cloning of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and its expression in the uterus during embryonic diapause and implantation in the mink (Mustela vison).

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    Song, J H; Houde, A; Murphy, B D

    1998-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential for embryo implantation in mice. Whether LIF plays a role in termination of embryonic diapause and initiation of implantation in carnivores, especially in species with obligate delayed implantation such as the mink, is not known. The objectives of this study were to clone the LIF coding sequence in the mink and determine its mRNA abundance in the uterus through embryonic diapause, implantation, and early postimplantation. We show that the mink LIF cDNA contains 609 nt encoding a deduced protein of 203 amino acids. The homologies are 80.6, 90, 88.2, 87.6, and 86.8% in coding sequence and 79.2, 90.1, 91, 90.1 and 85.4% in amino acid sequence with mouse, human, pig, cow, and sheep respectively. Glycosylation sites and disulfide bonds present in other species are generally conserved in the mink LIF sequence. Quantitation by polymerase chain reaction amplification indicates that LIF mRNA is expressed in mink uterus just prior to implantation and during the first two days after implantation, but not during diapause or later after implantation pregnancy. The abundance of LIF mRNA was significantly higher in the uterus at the embryo expansion stage (P coincidence of LIF expression with implantation in this species suggests that LIF is involved in the implantation process, and may be a maternal signal which terminates obligate embryonic diapause.

  10. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

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    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  11. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  12. Improved Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells from Chinese Miniature Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingLI; WeiMA; YiHOU; Xiao-FangSUN; Qing-YuanSUN; Wei-HuaWANG

    2005-01-01

    Pigs serve as a better research model for human beings than other species. The Chinese laboratory miniature pig is a new laboratory animal and is expected to be applicable in many medical research fields. This study was to establish effective technologies to isolate and culture ES cells in Chinese miniature pigs. For isolation of the inner cell mass from blastocysts, an enzyme-digestive method was compared with the traditional immunosurgery. Isolated ICM were cultured in three feeder cell layers: mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF) and a continuous cell line of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (STO). Microtubule activity of the three feeder cells was further examined by immunofluorescence. ICM were successfully isolated from 85% of blastocysts by the enzyme-digestive method, compared to only 40% by immunosurgery. When ICM were cultured in three feeder layers for two to three days, 75%, 65% and 20% of ICMs formed primary cell colonies in MEF, PEF and STO, respectively. Colonies were also formed during subcultures after 9, 5 and 1 passage in MEF, PEF and STO, respectively. Microtubules in STO cells were significantly fewer than those in MEF and PEF. When the ES-like cells were cultured in a differentiation medium,they differentiated to neuron-like cells and other types of cells. These results indicate that healthier ICM can be obtained with the enzyme-digestive method. Successful culture of ICM to ES-like cells has been achieved not only in MEF, but also in homologous (pig) feeder layer. The ES cells obtained in the present study were pluripotent.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis–the study on the pig model

    OpenAIRE

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; KOTWICA, Genowefa

    2014-01-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation peri...

  14. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevents embryonic implantation by a direct effect on the endometrial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, C; Valbuena, D; Krüssel, J; Bernal, A; Murphy, C R; Shaw, T; Pellicer, A; Polan, M L

    1998-11-01

    To investigate the embryonic and/or endometrial molecular mechanisms underlying the antiimplantation effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Controlled experiment. Animal facilities at Stanford University and laboratories of the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad and the University of Sydney. Twelve-week-old B6C3F-1 female mice. Intraperitoneal injections of recombinant human IL-1ra during the periimplantation period. Implantation sites, embryonic morphology, and viability. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for integrins and extracellular matrices and transmission electron microscopy of endometrium in IL-1ra-treated versus control animals. Pregnancy rates in control and IL-1ra-injected animals were 60% and 13%, respectively. At day 8 of pregnancy, flushing of uteri obtained from the treated group resulted in 32 blastocysts. Six pseudopregnant animals received IL-1ra-treated blastocysts (left horn) and control blastocysts (right horn), resulting in one pregnancy, with two embryos and one embryo in the left and right horns, respectively. At day 4 of pregnancy, IL- 1ra down-regulated alpha4 mRNA with use of the polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3, and transmission electron microscopy revealed inhibition of transformation of the plasma membrane. Impairment of embryonic adhesion with IL-1ra is mediated through a direct effect on transformation of the epithelial plasma membrane at the time of implantation as a result of down-regulation of alpha4, alpha v, and beta3.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells from pigs and other ungulate species: an alternative to embryonic stem cells?

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    Ezashi, T; Telugu, B P V L; Roberts, R M

    2012-08-01

    Robust embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines from livestock species have been difficult to derive and maintain, and unlike mouse ESC, have not contributed to our ability to understand directed differentiation in vitro. Nor have such cells yet provided a simpler means than pronuclear injection to manipulate the genomes of agriculturally important species, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated by reprogramming somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, with a set of stemness genes, most usually but not exclusively POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC, offer an alternative to ESC in these regards, as they exhibit a pluripotent phenotype resembling that of ESC, yet are readily generated in the laboratory. Accordingly, such cells, in association with cloning technologies, may be useful for introducing complex genetic changes into livestock, although this potential has yet to be demonstrated. Porcine iPSC may be especially valuable because the pig is a prime biomedical model for tissue transplantation. In general, iPSC from livestock, like those from humans, are of the epiblast type and depend upon FGF2 and activin/nodal signalling systems to maintain their pluripotency and growth. Recent experiments, in which newly reprogrammed porcine and bovine cells were selected on a LIF-based medium in presence of specific protein kinase inhibitors, have allowed iPSC cells of the naïve type, resembling the more amenable blastocyst-derived mouse ESC and iPSC to be isolated. However, hurdles still remain if such cells are to achieve their biotechnological promise.

  16. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    Objective Body temperature is a simple, but clinically important parameter in monitoring the health status of pigs, both at individual level and herd level. The standard procedure for obtaining such data is normally performed by recording of the core body temperature, using a rectal digital...... with CSFV, as determined by virus detection. So, the transponder system was tested in both clinically healthy and clinically ill pigs with physiologically normal body temperature or fever, respectively. The data obtained in this study, showed a correlation between the two methods for monitoring body...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...

  17. Influence of cochleostomy and cochlear implant insertion on drug gradients following intratympanic application in guinea pigs

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    King, EB; Hartsock, JJ; O'Leary, SJ; Salt, AN

    2013-01-01

    Locally-applied drugs can protect residual hearing following cochlear implantation. The influence of cochlear implantation on drug levels in scala tympani (ST) after round window application was investigated in guinea pigs using the marker trimethylphenlyammonium (TMPA) measured in real-time with TMPA-selective microelectrodes. TMPA concentration in the upper basal turn of ST rapidly increased during implantation and then declined due to cerebrospinal fluid entering ST at the cochlear aqueduct and exiting at the cochleostomy. The TMPA increase was found to be caused by the cochleostomy drilling, if the burr tip partially entered ST. TMPA distribution in the second turn was less affected by implantation procedures. These findings show that basal turn drug levels may be changed during implantation and the changes may need to be considered in the interpretation of therapeutic effects of drugs in conjunction with implantation. PMID:24008355

  18. Maternal and embryonic control of uterine sphingolipid-metabolizing enzymes during murine embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko-Tarui, Tomoko; Zhang, Ling; Austin, Kathleen J; Henkes, Luiz E; Johnson, Joshua; Hansen, Thomas R; Pru, James K

    2007-10-01

    During early gestation in invasively implanting species, the uterine stromal compartment undergoes dramatic remodeling, defined by the differentiation of stromal fibroblast cells into decidual cells. Lipid signaling molecules from a number of pathways are well-established functional components of this decidualization reaction. Because of a correlation in the events that transpire in the uterus during early implantation with known functions of bioactive sphingolipid metabolites established from studies in other organ systems, we hypothesized that uterine sphingolipid metabolism would change during implantation. By a combination of Northern blot, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses, we establish that enzymes at each of the major catalytic steps in the sphingolipid cascade become transcriptionally up-regulated in the uterus during decidualization. Each of the enzymes analyzed was up-regulated from Days of Pregnancy (DOP) 4.5-7.5. When comparing embryo-induced decidualization (decidual) with mechanically induced decidualization (deciduomal), sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (Smpd1) mRNA and sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) protein were shown to be dually regulated in the endometrium by both maternal and embryonic factors. As measured by the diacyl glycerol kinase assay, ceramide levels rose in parallel with Smpd1 gene expression, suggesting that elevated transcription of sphingolipid enzymes results in heightened catalytic activity of the pathway. Altogether, these findings place sphingolipids on a growing list of lipid signaling molecules that become increasingly present at the maternal-embryonic interface.

  19. 1Identification of genes differentially expressed in the embryonic pig cerebral cortex before and after appearance of gyration

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    Jørgensen Arne L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian evolution is characterized by a progressive expansion of the surface area of the cerebral cortex, an increase that is accompanied by gyration of the cortical surface. The mechanisms controlling this gyration process are not well characterized but mutational analyses indicate that genes involved in neuronal migration play an important function. Due to the lack of gyration of the rodent brain it is important to establish alternative models to examine brain development during the gyration process. The pig brain is gyrated and accordingly is a candidate alternative model. Findings In this study we have identified genes differentially expressed in the pig cerebral cortex before and after appearance of gyration. Pig cortical tissue from two time points in development representing a non-folded, lissencephalic, brain (embryonic day 60 and primary-folded, gyrencephalic, brain (embryonic day 80 were examined by whole genome expression microarray studies. 91 differentially expressed transcripts (fold change >3 were identified. 84 transcripts were annotated and encoding proteins involved in for example neuronal migration, calcium binding, and cytoskeletal structuring. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the regulation of a subset of the identified genes. Conclusion This study provides identification of genes which are differentially expressed in the pig cerebral cortex before and after appearance of brain gyration. The identified genes include novel candidate genes which could have functional importance for brain development.

  20. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON THE OVARIAN FUNCTION AND THE IMPLANTATION PROCESS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUCheng-Quan; DAIMao-Zheng; SHENShu-Ren; WANGZhong-Xing

    1989-01-01

    The influence of peptides and steroid hormones on ovarian function and implantation was studied in guinea pigs. Results show that injections of 5ng LHRH in pulses of onc-hour interval 10 times per day, starting from 20-30 days of age, could induce the first vaginal

  1. Surface analysis of an encapsulation membrane after its implantation in mini-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Marie [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Ulrichs, Karin [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Moskalenko, Vasily [University of Wuerzburg Hospital (Germany); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Kang, Chantal [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris (France); Belcourt, Alain [Centre Europeen d' Etude du Diabete, Strasbourg (France); Bertrand, Patrick [Universite Catholique de Louvain, PCPM, Croix du Sud 1, B1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-03-01

    The biocompatibility of membranes aiming at being a part of a bioartificial pancreas has been tested. For that purpose, we have studied a polycarbonate membrane surface after its implantation in mini-pigs. The membranes were made hydrophilic by an argon plasma surface treatment followed by a dipping in a hydrophilic polymer solution. Two polymers were tested: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). To test their biocompatibility, an encapsulation device for pig Langerhans islets, with external membranes treated as described above, was implanted in different mini-pigs. The pigs received no further treatment. The devices were explanted after in vivo exposure and the membranes were analysed by XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). After this time, the substrate with the PVP or HPMC treatment was still detected on the different samples. The surface treatment signal, however, was attenuated. This is explained by the detection of other components partly covering the surface. XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses revealed the presence of biological molecules on the two faces of the membrane: the outside face in contact with the biological environment and the inside face in contact with the device. ToF-SIMS images show the inhomogeneity of the biological molecules on the membrane surface. In conclusion, biological molecules adhered to the encapsulation membrane surface after implantation but the surface treatments remained unaltered.

  2. Pathological impairments induced by interstitial implantation of 125I Seeds in spinal canal of banna mini-pigs

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    Yang Zuozhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use a banna mini-pig to set up 125I implantation model, and investigate the consequence of radiation-related impairments. Methods In present study, 125I seeds were implanted into spinal canal of T13 level of spine in banna mini-pigs. After operation, the pigs were raised up to 8 months, behavior changes were recorded within this period. After 8 months, spinal cords were collected for pathological analysis. Results In this study, a 125I brachytherapy animal model had been successfully established, in the model group, the banna pigs' Tarlov scale decreased from 5 to 2.57 ± 0.36, significant cellular impairments were noted by pathological analysis. Conclusions Without any protection and operation improvement, 125I implantation can cause serious histological impairments and moving difficulty for banna mini-pigs; this present research provides an alternative tool to study spinal 125I brachytherapy.

  3. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...... temperature. To test the stability of the monitoring system in a larger group of pigs, transponders were therefore inserted by the left ear base in a subsequent infection experiment with 30 pigs. Results Generally, the microchip transponders measured a subcutaneous tissue temperature, which was about 1º...

  4. Effect of Bushenantai Recipe on the Expression of Endometrial LIF in Mice with Embryonic Implantation Dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingmin ZHANG; Yuqin HUANG; Guijin ZHU; Guangying HUANG; Liping DONG; Jinjin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to observe the effect of Bushenantai recipe on the expression of endometrial leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) in mice with embryonic implantation dysfunction (EID), 120 Kun- ruing mice post coition were randomized into three groups: normal control group, model group and traditional Chinese medicine group (TCM group) (n=40 in each group). Uterus was collected on the pregnancy day (Pd) 4, 5, 6 after an intravenous injection of Evan's blue. The endometrium was dyed by Evan's blue and the mean points of response were observed on Pd 5. The expression of LIF mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively and analyzed statistically by image system. The results showed that the number of implantation sites in model group was remarkably less than in normal control group and TCM group. There was no significant difference between normal control group and TCM group. The expression of L1F mRNA and protein in model group was delayed. Bushenantai recipe could increase the expression of LIF mRNA and protein in endometria of mice with EID. It was suggested that Bushenantai recipe could improve em- bryo implantation of mice with EID by promoting the endometrial LIF expression and endometrial decidualization.

  5. Oxidative stress status and placental implications in diabetic rats undergoing swimming exercise after embryonic implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Ribeiro, Viviane Maria; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos

    2015-05-01

    The potential benefits and risks of physical exercise on fetal development during pregnancy remain unclear. The aim was to analyze maternal oxidative stress status and the placental morphometry to relate to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from diabetic female rats submitted to swimming program after embryonic implantation. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups (11 animals/group): control-nondiabetic sedentary rats, control exercised-nondiabetic exercised rats, diabetic-diabetic sedentary rats, and diabetic exercised-diabetic exercised rats. A swimming program was used as an exercise model. At the end of pregnancy, the maternal oxidative stress status, placental morphology, and fetal weight were analyzed. The swimming program was not efficient to reduce the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. This fact impaired placental development, resulting in altered blood flow and energy reserves, which contributed to a deficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen for the fetal development, leading to IUGR. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  7. [Conception rate and embryo development in guinea pigs with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1994-01-01

    Observations were made on the timing of mating and the pre-implantation development of fertilized eggs in guinea pigs synchronized by long-term progesterone treatment. Females received a subcutaneous implant of progesterone-filled silastic tubing for 14 days. Copulation was observed from the evening of day 4 to the morning of day 6 in 53 of 54 females (98%). Most of them (47/53, 89%) copulated on day 5 after removal of the tubing. Designating the day of copulation (day 5 after removal of the tubing) as day 0 of gestation, embryos collected from the genital tract were at the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages on days 1, 3, 4 and 5 of gestation, respectively. Eggs were recovered at high incidence (85-100%) from days 1 to 5 of gestation. On day 6 gestation, no eggs were recovered from the genital tract, suggesting that implantation had occurred. The mean litter size (+/- S. D.) was 4.0 +/- 0.8 pups, which were born normally after a mean gestation period of 67 +/- 1 days in 7 synchronized females. Since the female guinea pigs synchronized by the long-term progesterone treatment had normal reproductive ability similar to that of cyclic females, this technique would make it possible to obtain animals at a scheduled time even in smaller-sized colonies. In addition, observations on the pre-implantation development of embryos in females with synchronized estrus might be a useful aid in the field of reproductive research.

  8. Myocardial hypertrophy after pulmonary regurgitation and valve implantation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter; Søndergaard, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients may suffer from right ventricular (RV) failure and malignant cardiac arrhythmias after late pulmonary valve replacement correcting pulmonary regurgitation (PR). But the underlying mechanisms of the refractory arrhythmias are not well understood. METHODS: The aim of present...... study was to characterize the RV myocardium after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) in a porcine model after severe PR for 3months. RV histology was evaluated with morphometric methods and RV function was assessed with electrophysiology, echocardiography, and biochemical measures...... and plasma natriuretic peptides were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The RV does not completely recover after three months of PR with persistent myocardial hypertrophy one month after PPVI. Future studies should address whether RV chamber and cellular hypertrophy, without fibrosis or interventional scar tissue, may...

  9. Influence of insemination conditions on early pregnancy in pigs, with emphasis on embryonic diversity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    In pig husbandry, reproductive performance (litter size, pregnancy rate) after either artificial insemination or natural mating is considered to be similar. However, under experimental conditions, boar stimulation around insemination has been found to influence reproductive performance. For the pres

  10. Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1998-10-01

    Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.

  11. Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Jong Kim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm, which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.. Baseline temperature was 31±1ºC. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences for maximum recorded temperature (Max TºC, change in temperature (ΔTºC from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (ΔTºC were 1.57ºC and 2.46ºC for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05. No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47ºC, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

  12. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  13. Murine Wee1 Plays a Critical Role in Cell Cycle Regulation and Pre-Implantation Stages of Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Tominaga, Cuiling Li, Rui-Hong Wang, Chu-Xia Deng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wee1 kinase regulates the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint by phosphorylating and inactivating the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1. Loss of Wee1 in many systems, including yeast and drosophila, leads to premature mitotic entry. However, the developmental role of Wee1 in mammals remains unclear. In this study, we established Wee1 knockout mice by gene targeting. We found that Wee-/- embryos were defective in the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint induced by γ-irradiation and died of apoptosis before embryonic (E day 3.5. To study the function of Wee1 further, we have developed MEF cells in which Wee1 is disrupted by a tamoxifen inducible Cre-LoxP approach. We found that acute deletion of Wee1 resulted in profound growth defects and cell death. Wee1 deficient cells displayed chromosome aneuploidy and DNA damage as revealed by γ-H2AX foci formation and Chk2 activation. Further studies revealed a conserved mechanism of Wee1 in regulating mitotic entry and the G2/M checkpoint compared with other lower organisms. These data provide in vivo evidence that mammalian Wee1 plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity and is essential for embryonic survival at the pre-implantation stage of mouse development.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  15. A Novel Three-Dimensional Mouse Embryonic Implantation Model In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yu-xuan; CAO Bin-yun

    2007-01-01

    To regenerate three-dimensional endometrium in vitro as a novel model for studying the mechanism of implantation of embryos, the luminal epithelial cells and stromal cells of the rabbit uterus were separated and cultured in vitro. The type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen was used as scaffolding material. The stromal cells were inoculated in the type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen, and the luminal epithelial cells were inoculated on the type Ⅰ mouse tail collagen to regenerate the endometrium in vitro. The regenerated endometrium was cultured in DMEM-F/12 media containing 100 nmol L-1 progesterone, 10 nM β-estradiol, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 3 d. The media were then replaced with CZB containing 100 nM progesterone, 10 nmol L-1 β-estradiol, and 10% FBS, and the mouse blastulas were co-cultured with it. The results of scanning electronic micrography showed that the epithelial cells on the surface of the reconstructed endometrium were covered with numerous slender microvilli and some epithelial cells protruded pinopodes. After culturing for 12 h with the mouse blastula, the shedding, attachment, and implantation of the blastula were observed. The blastula can escape from zona pellucida and attach to the three-dimensional endometrium and is then implanted into it. Thisstudy showed that the reconstructed three-dimensional endometrium can serve as a robust embryo implantation model in vitro.

  16. Changes of DNA methylation level and spatial arrangement of primordial germ cells in embryonic day 15 to embryonic day 28 pig embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Sara Maj Hyldig; Østrup, Olga; Vejlsted, Morten

    2011-01-01

    -positive primordial germ cells (PGCs) compared with neighboring somatic cells in porcine embryos at Embryonic Day 15 (E15), E17, E20, E21, and E28. We show that, in agreement with the mouse model, a significantly lower level of DNA methylation was observed in the early migrating PGCs. This level...

  17. Factors associated with hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model of Hybrid cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiemi; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Loera, Katherine; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2014-10-01

    The Hybrid cochlear implant (CI), also known as Electro-Acoustic Stimulation (EAS), is a new type of CI that preserves residual acoustic hearing and enables combined cochlear implant and hearing aid use in the same ear. However, 30-55% of patients experience acoustic hearing loss within days to months after activation, suggesting that both surgical trauma and electrical stimulation may cause hearing loss. The goals of this study were to: 1) determine the contributions of both implantation surgery and EAS to hearing loss in a normal-hearing guinea pig model; 2) determine which cochlear structural changes are associated with hearing loss after surgery and EAS. Two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no direct acoustic or electric stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were followed over time at 1, 2, 6, and 16 kHz. At the end of the study, the following cochlear measures were quantified: hair cells, spiral ganglion neuron density, fibrous tissue density, and stria vascularis blood vessel density; the presence or absence of ossification around the electrode entry was also noted. After surgery, implanted animals experienced a range of 0-55 dB of threshold shifts in the vicinity of the electrode at 6 and 16 kHz. The degree of hearing loss was significantly correlated with reduced stria vascularis vessel density and with the presence of ossification, but not with hair cell counts, spiral ganglion neuron density, or fibrosis area. After 10 weeks of stimulation, 67% of implanted, stimulated animals had more than 10 dB of additional threshold shift at 1 kHz, compared to 17% of implanted, non-stimulated animals and 0% of non-implanted animals. This 1-kHz hearing loss was not associated with changes in any of the cochlear measures

  18. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  19. Neurotrophic treatment of the degenerating auditory nerve; cochlear implants in deafened guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    To date, the cochlear implant is the most successful sensorineural prosthesis. The device consists of a small array with a number of electrodes implanted in the cochlea of profoundly hearing impaired people. Some people with an implant are able to use the telephone. Unfortunately, others hardly bene

  20. Changes in WNT signaling-related gene expression associated with development and cloning in bovine extra-embryonic and endometrial tissues during the peri-implantation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biase, Fernando H; Rabel, Chanaka; Guillomot, Michel; Sandra, Olivier; Andropolis, Kalista; Olmstead, Colleen; Oliveira, Rosane; Wallace, Richard; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Richard, Christophe; Campion, Evelyne; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Giraud-Delville, Corinne; Taghouti, Géraldine; Jammes, Hélène; Hue, Isabelle; Renard, Jean Paul; Lewin, Harris A

    2013-12-01

    We determined if somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is associated with WNT-related gene expression in cattle development, and if the expression of genes in the WNT pathway changes during the peri-implantation period. Extra-embryonic and endometrial tissues were collected at gestation days 18 and 34 (d18, d34). WNT5A, FZD4, FZD5, LRP5, CTNNB1, GNAI2, KDM1A, BCL2L1, and SFRP1 transcripts were localized in extra-embryonic tissue, whereas SFRP1 and DKK1 were localized in the endometrium. There were no differences in the localization of these transcripts in extra-embryonic tissue or endometrium from SCNT or artificial insemination (AI) pregnancies. Expression levels of WNT5A were 11-fold greater in the allantois of SCNT than AI samples. In the trophoblast, expression of WNT5A, FZD5, CTNNB1, and DKK1 increased significantly from d18 to d34, whereas expression of KDM1A and SFRP1 decreased, indicating that implantation is associated with major changes in WNT signaling. SCNT was associated with altered WNT5A expression in trophoblasts, with levels increasing 2.3-fold more in AI than SCNT conceptuses from d18 to d34. In the allantois, expression of WNT5A increased 6.3-fold more in SCNT than AI conceptuses from d18 to d34. Endometrial tissue expression levels of the genes tested did not differ between AI or SCNT pregnancies, although expression of individual genes showed variation across developmental stages. Our results demonstrate that SCNT is associated with altered expression of specific WNT-related genes in extra-embryonic tissue in a time- and tissue-specific manner. The pattern of gene expression in the WNT pathway suggests that noncanonical WNT signal transduction is important for implantation of cattle conceptuses.

  1. Time course of fibronectin in the peri-implant tissue and neointima formation after functional implantation of polyester-based vascular prostheses with different porosity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrzyk, Maciej; Hoene, Andreas; Jarchow, Raymond; Wilhelm, Lutz; Walschus, Uwe; Zippel, Roland; Schlosser, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Intima hyperplasia, resulting from extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, can lead to vascular prosthesis occlusion and is a major problem in vascular surgery. Fibronectin might contribute to ongoing ECM secretion. However, the exact role of fibronectin and its influence on neointima formation remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the time course of the fibronectin area fraction and neointima formation following the functional implantation of three different polyester vascular prostheses into pigs. The infrarenal aorta from 15 animals (n = 5/group) was replaced by prosthesis segments with low, medium and high primary porosity. After 7, 14, 21, 28 and 116 days, the prostheses were morphometrically examined. Overall, the fibronectin area fraction was inversely correlated with the neointima thickness, demonstrating high fibronectin levels in the early phase (days 7 and 14) and low levels in the later phase with almost complete neointima formation (days 21-116). Throughout the study, fibronectin levels were highest at the proximal anastomosis region. The low porosity prosthesis had the highest fibronectin area fraction and a delayed neointima formation in the middle phase (days 21 and 28) but the highest neointima lining on day 116. The results indicate a relationship between fibronectin and neointima formation with the prosthesis porosity, demonstrating the importance of the textile design for tissue reactions following implantation.

  2. Time course of fibronectin in the peri-implant tissue and neointima formation after functional implantation of polyester-based vascular prostheses with different porosity in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrzyk, Maciej; Hoene, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Friedrich-Loeffler-Str. 23, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Jarchow, Raymond [Computation Centre, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 12, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wilhelm, Lutz [Department of Surgery, Hospital Demmin, Loitzer Str. 1, D-17109 Demmin (Germany); Walschus, Uwe; Schlosser, Michael [Research Group of Predictive Diagnostics of the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute of Pathophysiology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswalder Str. 11c, D-17495 Karlsburg (Germany); Zippel, Roland, E-mail: schlosse@uni-greifswald.d [Department of Surgery, Elbland Hospital Center, Weinbergstr. 8, D-01589 Riesa (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Intima hyperplasia, resulting from extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, can lead to vascular prosthesis occlusion and is a major problem in vascular surgery. Fibronectin might contribute to ongoing ECM secretion. However, the exact role of fibronectin and its influence on neointima formation remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the time course of the fibronectin area fraction and neointima formation following the functional implantation of three different polyester vascular prostheses into pigs. The infrarenal aorta from 15 animals (n = 5/group) was replaced by prosthesis segments with low, medium and high primary porosity. After 7, 14, 21, 28 and 116 days, the prostheses were morphometrically examined. Overall, the fibronectin area fraction was inversely correlated with the neointima thickness, demonstrating high fibronectin levels in the early phase (days 7 and 14) and low levels in the later phase with almost complete neointima formation (days 21-116). Throughout the study, fibronectin levels were highest at the proximal anastomosis region. The low porosity prosthesis had the highest fibronectin area fraction and a delayed neointima formation in the middle phase (days 21 and 28) but the highest neointima lining on day 116. The results indicate a relationship between fibronectin and neointima formation with the prosthesis porosity, demonstrating the importance of the textile design for tissue reactions following implantation.

  3. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable...

  4. Early bone response to machined, sandblasting acid etching (SLA) and novel surface-functionalization (SLAffinity) titanium implants: characterization, biomechanical analysis and histological evaluation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsi-Jen; Hsu, Heng-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen; Wu, Ching-Zong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Cheng, Han-Yi; Walinski, Christopher J; Sugiatno, Erwan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine early tissue response and osseointegration in the animal model. The surface morphologies of SLAffinity were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The microstructures were examined by X-ray diffraction, and hardness was measured by nanoindentation. Moreover, the safety and toxicity properties were evaluated using computer-aided programs and cell cytotoxicity assays. In the animal model, implants were installed in the mandibular canine-premolar area of 12 miniature pigs. Each pig received three implants: machine, sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched, and SLAffinity-treated implants. The results showed that surface treatment did affect bone-to-implant contact (BIC) significantly. At 3 weeks, the SLAffinity-treated implants were found to present significantly higher BIC values than the untreated implants. The SLAffinity treatments enhanced osseointegration significantly, especially at early stages of bone tissue healing. As described above, the results of the present study demonstrate that the SLAffinity treatment is a reliable surface modification method. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine) ...

  6. Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... majority of tissue used to produce these mesh implants are from a pig (porcine) or cow (bovine). ...

  7. Primary Bovine Extra-Embryonic Cultured Cells: A New Resource for the Study of In Vivo Peri-Implanting Phenotypes and Mesoderm Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Hue

    Full Text Available In addition to nourishing the embryo, extra-embryonic tissues (EETs contribute to early embryonic patterning, primitive hematopoiesis, and fetal health. These tissues are of major importance for human medicine, as well as for efforts to improve livestock efficiency, but they remain incompletely understood. In bovines, EETs are accessible easily, in large amounts, and prior to implantation. We took advantage of this system to describe, in vitro and in vivo, the cell types present in bovine EETs at Day 18 of development. Specifically, we characterized the gene expression patterns and phenotypes of bovine extra-embryonic ectoderm (or trophoblast; bTC, endoderm (bXEC, and mesoderm (bXMC cells in culture and compared them to their respective in vivo micro-dissected cells. After a week of culture, certain characteristics (e.g., gene expression of the in vitro cells were altered with respect to the in vivo cells, but we were able to identify "cores" of cell-type-specific (and substrate-independent genes that were shared between in vitro and in vivo samples. In addition, many cellular phenotypes were cell-type-specific with regard to extracellular adhesion. We evaluated the ability of individual bXMCs to migrate and spread on micro-patterns, and observed that they easily adapted to diverse environments, similar to in vivo EE mesoderm cells, which encounter different EE epithelia to form chorion, yolk sac, and allantois. With these tissue interactions, different functions arose that were detected in silico and corroborated in vivo at D21-D25. Moreover, analysis of bXMCs allowed us to identify the EE cell ring surrounding the embryonic disc (ED at D14-15 as mesoderm cells, which had been hypothesized but not shown prior to this study. We envision these data will serve as a major resource for the future in the analysis of peri-implanting phenotypes in response to the maternal metabolism and contribute to subsequent studies of placental/fetal development in

  8. Bone-to-implant contact after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss and autogenous bone in different ratios in mini pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test the hypotheses: (i) no differences in bone-to-implant contact formation, and (ii) no differences between the use of autogenous mandibular or iliac bone grafts, when autogenous bone, Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone, or Bio-Oss is used as graft...... for the maxillary sinus floor augmentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral sinus floor augmentation was performed in 40 mini pigs with: (A) 100% autogenous bone, (B) 75% autogenous bone and 25% Bio-Oss, (C) 50% autogenous bone and 50% Bio-Oss, (D) 25% autogenous bone and 75% Bio-Oss, or (E) 100% Bio......-Oss. Autogenous bone was harvested from the iliac crest or the mandible and the graft composition was selected at random and placed concomitant with the implant placement. The animals were euthanized 12 weeks after surgery. Bone-to-implant contact was estimated by stereological methods and summarized as median...

  9. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  10. Human embryonic stem cells carrying an unbalanced translocation demonstrate impaired differentiation into trophoblasts: an in vitro model of human implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiz, A; Kalma, Y; Frumkin, T; Telias, M; Carmon, A; Amit, A; Ben-Yosef, D

    2015-03-01

    Carriers of the balanced translocation t(11;22), the most common reciprocal translocation in humans, are at high risk of creating gametes with unbalanced translocation, leading to repeated miscarriages. Current research models for studying translocated embryos and the biological basis for their implantation failure are limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) carrying the unbalanced chromosomal translocation t(11;22) can provide an explanation for repeated miscarriages of unbalanced translocated embryos. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and karyotype analysis were performed to analyze the t(11;22) in embryos during PGD and in the derived hESC line. The hESC line was characterized by RT-PCR and FACS analysis for pluripotent markers. Directed differentiation to trophoblasts was carried out by bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Trophoblast development was analyzed by measuring β-hCG secretion, by β-hCG immunostaining and by gene expression of trophoblastic markers. We derived the first hESC line carrying unbalanced t(11;22), which showed the typical morphological and molecular characteristics of a hESC line. Control hESCs differentiated into trophoblasts secreted increasing levels of β-hCG and concomitantly expressed the trophoblast genes, CDX2, TP63, KRT7, ERVW1, CGA, GCM1, KLF4 and PPARG. In contrast, differentiated translocated hESCs displayed reduced and delayed secretion of β-hCG concomitant with impaired expression of the trophoblastic genes. The reduced activation of trophoblastic genes may be responsible for the impaired trophoblastic differentiation in t(11;22)-hESCs, associated with implantation failure in unbalanced t(11;22) embryos. Our t(11;22) hESCs are presented as a valuable human model for studying the mechanisms underlying implantation failure.

  11. Implantation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells preserves function of infarcted murine hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Christoforou

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation holds great promise for the treatment of myocardial infarction injury. We recently described the embryonic stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelium, and smooth muscle. In this study, we hypothesized that transplanted CPCs will preserve function of the infarcted heart by participating in both muscle replacement and neovascularization. Differentiated CPCs formed functional electromechanical junctions with cardiomyocytes in vitro and conducted action potentials over cm-scale distances. When transplanted into infarcted mouse hearts, CPCs engrafted long-term in the infarct zone and surrounding myocardium without causing teratomas or arrhythmias. The grafted cells differentiated into cross-striated cardiomyocytes forming gap junctions with the host cells, while also contributing to neovascularization. Serial echocardiography and pressure-volume catheterization demonstrated attenuated ventricular dilatation and preserved left ventricular fractional shortening, systolic and diastolic function. Our results demonstrate that CPCs can engraft, differentiate, and preserve the functional output of the infarcted heart.

  12. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.

  13. Expression of genes involved in progesterone receptor paracrine signaling and their effect on litter size in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Fu, Jinluan; Wang, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic mortality during the period of implantation strongly affects litter size in pigs. Progesterone receptor (PGR) paracrine signaling has been recognized to play a significant role in embryonic implantation. IHH, NR2F2, BMP2, FKBP4 and HAND2 were proved to involve in PGR paracrine signaling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of IHH, NR2F2, BMP2, FKBP4 and HAND2 in endometrium of pregnant sows and to further investigate these genes' effect on litter size in pigs. Real-time PCR, western blot and immunostaining were used to study target genes/proteins expression in endometrium in pigs. RFLP-PCR was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of target genes. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IHH, NR2F2 and BMP2 were up-regulated during implantation period (P  A mutation in promoter region of NR2F2 gene. Three genotypes were found in Large White, Landrace and Duroc sows. A total of 1847 litter records from 625 sows genotyped at NR2F2 gene were used to analyze the total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA). The study of the effect on litter size suggested that sows with genotype CC tend to have higher litter size. These results showed the expression patterns of genes/proteins involved in PGR paracrine signaling over implantation time. And the candidate gene for litter size was identified from genes involved in this signaling. This study could be a resource for further studies to identify the roles of these genes for embryonic implantation in pigs.

  14. From zygote to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev;

    2009-01-01

    The increasing focus on the pig as a biomedical model calls for studies which investigate morphological and molecular mechanisms during initial embryonic development in this species. In the pig, the paternal genome is actively demethylated in the zygote, whereas the maternal genome remains methyl...

  15. Morphological correlates of hearing loss after cochlear implantation and electro-acoustic stimulation in a hearing-impaired Guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Stark, Gemaine; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T; Spear, Kayce A; Zhang, Hongzheng; Tanaka, Chiemi; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid or electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) cochlear implants (CIs) are designed to provide high-frequency electric hearing together with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing. However, 30-50% of EAS CI recipients lose residual hearing after implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of EAS-induced hearing loss in an animal model with high-frequency hearing loss. Guinea pigs were exposed to 24 h of noise (12-24 kHz at 116 dB) to induce a high-frequency hearing loss. After recovery, two groups of animals were implanted (n = 6 per group), with one group receiving chronic acoustic and electric stimulation for 10 weeks, and the other group receiving no stimulation during this time frame. A third group (n = 6) was not implanted, but received chronic acoustic stimulation. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded biweekly to monitor changes in hearing. The organ of Corti was immunolabeled with phalloidin, anti-CtBP2, and anti-GluR2 to quantify hair cells, ribbons and post-synaptic receptors. The lateral wall was immunolabeled with phalloidin and lectin to quantify stria vascularis capillary diameters. Bimodal or trimodal diameter distributions were observed; the number and location of peaks were objectively determined using the Aikake Information Criterion and Expectation Maximization algorithm. Noise exposure led to immediate hearing loss at 16-32 kHz for all groups. Cochlear implantation led to additional hearing loss at 4-8 kHz; this hearing loss was negatively and positively correlated with minimum and maximum peaks of the bimodal or trimodal distributions of stria vascularis capillary diameters, respectively. After chronic stimulation, no significant group changes in thresholds were seen; however, elevated thresholds at 1 kHz in implanted, stimulated animals were significantly correlated with decreased presynaptic ribbon and postsynaptic receptor counts. Inner and outer hair cell counts did not differ between groups and

  16. Permanent and transient effects of locally delivered n-acetyl cysteine in a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Hayden; Pinder, Darren; James, David; Chang, Andrew; Galloway, Stuart; Richardson, Rachael; O'Leary, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Protection of residual hearing after cochlear implant surgery can improve the speech and music perception of cochlear implant recipients, particularly in the presence of background noise. Surgical trauma and chronic inflammation are thought to be responsible for a significant proportion of residual hearing loss after surgery. Local delivery of the anti-oxidant precursor n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to the cochlea via round window 30min prior to surgery, increased the level of residual hearing at 24-32kHz 4weeks post surgery compared to controls. The hearing protection was found in the basal turn near the site of implantation. Coincidentally, the basal turn was also the location that sustained the greatest hearing loss. As well as protecting residual hearing, NAC-treated animals demonstrated a reduction in the chronic inflammatory changes associated with implantation. While these findings indicate that anti-oxidant therapy can be used to reduce the hearing loss associated with surgical trauma, the local delivery of NAC was associated with a transient increase in hearing thresholds, and osseoneogenesis was seen in a greater number of NAC-treated animals. These side-effects would limit its clinical use through local cochlear administration. However, it is not known yet whether these effects would also be produced by other anti-oxidants, or ameliorated by using a different route of administration.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12–30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25 by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation. This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy.

  18. The effect of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation via the round window approach: A guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mun Young; Gwon, Tae Mok; Lee, Ho Sun; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Sung June; Park, Min-Hyun

    2017-03-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic lipoic acid on hearing preservation after cochlear implantation. Twelve Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the lipoic acid group. Animals in the lipoic acid group received lipoic acid intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. A sterilised silicone electrode-dummy was inserted through the round window to a depth of approximately 5 mm. The hearing level was measured using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) prior to electrode-dummy insertion, and at 4 days and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. The threshold shift was defined as the difference between the pre-operative threshold and each of the post-operative thresholds. The cochleae were examined histologically 4 weeks after electrode-dummy insertion. Threshold shifts changed with frequency but not time. At 2kHz, ABR threshold shifts were statistically significantly lower in the lipoic acid group than the control group. At 8, 16 and 32kHz, there was no significant difference in the ABR threshold shift between the two groups. Histologic review revealed less intracochlear fibrosis along the electrode-dummy insertion site in the lipoic acid group than in the control group. The spiral ganglion cell densities of the basal, middle and apical turns were significantly higher in the lipoic acid group compared with the control group. Therefore, systemic lipoic acid administration appears to effectively preserve hearing at low frequencies in patients undergoing cochlear implantation. These effects may be attributed to the protection of spiral ganglion cells and prevention of intracochlear fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolonged interval between fusion and activation impairs embryonic development by inducing chromosome scattering and nuclear aneuploidy in pig somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of various intervals between electrofusion and activation (FA interval) on the nuclear remodelling and development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos in pigs. Reconstructed oocytes were activated at 0 (simultaneous fusion and activation; SFA), 1, 2 and 3 h (delayed activation) after electrofusion; these groups were designated as DA1, DA2 and DA3, respectively. When oocyte nuclear status was examined at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after electrofusion, the incidence of chromosome scattering was increased (P or=3) pseudopronuclei (PPN) (0.0% of SFA; 5.3% of DA1; 21.7% of DA2; and 33.5% of DA3). The development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage was decreased (P nuclear aneuploidy.

  20. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória a materiais obturadores endodônticos de dente decíduo, por meio de implantes intra-ósseos, em guinea-pig

    OpenAIRE

    Lacativa, Andréa Mara

    2012-01-01

    Na odontopediatria há diversos materiais utilizados para terapia pulpar. Assim, diante desta diversidade a presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar a biocompatibilidade, por meio de implantes intra-ósseos, de alguns materiais indicados para esse fim: pastas Guedes Pinto, Vitapex®, CTZ e CTZ sem eugenol, de acordo com as recomendações da FDI(1980) e ANSI/ADA(1982). Foram utilizadas quarenta cobaias guinea-pigs, dez para cada material, divididos em períodos experimentais de q...

  1. The birth of embryonic pluripotency

    OpenAIRE

    Boroviak, Thorsten; Nichols, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1657/20130541. Formation of a eutherian mammal requires concurrent establishment of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. The functions of the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm are to enable implantation in the maternal uterus, axis specification and delivery of nutrients. The pluripotent epiblast represents the founding cell population of the embryo proper, which is...

  2. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    , or immunosurgery, and they are generally cultured on feeder cells. The resulting ES-like cells may be differentiated in vivo by chimaera and teratoma formation or in vitro by embryoid body formation and monolayer induction. It is likely that more well characterized and stable porcine and bovine ES cell lines...

  3. Ototoxicity of nitinol implantation into the acoustic vesicle of guinea pigs%镍钛合金听泡植入对豚鼠耳蜗及听功能的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 肖自安; 李秀国

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:As a self-expanding stent and occlude, nitinol has become very mature, but it has been rarely reported as a ossicular chain reconstruction material. OBJECTIVE:To explore the ototoxicity of nitinol after implanted into the acoustic vesicle of guinea pigs. METHODS:Fifty healthy guinea pigs with acute hearing were used in this study. One ear of each guinea pig was enrol ed into the experimental group randomly, and the other ear of the guinea pigs was divided into control group I (titanium implantation group, 25 ears) and control group II (opened acoustic vesicle without implanting, 25 ears) equal y. Five guinea pigs included in control I and control II groups were executed at days 7, 14, 28, 56, 112 after implantation randomly and respectively. The morphological observation to cochlea was carried by hematoxylin-eosin staining of cochlear slices. The apoptosis and deletion of hair cells were observed by acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. The stereocilium arrangement was examined with scanning electron microscope. And the hair cell’s organel e was observed by transmission electron microscope. The auditory function was evaluated by auditory brainstem response and distortion otoacoustic emission response at pre-implantation and pre-execute. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that there was no obvious change or morphological variation in the cochlear tissues and cells after nitinol and titanium implantation into the acoustic vesicle. No hair cellapoptosis was observed by acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. The scanning electron microscopy showed that stereocilias were arranged normal y. No abnormal changes in the stereocilia and the organel a of hair cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. There was no significant difference between auditory brainstem response threshold before and at days 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112 after implantation. Meanwhile, the through rate of distortion otoacoustic

  4. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  5. 荣昌猪电子耳蜗植入方法建立及听功能初步观察%Establish the standard method of Rongchang pig cochlear implant and preliminary observation of hearing function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 陈磊; 杨仕明; 刘日渊; 张亮; 冀飞; 郭维维; 任丽丽; 李佳楠; 袁硕龙; 张悦

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立在大型哺乳动物-猪体内植入电子耳蜗的方法,观察电子耳蜗植入前后听功能变化。方法荣昌猪6只,雌雄不限,40-45日龄,体重8~12Kg,均选自重庆畜牧科学院养猪研究所。分为听力正常组(Mitf+/+),与突变耳聋组(Mitf-/-),每组3只。在全麻下进行电子耳蜗植入术。于手术前,手术后即刻以及手术后1周记录听性脑干反应(Auditory Brainstem Response,ABR),和电刺激脑干诱发电位(Electrical Auditory Brainstem Response, EABR);头颅X片观察电极植入位置。结果6只动物电子耳蜗植入手术成功,耳蜗电极位置正确,在耳蜗内盘绕1.5~1.75圈。电子耳蜗植入即刻,手术侧(右耳)各频率ABR阈值在120 dB SPL无法引出;手术后7天,手术侧(右耳),低频ABR阈值在100dB SPL左右,高频在120 dB SPL仍无法引出。听力正常荣昌猪组(Mitf+/+),电子耳蜗植入手术即刻及一周后EABR阈值在90 CL左右,明显低于突变耳聋荣昌猪组(Mitf-/-)的190 CL。结论本研究建立的荣昌猪电子耳蜗植入方法确实可行,通过植入电极进行EABR测试方法设计合理。为更加直接地研究电子耳蜗植入设备在体内的工作状态和各项数据,研究电极植入后耳蜗的生理病理改变创造了条件。%Objective Establish the standard method of cochlear implant on large mammals–pigs, and observed the changes of ABR&EABR before and after cochlear implants. Methods Six Rongchang pigs, male and female un-limited, 40-45 days, 8~12 kg, were selected from Key Laboratory of Pig Industry Sciences (Ministry of Agriculture), Chongqing Academy of Animal Science. Divided into the normal hearing group (Mitf+/+), and the mutation deafness group (Mitf-/-), each group of three. Cochlear implantation were operated in general anesthesia. ABR&EABR were recorded prior to surgery, immediately finish surgery and 1 week after. Observed

  6. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  7. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew indefin

  8. I. Embryonal vasculature formation recapitulated in transgenic mammary tumor spheroids implanted pseudo-orthotopicly into mouse dorsal skin fold: the organoblasts concept [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1fa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Witkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of cancer biology is a problem. This work focused on cellular mechanisms of tumor vascularization. According to earlier studies, the tumor vasculature derives from host endothelial cells (angiogenesis or their precursors of bone marrow origin circulating in the blood (neo-vasculogenesis unlike in embryos. In this study, we observed the neo-vasculature form in multiple ways from local precursor cells. Recapitulation of primitive as well as advanced embryonal stages of vasculature formation followed co-implantation of avascular (in vitro cultured N202 breast tumor spheroids and homologous tissue grafts into mouse dorsal skin chambers. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of tissue sections exposed the interactions between the tumor and the graft tissue stem cells. It revealed details of vasculature morphogenesis not seen before in either tumors or embryos. A gradual increase in complexity of the vascular morphogenesis at the tumor site reflected a range of steps in ontogenic evolution of the differentiating cells. Malignant- and surgical injury repair-related tissue growth prompted local cells to initiate extramedullar erythropoiesis and vascular patterning. The new findings included: interdependence between the extramedullar hematopoiesis and assembly of new vessels (both from the locally differentiating precursors; nucleo-cytoplasmic conversion (karyolysis as the mechanism of erythroblast enucleation; the role of megakaryocytes and platelets in vascular pattern formation before emergence of endothelial cells; lineage relationships between hematopoietic and endothelial cells; the role of extracellular calmyrin in tissue morphogenesis; and calmyrite, a new ultrastructural entity associated with anaerobic energy metabolism. The central role of the extramedullar erythropoiesis in the formation of new vasculature (blood and vessels emerged here as part of the tissue building process including the lymphatic system

  9. Uncoupled embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues compromise blastocyst development after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine A Degrelle

    Full Text Available Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is the most efficient cell reprogramming technique available, especially when working with bovine species. Although SCNT blastocysts performed equally well or better than controls in the weeks following embryo transfer at Day 7, elongation and gastrulation defects were observed prior to implantation. To understand the developmental implications of embryonic/extra-embryonic interactions, the morphological and molecular features of elongating and gastrulating tissues were analysed. At Day 18, 30 SCNT conceptuses were compared to 20 controls (AI and IVP: 10 conceptuses each; one-half of the SCNT conceptuses appeared normal while the other half showed signs of atypical elongation and gastrulation. SCNT was also associated with a high incidence of discordance in embryonic and extra-embryonic patterns, as evidenced by morphological and molecular "uncoupling". Elongation appeared to be secondarily affected; only 3 of 30 conceptuses had abnormally elongated shapes and there were very few differences in gene expression when they were compared to the controls. However, some of these differences could be linked to defects in microvilli formation or extracellular matrix composition and could thus impact extra-embryonic functions. In contrast to elongation, gastrulation stages included embryonic defects that likely affected the hypoblast, the epiblast, or the early stages of their differentiation. When taking into account SCNT conceptus somatic origin, i.e. the reprogramming efficiency of each bovine ear fibroblast (Low: 0029, Med: 7711, High: 5538, we found that embryonic abnormalities or severe embryonic/extra-embryonic uncoupling were more tightly correlated to embryo loss at implantation than were elongation defects. Alternatively, extra-embryonic differences between SCNT and control conceptuses at Day 18 were related to molecular plasticity (high efficiency/high plasticity and subsequent pregnancy loss. Finally

  10. Estudo experimental do implante transcateter de prótese valvada autoexpansível na via de saída do ventrículo direito em porcos Transcatheter implantation of self-expandable valved prosthesis in outlet right ventricle an experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cícero Stocco Guilhen

    2011-09-01

    right heart failure with clinical deterioration. These children require multiple interventions throughout their lives, which impose a high rate of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop a less invasive technique for implantation of a valved prosthesis through the right ventricle. METHODS: The valved prosthesis consists of an auto expanding metal stent built with nitinol, surrounded with polyester, where the three leaflets of bovine pericardium were mounted. Twelve pigs were used to perform the implants. Echocardiographic control was performed immediately after implantation and one, four, eight and 12 weeks. RESULTS: One animal showed reflux of moderate to severe and three mild reflux. Transvalvular gradients measured before implantation ranged from 3 to 6 mmHg and that soon after the implant was increased, ranging from 7 to 45 mmHg. There was a decrease in these gradients during follow up and in only four of the twelve animals the gradients were above 20 mmHg. Thrombus formation occurred in the prosthesis of six animals, and this was the most frequent complication. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need for studies with the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet, an attempt to reduce this event. The study aims to contribute for the start of the use of prosthetic heart valves that could be implanted through minimally invasive techniques without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

  11. Periconceptional undernutrition affects in utero methyltransferase expression and steroid hormone concentrations in uterine flushings and blood plasma during the peri-implantation period in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franczak, A; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Wojciechowicz, B; Martyniak, M; Sobotka, W; Okrasa, S; Kotwica, G

    2016-08-18

    Female undernutrition during early pregnancy may affect the physiological pattern of genomic DNA methylation. We hypothesised that in utero DNA methylation may be impaired in females fed a restrictive diet in early pregnancy. In this study we evaluated whether poor maternal nutritional status, induced by applying a restricted diet during the peri-conceptional period, may influence: (1) the potential for in utero DNA methylation, expressed as changes in the mRNA expression and protein abundance of methyltransferases: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3a in the endometrium and the myometrium, (2) the intrauterine microenvironment, measured as oestradiol 17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in uterine flushings and (3) plasma concentration of E2 and P4 during the peri-implantation period. Our results indicate that maternal peri-conceptional undernutrition affects maintenance and de novo DNA methylation in the endometrium, de novo methylation in the myometrium and a results in a decrease in intrauterine E2 concentration during the peri-implantation period. The intrauterine concentration of P4 and plasma concentrations of E2 and P4 did not change. These findings suggest that undernutrition during the earliest period of pregnancy, and perhaps the pre-pregnancy period, may create changes in epigenetic mechanisms in the uterus and intrauterine milieu of E2 during the peri-implantation period.

  12. Estudio de la osteointegración y posibles alteraciones provocadas por el empleo de implantes dentales en hueso inmaduro. Estudio experimental en mini pigs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El empleo de implantes dentales se ha convertido en práctica habitual en la odontología humana actual, siendo su empleo cada vez más frecuente. Esto es debido tanto a los buenos resultados, como a la reducción de costes de esta técnica, lo que permite un mayor acceso al público general. El cerdo ha sido utilizado como modelo experimental en muchos trabajos de investigación, tanto en medicina humana como veterinaria. Hay multitud de artículos publicados que hacen referencia a su utilización en...

  13. Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Breast Implants Breast Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Breast implants are medical devices that are implanted under the ...

  14. Obesity and PCOS: The Effect of Metabolic Derangements on Endometrial Receptivity at the Time of Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Maureen M. B.; Tsai, Jui-He; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryonic implantation is the result of a receptive endometrium, a functional embryo at the blastocyst stage and a synchronized dialog between maternal and embryonic tissues. Successful implantation requires the endometrium to undergo steroid-dependent change during each menstrual cycle, exhibiting a short period of embryonic receptivity known as the window of implantation. The term “endometrial receptivity” was introduced to define the state of the endometrium during the window of...

  15. Dynamic changes of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation in pre-implantational pig embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Naru; Cao, Zubing; Wu, Ronghua; Liu, Xing; Tao, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Song, Dandan; Han, Fei; Li, Yunsheng; Fang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yunhai

    2014-08-01

    Histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is an active epigenetic modification which has been revealed to be associated with active gene expression. It was hypothesized that H3K27ac might also participate in the porcine somatic reprogramming process during early development of SCNT-derived embryos. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of H3K27ac were investigated at different developmental stages in SCNT embryos compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) counterparts. Specifically, results showed that amounts of H3K27ac gradually decreased from the earliest pronuclear stage to 8-cell stage, corresponding to the major embryonic genome activation (EGA), followed by re-acetylation of H3K27 from the morula stage onwards accompanying the first cell lineage specification in IVF embryos. Similar dynamic patterns of H3K27ac signal was observed at all developmental stages of porcine SCNT and PA embryos except for the hatched stage in which amounts of H3K27ac in SCNT and PA embryos was slightly less than that in IVF counterparts. Moreover, the gradual decrease of H3K27ac before EGA was demonstrated to be an active process independent of DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis. The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, MBD3 and CBP genes were well correlated with the dynamic changes of H3K27ac mark. Overall, these results indicate that H3K27ac is only defective in late SCNT blastocysts, and that the dynamic changes of this marker might also underlie the EGA and initial cell lineage specification during early embryo development.

  16. Penile Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the discussion with your doctor. Types of penile implants There are two main types of penile implants: ... might help reduce the risk of infection. Comparing implant types When choosing which type of penile implant ...

  17. 梅山猪胚胎附植期EphB2的组织表达及RNA-seq分析%Tissue expression of EphB2 and RNA-seq analysis during embryo im-plantation in Meishan pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付言峰; 周艳红; 王爱国; 李兰; 刘红林; 李碧侠; 任守文

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a key step affecting swine litter size, which is an important economic and re-production trait in pigs. In order to investigate the effect of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor B2 (EphB2) on endometrium migration and attachment during swine embryo implantation, the mRNA and protein ex-pression levels of EphB2 in endometrium implantation sites, endometrium non-implantation sites and ovary were detected in Meishan sows during pre-implantation, mid-implantation and post-implantation period using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. Differential expression genes were also analyzed in endometrium implantation sites and ovary during different implantation periods by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. The qRT-PCR and Western blot results showed that EphB2 mRNA and protein expression curve was the same in endomtrium implanta-tion sites and endometrium non-implantation sites during pre-implantation, mid-implantation and post-implantation period, with a first increase followed by a decrease, and its expression level during mid-implantation was significantly higher than pre-implantation and post-implantation (P<0.01). In contrast, EphB2 mRNA and protein expression curve in ovary during pre-implantation, mid-implantation and post-implantation period showed a first decrease fol-lowed by an increase, and the expression levels were significantly different among different implantation periods (P<0.05). RNA-seq results indicated that EphB2 mRNA expression during mid-implantation was higher than that of pre-implantation extremely significantly in endometrium implantation sites (P<0.01), and was significantly higher than that of post-implantation in ovary (P<0.05). By and large, EphB2 might play an important role in swine embryo implantation, and it’s a potential candidate gene for litter size in pigs.%猪产仔数是一个重要的经济和繁殖性状,而胚胎附植是影响猪产仔数的重要因素。为了研究促红细胞

  18. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  19. Stimulatory Effects of Coumestrol on Embryonic and Fetal Development Through AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Whasun; Song, Gwonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Successful establishment of pregnancy is required for fetal-maternal interactions regulating implantation, embryonic development and placentation. A uterine environment with insufficient growth factors and nutrients increases the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leading to an impaired uterine environment. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of the phytoestrogen coumestrol on conceptus development in the pig that is regarded as an excellent biomedical animal model for research on IUGR. Results of this study indicated that coumestrol induced migration of porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In response to coumestrol, the phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2 MAPK, and P90RSK proteins were activated in pTr cells and ERK1/2 MAPK and P90RSK phosphorylation was prolonged for a longer period than for the other proteins. To identify the signal transduction pathway induced by coumestrol, pharmacological inhibitors U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) were used to pretreat pTr cells. The results showed that coumestrol-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAPK and P90RSK was blocked by U0126. In addition, the increased phosphorylation in response to coumestrol was completely inhibited following pre-treatment incubation of pTr cells in the presence of LY294002 and U0126. Furthermore, these two inhibitors suppressed the ability of coumestrol to induce migration of pTr cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that coumestrol affects embryonic development through activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 MAPK cell signal transduction pathways and improvement in the uterine environment through coumestrol supplementation may provide beneficial effects of enhancing embryonic and fetal survival and development. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2733-2740, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins and MicroRNAs in the Etiology of Germ Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eini (Ronak)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1980s, a population of unique cells was isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse pre-implantation embryo named embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells were generated by removing the ICM from pre-implantation blastocysts. The resulting cells were found to be

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins and MicroRNAs in the Etiology of Germ Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eini (Ronak)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1980s, a population of unique cells was isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse pre-implantation embryo named embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells were generated by removing the ICM from pre-implantation blastocysts. The resulting cells were found to be plurip

  3. Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins and MicroRNAs in the Etiology of Germ Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eini (Ronak)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1980s, a population of unique cells was isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse pre-implantation embryo named embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells were generated by removing the ICM from pre-implantation blastocysts. The resulting cells were found to be plurip

  4. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne

    2016-01-01

    penetration into bone.  Methods: Implant-associated osteomyelitis using a Staphylococcus aureus strain was induced in the right tibia in ten pigs. After five days and following administration of 1500 mg of cefuroxime, measurements of cefuroxime were obtained using microdialysis for eight hours in the implant...

  5. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses - A histological study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM; Rosowski, JJ; Merchant, SN

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disc was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  6. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses : A histopathologic study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM

    2002-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disk was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane in guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  7. Cartilage interposition in ossiculoplasty with hydroxylapatite prostheses - A histological study in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, AGW; Verheul, J; Albers, FWJ; Segenhout, HM; Rosowski, JJ; Merchant, SN

    2000-01-01

    In this experimental animal study, a cartilage disc was interposed between a synthetic middle ear prosthesis and the tympanic membrane of guinea pigs to investigate its effect on the extrusion process of the implant. Two groups of guinea pigs were studied. One group consisted of animals in which the

  8. Embryonic development and uterine influence in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavert, Serge Alexander van de

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, next to morphological examinations of the porcine embryoblast in the second week of gestation, several parameters to study porcine embryogenesis, especially gastrulation and the development of the anterior-posterior axis, were developed. The use of molecular markers as parameters

  9. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound. People who are ... of-hearing can get help from them. The implant consists of two parts. One part sits on ...

  10. Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imaging (MRI) scans, to evaluate your inner ear anatomy. Cochlear implant surgery Cochlear implant surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure under general anesthesia. An incision is made behind the ear ...

  11. Impact of nutritional stress on early embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Mondal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low reproductive efficiency is the most critical problem faced by the livestock industry across the globe. Early embryonic loss is one the major cause of poor reproductive efficiency resulting in delayed pregnancy, fewer calves born, reduced milk production, slower genetic progress and substantial financial loss to the beef or dairy industry. The establishment of pregnancy results from the interaction between the embryo and the dam and is the culmination of a series of events initiated with development of the follicle and gametes. Among numerous internal and external factors nutrition has the potency to alter the micro-environment of the oocyte and the embryo, making it more hostile to optimal fertilization and pre-implantation embryonic growth. Understanding the impact of nutritional stress on oocyte function, embryo development and reciprocal signaling networks between the embryo and uterus will lead to alleviation of the problems of early embryonic mortality.

  12. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  13. Mechanisms of implantation: strategies for successful pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2012-12-01

    Physiological and molecular processes initiated during implantation for pregnancy success are complex but highly organized. This review primarily highlights adverse ripple effects arising from defects during the peri-implantation period that perpetuate throughout pregnancy. These defects are reflected in aberrations in embryo spacing, decidualization, placentation and intrauterine embryonic growth, manifesting in preeclampsia, miscarriages and/or preterm birth. Understanding molecular signaling networks that coordinate strategies for successful implantation and decidualization may lead to approaches to improve the outcome of natural pregnancy and pregnancy conceived from in vitro fertilization.

  14. PTBP1 is required for embryonic development before gastrulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Suckale

    Full Text Available Polypyrimidine-tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1 is an important cellular regulator of messenger RNAs influencing the alternative splicing profile of a cell as well as its mRNA stability, location and translation. In addition, it is diverted by some viruses to facilitate their replication. Here, we used a novel PTBP1 knockout mouse to analyse the tissue expression pattern of PTBP1 as well as the effect of its complete removal during development. We found evidence of strong PTBP1 expression in embryonic stem cells and throughout embryonic development, especially in the developing brain and spinal cord, the olfactory and auditory systems, the heart, the liver, the kidney, the brown fat and cartilage primordia. This widespread distribution points towards a role of PTBP1 during embryonic development. Homozygous offspring, identified by PCR and immunofluorescence, were able to implant but were arrested or retarded in growth. At day 7.5 of embryonic development (E7.5 the null mutants were about 5x smaller than the control littermates and the gap in body size widened with time. At mid-gestation, all homozygous embryos were resorbed/degraded. No homozygous mice were genotyped at E12 and the age of weaning. Embryos lacking PTBP1 did not display differentiation into the 3 germ layers and cavitation of the epiblast, which are hallmarks of gastrulation. In addition, homozygous mutants displayed malformed ectoplacental cones and yolk sacs, both early supportive structure of the embryo proper. We conclude that PTBP1 is not required for the earliest isovolumetric divisions and differentiation steps of the zygote up to the formation of the blastocyst. However, further post-implantation development requires PTBP1 and stalls in homozygous null animals with a phenotype of dramatically reduced size and aberration in embryonic and extra-embryonic structures.

  15. Dental Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, ...

  16. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  17. A small set of extra-embryonic genes defines a new landmark for bovine embryo staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrelle, Séverine A; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Heyman, Yvan; Everts, Robin E; Campion, Evelyne; Richard, Christophe; Ducroix-Crépy, Céline; Tian, X Cindy; Lewin, Harris A; Renard, Jean-Paul; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Hue, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Axis specification in mouse is determined by a sequence of reciprocal interactions between embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues so that a few extra-embryonic genes appear as 'patterning' the embryo. Considering these interactions as essential, but lacking in most mammals the genetically driven approaches used in mouse and the corresponding patterning mutants, we examined whether a molecular signature originating from extra-embryonic tissues could relate to the developmental stage of the embryo proper and predict it. To this end, we have profiled bovine extra-embryonic tissues at peri-implantation stages, when gastrulation and early neurulation occur, and analysed the subsequent expression profiles through the use of predictive methods as previously reported for tumour classification. A set of six genes (CALM1, CPA3, CITED1, DLD, HNRNPDL, and TGFB3), half of which had not been previously associated with any extra-embryonic feature, appeared significantly discriminative and mainly dependent on embryonic tissues for its faithful expression. The predictive value of this set of genes for gastrulation and early neurulation stages, as assessed on naive samples, was remarkably high (93%). In silico connected to the bovine orthologues of the mouse patterning genes, this gene set is proposed as a new trait for embryo staging. As such, this will allow saving the bovine embryo proper for molecular or cellular studies. To us, it offers as well new perspectives for developmental phenotyping and modelling of embryonic/extra-embryonic co-differentiation.

  18. Implantable Microimagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ohta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices such as cardiac pacemakers, drug-delivery systems, and defibrillators have had a tremendous impact on the quality of live for many disabled people. To date, many devices have been developed for implantation into various parts of the human body. In this paper, we focus on devices implanted in the head. In particular, we describe the technologies necessary to create implantable microimagers. Design, fabrication, and implementation issues are discussed vis-à-vis two examples of implantable microimagers; the retinal prosthesis and in vivo neuro-microimager. Testing of these devices in animals verify the use of the microimagers in the implanted state. We believe that further advancement of these devices will lead to the development of a new method for medical and scientific applications.

  19. Peculiarities of Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Оesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda, Strongylidae Larvae Cultured in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3 on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01 and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01, and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001.

  20. Initial embryology and pluripotent stem cells in the pig - the quest for establishing the pig as a model for cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan; Callesen, Henrik; Freude, Karla Kristine;

    2016-01-01

    to produce genetically modified mice since the mid-80s. However, no convincing reports on the generation of bona fide porcine embryonic stem cells or embryonic germ cells resulted from these activities, and with the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer during the late 90s, alternative methods for creating......The quest for porcine pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) was initiated in the early 90s. Initially, it was the intention to benefit from these cells for production of genetically modified pigs using homologous recombination followed by derivation of chimeric offspring; a technology that has been used...... genetically modified pigs emerged. Over the past years, renewed interest in porcine PSCs has sparked activities in deriving in particular porcine induced pluripotent stem cells to develop the pig as a faithful model for studying the potentials and risks associated with induced pluripotent stem cell...

  1. Temperature dependent embryonic development of Trichuris suis eggs in a medicinal raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Kringel, Helene; Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of infective pig whipworm eggs, Trichuris suis ova (TSO), is currently tested in several clinical trials on immune-mediated diseases. This paper studied the embryonic development of TSO in a medicinal raw product, where the parasite eggs were suspended in sulphuric acid (p...

  2. DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood Cells of Pigs Cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Shengting; Lin, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development...... in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls....... In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes...

  3. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  4. Uterine Rbpj is required for embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual remodeling via Notch pathway-independent and -dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Cheng, Xiaohong; Chen, Yongjie; Wu, Weiwei; Wang, Qiang; Shi, Junchao; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shumin; Lu, Jinhua; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco; Pear, Warren S; Han, Hua; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Bing; Chen, Qi; Duan, Enkui; Wang, Haibin

    2014-08-01

    Coordinated uterine-embryonic axis formation and decidual remodeling are hallmarks of mammalian post-implantation embryo development. Embryonic-uterine orientation is determined at initial implantation and synchronized with decidual development. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling these events remain elusive despite its discovery a long time ago. In the present study, we found that uterine-specific deletion of Rbpj, the nuclear transducer of Notch signaling, resulted in abnormal embryonic-uterine orientation and decidual patterning at post-implantation stages, leading to substantial embryo loss. We further revealed that prior to embryo attachment, Rbpj confers on-time uterine lumen shape transformation via physically interacting with uterine estrogen receptor (ERα) in a Notch pathway-independent manner, which is essential for the initial establishment of embryo orientation in alignment with uterine axis. While at post-implantation stages, Rbpj directly regulates the expression of uterine matrix metalloproteinase in a Notch pathway-dependent manner, which is required for normal post-implantation decidual remodeling. These results demonstrate that uterine Rbpj is essential for normal embryo development via instructing the initial embryonic-uterine orientation and ensuring normal decidual patterning in a stage-specific manner. Our data also substantiate the concept that normal mammalian embryonic-uterine orientation requires proper guidance from developmentally controlled uterine signaling.

  5. Toward Development of Pluripotent Porcine Stem Cells by Road Mapping Early Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan; Freude, Kristine; Mashayekhi-Nezamabadi, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    The lack in production of bona fide porcine pluripotent stem cells has definitely been hampered by a lack of research into porcine embryo development. Embryonic development in mammals is the extraordinary transition of a single-celled fertilized zygote into a complex fetus, which occurs...... in the uterus of the maternal adult during the early stages of gestation. Biomedical pig models could serve as genetic backgrounds for establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or other pluripotent stem cells (such as iPSC), which may be used to model and study diseases in vitro. This chapter provides...... insight into the current knowledge of pluripotent states in the developing pig embryo and the current status in establishment of bona fide porcine ESC (pESC) and piPSCs. It reflects the potential causes underlying the difficulty in establishing pluripotent stem cells and reviews recent data on global...

  6. Goserelin Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in men (blockage that causes difficulty urinating), or heart or liver disease.tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Goserelin implant should not be used in pregnant women, except ...

  7. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  8. Contraceptive implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Implantable contraception has been extensively used worldwide. Implants are one of the most effective and reversible methods of contraception available. These devices may be particularly appropriate for certain populations of women, including women who cannot use estrogen-containing contraception. Implants are safe for use by women with many chronic medical problems. The newest implant, Implanon (Organon International, Oss, The Netherlands), is the only device currently available in the United States and was approved in 2006. It is registered for 3 years of pregnancy prevention. Contraceptive implants have failure rates similar to tubal ligation, and yet they are readily reversible with a return to fertility within days of removal. Moreover, these contraceptive devices can be safely placed in the immediate postpartum period, ensuring good contraceptive coverage for women who may be at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Irregular bleeding is a common side effect for all progestin-only contraceptive implants. Preinsertion counseling should address possible side effects, and treatment may be offered to women who experience prolonged or frequent bleeding. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Early implant-associated osteomyelitis results in a peri-implanted bacterial reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Koch, Janne; Aalbaek, Bent; Moodley, Arshnee; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Petersen, Andreas; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    Implant-associated osteomyelitis (IAO) is a common complication in orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to elucidate how deep IAO can go into the peri-implanted bone tissue within a week. The study was performed in a porcine model of IAO. A small steel implant and either 10(4) CFU/kg body weight of Staphylococcus aureus or saline was inserted into the right tibial bone of 12 pigs. The animals were consecutively killed on day 2, 4 and 6 following implantation. Bone tissue around the implant was histologically evaluated. Identification of S. aureus was performed immunohistochemically on tissue section and with scanning electron microscopy and peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization on implants. The distance of the peri-implanted pathological bone area (PIBA), measured perpendicular to the implant, was significantly larger in infected animals compared to controls (p = 0.0014). The largest differences were seen after 4 and 6 days of inoculation, where PIBA measurements of up to 6 mm were observed. Positive S. aureus bacteria were identified on implants and from 25 μm to 6 mm into PIBA. This is important knowledge for optimizing outcomes of surgical debridement in osteomyelitis.

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  11. Initial embryology and pluripotent stem cells in the pig--The quest for establishing the pig as a model for cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Jan O; Callesen, Henrik; Freude, Kristine K; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    The quest for porcine pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) was initiated in the early 90s. Initially, it was the intention to benefit from these cells for production of genetically modified pigs using homologous recombination followed by derivation of chimeric offspring; a technology that has been used to produce genetically modified mice since the mid-80s. However, no convincing reports on the generation of bona fide porcine embryonic stem cells or embryonic germ cells resulted from these activities, and with the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer during the late 90s, alternative methods for creating genetically modified pigs emerged. Over the past years, renewed interest in porcine PSCs has sparked activities in deriving in particular porcine induced pluripotent stem cells to develop the pig as a faithful model for studying the potentials and risks associated with induced pluripotent stem cell-based human therapy. Here, we review the recent data on establishment of porcine PSCs and the differences in embryonic development between pig and mouse, which may be underlying factors for the continuing challenge to culture and maintain porcine PSCs.

  12. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  13. Embryonic miRNA profiles of normal and ectopic pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dominguez

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the miRNA profile of embryonic tissues in ectopic pregnancies (EPs and controlled abortions (voluntary termination of pregnancy; VTOP. Twenty-three patients suffering from tubal EP and twenty-nine patients with a normal ongoing pregnancy scheduled for a VTOP were recruited. Embryonic tissue samples were analyzed by miRNA microarray and further validated by real time PCR. Microarray studies showed that four miRNAs were differentially downregulated (hsa-mir-196b, hsa-mir-30a, hsa-mir-873, and hsa-mir-337-3p and three upregulated (hsa-mir-1288, hsa-mir-451, and hsa-mir-223 in EP compared to control tissue samples. Hsa-miR-196, hsa-miR-223, and hsa-miR-451 were further validated by real time PCR in a wider population of EP and control samples. We also performed a computational analysis to identify the gene targets and pathways which might be modulated by these three differentially expressed miRNAs. The most significant pathways found were the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis and the ECM-receptor-interaction pathways. We also checked that the dysregulation of these three miRNAs was able to alter the expression of the gene targets in the embryonic tissues included in these pathways such as GALNT13 and ITGA2 genes. In conclusion, analysis of miRNAs in ectopic and eutopic embryonic tissues shows different expression patterns that could modify pathways which are critical for correct implantation, providing new insights into the understanding of ectopic implantation in humans.

  14. Influence of implant shape, surface morphology, surgical technique and bone quality on the primary stability of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; Rocha, Felipe Assis; Nascimento, Ana Lucia; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme

    2012-12-01

    The primary stability of dental implants has been investigated before, but a study of the influence of implant shape, size and surface morphology (machined, acid etched or anodized), surgical technique (press-fit or undersized) and substrate (natural or simulated bone) on the primary stability of dental implants has not been reported. The present work intends to fill this gap. In this work, six different dental implants were inserted into and removed from synthetic and natural bone while measuring the torque. A total of 255 dental implants with three shapes, four sizes and three surface topographies were inserted into pig rib, PTFE and polyurethane. The implant sites were prepared using straight and tapered drills. The primary stability was estimated from the maximum insertion torque. Comparisons between samples were based on the maximum insertion torque (MIT), the maximum removal torque (MRT) and the torque ratio (TR=MRT/MIT). The insertion torque into pig ribs showed larger dispersion. All parameters (shape, size and surface morphology of the implant, surgical technique and substrate type) were found to have a significant influence on primary stability. The insertion of a tapered implant requires a higher torque than the insertion of a straight implant. Surface treatments improve the primary stability. The influence of the surgical technique is smaller than that of implant size and shape. The highest insertion torque was that of anodized tapered implants inserted into undersized sites. Finally, the primary stability of dental implants is highly dependent on implant design, surgical technique and substrate type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cochlear Implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this text, the authors recall the main principles and data ruling cochlear implants. Then, a first circle of technical equipment for assistance is presented. This circle includes: device setting (DS), Electrically evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (EABR), Neural Response Telemetry (NRT), Stapedial Reflex (SR) and Electrodogram Acquisition (EA). This first cycle becomes more and more important as children are implanted younger and younger; the amount of data available with this assistance makes necessary the use of models (implicit or explicit) to handle this information. Consequently, this field is more open than ever.

  16. A novel porcine model of implant associated osteomyelitis: a comprehensive analysis of local, regional and systemic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Koch, Janne; Dich-Jorgensen, Kirstine;

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are favorable experimental animals for infectious diseases in humans. However, implant associated osteomyelitis (IAO) models in pigs have only been evaluated using high-inoculum infection (>108 CFU) models in 1975 and 1993. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to present a new low inoculum...

  17. Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Donald W.; Zucker, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ ...

  18. Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Donald W; Zucker, Howard A

    2004-11-01

    The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ donation.

  19. Generation of mouse chimeras with high contribution of tetraploid embryonic stem cells and embryonic stem cell-fibroblast hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Natalia M; Kizilova, Elena A; Serov, Oleg L

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro long-term cultivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from pre-implantation embryos offers the unique possibility of combining ES cells with pre-implantation embryos to generate chimeras, thus facilitating the creation of a bridge between in vitro and in vivo investigations. Genomic manipulation using ES cells and homologous recombination is one of the most outstanding scientific achievements, resulting in the generation of animals with desirable genome modifications. As such, the generation of ES cells with different ploidy via cell fusion also deserves much attention because this approach allows for the production of chimeras that contain somatic cells with various ploidy. Therefore, this is a powerful tool that can be used to study the role of polyploidy in the normal development of mammals.

  20. Interactome Mapping Reveals Important Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Development of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Cao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory relationship and connectivity among genes involved in myogenesis and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle in pigs still remain large challenges. Presentation of gene interactions is a potential way to understand the mechanisms of developmental events in skeletal muscle. In this study, genome-wide transcripts and miRNA profiling was determined for Landrace pigs at four time points using microarray chips. A comprehensive method integrating gene ontology annotation and interactome network mapping was conducted to analyze the biological patterns and interaction modules of muscle development events based on differentially expressed genes and miRNAs. Our results showed that in total 484 genes and 34 miRNAs were detected for the duration from embryonic stage to adult in pigs, which composed two linear expression patterns with consensus changes. Moreover, the gene ontology analysis also disclosed that there were three typical biological events i.e., microstructure assembly of sarcomere at early embryonic stage, myofibril formation at later embryonic stage and function establishments of myoblast cells at postnatal stage. The interactome mappings of different time points also found the down-regulated trend of gene expression existed across the whole duration, which brought a possibility to introduce the myogenesis related miRNAs into the interactome regulatory networks of skeletal muscle in pigs.

  1. Trenbolone acetate induced changes in the genital tract of male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bote, C; Sancho, G; Martínez, M; Ventanas, J; Gázquez, A; Roncero, V

    1994-03-01

    Eleven entire and twelve castrated male pigs were implanted with trenbolone acetate and the effects of the treatment on genital tract macro- and microscopical modifications were evaluated and compared to non-implanted animals. In entire male pigs a reduction of testicular weight and size was observed as a consequence of the treatment (< 0.001), but no important modifications were found in bulbourethral gland and seminal vesicles macroscopically. Castrated non-implanted males had bulbourethral gland atrophy (P < 0.01), while castrated implanted ones showed similar development to entire males. As for vesicular glands there were no significant differences among the four groups under study. Histological study of prostate has demonstrated structural modifications. As a consequence of the treatment glandular lumen was increased (P < 0.05), and most parenchyma was occupied by polymorphous cysts.

  2. The role of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on development of nanotechnology in the field of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy that can improve the quality of life for patients with refractory diseases. However, this option is limited by the scarcity of tissues, ethical problem, and tumorigenicity. Nanotechnology is another promising therapy that can be used to mimic the extracellular matrix, label the implanted cells, and also can be applied in the tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce implementation of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research. Finally, the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also discussed.

  3. Biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona comparada ao implante de titânio para corações artificiais: estudo experimental em cobaias Biocompatibility of Ricinus comunnis polymer compared to titanium implant used in artificial hearts: experimental study in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Kubrusly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a reação tecidual do implante retroperitoneal do polímero de óleo de mamona (Pm é significativa ou não por meio de análise histopatológica, tendo como controle o implante de titânio (Ti. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental, intervencionista e randomizado com 32 cobaias. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais e eutanasiados com 7, 20, 30 e 40 dias após o ato cirúrgico. Foram confeccionadas lâminas em hematoxilina-eosina e em tricrômio de Masson. Na comparação dos tipos de material em relação a variáveis quantitativas, foi considerado o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon. Em relação a essas variáveis, os grupos definidos pelo dia do sacrifício foram comparados usando-se o teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados obtidos no estudo da fibrose foram expressos por frequ��ncias e percentuais. Para a comparação entre os grupos definidos pelo dia do sacrifício, em relação a variáveis qualitativas dicotômicas da fibrose, foi considerado o teste exato de Fisher. Para avaliar a diferença entre os materiais titânio e polímero em cada grupo, ainda em se tratando da fibrose, foi considerado o teste binomial. Valores de P0,05. A análise da variável qualitativa também não demonstrou diferença entre as reações teciduais dos materiais (P>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi encontrada significância estatística entre a reação tecidual do Pm e do Ti.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation is to determine if the tissue reaction to the Riccinus communis (mamona polymer has significant statistical difference compared to the tissue reaction provoked by the titanium implant. METHODS: Thirty two Cavia porcellus were divided into four groups containing eight animals each one. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were sacrificed at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS

  4. Design and operation of a fully implantable SMA actuated implant for correcting short bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Brent; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Okawada, Manabu; Miyasaka, Eiichi

    2009-03-01

    Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is medical condition characterized by insufficient small intestine length, leading to improper nutrient absorption and significant mortality rates. The complications of current treatment methods have encouraged the development of a novel treatment method based on mechanotransduction, the process through which mechanical tensile loading induces longitudinal growth of intestine. Animal based studies with simple extension devices have demonstrated the potential of the treatment to grow healthy bowel, but an implantable device suitable for clinical use remains undeveloped. This paper presents the development of an instrumented fully implantable bowel extender based upon a shape memory alloy driven linear ratchet that can be controlled and monitored remotely. The overall bowel extender system is described with respect to specifications for pig experimental tests. The functionality of the mechanical and electrical subsystems of the device are detailed and experimentally validated on the bench top, in segments of living bowel tissue removed from a pig, and in cadaveric pigs. Mechanical loading characteristics and safe load limits on bowel tissue are identified. Results from these experiments establish the readiness of the device to be tested in living pigs, enabling studies to move one step closer to clinical studies.

  5. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Several previous studies, suggesting the potential use of embryonic xenografts in the treatment of neurological disorders, indicate that neural growth and axonal guidance factors may function across species. In this light, blocks of fetal porcine neocortex were grafted into small cortical lesion...... cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  6. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Lewandowski, Albert H; Skowronek, Anthony J

    2007-03-01

    An immature Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) with a history of seizure-like episodes developed signs of respiratory disease. The initial clinical diagnosis was pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy was started. The animal failed to improve after 14 days of therapy and developed unilateral, bloody nasal discharge. Endoscopic examination and radiography revealed a soft tissue mass in the nasopharynx depressing the soft palate. The tapir died 32 days after initial presentation. Histologic examination of the mass demonstrated a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with elongate nuclei forming densely packed fascicles. The neoplastic spindle cells showed prominent cross-striations. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cells to be positive for desmin and myoglobin, but negative for smooth muscle actin, confirming diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common nasopharyngeal soft tissue tumor of humans, and it has been reported infrequently in dogs, horses, and pigs. Neoplasia should be a differential diagnosis in cases of unilateral nasal discharge and inspiratory stridor, even in young animals.

  7. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  8. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  9. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocheke A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botyroides of the cervix, which is rare, is described in a 16-year-old. The combined use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery has markedly improved survival in those with this condition. However, our patient did not benefit from this treatment modality due to late presentation and loss to follow-up.

  10. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  11. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  12. Effects of steroids and lubricants on electrical impedance and tissue response following cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christie Qi; Tykocinski, Michael; Stathopoulos, Dimitra; Cowan, Robert

    2007-09-01

    The present study examined the effects of steroids and lubricants on electrical impedance and tissue response following cochlear implantation in animal models. Guinea pigs were implanted following either no treatment, or intrascalar injection with dexamethasone, triamcinolone, sodium hyaluronate or saline. Cats were implanted following either no treatment, or intrascalar injection with dexamethasone, triamcinolone or a mixture of triamcinolone with sodium hyaluronate. In guinea pigs, impedance changes and intracochlear tissue response were less for the hyaluronate and saline groups. In cats, impedance in the dexamethasone group increased similar to non-treated cats. Impedance of triamcinolone treated cats remained low for about two months after implantation, before increasing to levels similar to the other groups. Significant fibrous tissue growth was observed histologically. The results of the present study indicate that a single intracochlear application of hyaluronate or triamcinolone may postpone, but will ultimately not prevent the rise in impedance following cochlear implantation.

  13. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  14. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  15. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A;

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i....... Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells......) or with knockout serum replacement (KOSR), but not serum, can generate high-level chimeras regardless of how these cells were derived. ESCs cultured in these conditions showed a transcriptional correlation with early pre-implantation embryos (E1.5-E3.5) and contributed to development from the 2-cell stage...

  16. Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Conditions Support Distinct States Associated with Different Developmental Stages and Potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin Gonzalez, Javier; Morgani, Sophie M; Bone, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are cell lines derived from the mammalian pre-implantation embryo. Here we assess the impact of derivation and culture conditions on both functional potency and ESC transcriptional identity. Individual ESCs cultured in either two small-molecule inhibitors (2i....... Conversely, the transcriptome of serum-cultured ESCs correlated with later stages of development (E4.5), at which point embryonic cells are more restricted in their developmental potential. Thus, ESC culture systems are not equivalent, but support cell types that resemble distinct developmental stages. Cells......) or with knockout serum replacement (KOSR), but not serum, can generate high-level chimeras regardless of how these cells were derived. ESCs cultured in these conditions showed a transcriptional correlation with early pre-implantation embryos (E1.5-E3.5) and contributed to development from the 2-cell stage...

  17. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  18. Macro-or microencapsulation of pig islets to cure type 1 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denis Dufrane; Pierre Gianello

    2012-01-01

    Although allogeneic islet transplantation can successfully cure type 1 diabetes,it has limited applicability.For example,organs are in short supply; several human pancreas donors are often needed to treat one diabetic recipient; the intrahepatic site may not be the most appropriate site for islet implantation; and immunosuppressive regimens,which are associated with side effects,are often required to prolong survival of the islet graft.An altemative source of insulinproducing cells would therefore be of major interest.Pigs represent a possible alternative source of beta cells.Grafting of pig islets may appear difficult because of the immunologic species barrier,but pig islets have been shown to function in primates for at least 6 mo with clinically incompatible immunosuppression.Therefore,a bioartificial pancreas made of encapsulated pig islets may resolve issues associated with islet allotransplantation.Although several groups have shown that encapsulated pig islets are functional in small-animal models,less is known about the use of bioartificial pancreases in large-animal models.In this review,we summarize current knowledge of encapsulated pig islets,to determine obstacles to implantation in humans and possible solutions to overcome these obstacles.

  19. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF GLASS-ENCAPSULATED ELECTRONIC CHIPS (TRANSPONDERS) USED FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF PIGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRUYS, E; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; KRUIT, LK; BOLSCHER, JM

    1993-01-01

    The biocompatibility of electronic transponders encapsulated in two different types of glass was studied after they had been implanted subcutaneously into pigs for the purpose of identification. Rods of white crystal glass or green iron-containing glass were screened for superficial impurities by sc

  20. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  1. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.;

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  2. Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Karimi

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available People with profound hearing loss are not able to use some kinds of conventional amplifiers due to the nature of their loss . In these people, hearing sense is stimulated only when the auditory nerve is activated via electrical stimulation. This stimulation is possible through cochlear implant. In fact, for the deaf people who have good mental health and can not use surgical and medical treatment and also can not benefit from air and bone conduction hearing aids, this device is used if they have normal central auditory system. The basic parts of the device included: Microphone, speech processor, transmitter, stimulator and receiver, and electrode array.

  3. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  4. Measuring emotions in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inonge Reimert monitored pig behaviors in positive and negative emotional states and compared the results. For her research, she used The Observer XT for behavioral annotation. She found very different behaviors to be associated with the two situations, such as play and tail wagging in the positive

  5. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  6. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  7. Degradation of implant materials

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the degradation of implant materials, reviewing in detail such failure mechanisms as corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with monitoring techniques. Surveys common implant biomaterials, as well as procedures for implant retrieval and analysis.

  8. Impaired embryonic development in mice overexpressing the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Kharraz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TIA-1-related (TIAR protein is a shuttling RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism. While in the nucleus TIAR participates to alternative splicing events, in the cytoplasm TIAR acts as a translational repressor on specific transcripts such as those containing AU-Rich Elements (AREs. Due to its ability to assemble abortive pre-initiation complexes coalescing into cytoplasmic granules called stress granules, TIAR is also involved in the general translational arrest observed in cells exposed to environmental stress. However, the in vivo role of this protein has not been studied so far mainly due to severe embryonic lethality upon tiar invalidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine potential TIAR tissue-specificity in various cellular contexts, either embryonic or adult, we constructed a TIAR transgenic allele (loxPGFPloxPTIAR allowing the conditional expression of TIAR protein upon Cre recombinase activity. Here, we report the role of TIAR during mouse embryogenesis. We observed that early TIAR overexpression led to low transgene transmission associated with embryonic lethality starting at early post-implantation stages. Interestingly, while pre-implantation steps evolved correctly in utero, in vitro cultured embryos were very sensitive to culture medium. Control and transgenic embryos developed equally well in the G2 medium, whereas culture in M16 medium led to the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha that accumulated in cytoplasmic granules precluding transgenic blastocyst hatching. Our results thus reveal a differential TIAR-mediated embryonic response following artificial or natural growth environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the importance of the tightly balanced expression of the RNA-binding protein TIAR for normal embryonic development, thereby emphasizing the role of post-transcriptional regulations in early embryonic programming.

  9. Mastitis and fertility in cattle - possible involvement of inflammation or immune activation in embryonic mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter J; Soto, Paolete; Natzke, Roger P

    2004-04-01

    Causes for pre-implantation embryo loss, which can be as high as 50% or more of fertilized embryos, are multifactorial and largely undescribed. Studies in cattle using mastitis as a model indicate that one cause of early embryonic loss is infectious disease or activation of immune responses at sites outside the reproductive tract. Infection of the mammary gland in dairy cattle is associated with a reduction in pregnancy rate (proportion of inseminated cows that become pregnant) and an increase in the number of inseminations required to establish pregnancy. Also, intravenous challenge with bacterial peptidoglycan and polysaccharide at approximately days 3-5 after breeding reduced subsequent pregnancy rate in sheep that had been previously immunized against the same material. The mechanism by which extrauterine activation of immune and inflammatory responses leads to embryonic loss is not clear although cytokines probably play a crucial role. Effects could be exerted at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, ovary, reproductive tract or embryo. Interferon (IFN)-alpha, for example, which can reduce pregnancy rate in cattle when injected around 13-19 days after breeding, increases body temperature, inhibits secretion of luteinizing hormone, and reduces circulating concentrations of progesterone. Other cytokines or products of cytokine activation could cause embryonic loss by causing hyperthermia (as elevated temperature blocks oocyte function and embryonic development), exerting toxic effects on the corpus luteum [for example, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin F(2alpha)], stimulating endometrial prostaglandin synthesis [TNF-alpha and interleukin(IL)-1beta], reducing endometrial cell proliferation (IL-1beta), and interfering with oocyte maturation and embryonic development (TNF-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin F(2alpha)). Although largely neglected by reproductive immunologists, study of the involvement of the immune

  10. Impaired Embryonic Development in Mice Overexpressing the RNA-Binding Protein TIAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharraz, Yacine; Salmand, Pierre-Adrien; Camus, Anne; Auriol, Jacques; Gueydan, Cyril; Kruys, Véronique; Morello, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Background TIA-1-related (TIAR) protein is a shuttling RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism. While in the nucleus TIAR participates to alternative splicing events, in the cytoplasm TIAR acts as a translational repressor on specific transcripts such as those containing AU-Rich Elements (AREs). Due to its ability to assemble abortive pre-initiation complexes coalescing into cytoplasmic granules called stress granules, TIAR is also involved in the general translational arrest observed in cells exposed to environmental stress. However, the in vivo role of this protein has not been studied so far mainly due to severe embryonic lethality upon tiar invalidation. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine potential TIAR tissue-specificity in various cellular contexts, either embryonic or adult, we constructed a TIAR transgenic allele (loxPGFPloxPTIAR) allowing the conditional expression of TIAR protein upon Cre recombinase activity. Here, we report the role of TIAR during mouse embryogenesis. We observed that early TIAR overexpression led to low transgene transmission associated with embryonic lethality starting at early post-implantation stages. Interestingly, while pre-implantation steps evolved correctly in utero, in vitro cultured embryos were very sensitive to culture medium. Control and transgenic embryos developed equally well in the G2 medium, whereas culture in M16 medium led to the phosphorylation of eIF2α that accumulated in cytoplasmic granules precluding transgenic blastocyst hatching. Our results thus reveal a differential TIAR-mediated embryonic response following artificial or natural growth environment. Conclusions/Significance This study reports the importance of the tightly balanced expression of the RNA-binding protein TIAR for normal embryonic development, thereby emphasizing the role of post-transcriptional regulations in early embryonic programming. PMID:20596534

  11. Locais de implante de microchips de identificação eletrônica de leitões: seleção e validação por análise de imagem Points of microchips implants in pigs for eletronic identification: placing and validation by image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a produção de suínos, pressionada por uma crescente demanda por alimentos, tem-se caracterizado pela maior concentração de animais em grandes unidades de produção, dificultando o registro dos dados individuais. Os sistemas automáticos de identificação eletrônica podem auxiliar a detecção de doenças, a avaliação de respostas fisiológicas, o controle de ingestão de alimentos, a atividade física e ainda o impacto ambiental causado pelo sistema de produção, promovendo melhor controle da propriedade. Transponders injetáveis, brincos eletrônicos e o monitoramento por meio da análise de imagem estão sendo utilizados no processo de identificação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os diferentes locais de implante subcutâneo de microchips em leitões, verificando-se possíveis infecções e/ou rejeições, migrações dos microchips em relação ao local de implante e sua validação em relação à análise de imagem.In the last decades the increase of the swine production, because of the increasing in food consumption, has been characterized by an increase of animal concentration in great production units, making difficult to record individual data. The automatic electronic identification systems can help in illness detection and in the evaluation of physiological data, food ingestion, physical activity and impact in the environment by the production system. Electronic injectable transponders, earing tags and the image analysis are been used for electronic identification purposes. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the best body site to inject passive transponders in piglets and possible resulting infections and/or rejections and its validation by using image analysis.

  12. 小鼠胚胎干细胞移植入成体大鼠脑内的区域特异性存活与分化%Regionspecific survival and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived implants in the adult rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁文果; 陈红; 王东; 黎逢光; 张苏明

    2007-01-01

    Totipotent and regionally non-specified embryonic stem (ES) cells provide a powerful tool to understand mechanisms controlling stem cell differentiation in different regions of the adult brain. As the development capacity of ES cells in the adult brain is still largely unknown, we grafted small amounts of mouse ES (mES) cells into adult rat brains to explore the survival and differentiation of implanted mES cells in different rat brain regions. We transplanted the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive mES cells into the hippocampus, septal area, cortex and caudate nucleus in rat brains. Then the rats were sacrificed 5,14 and 28 d later. Of all the brain regions, the survival rate of the transplanted cells and their progeny were the highest in the hippocampus and the lowest in the septal area (P<0.01). The grafted ES cells could differentiate into nestin-positive neural stem cells. Nestin-positive/GFP-positive cells were observed in all brain regions with the highest frequency of nestin-positive cells in the hippocampus and the lowest in the medial septal area (P<0.01). mES cells differentiated into end cells such as neurons and glial cells in all transplantation sites in recipient brains. In the hippocampus, the ES cells differentiated into neurons in large amounts. These results demonstrate that only some brain regions permit survival of mES cells and their progeny, and form instructive environments for neuronal differentiation of mES cells. Thus, because of regionspecific presence of microenvironmental cues and their environmental fields, the characteristics of the recipient tissue were considerably important in formulating cell replacement strategies for neural disorders.%全能区域非特异性的胚胎干细胞是研究成体不同脑区控制干细胞分化能力的十分有力的工具.胚胎干细胞源性神经前体细胞移植入成体脑后可分化为功能性神经元,但是未分化的胚胎干细胞在成体脑内各个部位的存活、生

  13. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2014-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  14. Implant marketing: cost effective implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrle, P S; Levin, R P

    1996-01-01

    The application of the KAL-Technique to the field of implant dentistry allows both patients and dental practices to benefit. It is an exciting advance that decreases frustration and stress in providing implant procedures and lowers overall costs. Professionals using the KAL-Technique report significant predictability in achieving passive framework fit. They are also lowering overall cost of implant cases, which increases the number of patients who can accept implant treatment. It has been well established that the more individuals in a practice that receive implants, the more referrals a practice will gain. This is because implant patients find tremendous advances in the quality of life, and do not hesitate to tell others who can take advantage of this opportunity. Implant dentistry is one of the fastest growing fields in dentistry today. While some other areas of dentistry begin to decline in volume and need, implant dentistry provides the opportunity to keep practices strong and to insure long-term success.

  15. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

    2014-07-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (∼50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation.

  16. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  17. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  18. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi;

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...... the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM...

  19. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  20. Epigenetic influence on embryonic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donkin, Ida; Barrès, Romain; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The epigenome is sensitive to environmental changes and can sustainably alter gene expression, notably during embryonic development. New research indicates that epigenetic factors are heritable, which is why paternal lifestyle may affect fetal development and risk of disease. Children conceived...... by assisted reproduction technology (ART) have an increased risk of peri- and postnatal complications, and as specific ART protocols associate with specific risk profiles, the procedures themselves may cause epigenetic changes contributing to the altered outcomes of the 5,000 Danish children annually...

  1. Retrograde peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jumshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

  2. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  3. Transcriptome architecture across tissues in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folch Josep M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial selection has resulted in animal breeds with extreme phenotypes. As an organism is made up of many different tissues and organs, each with its own genetic programme, it is pertinent to ask: How relevant is tissue in terms of total transcriptome variability? Which are the genes most distinctly expressed between tissues? Does breed or sex equally affect the transcriptome across tissues? Results In order to gain insight on these issues, we conducted microarray expression profiling of 16 different tissues from four animals of two extreme pig breeds, Large White and Iberian, two males and two females. Mixed model analysis and neighbor – joining trees showed that tissues with similar developmental origin clustered closer than those with different embryonic origins. Often a sound biological interpretation was possible for overrepresented gene ontology categories within differentially expressed genes between groups of tissues. For instance, an excess of nervous system or muscle development genes were found among tissues of ectoderm or mesoderm origins, respectively. Tissue accounted for ~11 times more variability than sex or breed. Nevertheless, we were able to confidently identify genes with differential expression across tissues between breeds (33 genes and between sexes (19 genes. The genes primarily affected by sex were overall different than those affected by breed or tissue. Interaction with tissue can be important for differentially expressed genes between breeds but not so much for genes whose expression differ between sexes. Conclusion Embryonic development leaves an enduring footprint on the transcriptome. The interaction in gene × tissue for differentially expressed genes between breeds suggests that animal breeding has targeted differentially each tissue's transcriptome.

  4. Myocardial hypertrophy after pulmonary regurgitation and valve implantation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter; Søndergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    peptides were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The RV does not completely recover after three months of PR with persistent myocardial hypertrophy one month after PPVI. Future studies should address whether RV chamber and cellular hypertrophy, without fibrosis or interventional scar tissue, may be substrate...

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v and 1.95% (v/v respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v. Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR, while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

  6. Embryonic anti-aging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Irina M; Yousef, Hanadie; Conboy, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Although functional organ stem cells persist in the old, tissue damage invariably overwhelms tissue repair, ultimately causing the demise of an organism. The poor performance of stem cells in an aged organ, such as skeletal muscle, is caused by the changes in regulatory pathways such as Notch, MAPK and TGF-β, where old differentiated tissue actually inhibits its own regeneration. This perspective analyzes the current literature on regulation of organ stem cells by their young versus old niches and suggests that determinants of healthy and prolonged life might be under a combinatorial control of cell cycle check point proteins and mitogens, which need to be tightly balanced in order to promote tissue regeneration without tumor formation. While responses of adult stem cells are regulated extrinsically and age-specifically, we put forward experimental evidence suggesting that embryonic cells have an intrinsic youthful barrier to aging and produce soluble pro-regenerative proteins that signal the MAPK pathway for rejuvenating myogenesis. Future identification of this activity will improve our understanding of embryonic versus adult regulation of tissue regeneration suggesting novel strategies for organ rejuvenation. Comprehensively, the current intersection of aging and stem cell science indicates that if the age-imposed decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells was understood, the debilitating lack of organ maintenance in the old could be ameliorated and perhaps, even reversed.

  7. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  8. Embryonic Development: Chicken and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle M. Darras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken and zebrafish are two model species regularly used to study the role of thyroid hormones in vertebrate development. Similar to mammals, chickens have one thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα and one TRβ gene, giving rise to three TR isoforms: TRα, TRβ2, and TRβ0, the latter with a very short amino-terminal domain. Zebrafish also have one TRβ gene, providing two TRβ1 variants. The zebrafish TRα gene has been duplicated, and at least three TRα isoforms are expressed: TRαA1-2 and TRαB are very similar, while TRαA1 has a longer carboxy-terminal ligand-binding domain. All these TR isoforms appear to be functional, ligand-binding receptors. As in other vertebrates, the different chicken and zebrafish TR isoforms have a divergent spatiotemporal expression pattern, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Several isoforms are expressed from the very first stages of embryonic development and early chicken and zebrafish embryos respond to thyroid hormone treatment with changes in gene expression. Future studies in knockdown and mutant animals should allow us to link the different TR isoforms to specific processes in embryonic development.

  9. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  10. ETS transcription factors in embryonic vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael P; Sumanas, Saulius

    2016-07-01

    At least thirteen ETS-domain transcription factors are expressed during embryonic hematopoietic or vascular development and potentially function in the formation and maintenance of the embryonic vasculature or blood lineages. This review summarizes our current understanding of the specific roles played by ETS factors in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis and the implications of functional redundancies between them.

  11. Oral uricase eliminates blood uric acid in the hyperuricemic pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Paulina; Mosiichuk, Nadia; Woliński, Jarosław; Yatsenko, Tetiana; Grujic, Danica; Lozinska, Liudmyla; Pieszka, Marek; Święch, Ewa; Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Goncharova, Kateryna

    2017-01-01

    An elevated level of serum uric acid-hyperuricemia, is strongly associated with the development of gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is often accompanied by a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the present study, we investigated the extra-renal elimination of uric acid via the intestine in a healthy pig model and the effect of oral uricase therapy on plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs with induced hyperuricemia and CKD. The experiment was conducted on eleven, ten-week-old pigs (n = 11). The porcine model of CKD was developed by performing 9/10 nephrectomy surgery on eight pigs. A stable model of hyperuricemia was established in only five of the eight nephrectomized pigs by frequent injections of uric acid (UA) into the jugular vein. All pigs (three healthy pigs and five CKD pigs) were operated for implantation of jugular vein catheters and the three healthy pigs also had portal vein catheters inserted. Blood uric acid concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically, using the Uric Acid Assay Kit (BioAssay Systems, Hayward, USA). The piglets with CKD received orally administered uricase (treatment) and served as their own controls (without uricase supplementation). Oral uricase therapy significantly decreased plasma uric acid concentrations in pigs with CKD, whereas hyperuricemia was observed in the pigs whilst not being treated with uricase. Urinary uric acid excretion was similar during both the treatment and control periods during the first 8 h and 24 h after UA infusions in the CKD pigs. To demonstrate the elimination of UA via the intestine, the healthy pigs were infused with UA into the jugular vein. The blood collected from the jugular vein represents circulating UA concentrations and the blood collected from the portal vein represents the concentration of UA leaving the intestine. The final (after 2 h) concentration of UA was significantly lower in blood collected from the portal vein compared to that collected from

  12. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  13. Feasibility study of marrow stromal cells transplantation into guinea pig cochlea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Sheng-lei; XIE Ding-hua; CHEN Zhu-chu; XIAO Zhi-qiang; YANG Xin-min

    2005-01-01

    Objective This pilot-study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of cell transplantation into guinea pig cochlea. Methods Marrow stromal cells were labeled with DAPI, and then implanted into the cochlea of guinea pig.The existence and differentiation trend were observed roughly two weeks later by histologic analysis. Results Transplant-derived marrow stem cells survived in cochlea two weeks later with a trend of attaching to cochlear architecture but not differentiate into neuron. Conclusions Transplant-derived marrow stem cells can survive in cochlea,and cell transplantation may be a useful strategy in inner ear diseases.

  14. Video-based measuring of quality parameters for tricuspid xenograft heart valve implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condurache, Alexandru Paul; Hahn, Tobias; Scharfschwerdt, Michael; Mertins, Alfred; Aach, Til

    2009-12-01

    Defective heart valves are often replaced by implants in open-heart surgery. Both mechanical and biological implants are available. Among biological implants, xenograft ones-i.e., valves grafted from animals such as pigs, are widely used. Good implants should exhibit certain typical anatomical and functional characteristics to successfully replace the native tissue. Here, we describe a video-based system for measuring quality parameters of xenograft heart valve implants, including the area of the orifice and the fluttering of the valves' leaflets, i.e., their flaps (or cusps). Our system employs automatic methods that provide a precise and reproducible way to infer the quality of an implant. The automatic analysis of both a valve's orifice and the fluttering of its leaflets offers a more comprehensive quality assessment than current, mostly manual methods. We focus on valves with three leaflets, i.e., aortic, pulmonary, and tricuspid valves.

  15. Implant success!!!.....simplified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthra Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The endeavor towards life-like restoration has helped nurture new vistas in the art and science of implant dentistry. The protocol of "restoration-driven implant placement" ensures that the implant is an apical extension of the ideal future restoration and not the opposite. Meticulous pre-implant evaluation of soft and hard tissues, diagnostic cast and use of aesthetic wax-up and radiographic template combined with surgical template can simplify the intricate roadmap for appropriate implant treatment. By applying the harmony of artistic skill, scientific knowledge and clinical expertise, we can simply master the outstanding implant success in requisites of aesthetics, phonetics and function.

  16. Mechanisms of embryonic stomach development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Kyle W; Wells, James M

    2017-06-01

    The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach. Here we will review the literature that has shaped our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate gastric organogenesis. Further we will discuss how developmental paradigms have guided recent efforts to differentiate stomach tissue from pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded jointly to Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent it became imperative to write down the review for a book entirely devoted to human embryonic stem cells (hES, those cells that are a urgent need for researchers, those cells that rekindle the ethical debates and finally, last but not least, those cells whose study paved the way to obtain induced pluripotent stem cells by the OSKC’s Yamanaka method (the OSKC acronim refers, for those not familiar with the topic, to the four stemness genes used to transfect somatic fibroblasts: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc....

  18. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  19. Essential role of the CUL4B ubiquitin ligase in extra-embryonic tissue development during mouse embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liren Liu; Yan Yin; Yuewei Li; Lisa Prevedel; Elizabeth H Lacy; Liang Ma; Pengbo Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the CUL4B ubiquitin ligase gene are causally linked to syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR).However,the pathogenic role of CUL4B mutations in neuronal and developmental defects is not understood.We have generated mice with targeted disruption of Cul4b,and observed embryonic lethality with pronounced growth inhibition and increased apoptosis in extra-embryonic tissues.Cul4b,but not its paralog Cul4a,is expressed at high levels in extra-embryonic tissues post implantation.Silencing of CUL4B expression in an extra-embryonic cell line resulted in the robust accumulation of the CUL4 substrate p21Cip1/WAF and G2/M cell cycle arrest,which could be partially rescued by silencing of p21cip1/WAF.Epiblast-specific deletion of Cul4b prevented embryonic lethality and gave rise to viable Cul4b null mice.Therefore,while dispensable in the embryo proper,Cul4b performs an essential developmental role in the extra-embryonic tissues.Our study offers a strategy to generate viable Cul4b-deficient mice to model the potential neuronal and behavioral deficiencies of human CUL4B XLMR patients.

  20. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. The effect of oxygen tension on porcine embryonic development is dependent on embryo type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Reducing oxygen concentration from atmospheric levels during in vitro culture generally, but not invariably, improves embryonic development across a range of species. Since the few published reports of such an action in the pig are contradictory--perhaps a consequence of the derivation of the emb......Reducing oxygen concentration from atmospheric levels during in vitro culture generally, but not invariably, improves embryonic development across a range of species. Since the few published reports of such an action in the pig are contradictory--perhaps a consequence of the derivation...... of the embryos prior to culture--a study was performed to examine the effect of O2 tension during culture on three different types of porcine embryos, namely: in vivo flushed embryos, and in vitro matured oocytes either fertilized in vitro or parthenogenetically activated. In vivo embryos (n=208) were flushed...... at the 2-8 cell stage. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) destined for IVF or parthenogenetic activation were derived from 2 to 6 mm, post-pubertal ovarian follicles and matured for 48 h in TCM-199. Parthenogenones were generated by activating denuded oocytes (n=573) with 10 mM calcium ionophore, followed...

  2. Influence of radiation (Co{sub 60}) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: influencia no indice mitotico e malformacoes no polo embrionario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B. [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Ginecologia e Obstetricia

    1995-03-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Behavior of immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Kássia Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of immunocastrated male pigs compared with females and castrated males during the period before and after full immunization. A total of 30 animals were divided into three treatments, with ten animals in each (females, barrows, and immunocastrated males. The experiment was divided into three periods: 70 to 80 days of age (period 1, 81 to 110 days of age (period 2, and 111 to 140 days of age (period 3. The behavior of animals during these stages was evaluated. Immunocastrated males showed a higher rate of aggressive and sexual behavior during period 2, which decreased after the second vaccine dose. Both barrows and immunocastrated males presented high locomotion in period 1, reducing the frequency of this activity in period 3. All analyzed animals had a higher level of activities such as drinking, playing, and sexual behavior in period 1 than in the other periods, decreasing during the experiment. The remaining behavioral responses did not differ between the studied categories. Immunocastrated males had higher proportions of undesirable behaviors (aggressive and sexual related to the surgically castrated males and females, and these were reduced after the second vaccine dose. Immunocastration is effective in the reduction of behaviors such as agonistic and sexual at the same levels observed in females and surgically castrated males. However, immunocastrated pigs are more subject to these undesirable behaviors before full immunization.

  4. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  5. Differential bone-forming capacity of osteogenic cells from either embryonic stem cells or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Sanne K.; Apeldoorn, van Aart A.; Jukes, Jojanneke M.; Englund, Mikael C.O.; Hyllner, Johan; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Boer, de Jan

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been used in bone tissue-engineering research. More recently some of the focus in this field has shifted towards the use of embryonic stem cells. While it is well known that hMSCs are able to form bone when implanted subcutaneously in

  6. Urinary incontinence - collagen implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007373.htm Urinary incontinence - injectable implant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to ...

  7. Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Sep 16,2016 For Rhythm Control ... a Heart Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack ...

  8. About Implantable Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tube was inserted, and get a new contraceptive implant on schedule or switch to another method of ... continue Possible Side Effects Young women who get contraceptive implants might notice such side effects as: irregular or ...

  9. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone ...

  10. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  11. Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical problem

    OpenAIRE

    Рамазанова, А.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells offer hope for new therapies, but their use and research entail an ethical problem, which does not have a certain solution. Therefore, we can ask: What exactly are the ethical arguments? Why are they so tricky to resolve?Embryonic stem cell research poses a moral dilemma. It forces us to choose between two moral principles: The duty to prevent or alleviate suffering The duty to respect the value of human life To obtain embryonic stem cells, the early embryo has to be dest...

  12. Role of microglia in embryonic neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chih Kong

    2016-01-01

    Microglia begin colonizing the developing brain as early as embryonic day 9, prior to the emergence of neurons and other glia. Their ontogeny is also distinct from other central nervous system cells, as they derive from yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors and not neural progenitors. In this review, we feature these unique characteristics of microglia and assess the spatiotemporal similarities between microglia colonization of the central nervous system and embryonic neurogenesis. We also infer to existing evidence for microglia function from embryonic through to postnatal neurodevelopment to postulate roles for microglia in neurogenesis. PMID:27555616

  13. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    -human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs....... CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal...

  14. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; le Gac, Severine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown

  15. Implantable Heart Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  16. Teratoma Formation by Human Embryonic Stem Cells is site-dependent and enhanced by the presence of Matrigel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokhorova, Tatyana A; Harkness, Linda M; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    When implanted into immunodeficient mice, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) give rise to teratoma, tumour-like formations containing tissues belonging to all three germ layers. The ability to form teratoma is a sine qua non characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. However, limited data...... of differentiated to un-differentiated tissues was significantly decreased suggesting defective pluripotency of the cells. In conclusion, subcutaneous implantation of hESC in presence of Matrigel appears to be the most efficient, reproducible and the easiest approach for teratoma formation by hESC. Also, teratoma...

  17. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  18. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  19. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  20. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  1. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  2. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  3. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  4. Cytotoxic Effects of 2-Bromopropane on Embryonic Development in Mouse Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available 2-Bromopropane (2-BP, an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is used as a cleaning solvent. Here, we examined the cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without 2-BP (2.5, 5 or 10 μM for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated with dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL analysis, and implantation and post-implantation development of embryos were assessed using in vitro development analysis and in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP displayed significantly increased apoptosis, and decreased inner cell mass (ICM and trophectoderm (TE cell number. Additionally, the implantation success rates of 2-BP-pretreated blastocysts were lower than those of untreated controls. In vitro treatment with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP was associated with increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to 2-BP induces apoptosis, suppresses implantation rates after transfer to host mice, and retards early postimplantation development.

  5. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  6. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  7. Cortical network from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The connection of embryonic stem cell technology and developmental biology provides valuable tools to decipher the mechanisms underlying human brain development and diseases, especially among neuronal populations, that are not readily available in primary cultures. It is obviously the case of neurons forming the human cerebral cortex. In the images that are presented, the neurons were generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells via forebrain-like progenitors. Maintained in cul...

  8. [An experimental model of hepatointestinal transplant in the pig with clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Santamaría, M; Gámez, M; Murcia, J; Bueno, J; Paz, J A; Canser, E; Reinoso, F; Muñoz, J; Lobato, R; Martínez, L; de Miguel, E; Polanco, I; Jara, P; Tovar, J

    1996-10-01

    A model of experimental hepatointestinal transplant in pigs, with clinical applications is presented. Ten animals received a graft composed by the liver and the full length of the small bowel. Two pigs died during the transplant and in eight the surgical procedure was well tolerated with a good revascularization of the grafts. The coagulation parameters were normal after the transplant and only minor biochemical disturbances were found. The main difficulties of the surgical technique are related with the poor tolerance of the pig to the portal and caval clamping, and the close relationships of the duodenum, pancreas and distal colon, produced by the 360 degrees anti-clockwise bowel rotation around the mesenteric vessels. Clamping the supraceliac aorta during the implant of the graft keeps the animal hemodynamically stable and makes unnecessary the use of the more complicated veno venous shunt.

  9. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION: MY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is a small, surgically implanted complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This type of hearing loss, typically involves damage to hair cells in the cochlea, as a result sound cannot reach the auditory nerve which usually receives information from hair cells. A cochlear implant skips the damaged hair cells and to stimulate the auditory nerve directly. An implant does not restore normal hearing, instead it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech. I am here presenting this article in relation to the indications, intraoperative and postoperative complications of cochlear implantation in our institute since January 2013. Children who receive implants at earlier age, outperform their peers who are implanted at a later age. This is reflected in all the areas of speech and language development.

  10. Implantes transcigomáticos Traszygomatic implants

    OpenAIRE

    B. Fernández Ateca; M. Colorado Bonnin; C. Gay Escoda

    2004-01-01

    Los implantes cigomáticos, originariamente diseñados por Branemark en 1989, son implantes de cabeza en 45 grados, de 4'5 milímetros de diámetro en su parte más ancha, y que pueden medir entre 30 y 50 milímetros de longitud. Se insertan desde la parte palatina del proceso alveolar, siguiendo la cresta cigomática-alveolar hasta anclarse en el cuerpo del malar, y en el caso de pacientes maxilectomizados, entrando directamente en el cuerpo del malar. Estos implantes ofrecen una alternativa más al...

  11. Animal models for implant biomaterial research in bone: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A I Pearce

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal interface between bone and orthopaedic and dental implants has taken place for many years. In order to determine whether a newly developed implant material conforms to the requirements of biocompatibility, mechanical stability and safety, it must undergo rigorous testing both in vitro and in vivo. Results from in vitro studies can be difficult to extrapolate to the in vivo situation. For this reason the use of animal models is often an essential step in the testing of orthopaedic and dental implants prior to clinical use in humans. This review discusses some of the more commonly available and frequently used animal models such as the dog, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit models for the evaluation of bone-implant interactions. Factors for consideration when choosing an animal model and implant design are discussed. Various bone specific features are discussed including the usage of the species, bone macrostructure and microstructure and bone composition and remodelling, with emphasis being placed on the similarity between the animal model and the human clinical situation. While the rabbit was the most commonly used of the species discussed in this review, it is clear that this species showed the least similarities to human bone. There were only minor differences in bone composition between the various species and humans. The pig demonstrated a good likeness with human bone however difficulties may be encountered in relation to their size and ease of handling. In this respect the dog and sheep/goat show more promise as animal models for the testing of bone implant materials. While no species fulfils all of the requirements of an ideal model, an understanding of the differences in bone architecture and remodelling between the species is likely to assist in the selection of a suitable species for a defined research question.

  12. [Experimental study of osseointegration of zirconium and titanium dental implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, O B; Doktorov, A A; D'iakova, S V; Denisov-Nikol'skiĭ, Iu I; Grötz, K A

    2005-01-01

    In an experiment performed on pigs, methods of light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the interaction of zirconium and titanium dental implants with bone 6 months following their insertion. Distinct features of integration of both implant types with bone structures were detected. Sites of direct contact of bone structures with metal were found to undergo constant remodeling according to biochemical and metabolic conditions in each zone of an implant surface. Statistically the degree of interactive properties of zirconium implants significantly exceeded similar parameter for titanium screws. Along the perimeter of the zones of bone contact with zirconium implants greater numbers of forming and formed bone areas were revealed as compared to the zones of bone contact with titanium implants, where erosion lacunae were more numerous. The complex of research methods used in this study have not revealed distinct changes in the structure of osteocytes, located in immediate proximity to the metal surface in comparison with more distant sites in the bone.

  13. Developmental potency of mouse primitive ectoderm cells,embryonic ectoderm cells,embryonic ectoderm cells and primordial germ cells after blastocyst injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenSanbing

    1990-01-01

    Developmental potency of primitive and embryonic ectoderm cells from 4.50-day to 6.25-day post-coitum (p.c.) mouse embryos and primordial germ cells from 12.50-day p.c.male genital ridges of fetal mice were studied by direct introducing them into 3.50-day p.c.blastocysts.Sixteen (61.5) overt chimaeras out of 26(50%) offsprings were obtained after transfer of 52 blastocysts injected with 4.50-day primitive ectoderm cells;four (16.0%) overt chimaeras were obtained out of 25 (51.0%) offsprings with 4.75-day primitive ectoderm cells from 49 transferred blastocysts.However,no overt chimaera was obtained with either 5.25-day or 6.25-day embryonic ectoderm cells or 12.50-day male primordial germ cells.GPI analysis of mid-gestation conceptuses developed from injected blastocysts showedthat 5.25-day embryonic ectoderm cells could only contributed to yolk sac of conceptus.Results suggested that implantation acts as a trigger for the determination of primitive ectoderm cells,and their developmental potency becomes limited within a short period of time in normal development.

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of a microstructured zirconia implant by a removal torque comparison with a standard Ti-SLA implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Kniha, Heinz; Dard, Michel; Wieland, Marco; Gahlert, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical bone tissue response to novel microstructured zirconia implants in comparison to sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) titanium implants through the analysis of removal torque (RTQ) measurements. Ti-SLA implants with a sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched surface were compared with zirconia implants with an acid-etched surface. All implants had the same shape, a diameter of 4.1 mm and a length of 10 mm. A total of 136 implants were placed in the maxillae of 17 miniature pigs. Six animals were sacrificed after both 4 and 8 weeks and five animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks, thus providing a total of 102 implants for RTQ testing (34 implants were reserved for future histological analysis). The RTQ analysis was successfully performed, using a mixed model regression with P-values calculated using the nonparametric Brunner-Langer method, on 100 of the 102 implants, two were excluded from the analysis. The adjusted mean RTQ values for Ti-SLA implants were 131 Ncm (95% CI: 107-155) at 4 weeks, 128 Ncm (108-148) Ncm at 8 weeks, and 180 Ncm (153-207 Ncm) at 12 weeks of healing, whereas RTQ values for the zirconia implants were 110 Ncm (86-134), 97 Ncm (76-118) and 147 Ncm (121-174) at the corresponding time intervals. A comparison of the implant materials resulted in P-values of P = 0.114 at 4 weeks, P = 0.034 at 8 weeks and P = 0.105 at 12 weeks (significance set at P < 0.05). Within the limits of the present study, it could be confirmed that the biomechanical bone-tissue response of the investigated zirconia implants is non-inferior to that of the well-documented, roughened titanium surface, at each time point, within the set tolerance. There were no statistically significant differences between the two materials after a healing period of 4 and 12 weeks. The RTQ values of both implant types increased significantly from the 8-week to the 12-week time point. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Analysis of the expression of putatively imprinted genes in bovine peri-implantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Alexopoulos, N.I.; Cooney, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    imprinted genes (Ata3, Dlk1, Gnas, Grb10, Magel2, Mest-1, Ndn and Sgce) in bovine peri-implantation embryos. Two embryonic developmental stages were examined, Day 14 and Day 21. The gene expression pattern of single embryos was recorded for in vivo, in vitro produced (IVP) and parthenogenetic embryos...... (LOS) in bovine embryos resulting in increased embryonic morbidity and mortality. In the bovine, limited numbers of imprinted genes have been studied and studies have primarily been restricted to pre-implantation stages. This study reports original data on the expression pattern of 8 putatively...... procedures, either by in vitro maturation, fertilization or culture. In conclusion, effects of genomic imprinting and of in vitro procedures for embryo production may influence the success of bovine embryo implantation....

  16. Implantes transcigomáticos Traszygomatic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández Ateca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes cigomáticos, originariamente diseñados por Branemark en 1989, son implantes de cabeza en 45 grados, de 4'5 milímetros de diámetro en su parte más ancha, y que pueden medir entre 30 y 50 milímetros de longitud. Se insertan desde la parte palatina del proceso alveolar, siguiendo la cresta cigomática-alveolar hasta anclarse en el cuerpo del malar, y en el caso de pacientes maxilectomizados, entrando directamente en el cuerpo del malar. Estos implantes ofrecen una alternativa más al cirujano en el momento de planificar un tratamiento protésico-rehabilitador implantosoportado. Sobretodo, en aquellos pacientes con un maxilar superior atrófico en el que no se pueden realizar injertos óseos o estos han fracasado. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer el protocolo quirúrgico de colocación de los implantes trascigomáticos y revisar la literatura actual sobre la evolución clínica de estos implantes.The zygomatic implants, originally designed by Branemark in 1989, are implants with a 45 degree inclined head, 4'5 millimetre diameter at their widest part and measuring between 30 and 50 millimetres in length. They are inserted from the palatine side of the alveolar process, following the zygomatic-alveolar edge and anchor in the body of the zygomatic bone. In the case of maxillectomized patients, they are inserted directly in the body of the malar bone. These implants offer an additional alternative to the surgeon when planning an implant supported rehabilitation treatment; specially in those patients with an atrophic maxilla in which osseous grafts cannot be realized or these grafts have failed. The objective of this article is to propose the surgical,protocol of placement of traszygomatic implants and to check the current literature on the clinical evolution of these implants.

  17. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. Flk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type II collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class I molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  18. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Feng; ZHANG WenJie; CHEN FanFan; ZHOU GuangDong; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; CAO YiLin

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. FIk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class Ⅰ molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  19. Mapping the stem cell state: eight novel human embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cell antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, A; Andrews, N; Bardsley, K

    2011-01-01

    The antigenic profile of human embryonic stem (ES) and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells has served as a key element of their characterization, with a common panel of surface and intracellular markers now widely used. Such markers have been used to identify cells within the 'undifferentiated state...

  20. Plasma membrane proteomics of human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormeyer, W.; van Hoof, D.; Braam, S.R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are of immense interest in regenerative medicine as they can self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to any adult cell type. Human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECCs) are the malignant counterparts of hESCs found in testis tumors. hESCs that have acquired chromosom

  1. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  2. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...... with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission...

  3. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...... = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could...

  4. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  5. Activation of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at the site of implantation of allogenic and xenogenic neural stem (progenitor) cells in rats with ischemic cortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhonin, V P; Lebedev, S V; Volkov, A I; Pavlov, K A; Ter-Arutyunyants, A A; Volgina, N E; Savchenko, E A; Grinenko, N F; Lazarenko, I P

    2011-02-01

    Ischemic stroke was modeled in the sensorimotor zone of the brain cortex in adult rats. Rat embryonic nervous tissue, neural stem cells from human olfactory epithelium, and rat fibroblasts (cell control) were implanted into the peri-infarction area of rats of different groups immediately after stroke modeling. Expression of BDNF mRNA was analyzed 7 days after surgery by real-time PCR. BDNF expression in cell preparation before their implantation was minimum. The expression of BDNF mRNA increased by 5-6 times in the areas of implantation of rat fibroblasts and human olfactory epithelium and by 23 times in the area of implantation of rat embryonic nervous tissue compared to periinfarction areas without cell implantation. These findings confirm the possibility of realization of the therapeutic effects of neural stem cells via expression of trophic factors.

  6. Implants in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohit A; Mitra, Dipika K; Rodrigues, Silvia V; Pathare, Pragalbha N; Podar, Rajesh S; Vijayakar, Harshad N

    2013-07-01

    Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  7. Implants in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit A Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implants have gained tremendous popularity as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth in adults. There is extensive research present on the use of implants in adults, but there is a dearth of data available on the same in adolescents. The treatment planning and execution of implant placement in adolescents is still in its infancy. This review article is an attempt to bring together available literature.

  8. Implant treatment planning considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T

    2008-04-01

    As dental implants become a more accepted treatment modality, there is a need for all parties involved with implant dentistry to be familiar with various treatment planning issues. Though the success can be highly rewarding, failure to forecast treatment planning issues can result in an increase of surgical needs, surgical cost, and even case failure. In this issue, the focus is on implant treatment planning considerations.

  9. Tooth Germ-Like Construct Transplantation for Whole-Tooth Regeneration: An In Vivo Study in the Miniature Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Chiang; Kitamura, Yutaka; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Ling, Thai-Yen; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-tooth regeneration using a tooth germ-like construct. Dental pulp from upper incisors, canines, premolars, and molars were extracted from sexually mature miniature pigs. Pulp tissues were cultured and expanded in vitro to obtain dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and cells were differentiated into odontoblasts and osteoblasts. Epithelial cells were isolated from gingival epithelium. The epithelial cells, odontoblasts, and osteoblasts were seeded onto the surface, upper, and lower layers, respectively, of a bioactive scaffold. The lower first and second molar tooth germs were removed bilaterally and the layered cell/scaffold constructs were transplanted to the mandibular alveolar socket of a pig. At 13.5 months postimplantation, seven of eight pigs developed two teeth with crown, root, and pulp structures. Enamel-like tissues, dentin, cementum, odontoblasts, and periodontal tissues were found upon histological inspection. The regenerated tooth expressed dentin matrix protein-1 and osteopontin. All pigs had regenerated molar teeth regardless of the original tooth used to procure the DPSCs. Pigs that had tooth germs removed or who received empty scaffolds did not develop teeth. Although periodontal ligaments were generated, ankylosis was found in some animals. This study revealed that implantation of a tooth germ-like structure generated a complete tooth with a high success rate. The implant location may influence the morphology of the regenerated tooth.

  10. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  11. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  12. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  13. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  14. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  15. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  16. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  17. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  18. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  19. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  20. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Qiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25. We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models.

  1. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ruimin; He, Yuyong; Pan, Bo; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Xufei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyan; Hong, Yuan; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25). We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn) as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models.

  2. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was not possible, and control programs should therefore include thorough cleaning......, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79 % of the eggs were viable. Conclusion: The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum...

  3. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into corneal epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhichong; LIU Jingbo; GE Jian; HUANG Bing; GAO Qianying; LIU Bingqian; WANG Linghua; YU Ling; FAN Zhigang; LU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Our project was to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be induced to differentiate into corneal epithelia by superficial corneoscleral limbal stroma. To achieve this goal, ES-GFP cell line D3 was pre-induced by retinoic acid (RA). The pre-induced cells were seeded on deepithelialized superficial corneoscleral slices (SCSS) to form a monolayer, and divided into three groups. Group 1 was cultured and passaged in vitro for direct detection. Group 2 was exposed to air-liquid interfaces for 10 days and implanted into the subcutaneous layer of nude mice for 2 weeks for further induction in vivo. Group 3 was cultured in vitro without any inducing factors for control. There were no teratomas found in nude mice which were implanted with differentiated ES cells after two weeks. The differentiated cells showed an appearance of epithelia both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of CK3, P63 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemical staining in the differentiated cells in group 1 and 2. Microvillis and zonula occludens were observed on the surface of the differentiated cells under an electron microscope. In the control group, ES cells differentiated freely without any inducing factors. Most cells were shed and formed a neuronal dendrite-like structure, and a minority of cells appeared polymorphic. These results demonstrate that ES cells can differentiate into corneal epithelia on the surface of SCSS under the controlled condition. Differentiated ES cells could be used as epithelial seeding cells for the reconstruction of ocular surface and corneal tissue engineering in the future.

  4. Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.

    Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.

  5. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins......), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use...... and increased availability of fibre rich ingredients from, for instance, the feed milling or starch extraction/fermentation industries have promoted an increased utilisation of fibre rich co-products in the pig feeds (Serena et al. 2007). Especially pregnant sows may be supplied with fibre rich diets without...

  6. Mechanical extension implants for short-bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Spencer, Ariel

    2006-03-01

    Short-bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare, potentially lethal medical condition where the small intestine is far shorter than required for proper nutrient absorption. Current treatment, including nutritional, hormone-based, and surgical modification, have limited success resulting in 30% to 50% mortality rates. Recent advances in mechanotransduction, stressing the bowel to induce growth, show great promise; but for successful clinical use, more sophisticated devices that can be implanted are required. This paper presents two novel devices that are capable of the long-term gentle stressing. A prototype of each device was designed to fit inside a short section of bowel and slowly extend, allowing the bowel section to grow approximately double its initial length. The first device achieves this through a dual concentric hydraulic piston that generated almost 2-fold growth of a pig small intestine. For a fully implantable extender, a second device was developed based upon a shape memory alloy actuated linear ratchet. The proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated significant force generation and almost double extension when tested on the benchtop and inside an ex-vivo section of pig bowel. This work provides the first steps in the development of an implantable extender for treatment of SBS.

  7. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole.

  8. Embryonic Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the mammalian blastocyst. Traditionally, these cells have been derived and cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) supportive layers, which allow their continuous growth in an undifferentiated state. However, for any future industrial or clinical application hESCs should be cultured in reproducible, defined, and xeno-free culture system, where exposure to animal pathogens is prevented. From their derivation in 1998 the methods for culturing hESCs were significantly improved. This chapter wills discuss hESC characterization and the basic methods for their derivation and maintenance.

  9. 抑抗汤对胚泡着床障碍小鼠子宫白血病抑制因子表达的影响%Effect of Yikang decoction on the expression of endometrial leukemia inhibitory factor in mouse with embryonic implantation dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄倩; 王珺; 吴难; 冷雯; 王春宁; 应小燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察抑抗汤对小鼠胚泡着床障碍的影响.方法 将妊娠小鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、中药组和对照组.中药组按照抑抗汤灌胃剂量进一步分为低、中、高剂量组,分别每日以0.4、0.6、0.8 ml抑抗汤灌胃;对照组每日0.8ml生理盐水灌胃.模型组和中药组于第4天晨皮下注射0.8 g/L米非司酮溶液0.1ml.第5天观察各组小鼠妊娠率和平均胚泡着床数,ELISA法检测小鼠宫腔冲洗液白血病抑制因子(LIF)蛋白浓度,实时荧光定量PCR检测子宫内膜LIF表达水平.结果 模型组妊娠率和平均胚泡着床数较正常组明显下降(P<0.01).中药组妊娠率和平均着床胚泡数均较模型组呈剂量依赖性增加(P<0.05).中药组LIF蛋白和mRNA水平较模型组升高.结论 抑抗汤可能通过促进LIF表达促进胚泡着床.%Objective To investigate the effect of Yikang decoction on the implantation dysfunction in mice. Methods Pregnant mice were divided into groups of S(sham operated) ,C( treated with mifepriston 0. 8 g/L subcutaneously on the 4th day as model control) and T(given additional gastric gavage with three doses of Yikang decoction 0. 4,0. 6 or 0. 8 ml respectively daily for 28 days). On the 5th day, the mean numbers of implanted blastocyst were compared. The leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) protein and LIF mRNA in flushings were meaured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. Results Compared with group S, the mean points of coloration dyed by Evan's blue was lowered in group C and was increased dose-dependently in group T. The expressions of LIF protein and LIF mRNA in flushings were higher in group T than thoae in group C. Conclusion Yikang decoction can increase the pregnancy rate by improving the expression of LIF in endometrium in mice.

  10. Management of peri-implantitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran; Neethu Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless ...

  11. Management of peri-implantitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran; Neethu Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless ...

  12. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  13. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  14. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...

  15. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    -defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  16. MUSIC AND COCHLEAR IMPLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Yitao; Xu Li

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most people with modern multichannel cochlear implant systems can understand speech in qui-et environment very well. However, studies in recent decades reported a lack of satisfaction in music percep-tion with cochlear implants. This article reviews the literature on music ability of cochlear implant users by presenting a systematic outline of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients with regard to their music perception as well as production. The review also evaluates the similarities and differences be-tween electric hearing and acoustic hearing regarding music perception. We summarize the research results in terms of the individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, pitch, and timbre). Finally, we briefly intro-duce the vocal singing of prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants as evaluated by acoustic measures.

  17. Selenite benefits embryonic stem cells therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L-P; Zhang, S; Xu, L; Li, W; Wang, Y; Chen, S-D; Ding, J-Q

    2012-09-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) transplantation is a potential therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, one of the main challenges to this therapy is the post-transplantation survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. In this study, mouse ESC were differentiated into DA neurons by a modified serum free protocol. These ESC-derived neurons were then transplanted into striatum of 6-OHDA lesioned rat. The viability of grafted DA neurons was decreased, accompanied by activated microglia and high levels of proinflammatory factors, such as TNF-α and iNOS, in the graft niche. This suggested that the local neuroinflammation might be involved in the reduced cells viability. Selenite, the source of essential micronutrient selenium, could inhibit NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and subsequently reduce iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α expression in LPS-treated BV2 cells in a dose dependant manner. Before the transplantation of ESC-derived DA neurons, 6-OHDA lesioned rats were intraperitoneally injected with selenite. The expression levels of TNF-α and iNOS were decreased by 30% and 50%, respectively, in selenite treated group. The survival of implanted DA neurons and the rotational behavior of transplanted rats were also remarkably improved by selenite treatment. To sum up, selenite might benefit ESCs transplantation therapy in PD through anti-inflammation effects.

  18. Twenty years of embryonic stem cell research in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, L A; Telugu, B P V L

    2012-08-01

    Notable distinctions between an embryonic stem cell (ESC) and somatic cell are that an ESC can maintain an undifferentiated state indefinitely, self-renew, and is pluripotent, meaning that the ESC can potentially generate cells representing all the three primordial germ layers and contribute to the terminally differentiated cells of a conceptus. These attributes make the ESC an ideal source for genome editing for both agricultural and biomedical applications. Although, ESC lines have been successfully established from rodents and primates, authentic ungulate stem cell lines on the contrary are still not available. Outstanding issues including but not limited to differences in pluripotency characteristics among the existing ESC lines, pre-implantation embryo development, pluripotency pathways, and culture conditions plague our efforts to establish authentic ESC lines from farm animals. In this review, we highlight some of these issues and discuss how the recent derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) might augur the establishment of robust authentic ESC lines from farm animals.

  19. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  20. Embryonic adaptations and nutrition in the viviparous teleost Clinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extensive embryonic adaptations for the uptake of nutrients secreted by the ... and in most cases a hypertrophied embryonic gut plays a role in nutrient absorption ..... Cellular surface projections in C. dorsalis are virtually confined to the ...

  1. Embryonic stem cells: testing the germ-cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2011-10-25

    The exact cellular origin of embryonic stem cells remains elusive. Now a new study provides compelling evidence that embryonic stem cells, established under conventional culture conditions, originate from a transient germ-cell state.

  2. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  3. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF)failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method:Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted,resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  4. Identification of embryonic chromosomal abnormality using FISH-based preimplantaion genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英辉; 徐晨明; 金帆; 钱羽力

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Embryonic chromosomal abnormality is one of the main reasons for in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. This study aimed at evaluating the value of Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (FISH)-based Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) in screening for embryonic chromosomal abnormality to increase the successful rate of IVF. Method: Ten couples, four with high risk of chromosomal abnormality and six infertile couples, underwent FISH-based PGD during IVF procedure. At day 3, one or two blastomeres were aspirated from each embryo. Biopsied blastomeres were examined using FISH analysis to screen out embryos with chromosomal abnormalities. At day 4, embryos without detectable chromosomal abnormality were transferred to the mother bodies as in regular IVF. Results: Among 54 embryos screened using FISH-based PGD, 30 embryos were detected to have chromosomal abnormalities. The 24 healthy embryos were implanted, resulting in four clinical pregnancies, two of which led to successful normal birth of two healthy babies; one to ongoing pregnancy during the writing of this article; and one to ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: FISH-based PGD is an effective method for detecting embryonic chromosomal abnormality, which is one of the common causes of spontaneous miscarriages and chromosomally unbalanced offsprings.

  5. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Cochlear Implants Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Cochlear Implants What are the Benefits of Cochlear Implants? For people with implants: Hearing ranges from near ...

  6. Transcriptome Landscapes of Mammalian Embryonic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes research on gene expression profiles from different embryonic stages and cell types to identify genes involved in pluripotency or differentiation in bovine and porcine cells. The results are compared with data from other mammals. RNA expression profiles of morula and blastocyst

  7. Epigenetic control of embryonic stem cell fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Nicolaj Strøyer; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo and are pluripotent, as they are able to differentiate into all cell types of the adult organism. Once established, the pluripotent ES cells can be maintained under defined culture conditions, but can also...

  8. Transcriptome Landscapes of Mammalian Embryonic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, B.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes research on gene expression profiles from different embryonic stages and cell types to identify genes involved in pluripotency or differentiation in bovine and porcine cells. The results are compared with data from other mammals. RNA expression profiles of morula and blastocyst

  9. Autophagy in human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Tra

    Full Text Available Autophagy (macroautophagy is a degradative process that involves the sequestration of cytosolic material including organelles into double membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos and cavitation of embryoid bodies. The precise roles of autophagy during early human embryonic development, remain however largely uncharacterized. Since human embryonic stem cells constitute a unique model system to study early human embryogenesis we investigated the occurrence of autophagy in human embryonic stem cells. We have, using lentiviral transduction, established multiple human embryonic stem cell lines that stably express GFP-LC3, a fluorescent marker for the autophagosome. Each cell line displays both a normal karyotype and pluripotency as indicated by the presence of cell types representative of the three germlayers in derived teratomas. GFP expression and labelling of autophagosomes is retained after differentiation. Baseline levels of autophagy detected in cultured undifferentiated hESC were increased or decreased in the presence of rapamycin and wortmannin, respectively. Interestingly, autophagy was upregulated in hESCs induced to undergo differentiation by treatment with type I TGF-beta receptor inhibitor SB431542 or removal of MEF secreted maintenance factors. In conclusion we have established hESCs capable of reporting macroautophagy and identify a novel link between autophagy and early differentiation events in hESC.

  10. Skeletal tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke Maria

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at repairing or replacing damaged or diseased tissue. In this thesis, we investigated the potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for cartilage tissue engineering. After differentiation of mouse and human ESCs into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage had been established

  11. In vivo evaluation of anodic TiO2 nanotubes: an experimental study in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Bauer, Sebastian; Lutz, Rainer; Meisel, Mark; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Schmuki, Patrik; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Because of their ability to mimic the dimensions of constituent components of natural bone and the possibility to serve as a gene and drug-delivery carrier, nanotubes seem to be a promising coating for medical implants. Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a TiO(2) nanotube structured surface on periimplant bone formation in vivo when compared with an untreated standard titanium surface. Twenty-five titanium implants covered with an ordered TiO(2) nanotube layer with an individual tube diameter of 30 nm and 25 commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) implants were placed in the frontal skull of 25 domestic pigs. To evaluate the effects of the nanotube structured implants on the periimplant bone formation, bone-implant contact (BIC), and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed at day 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90. Evaluating immunohistochemistry, a significantly higher collagen type- I expression occurred at day 7 (p = 0.003), day 14 (p = 0.016), and day 30 (p = 0.044), for the nanostructured implants in comparison with the control group. It could be found that a nanotube structured implant surface with a diameter of 30 nm does influence bone formation and bone development by enhancing osteoblast function. SEM evaluation of the specimen surfaces revealed that the nanotube coatings do resist shearing forces that evoked by implant insertion. Because of their simple, low cost, flexible manufacturing and the possibility for the usage as drug or growth factor delivery system, nanotubes seem to be a promising method for future medical implant coatings.

  12. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  13. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  14. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  15. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important. The production of lean meat is shown to be improved significantly by adopting ... is interested in the biology of pig production, then biological efficiency and its .... scientific basis, I have calculated the economic effects of a number of ...

  16. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...

  17. Renal cortical mercury levels associated with experimental amalgam tattoos: effects of particle size and amount of implanted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, B M; Cox, S W

    1987-09-01

    Powdered dental amalgam that had passed through either a 106 microns or a 45 microns sieve was implanted subcutaneously in guinea pigs for periods of up to 2 yr. The renal cortical mercury levels associated with the 106 microns material were on average 16% of those produced by the 45 microns material. A reduction in the amount of 45 microns powder implanted, by a factor of 75%, resulted in a fall of only 27% in renal mercury concentrations. The marked effect of particle size on mercury release may be explained by the large increase in the proportion of implanted material that was degraded within phagocytic cells in the local lesions.

  18. cDNA microarray analysis of bovine embryo gene expression profiles during the pre-implantation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Tomoyuki

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After fertilization, embryo development involves differentiation, as well as development of the fetal body and extra-embryonic tissues until the moment of implantation. During this period various cellular and molecular changes take place with a genetic origin, e.g. the elongation of embryonic tissues, cell-cell contact between the mother and the embryo and placentation. To identify genetic profiles and search for new candidate molecules involved during this period, embryonic gene expression was analyzed with a custom designed utero-placental complementary DNA (cDNA microarray. Methods Bovine embryos on days 7, 14 and 21, extra-embryonic membranes on day 28 and fetuses on days 28 were collected to represent early embryo, elongating embryo, pre-implantation embryo, post-implantation extra-embryonic membrane and fetus, respectively. Gene expression at these different time points was analyzed using our cDNA microarray. Two clustering algorithms such as k-means and hierarchical clustering methods identified the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes across pre-implantation period. Novel candidate genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Results In total, 1,773 individual genes were analyzed by complete k-means clustering. Comparison of day 7 and day 14 revealed most genes increased during this period, and a small number of genes exhibiting altered expression decreased as gestation progressed. Clustering analysis demonstrated that trophoblast-cell-specific molecules such as placental lactogens (PLs, prolactin-related proteins (PRPs, interferon-tau, and adhesion molecules apparently all play pivotal roles in the preparation needed for implantation, since their expression was remarkably enhanced during the pre-implantation period. The hierarchical clustering analysis and RT-PCR data revealed new functional roles for certain known genes (dickkopf-1, NPM, etc as well as novel candidate genes (AW464053, AW465434, AW

  19. m-Calpain is required for preimplantation embryonic development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Karen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background μ-calpain and m-calpain are ubiquitously expressed proteases implicated in cellular migration, cell cycle progression, degenerative processes and cell death. These heterodimeric enzymes are composed of distinct catalytic subunits, encoded by Capn1 (μ-calpain or Capn2 (m-calpain, and a common regulatory subunit encoded by Capn4. Disruption of the mouse Capn4 gene abolished both μ-calpain and m-calpain activity, and resulted in embryonic lethality, thereby suggesting essential roles for one or both of these enzymes during mammalian embryogenesis. Disruption of the Capn1 gene produced viable, fertile mice implying that either m-calpain could compensate for the loss of μ-calpain, or that the loss of m-calpain was responsible for death of Capn4-/- mice. Results To distinguish between the alternatives described above, we deleted an essential coding region in the mouse Capn2 gene in embryonic stems cells and transmitted this mutant allele through the mouse germline. Breeding of heterozygous animals failed to produce homozygous mutant live offspring or implanted embryos. A nested PCR genotyping protocol was established, and homozygous preimplantation mutant embryos were detected at the morula but not at the blastocyts stage. Conclusion We conclude that homozygous disruption of the Capn2 gene results in pre-implantation embryonic lethality between the morula and blastocyst stage. This establishes that μ-calpain and m-calpain have distinct functions, and that m-calpain is vital for development of the preimplantation murine embryo.

  20. Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B in uterine luminal epithelial cells by interleukin 1 Beta 2: a novel interleukin 1 expressed by the elongating pig conceptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Daniel J; Newsom, Emily M; Guyton, Jennifer M; Tuggle, Christopher K; Geisert, Rodney D; Lucy, Matthew C

    2015-04-01

    Conceptus mortality is greatest in mammals during the peri-implantation period, a time when conceptuses appose and attach to the uterine surface epithelium while releasing proinflammatory molecules. Interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), a master proinflammatory cytokine, is released by the primate, rodent, and pig blastocyst during the peri-implantation period and is believed to be essential for establishment of pregnancy. The gene encoding IL1B has duplicated in the pig, resulting in a novel gene. Preliminary observations indicate that the novel IL1B is specifically expressed by pig conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. To verify this, IL1B was cloned from mRNA isolated from Day 12 pig conceptuses and compared with IL1B cloned from mRNA isolated from pig peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The pig conceptuses, but not the PBLs, expressed a novel IL1B, referred to here as interleukin 1 beta 2 (IL1B2). Porcine endometrium was treated with recombinant porcine interleukin 1 beta 1 (IL1B1), the prototypical cytokine, and IL1B2 proteins. Immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR were used to measure activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB) and NFKB-regulated transcripts, respectively, within the endometrium. Both IL1B1 and IL1B2 activated NFKB in the uterine luminal epithelium within 4 h. The NFKB activation and related gene expression, however, were lower in endometrium treated with IL1B2, suggesting that the conceptus-derived cytokine may have reduced activity within the uterus. In conclusion, the peri-implantation pig conceptus expresses a novel IL1B that can activate NFKB within the uterine surface epithelium, likely creating a proinflammatory microenvironment during establishment of pregnancy in the pig. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Dental Implant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  2. Dental Implant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Oshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities.

  3. Embryonic Screening as A European Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. den Exter (André)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe European Court lifted the Italian ban on pre-implantation diagnostics (PGD). As such the Court accepted PGD as a generally accepted means for medically assisted procreation, which mayhaveconsequences for other member states prohibiting PGD.

  4. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  5. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  6. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    the period 1999 to 2006; 239 one-stage procedures and 353 two-stage procedures. The postoperative course through November 2009 was evaluated by cumulative incidence adjusting for competing risks for the selected outcomes; hematoma, infection, seroma, implant rupture, severe capsular contracture (modified.......7% for severe capsular contracture, 32.3% for displacement/asymmetry of the implant and 38.6% for reoperation. When comparing one- and two-stage procedures, we observed significantly higher risk estimates for infection, seroma and extrusion of the implant following two-stage procedures, whereas the risk...

  7. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  8. Optimization of dental implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  9. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  10. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  11. [Biological dental implant: myth or reality?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magloire, H; Couble, M-L

    2011-09-01

    The currently available options for tooth-loss are prostheses, implants, or surgery (auto-transplantation). They all have their limitations. The emergence of tissue engineering, 15 years ago, was made possible by a better knowledge of the various stages of dental development, and the mastery of stem cell differentiation. It opened a new alternative approach for tooth regeneration. Even if animal experiments have demonstrated that it was possible to obtain a biological tooth from stem cells, two major issues remain to be discussed. Is it possible to use induced pluripotent stem cells instead of embryonic stem cells, which raise an ethical problem? Is it possible to reproduce a dental crown with an adapted shape and colour? Or should we consider the simpler creation of a biological root secondarily covered by a ceramic prosthesis? Our study mentions the main landmarks and the key cells involved in the embryological development of the tooth, establishes a mapping and a list of the various types of stem cells. It details the various methods used to create a biological implant.

  12. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri

    1997-12-01

    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  13. DEALING WITH DENTAL IMPLANT FAILURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them. PMID:19089213

  14. Dealing with dental implant failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Levin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options.When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them.

  15. Decellularized aorta of fetal pigs as a potential scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-feng; HE Zhi-juan; YANG Da-ping; HAN Xue-feng; GUO Tie-fang; HAO Chen-guang; MA Hui; NIE Chun-lei

    2008-01-01

    Background For cardiovascular tissue engineering, acellularized biomaterials from pig have been widely investigated. Our purpose was to study mechanical properties and biocompatibility of decellularized aorta of fetal pigs (DAFP) to determine its potential as scaffold for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.Methods Descending aorta of fetal pigs was removed cells using trypsin, ribonuclease and desoxyribonuclease. Mechanical properties of DAFP were evaluated by tensile stress-strain and burst pressure analysis. Assessment of cell adhesion and compatibility was conducted by seeding porcine aortic endothelial cells. To evaluate biocompatibility in vivo, DAFP was implanted subcutaneously into adult male Sprague Dawley rats for 2, 4 and 8 weeks.Results Histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy examination of DAFP revealed well-preserved extracellular matrix proteins and porous three-dimensional structures. Compared with fresh aorta, DAFP had similar ultimate tensile strength, axial compliance and burst pressure. Cell culture studies in vitro showed that porcine aortic endothelial cells adhered and proliferated on the surfaces of DAFP with excellent cell viability. Subdermal implantation demonstrated that the DAFP did not show almost any immunological reaction and exhibited minimal calcification during the whole follow-up period.Conclusion The DAFP has the potential to serve as scaffolds for small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft.

  16. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.

  17. Growth failure after recurrent fever in young guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S C; Faurie, A; Pettifor, J M; Laburn, H P

    2007-03-16

    Infection causes fever and suppression of appetite, a combination of effects which threatens normal growth in infected children. We have used an animal model to study the effects on growth of recurrent simulated Gram-positive bacterial infection. After weaning, 10 guinea pig pups underwent surgery under general anaesthesia for the implantation of temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters and thereafter were assigned to receive intramuscular injections of either 50 microg/kg muramyl dipeptide (MDP), or sterile saline. During a 30-day period corresponding to their rapid growth phase, the pups were given eight injections. MDP resulted in fevers of about 1.5 degrees C on each occasion, but no significant change in body temperature occurred after saline injections. Food intake was suppressed during each febrile episode such that 24-h intake was significantly lower on days of injections of MDP, compared to days between MDP injections in the same animals, and compared to that of animals injected with saline. The rate of weight gain of the MDP-injected guinea pigs was significantly lower than that of the control group and failed even to achieve a rate similar to the saline-injected group in their more adult-like growth phase. Plasma zinc concentration was significantly lower in MDP-compared to saline-injected animals sampled 8 days after the last injection. Our results show that recurrent fever during the growth phase of young guinea pigs results in irreversible growth failure, and that reduced food intake on days when the animals were febrile was at least partly responsible for this reduced rate of growth.

  18. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  19. MEMS biomedical implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Yuchong

    2012-01-01

    The field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) has advanced tremendously for the last 20 years. Most commercially noticeably, the field has successfully advanced from pressure sensors to micro physical sensors, such as accelerometers and gyros, for handheld electronics application. In parallel, MEMS has also advanced into micro total analysis system(TAS) and/or lab-on-a-chip applications. This article would discuss a relatively new but promising future direction towards MEMS biomedical implants. Specifically, Parylene C has been explored to be used as a good MEMS implant material and will be discussed in detail. Demonstrated implant devices, such as retinal and spinal cord implants, are presented in this article.

  20. Risks of Breast Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection or injury. Demonstrated by redness, swelling, warmth, pain and or/loss of function. Lymphedema or ... Overfilling or underfilling of saline-filled breast implants Physical stresses such as trauma or intense physical pressure ...

  1. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  2. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  3. Generation of embryos directly from embryonic stem cells by tetraploid embryo complementation reveals a role for GATA factors in organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S A

    2005-12-01

    Gene targeting in ES (embryonic stem) cells has been used extensively to study the role of proteins during embryonic development. In the traditional procedure, this requires the generation of chimaeric mice by introducing ES cells into blastocysts and allowing them to develop to term. Once chimaeric mice are produced, they are bred into a recipient mouse strain to establish germline transmission of the allele of interest. Although this approach has been used very successfully, the breeding cycles involved are time consuming. In addition, genes that are essential for organogenesis often have roles in the formation of extra-embryonic tissues that are essential for early stages of post-implantation development. For example, mice lacking the GATA transcription factors, GATA4 or GATA6, arrest during gastrulation due to an essential role for these factors in differentiation of extra-embryonic endoderm. This lethality has frustrated the study of these factors during the development of organs such as the liver and heart. Extraembryonic defects can, however, be circumvented by generating clonal mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid complementation. Here, we describe the usefulness and efficacy of this approach using GATA factors as an example.

  4. Embryonic survival at day 9, 21 and 35 of pregnancy in intact and unilaterally oviduct ligated multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Athorn, R Z; Bouwman, E G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of uterine space on timing of embryonic mortality, multiparous sows were left intact (CTR; n=42) or subjected to unilateral oviduct ligation (LIG; n=23), after their first post wean oestrus. Intact sows were killed at day 9 (n=10), day 21 (n=15), or day 35 (n=17), and LIG sows were killed at day 21 (n=11) or day 35 (n=12) of gestation. At day 9, 92% of ovulations were represented by an embryo. At day 21, embryonic mortality was 24% and was not altered by increasing uterine space. At day 35, space per embryo was twice as large in LIG sows (30±3 v. 16±0.8 cm), and implantation length tended to be larger (19.0±1.2 v. 15.5±1.3 cm). Between day 21 and day 35, CTR sows lost another 8% to 14% of their embryos, whereas LIG sows lost none. Embryos tended to be heavier (4.9±0.2 v. 4.3±0.3 g) in LIG sows. In conclusion, embryonic loss in multiparous sows is 24% by day 21 and is not related to space, whereas after day 21 limited space causes additional 8% to 14% embryonic mortality in intact sows only.

  5. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  6. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pairs (18 of microsatelite primers were used in this study to detect the genetic relationship within Black Slavonian Pig and between Turopolje Pig, Mangalitsa breed and Croatian Wild Pigs. The second goal of this study was to determine phylogenetic relationships among these breeds and some Asian and European pigs using the mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. The third goal was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Aiming to conduct microsatellite analysis each animal was genotyped for 18 microsatelite markers, chosen based on their quality, size, polymorphism and location on the porcine genome as proposed by the FAO. Two pairs of primers amplified a 511-bp fragment of control region between sites 15 390 and 15 900 (Mit1.F and Mit1.R and a 810-bp fragment between sites 15 825 and 16 634 (Mit2.F and Mi2.R were genotyped for mtDNA. Two primer pairs were used to amplify the majority of the single exon of MC1R gene aiming to determinate MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pig. The first pair of primers, MERL1 and EPIG2, was used to amplify a 428-bp product from the 5’ half of the exon, whereas EPIG1 and EPIG3 amplified a 405-bp product from the 3’ half. Our results showed that the 18 microsatellites used in this study were useful markers to study genetic diversity among Croatian autochthonous pig breeds. This set of microsatellites may be used for identifying individuals and for genetic diversity studies for selection and conservation of the Black Slavonian pig, Turopolje pig and Mangalitsa breed. Genetic distances between populations made with Principal Component Analysis (PCA method noticed that studied populations are mostly clearly geneticaly defined. mtDNA analysis suggested that Black Slavonian and Turopolje pig showed

  7. Cochlear Implant in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Samadi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is the result of a great combination and collaboration of engineering and medicine. It is mainly because it has the most conflict with the human nervous system among all prosthesis. Cochlear implant helps a child with profound hearing loss to understand and articulate speech and let an adult person with hearing loss communicate with people by phone. Although these wonderful results could not be seen in all patients, will let us know about the great scientific findings.

  8. The ability of inner-cell-mass cells to self-renew as embryonic stem cells is acquired following epiblast specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroviak, Thorsten; Loos, Remco; Bertone, Paul; Smith, Austin; Nichols, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The precise relationship of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to cells in the mouse embryo remains controversial. We present transcriptional and functional data to identify the embryonic counterpart of ESCs. Marker profiling shows that ESCs are distinct from early inner cell mass (ICM) and closely resemble pre-implantation epiblast. A characteristic feature of mouse ESCs is propagation without ERK signalling. Single-cell culture reveals that cell-autonomous capacity to thrive when the ERK pathway is inhibited arises late during blastocyst development and is lost after implantation. The frequency of deriving clonal ESC lines suggests that all E4.5 epiblast cells can become ESCs. We further show that ICM cells from early blastocysts can progress to ERK independence if provided with a specific laminin substrate. These findings suggest that formation of the epiblast coincides with competence for ERK-independent self-renewal in vitro and consequent propagation as ESC lines.

  9. Comparative gastric morphometry of Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    .... Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology...

  10. Anodized dental implant surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. Materials and Methods: A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. Results: The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. Conclusions: The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  11. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenarz, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear implant (CI represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development.

  12. Anodized dental implant surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Muktadar Anand; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  13. Contraceptive implants: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam Rowlands,1,2 Stephen Searle3 1Centre of Postgraduate Medical Research and Education, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 2Dorset HealthCare, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; 3Sexual Health Services, Chesterfield, United KingdomAbstract: Progestin-only contraceptive implants are a highly cost-effective form of long-acting reversible contraception. They are the most effective reversible contraceptives and are of a similar effectiveness to sterilization. Pregnancies are rare in women using this method of contraception, and those that do occur must be fully investigated, with an ultrasound scan of the arm and serum etonogestrel level if the implant cannot be located. There are very few contraindications to use of implants, and they have an excellent safety profile. Both acceptability and continuation with the method are high. Noncontraceptive benefits include improvements in dysmenorrhea, ovulatory pain, and endometriosis. Problematic bleeding is a relatively common adverse effect that must be covered in preinsertion information-giving and supported adequately if it occurs. Recognized training for both insertion and removal should be undertaken. Care needs to be taken at both insertion and removal to avoid neurovascular injury. Implants should always be palpable; if they are not, noninsertion should be assumed until disproven. Etonogestrel implants are now radiopaque, which aids localization. Anticipated difficult removals should be performed by specially trained experts. Keywords: contraceptive, subdermal implant, etonogestrel, levonorgestrel, progestin-only, long-acting reversible contraception

  14. Biocompatible implant surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Bikash; Pawar, Sudhir; Pattanaik, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Surface plays a crucial role in biological interactions. Surface treatments have been applied to metallic biomaterials in order to improve their wear properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. A systematic review was performed on studies investigating the effects of implant surface treatments on biocompatibility. We searched the literature using PubMed, electronic databases from 1990 to 2009. Key words such as implant surface topography, surface roughness, surface treatment, surface characteristics, and surface coatings were used. The search was restricted to English language articles published from 1990 to December 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major dental implant journals was performed. When considering studies, clinical studies were preferred followed by histological human studies, animal studies, and in vitro studies. A total of 115 articles were selected after elimination: clinical studies, 24; human histomorphometric studies, 11; animal histomorphometric studies, 46; in vitro studies, 34. The following observations were made in this review: · The focus has shifted from surface roughness to surface chemistry and a combination of chemical manipulations on the porous structure. More investigations are done regarding surface coatings. · Bone response to almost all the surface treatments was favorable. · Future trend is focused on the development of osteogenic implant surfaces. Limitation of this study is that we tried to give a broader overview related to implant surface treatments. It does not give any conclusion regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment investigated till date. Unfortunately, the eventually selected studies were too heterogeneous for inference of data.

  15. Progress with nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Pau, K-Y Francis; Lester, Linda

    2004-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells hold potential in the fields of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, tissue regeneration, disease pathogenicity, and drug discovery. Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are now available in primates, including man, rhesus, and cynomologous monkeys. Monkey ES cells serve as invaluable clinically relevant models for studies that can't be conducted in humans because of practical or ethical limitations, or in rodents because of differences in physiology and anatomy. Here, we review the current status of nonhuman primate research with ES cells, beginning with a description of their isolation, characterization, and availability. Substantial limitations still plague the use of primate ES cells, such as their required growth on feeder layers, poor cloning efficiency, and restricted availability. The ability to produce homogenous populations of both undifferentiated as well as differentiated phenotypes is an important challenge, and genetic approaches to achieving these objectives are discussed. Finally, safety, efficiency, and feasibility issues relating to the transplantation of ES-derived cells are considered.

  16. Properties and applications of embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the early embryo and can be propagated stably in undifferentiated state in vitro. They retain the ability to differentiate into all cell types found in the embryonic and adult body in vivo, and can be induced to differentiate into many cell types under appropriate culture conditions in vitro. Using these properties, people have set up various differentiated systems of many cell types and tissues in vitro. Through analysis of these systems, one can identify novel bioactive factors and reveal mechanisms of cell differentiation and organogenesis. ES cell-derived differentiated cells can also be applied to cell transplantation therapy. In addition, we summarized the features and potential applications of human ES cells.

  17. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  18. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  19. OCT guided microinjections for mouse embryonic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

    2013-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is gaining popularity as live imaging tool for embryonic research in animal models. Recently we have demonstrated that OCT can be used for live imaging of cultured early mouse embryos (E7.5-E10) as well as later stage mouse embryos in utero (E12.5 to the end of gestation). Targeted delivery of signaling molecules, drugs, and cells is a powerful approach to study normal and abnormal development, and image guidance is highly important for such manipulations. Here we demonstrate that OCT can be used to guide microinjections of gold nanoshell suspensions in live mouse embryos. This approach can potentially be used for variety of applications such as guided injections of contrast agents, signaling molecules, pharmacological agents, cell transplantation and extraction, as well as other image-guided micromanipulations. Our studies also reveal novel potential for gold nanoshells in embryonic research.

  20. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C Y Phua

    Full Text Available The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  1. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Dominic C Y; Xu, Jianliang; Ali, Safiah Mohamed; Boey, Adrian; Gounko, Natalia V; Hunziker, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  3. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  4. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

    2014-04-01

    Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria.

  5. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...

  6. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  7. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed a...... gastrointestinal 'health' requires consideration....... additives and (or) minerals such as zinc and copper. However the implementation of legislation in some parts of the world, for example the European Union, and a growing sentiment worldwide to reduce the use of dietary antimicrobial compounds, has caused a reassessment of measures to influence GIT 'health......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  8. Current Progress with Primate Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, James A.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M.; Wolf, Don P

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated pluripotent state and differentiate into any cell type. Differentiation of ESCs into various specific cell-types may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. Unresolved issues regarding maintaining function, possible apoptosis and tumor formation in vivo mean a prudent approach should be taken towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. Rhesus macaques provide the i...

  9. Temporal regulation of embryonic M-phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Chesnel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporal regulation of M-phases of the cell cycle requires precise molecular mechanisms that differ among different cells. This variable regulation is particularly clear during embryonic divisions. The first embryonic mitosis in the mouse lasts twice as long as the second one. In other species studied so far (C. elegans, Sphaerechinus granularis, Xenopus laevis, the first mitosis is also longer than the second, yet the prolongation is less pronounced than in the mouse. We have found recently that the mechanisms prolonging the first embryonic M-phase differ in the mouse and in Xenopus embryos. In the mouse, the metaphase of the first mitosis is specifically prolonged by the unknown mechanism acting similarly to the CSF present in oocytes arrested in the second meiotic division. In Xenopus, higher levels of cyclins B participate in the M-phase prolongation, however, without any cell cycle arrest. In Xenopus embryo cell-free extracts, the inactivation of the major M-phase factor, MPF, depends directly on dissociation of cyclin B from CDK1 subunit and not on cyclin B degradation as was thought before. In search for other mitotic proteins behaving in a similar way as cyclins B we made two complementary proteomic screens dedicated to identifying proteins ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome upon the first embryonic mitosis in Xenopus laevis. The first screen yielded 175 proteins. To validate our strategy we are verifying now which of them are really ubiquitinated. In the second one, we identified 9 novel proteins potentially degraded via the proteasome. Among them, TCTP (Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein, a 23-kDa protein, was shown to be partially degraded during mitosis (as well as during meiotic exit. We characterized the expression and the role of this protein in Xenopus, mouse and human somatic cells, Xenopus and mouse oocytes and embryos. TCTP is a mitotic spindle protein positively regulating cellular proliferation. Analysis of

  10. Temporal regulation of embryonic M-phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Jacek Z; Bazile, Franck; Pascal, Aude; Richard-Parpaillon, Laurent; Polanski, Zbigniew; Ciemerych, Maria A; Chesnel, Franck

    2008-01-01

    Temporal regulation of M-phases of the cell cycle requires precise molecular mechanisms that differ among different cells. This variable regulation is particularly clear during embryonic divisions. The first embryonic mitosis in the mouse lasts twice as long as the second one. In other species studied so far (C. elegans, Sphaerechinus granularis, Xenopus laevis), the first mitosis is also longer than the second, yet the prolongation is less pronounced than in the mouse. We have found recently that the mechanisms prolonging the first embryonic M-phase differ in the mouse and in Xenopus embryos. In the mouse, the metaphase of the first mitosis is specifically prolonged by the unknown mechanism acting similarly to the CSF present in oocytes arrested in the second meiotic division. In Xenopus, higher levels of cyclins B participate in the M-phase prolongation, however, without any cell cycle arrest. In Xenopus embryo cell-free extracts, the inactivation of the major M-phase factor, MPF, depends directly on dissociation of cyclin B from CDK1 subunit and not on cyclin B degradation as was thought before. In search for other mitotic proteins behaving in a similar way as cyclins B we made two complementary proteomic screens dedicated to identifying proteins ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome upon the first embryonic mitosis in Xenopus laevis. The first screen yielded 175 proteins. To validate our strategy we are verifying now which of them are really ubiquitinated. In the second one, we identified 9 novel proteins potentially degraded via the proteasome. Among them, TCTP (Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein), a 23-kDa protein, was shown to be partially degraded during mitosis (as well as during meiotic exit). We characterized the expression and the role of this protein in Xenopus, mouse and human somatic cells, Xenopus and mouse oocytes and embryos. TCTP is a mitotic spindle protein positively regulating cellular proliferation. Analysis of other candidates

  11. Hedgehog Signalling in the Embryonic Mouse Thymus

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarulo, Alessandro; Lau, Ching-In; Mengrelis, Konstantinos; Ross, Susan; Solanki, Anisha; Saldaña, José Ignacio; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    T cells develop in the thymus, which provides an essential environment for T cell fate\\ud specification, and for the differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells into major histocompatibility\\ud complex (MHC)-restricted, non-autoreactive T cells. Here we review the role of the Hedgehog\\ud signalling pathway in T cell development, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development, and\\ud thymocyte–TEC cross-talk in the embryonic mouse thymus during the last week of gestation.\\ud

  12. Embryonic stem cell factors and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Billadeau, Daniel D; Zhang, Jin-San

    2014-03-07

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common type of pancreatic tumor, is a highly aggressive human cancer with the lowest five-year survival rate of any human maligancy primarily due to its early- metastasis and lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation. Recent research suggests that PDAC cells comprise a hierarchy of tumor cells that develop around a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small and distinct population of cancer cells that mediates tumoregenesis, metastasis and resistance to standard treatments. Thus, CSCs could be a target for more effective treatment options. Interestingly, pancreatic CSCs are subject to regulation by some of key embryonic stem cell (ESC) transctiption factors abberently expressed in PDAC, such as SOX2, OCT4 and NANOG. ESC transcription factors are important DNA-binding proteins present in both embryonic and adult somatic cells. The critical role of these factors in reprogramming processes makes them essential not only for embryonic development but also tumorigenesis. Here we provide an overview of stem cell transcription factors, particularly SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG, on their expression and function in pancreatic cancer. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, in which OCT4 and SOX2 are tightly regulated and physically interact to regulate a wide spectrum of target genes, de novo SOX2 expression alone in pancreatic cancer cells is sufficient to promote self-renewal, de-differentiation and imparting stemness characteristics via impacting specific cell cycle regulatory genes and epithelial-mesnechymal transtion driver genes. Thus, targeting ESC factors, particularly SOX2, could be a worthy strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  13. Directed hepatic differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuesong; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals, and is important for the maintenance of normal physiological functions of other tissues and organs. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and other chronic liver diseases are serious threats to human health, and these problems are compounded by a scarcity of liver donors for transplantation therapies. Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to liver cells is a promising strategy for obtaining hepatocytes that can be used for cell trans...

  14. Embryonic stem cell differentiation: A chromatin perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen Theodore P

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem (ES) cells hold immense promise for the treatment of human degenerative disease. Because ES cells are pluripotent, they can be directed to differentiate into a number of alternative cell-types with potential therapeutic value. Such attempts at "rationally-directed ES cell differentiation" constitute attempts to recapitulate aspects of normal development in vitro. All differentiated cells retain identical DNA content, yet gene expression varies widely from cell-type to ...

  15. Effects of polylactic acid film on middle ear mucosa and cochlear function in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Nuray; Tutar, Hakan; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ugur, Mehmet Birol; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A; Gokdogan, Cagil; Goksu, Nebil

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of polylactic acid (PLA) on middle ear mucosa and cochlea, to be used as a film barrier for postoperative adhesion prevention in the middle ear. Twenty-one albino Guinea pigs were included in the study. A window was opened on both tympanic bulla and on one side PLA material was placed in the middle ear and on the other side only fenestration was performed and used as a control. All Guinea pigs underwent evaluation of tympanic membranes microscopically; functional hearing was analyzed by auditory brainstem responses preoperatively, in the first and the sixth month. All Guinea pigs were killed on the sixth month for histopathologic evaluation of their temporal bones. There was no statistical difference between both groups regarding hearing thresholds, interpeak wave latencies preoperatively and on first and the sixth months postoperatively. Histopathological evaluation revealed no specific changes. There was a mild local inflammation both in the PLA implanted and control ears. PLA film barrier most likely has no toxic effects on Guinea pig middle ear and does not show any ototoxic side effects.

  16. A trade-off between embryonic development rate and immune function of avian offspring is concealed by embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Arriero, Elena; Majewska, Ania

    2011-01-01

    Long embryonic periods are assumed to reflect slower intrinsic development that are thought to trade off to allow enhanced physiological systems, such as immune function. Yet, the relatively rare studies of this trade-off in avian offspring have not found the expected trade-off. Theory and tests have not taken into account the strong extrinsic effects of temperature on embryonic periods of birds. Here, we show that length of the embryonic period did not explain variation in two measures of immune function when temperature was ignored, based on studies of 34 Passerine species in tropical Venezuela (23 species) and north temperate Arizona (11 species). Variation in immune function was explained when embryonic periods were corrected for average embryonic temperature, in order to better estimate intrinsic rates of development. Immune function of offspring trades off with intrinsic rates of embryonic development once the extrinsic effects of embryonic temperatures are taken into account.

  17. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  18. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  19. [Heart tissue from embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, W-H

    2008-09-01

    Embryonic stem cells can give rise to all somatic cells, making them an attractive cell source for tissue engineering applications. The propensity of cells to form tissue-like structures in a culture dish has been well documented. We and others made use of this intrinsic property to generate bioartificial heart muscle. First proof-of-concept studies involved immature heart cells mainly from fetal chicken, neonatal rats and mice. They eventually provided evidence that force-generating heart muscle can be engineered in vitro. Recently, the focus shifted to the application of stem cells to eventually enable the generation of human heart muscle and reach following long-term goals: (1) development of a simplified in vitro model of heart muscle development; (2) generation of a human test-bed for drug screening and development; (3) allocation of surrogate heart tissue to myocardial repair applications. This overview will provide the background for cell-based myocardial repair, introduce the main myocardial tissue engineering concepts, discuss the use of embryonic and non-embryonic stem cells, and lays out the potential direct and indirect therapeutic use of human tissue engineered myocardium.

  20. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  1. Embryonic development of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Richardson, 1846)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weimin; Khalid ABBAS; YAN Ansheng

    2006-01-01

    For production enhancement and procedure upgrade, the developmental phases of laboratory-reared eggs of catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated. Twenty mature females and 10 males were collected from Dadongmen wholesale fisheries market in Wuhan City on May 8, 2003. Zygotes were stripped from mature fish after hormone-induced ovulation, fertilized, and incubated through whole embryonic development. The fertilized eggs were stocked in density of 100 eggs/L in white square tanks of 10 L. Incubation water was dechlorinated tap water with continuous aeration. The tanks were lit directly with 60 W fluorescent bulbs with a 12 light: 12 dark photoperiod. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were 29.0±0.5℃, 6.7±0.4 mg/L and 7.4±0.2, respectively. The results showed that the eggs of P. fulvidraco were yellow, sticky and contained much yolk. The mean diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.03 mm. At the water temperature of 29.0±0.5 ℃, the ontogenesis spent about33 h after fertilization.From fertilization to hatching, the embryonic development can be divided into 30-40 phases, which varies in the emphasis and direction of development. The detailed embryonic movement was also described.

  2. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Zachary A.; Schiele, Nathan R.; Kuo, Catherine K.

    2014-01-01

    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering. PMID:24484642

  3. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Zachary A; Schiele, Nathan R; Kuo, Catherine K

    2014-06-27

    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering.

  4. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...

  5. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  6. A preliminary study in osteoinduction by a nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite in the mini pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Götz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To test the probable osteoinductive properties of NanoBone®, a new highly non-sintered porous nano-crystallinehydroxylapatite bone substitute embedded into a silica gel matrix, granules were implanted subcutaneously and intramuscularlyinto the back region of 18 mini pigs. After periods of 5 and 10 weeks as well as 4 and 8 months, implantation siteswere investigated using histological and histomorphometric procedures. Signs of early osteogenesis could already be detectedafter 5 weeks. The later periods were characterized by increasing membranous osteogenesis in and around the granulesleading to the formation of bone-like structures showing periosteal and tendon-like structures with bone marrow and focalchondrogenesis. Bone formation was better in the subcutaneous than in the intramuscular implantation sites. This ectopicosteogenesis is discussed with regard to the nanoporosity and microporosity of the material, physico-chemical interactionsat its surface, the differentiation of osteoblasts, the role of angiogenesis and the probable involvement of growth factors. Theresults of this preliminary study indicate that this biomaterial has osteoinductive potential and induces the formation of bonestructures, mainly in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the pig.

  7. Iatrogenic Tumor Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Ma; Ping Bai

    2008-01-01

    Iatrogenic tumor implantation is a condition that results from various medical procedures used during diagnosis or treatment of a malignancy. It involves desquamation and dissemination of tumor cells that develop into a local recurrence or distant metastasis from the tumor under treatment. The main clinical feature of the condition is nodules at the operation's porous channel or incision, which is easily diagnosed in accordance with the case history. Final diagnosis can be made based on pathological examination. Tumor implantation may occur in various puncturing porous channels, including a laparoscopic port, abdominal wall incision, and perineal incision, etc. Besides a malignant tumor,implantation potential exists with diseases, such as a borderline tumor and endometriosis etc. Once a tumor implantation is diagnosed, or suspected, surgical resection is usually conducted.During the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, avoiding and reducing iatrogenic implantation and dissemination has been regarded as an important principle for surgical treatment of tumors. In a clinical practice setting, if possible, excisional biopsy should be employed, if a biopsy is needed. Repeated puncturing should be avoided during a paracentesis. In a laparoscopic procedure, the tissue is first put into a sample bag and then is taken out from the point of incision. After a laparoscopic procedure, the peritoneum, abdominal muscular fasciae, and skin should be carefully closed, and/or the punctured porous channel be excised. In addition, the sample/tissue should be rinsed with distilled water before surgical closure of the abdominal cavity,allowing the exfoliated tumor cells to swell and rupture in the hypo-osmolar solution. Then surgical closure can be conducted following a change of gloves and equipment. The extent of hysteromyomectomy should as far as possible be away from the uterine cavity. The purpose of this study is to make clinicians aware of the possibility of tumor implantation

  8. Implant interactions with orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenza, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Many situations arise in which orthodontic therapy in conjunction with implant modalities is beneficial, relevant or necessary. These situations might entail orthodontic treatment preparatory to the placement of an implant, such as in the site preparation for implant placement. Traditionally, this has been somewhat well understood, but there are certain guidelines that must be adhered to as well as diagnostic steps that must be followed. Provision of adequate space for implant placement is of paramount importance, but there is also the consideration of tissue manipulation and remodeling which orthodontic therapy can achieve very predictably and orthodontists should be well versed in harnessing and employing this modality of site preparation. In this way, hopeless teeth that are slated for extraction can still be utilized by orthodontic extraction to augment tissues, both hard and soft, thereby facilitating site development. On the corollary, and representing a significant shift in treatment sequencing, there are many situations in which orthodontic mechanotherapy can be simplified, expedited, and facilitated by the placement of an implant and utilization as an integral part of the mechanotherapy. Implants have proven to provide excellent anchorage, and have resulted in a new class of anchorage known as "absolute anchorage". Implants can be harnessed as anchors both in a direct and indirect sense, depending upon the dictates of the case. Further, this has led to the development of orthodontic miniscrew systems and techniques, which can have added features such as flexibility in location and placement, as well as ease of use and removal. As orthodontic appliances evolve, the advent of aligner therapy has become mainstream and well accepted, and many of the aforementioned combined treatment modalities can and should be incorporated into this relatively new treatment modality as well.

  9. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from pig somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezashi, Toshihiko; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Alexenko, Andrei P; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Sinha, Sunilima; Roberts, R Michael

    2009-07-07

    For reasons that are unclear the production of embryonic stem cells from ungulates has proved elusive. Here, we describe induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts by lentiviral transduction of 4 human (h) genes, hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, and hc-MYC, the combination commonly used to create iPSC in mouse and human. Cells were cultured on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and FGF2. Compact colonies of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells emerged after approximately 22 days, providing an overall reprogramming efficiency of approximately 0.1%. The cells expressed porcine OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 and had high telomerase activity, but also continued to express the 4 human transgenes. Unlike human ESC, the porcine iPSC (piPSC) were positive for SSEA-1, but negative for SSEA-3 and -4. Transcriptional profiling on Affymetrix (porcine) microarrays and real time RT-PCR supported the conclusion that reprogramming to pluripotency was complete. One cell line, ID6, had a normal karyotype, a cell doubling time of approximately 17 h, and has been maintained through >220 doublings. The ID6 line formed embryoid bodies, expressing genes representing all 3 germ layers when cultured under differentiating conditions, and teratomas containing tissues of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm origin in nude mice. We conclude that porcine somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form piPSC. Such cell lines derived from individual animals could provide a means for testing the safety and efficacy of stem cell-derived tissue grafts when returned to the same pigs at a later age.

  10. The promise of stem cell research in pigs and other ungulate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2010-03-01

    Despite two decades of effort, establishment of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) from ungulates such as cattle and pigs has remained an elusive goal, with true ESC only successfully isolated from rodents and primates. The many reports describing ESC-like cultures from other "difficult" species has largely depended upon adopting strategies successful for mouse and human and have not yet produced a cell type that both proliferated continuously in culture without differentiation and demonstrated full pluripotent potential. These difficulties may have been exacerbated in ungulates by the lack of specific markers exclusive to inner cell mass (ICM) and its derivative the epiblast and by unique features of their preimplantation development. Especially important may have been the choice of culture condition, including growth factors, for establishing and sustaining the ESC. Recent modifications to culture medium, notably the inclusion of particular protein kinase inhibitors, have permitted ESC derivation from rat and previously "non-permissive" mouse strains. These conditions appear to stabilize the biochemical networks that sustain pluripotency and to render the cells dependent upon LIF signaling. In addition, the recent successful generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from pig by procedures that should be easily adapted to other species, is also likely to advance the area quickly. The pig is a particularly desirable species to create pluripotent cell lines because of its value as a biomedical model in transplantation at a time when there is mounting pressure to rush stem cells to the clinic before their safety has been adequately tested in animals.

  11. Generation of feeder-free pig induced pluripotent stem cells without Pou5f1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, Nuria; de Oñate, Lorena; Garreta, Elena; González, Federico; Adamo, Antonio; Eguizábal, Cristina; Häfner, Sophia; Vassena, Rita; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The pig represents an ideal large-animal model, intermediate between rodents and humans, for the preclinical assessment of emerging cell therapies. As no validated pig embryonic stem (pES) cell lines have been derived so far, pig induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) should offer an alternative source of undifferentiated cells to advance regenerative medicine research from bench to clinical trial. We report here for the first time the derivation of piPSCs from adult fibroblast with only three transcription factors: Sox2 (sex determining region Y-box 2), Klf4 (Krüppel-like factor 4), and c-Myc (avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog). We have been able to demonstrate that exogenous Pou5f1 (POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1; abbreviated as Octamer-4: Oct4) is dispensable to achieve and maintain pluripotency in the generation of piPSCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first report of somatic reprogramming in any species without the overexpression, either directly or indirectly, of Oct4. Moreover, we were able to generate piPSCs without the use of feeder cells, approaching thus xeno-free conditions. Our work paves the way for the derivation of clinical grade piPSCs for regenerative medicine.

  12. Uncovering the post-embryonic functions of gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Héctor; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 500-1 000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes mutate to embryonic lethality. In addition, several hundred mutations have been identified that cause gametophytic lethality. Thus, a significant fraction of the ∼25,000 protein-coding genes in Arabidopsis are indispensable to the early stages of the diploid phase or to the haploid gametophytic phase. The expression patterns of many of these genes indicate that they also act later in development but, because the mutants die at such early stages, conventional methods limit the study of their roles in adult diploid plants. Here, we describe the toolset that allows researchers to assess the post-embryonic functions of plant genes for which only gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal alleles have been isolated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic transition of Dnmt3b expression in mouse pre- and early post-implantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Ryutaro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The de novo DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b, are responsible for the creation of DNA methylation patterns in mouse development. Dnmt3b is more highly expressed in early developmental stages than Dnmt3a, and is thought to have an important role in the epigenetic gene regulation during early embryogenesis. Previous reports suggest that Dnmt3b is expressed preferentially in the embryonic lineage, but less in the extra-embryonic lineage, in early post-implantation embryos. However, it is unclear when this lineage-specific differential expression is established. Here we demonstrate that Dnmt3b shows a dynamic expression change during pre- and early post-implantation development. Contrary to the expectation, Dnmt3b is preferentially expressed in the trophectoderm rather than the inner cell mass at the mid blastocyst stage. Subsequently, the spatial Dnmt3b expression gradually changes during pre- and early post-implantation development, and finally Dnmt3b expression is settled in the embryonic lineage at the epiblast stage. The findings are consistent with the role for Dnmt3b in cell-lineage specification and the creation of lineage-specific DNA methylation patterns.

  14. Positron implantation in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, V.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Welch, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The Monte Carlo technique for modeling positron prior to annihilation and electron implantation in semi-infinite metals is described. Particle implantation is modelled as a multistep process, a series of collisions with the atoms of the host material. In elastic collisions with neutral atoms there is no transfer of energy. The particle loses energy by several different channels, excitation of the electron gas, ionization of the ion cores, or, at low energies, by phonon excitation. These competing scattering mechanisms have been incorporated into the Monte Carlo framework and several different models are being used. Brief descriptions of these Monte Carlo schemes, as well as an analytic model for positron implantation are included. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations are presented and compared with expermental data. Problems associated with modeling positron implantation are discuss and the need for more expermental data on energy-loss in different materials is stressed. Positron implantation in multilayers of different metals is briefly described and extensions of this work to include a study of multilayers and heterostructures is suggested.

  15. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  16. The molecular mechanism of embryonic stem cell pluripotency maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingzhong; LIU Yixun; HAN Chunsheng

    2005-01-01

    In vitro cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of pre-implantation embryos, and are capable of giving rise to all cell and tissue types of the three germ layers upon being injected back into blastocysts. These cells are therefore said to possess pluripotency that can be maintained infinitely in culture under optimal conditions. Such pluripotency maintenance is believed to be due to the symmetrical cleavage of the cells in an undifferentiated state. The pluripotency of ES cells is the basis for their various practical and potential applications. ES cells can be used as donor cells to generate knockout or transgenic animals, as in vitro models of mammalian development, and as cell resources for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. The further success in these applications, particularly in the last two, is dependent on the establishment of a culture system with components in the medium clearly defined and the subsequent procedures for controlled differentiation of the cells into specific lineages. In turn, elucidating the molecular mechanism for pluripotency maintenance of ES cells is the prerequisite. This paper summarizes the recent progresses in this area, focusing mainly on the LIF/STAT3, BMPs/Smads, canonical Wnt, TGFβ/activin/nodal, PI3K and FGF signaling pathways and the genes such as oct4, nanog that are crucial in ES cell pluripotency maintenance. The regulatory systems of pluripotency maintenance in both mouse and human ES cells are also discussed. We believe that the cross-talkings between these signaling pathways, as well as the regulatory system underlying pluripotency maintenance will be the main focus in the area of ES cell researches in the future.

  17. Superior biofunctionality of dental implant fixtures uniformly coated with durable bioglass films by magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Enculescu, M; Tanase, C; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive glasses are currently considered the suitable candidates to stir the quest for a new generation of osseous implants with superior biological/functional performance. In congruence with this vision, this contribution aims to introduce a reliable technological recipe for coating fairly complex 3D-shaped implants (e.g. dental screws) with uniform and mechanical resistant bioactive glass films by the radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. The mechanical reliability of the bioactive glass films applied to real Ti dental implant fixtures has been evaluated by a procedure comprised of "cold" implantation in pig mandibular bone from a dead animal, followed by immediate tension-free extraction tests. The effects of the complex mechanical strains occurring during implantation were analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive spectroscopy. Extensive biocompatibility assays (MTS, immunofluorescence, Western blot) revealed that the bioactive glass films stimulated strong cellular adhesion and proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells, without promoting their differentiation. The ability of the implant coatings to conserve a healthy stem cell pool is promising to further endorse the fabrication of new osseointegration implant designs with extended lifetime.

  18. Genetic Characteristics and Immunogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Isolate from Pig in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Jin Sik; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Han, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sung Jae; Park, Bong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets. This strain could therefore be a potential vaccine candidate for swine influenza control in commercial farms.

  19. Management of peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Prathapachandran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implantitis is a site-specific infectious disease that causes an inflammatory process in soft tissues, and bone loss around an osseointegrated implant in function. The etiology of the implant infection is conditioned by the status of the tissue surrounding the implant, implant design, degree of roughness, external morphology, and excessive mechanical load. The microorganisms most commonly associated with implant failure are spirochetes and mobile forms of Gram-negative anaerobes, unless the origin is the result of simple mechanical overload. Diagnosis is based on changes of color in the gingiva, bleeding and probing depth of peri-implant pockets, suppuration, X-ray, and gradual loss of bone height around the tooth. Treatment will differ depending upon whether it is a case of peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis. The management of implant infection should be focused on the control of infection, the detoxification of the implant surface, and regeneration of the alveolar bone. This review article deals with the various treatment options in the management of peri-implantitis. The article also gives a brief description of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnosis of peri-implantitis.

  20. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  1. Dental implants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, B

    2016-12-01

    A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four American subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Contemporary dental implants made with titanium have been proven safe and effective in large series of patients. This review considers the main historical facts concerned with dental implants and present the different critical factors that will ensure a good osseo-integration that will ensure a stable prosthesis anchorage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Complications in implant dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Ayesha; Qureshi, Saima; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Rashid, Haroon

    2017-01-01

    After tooth loss, an individual may seek tooth replacement so that his/her function and esthetics could be restored. Clinical prosthodontics, during the past decade, has significantly improved and developed according to the advancements in the science and patient's demands and needs. Conventional options in prosthodontics for substituting a missing single tooth include the removable partial denture, partial and full coverage bridgework, and resin-bonded bridgework. Dental implants have gained increasing popularity over the years as they are capable of restoring the function to near normal in both partial and completely edentulous arches. With substantial evidence available, fixed implant-supported prosthesis are fully acknowledged as a reliable treatment option for the replacement of single or multiple missing teeth nowadays. While dental implants are increasingly becoming the choice of replacement for missing teeth, the impediments associated with them are progressively emerging too. PMID:28435381

  3. Dental Implant Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Kevin; Delfini, Ronald H; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants have increased in the last few decades thus increasing the number of complications. Since many of these complications are easily diagnosed on postsurgical images, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with them and to be able to recognize and diagnose them. Radiologists should also have a basic understanding of their treatment. In a pictorial fashion, this article will present the basic complications of dental implants which we have divided into three general categories: biomechanical overload, infection or inflammation, and other causes. Examples of implant fracture, loosening, infection, inflammation from subgingival cement, failure of bone and soft tissue preservation, injury to surround structures, and other complications will be discussed as well as their common imaging appearances and treatment. Lastly, we will review pertinent dental anatomy and important structures that are vital for radiologists to evaluate in postoperative oral cavity imaging.

  4. Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2014-08-01

    Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro.

  5. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  6. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  7. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  8. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  9. Synchronisation of the reproductive cycle in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Kirkwood, R.N.; Soede, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    An outline of procedures to synchronise oestrus and ovulation in pigs is described. The oestrus cycle of pigs can be synchronised depending on the stage of the reproductive cycle of these animals. Non-cyclic gilts shortly before puberty, can easily be synchronised by treatments with a mixture of 400

  10. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  11. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  12. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  13. Survival of model bacterial strains and helminth eggs in the course of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juris, P; Tóth, F; Lauková, A; Plachý, P; Dubinský, P; Sokol, J

    1996-05-01

    The effect of methanogenesis on the survival of model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli EC 5, Staphylococcus aureus SA 11, Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231) and non-embryonated helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) was investigated in pig slurry. Two pilot-plant experiments were carried out in two anaerobic digesters (800 and 1,000 litre) in a mesophilic thermal range (35-37 degrees C). The mean hydraulic retention time of the digesters was 20 days. The methanogenesis process was monitored by determining the following chemical parameters: pH, N-NH3, total dry matter (kg/day), organic matter (kg/day) production of methane by supplied and degraded organic matter (m3/kg). The results obtained allow us to state that the anaerobic stabilization of pig slurry in the mesophilic temperature range resulted in total devitalization of model bacterial strains E. coli EC 5 and Ent. faecium CCM 4231. St. aureus SA 11 cells, exposed to the above mentioned conditions, were also reduced in their number from 10.04 to 3.27 and from 8.69 to 2.77 log cfu/ml. It is assumed that the longer retention time of excrements in the digester could also result in total devitalization of St. aureus SA 11 cells. From the microbiological point of view, the above mentioned facts indicate a sufficient hygienization effect of the anaerobic fermentation on the contaminated pig excrements. The survival of A. suum eggs was little affected by the 20-day anaerobic mesophilic digestion of pig slurry. Only 17 or 18% (F1, F2) of the non-embryonated A. suum eggs were damaged after the 20-day exposure.

  14. Osseointegration of Immediate Transalveolar Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel González Beriau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: osseointegration is critical to start prosthetic rehabilitation. Objective: to describe osseointegration of immediate transalveolar implants. Methods: a prospective case series study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. It included all patients (75 patients with 79 implants who attended the Prosthodontics service. Age, sex, osseointegration, cause of tooth loss, region of the implant, specific tooth, bone level and keratinized gingiva around the implant, were the variables studied. Frequency distribution and statistical analysis were used for data analysis. Results: females and patients aged 31 to 45 years predominated. Osseointegration was observed in 97.4% of the implants. Nearly all implants were placed in the premaxilla and posterior maxilla, specifically in the first bicuspids. In most patients, osseointegration with bone formation occurred at the implant collar and in the presence of completely keratinized tissue, with a statistically significant association between the two variables. Conclusion: rehabilitation treatment with this type of implant led to successful osseointegration in most cases studied.

  15. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  16. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  17. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  18. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    increased considerably in recent years. The pig brain, which is gyrencephalic, resembles the human brain more in anatomy, growth and development than do the brains of commonly used small laboratory animals. The size of the pig brain permits the identification of cortical and subcortical structures...... by imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pig is an increasingly popular laboratory animal for transgenic manipulations of neural genes. The present paper focuses on evaluating the potential for modeling symptoms, phenomena or constructs of human brain diseases in pigs, the neuropsychiatric disorders...... in particular. Important practical and ethical aspects of the use of pigs as an experimental animal as pertaining to relevant in vivo experimental brain techniques are reviewed. Finally, current knowledge of aspects of behavioral processes including learning and memory are reviewed so as to complete the summary...

  19. Primary “Botryoid” Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma in Mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran AGARWAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue neoplasm arising from primitive embryonal mesenchyma. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma mostly affects children younger than 10 years of age, but it also occurs in adolescents and young adults. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare variant that almost always arises in adults older than 45 years of age. Mesentery is a rare site for botyroid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and on extensive search we found only one case of a botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma in a child of 2 years. We report a rare case of botyroid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in the mesentery of a 30 year old female.

  20. Relationship between Intrauterine Bacterial Infection and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fei Yan; Xin-Yan Liu; Yun-Fei Cheng; Zhi-Yi Li; Jie Ou; Wei Wang; Feng-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Early embryonic developmental arrest is the most commonly understudied adverse outcome of pregnancy.The relevance of intrauterine infection to spontaneous embryonic death is rarely studied and remains unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine bacterial infection and early embryonic developmental arrest.Methods:Embryonic chorion tissue and uterine swabs for bacterial detection were obtained from 33 patients who underwent artificial abortion (control group) and from 45 patients who displayed early embryonic developmental arrest (trial group).Results:Intrauterine bacterial infection was discovered in both groups.The infection rate was 24.44% (11/45) in the early embryonic developmental arrest group and 9.09% (3/33) in the artificial abortion group.Classification analysis revealed that the highest detection rate for Micrococcus luteus in the early embryonic developmental arrest group was 13.33% (6/45),and none was detected in the artificial abortion group.M.luteus infection was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.05 as shown by Fisher's exact test).In addition,no correlation was found between intrauterine bacterial infection and history of early embryonic developmental arrest.Conclusions:M.luteus infection is related to early embryonic developmental arrest and might be one of its causative factors.

  1. Single-cell RNA sequencing: revealing human pre-implantation development, pluripotency and germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, S; Panula, S P; Schell, J P; Lanner, F

    2016-09-01

    Early human development is a dynamic, heterogeneous, complex and multidimensional process. During the first week, the single-cell zygote undergoes eight to nine rounds of cell division generating the multicellular blastocyst, which consists of hundreds of cells forming spatially organized embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. At the level of transcription, degradation of maternal RNA commences at around the two-cell stage, coinciding with embryonic genome activation. Although numerous efforts have recently focused on delineating this process in humans, many questions still remain as thorough investigation has been limited by ethical issues, scarce availability of human embryos and the presence of minute amounts of DNA and RNA. In vitro cultures of embryonic stem cells provide some insight into early human development, but such studies have been confounded by analysis on a population level failing to appreciate cellular heterogeneity. Recent technical developments in single-cell RNA sequencing have provided a novel and powerful tool to explore the early human embryo in a systematic manner. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques utilized to specifically investigate human development and consider how the technology has yielded new insights into pre-implantation development, embryonic stem cells and the establishment of the germ line.

  2. Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, J-L; Holyoake, T; Coleman, G

    2017-02-01

    Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson's characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson's attitudes. This preliminary study investigated the factors that influence stockperson attitudes toward the practice of on-farm euthanasia in the pork industry. A total of 120 stockpeople from 10 Australian pig farms (ranging in size from 50 to 4,754 sows and from 2 to 32 employees) completed a questionnaire based on focus group input to assess their attitudes toward euthanasia and decision processes. Factors identified included stockperson attitudes and attributes (empathy affect, empathy attribution, feeling bad about euthanizing, and negative attitudes to pigs), beliefs about the working environment (perceived time constraints and relying on others), and factors related to decision-making (comfortable with euthanasia, trouble deciding and avoid if possible, confidence, insufficient knowledge, seeking knowledge, and using sources to get advice). Numerous significant correlations were found between these variables. Furthermore, regression analyses showed confidence as the only significant predictor of being comfortable with euthanasia (12.5% of the variance; euthanasia ( euthanasia, which comprises both a decision-making process and the act itself, can adversely affect stockpeople. This preliminary study offers insights for implementation of successful practical and humane pig euthanasia protocols on farm. This will benefit stockperson well-being and animal well-being alike.

  3. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy...... are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being...

  4. Segmental patterning of the vertebrate embryonic axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequéant, Mary-Lee; Pourquié, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    The body axis of vertebrates is composed of a serial repetition of similar anatomical modules that are called segments or metameres. This particular mode of organization is especially conspicuous at the level of the periodic arrangement of vertebrae in the spine. The segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis when the somites--the embryonic segments of vertebrates--are rhythmically produced from the paraxial mesoderm. This process involves the segmentation clock, which is a travelling oscillator that interacts with a maturation wave called the wavefront to produce the periodic series of somites. Here, we review our current understanding of the segmentation process in vertebrates.

  5. Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Hermine

    Many health care issues generate minimal passion, promoting benign commentary and support from the various stakeholders involved. Stem cell research does not fall into this category, and on the contrary, embryonic stem cell (ESC) research has continued to foster controversy and emotion. Since 1998, which marked the first successful laboratory isolation of ESCs, this research continues to ignite moral, ethical, and legal debate over its efficacy. The focus of this policy analysis is to introduce the issues, examine and address the various perspectives that surround ESC research, and present policy options and/or solutions that may be used to successfully create a policy consensus regarding this much debated topic.

  6. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  7. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  8. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V; Hinrichs, K; Lazzari, G; Betts, D H; Hyttel, P

    2013-08-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed.

  9. Early embryonic development, assisted reproductive technologies, and pluripotent stem cell biology in domestic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hinrichs, K.; Lazzari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Over many decades assisted reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination, embryo transfer, in vitro production (IVP) of embryos, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and stem cell culture, have been developed with the aim of refining breeding strategies for improved...... production and health in animal husbandry. More recently, biomedical applications of these technologies, in particular, SCNT and stem cell culture, have been pursued in domestic mammals in order to create models for human disease and therapy. The following review focuses on presenting important aspects...... of pre-implantation development in cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs. Biological aspects and impact of assisted reproductive technologies including IVP, SCNT, and culture of pluripotent stem cells are also addressed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  10. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  11. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herd

  12. Endometrial gene expression of acute phase extracellular matrix components following estrogen disruption of pregnancy in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Morgan D; Ross, Jason W; Stein, Daniel; White, Frank; Geisert, Rodney D

    2010-12-01

    In pigs, administration of estrogen to gilts on Days 9 and 10 of pregnancy causes conceptus fragmentation and death between Days 15 and 18 of gestation. Conceptus degeneration is associated with breakdown of the microvilli surface glycocalyx on the lumenal epithelium (LE). We previously identified endometrial expression of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), which are key components of extracellular matrix (ECM), during the period of conceptus attachment to the uterine surface in the pig. Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein-6 (TNFAIP6) serves as a linker for ECM expansion and is stimulated by prostaglandin E (PGE). We hypothesized that early estrogen administration alters the normal ECM components forming glycocalyx on the LE. Bred gilts (4 gilts/trt/day) were treated with either 5mg estradiol cypionate (E) or corn oil (CO) on Days 9 and 10 of gestation. The uterus was surgically removed on either Days 10, 12, 13, 15 and 17 of gestation and endometrial tissue snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Endometrial tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), TNFAIP6, interleukin 6 (IL6), and inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chains (ITIH) were detected during early pregnancy thereby indicating all components for maintenance of the extracellular glycocalyx are present in the endometrium of pigs. However, only gene expression of ITIH2 was suppressed by E-treatment. TNFAIP6 protein was detected across all days of gestation but was not affected by E-treatment. The present study demonstrates that while the pig endometrium expresses key components of ECM only ITIH2 gene expression was altered by E-treatment. A decrease in ITIH2 could lead to the possible loss of the uterine glycocalyx leading to conceptus degeneration; however, other factors may be involved with the loss of glycocalyx during implantation in the pig following E-treatment.

  13. Generation of embryoid bodies from mouse embryonic stem cells cultured on STO feeder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Xiang, Li-Xin; Hu, Ruo-Zhen; Lu, Yong-Liang; Yao, Hang; Dai, Li-Cheng

    2005-09-01

    Embryoid bodies, which are similar to post-implantation egg-cylinder stage embryos, provide a model for the study of embryo development and stem cell differentiation. We describe here a novel method for generating embryoid bodies from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured on the STO feeder layer. The ES cells grew into compact aggregates in the first 3 days of coculture, then became simple embryoid bodies (EBs) possessing primitive endoderm on the outer layer. They finally turned into cystic embryoid bodies after being transferred to Petri dishes for 1-3 days. Evaluation of the EBs in terms of morphology and differentiating potential indicates that they were typical in structure and could generate cells derived from the three germ layers. The results show that embryoid bodies can form not only in suspension culture but also directly from ES cells cultured on the STO feeder layer.

  14. Corrosion of bio implants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Kamachi Mudali; T M Sridhar; Baldev Raj

    2003-06-01

    Chemical stability, mechanical behaviour and biocompatibility in body fluids and tissues are the basic requirements for successful application of implant materials in bone fractures and replacements. Corrosion is one of the major processes affecting the life and service of orthopaedic devices made of metals and alloys used as implants in the body. Among the metals and alloys known, stainless steels (SS), Co–Cr alloys and titanium and its alloys are the most widely used for the making of biodevices for extended life in human body. Incidences of failure of stainless steel implant devices reveal the occurrence of significant localised corroding viz., pitting and crevice corrosion. Titanium forms a stable TiO2 film which can release titanium particles under wear into the body environment. To reduce corrosion and achieve better biocompatibility, bulk alloying of stainless steels with titanium and nitrogen, surface alloying by ion implantation of stainless steels and titanium and its alloys, and surface modification of stainless steel with bioceramic coatings are considered potential methods for improving the performance of orthopaedic devices. This review discusses these issues in depth and examines emerging directions.

  15. Ion implantation in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintersgill, M. C.

    1984-02-01

    An introductory overview will be given of the effects of ion implantation on polymers, and certain areas will be examined in more detail. Radiation effects in general and ion implantation in particular, in the field of polymers, present a number of contrasts with those in ionic crystals, the most obvious difference being that the chemical effects of both the implanted species and the energy transfer to the host may profoundly change the nature of the target material. Common effects include crosslinking and scission of polymer chains, gas evolution, double bond formation and the formation of additional free radicals. Research has spanned the chemical processes involved, including polymerization reactions achievable only with the use of radiation, to applied research dealing both with the effects of radiation on polymers already in commercial use and the tailoring of new materials to specific applications. Polymers are commonly divided into two groups, in describing their behavior under irradiation. Group I includes materials which form crosslinks between molecules, whereas Group II materials tend to degrade. In basic research, interest has centered on Group I materials and of these polyethylene has been studied most intensively. Applied materials research has investigated a variety of polymers, particularly those used in cable insulation, and those utilized in ion beam lithography of etch masks. Currently there is also great interest in enhancing the conducting properties of polymers, and these uses would tend to involve the doping capabilities of ion implantation, rather than the energy deposition.

  16. Implantable Impedance Plethysmography

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate by theory, as well as by ex vivo and in vivo measurements that impedance plethysmography, applied extravascularly directly on large arteries, is a viable method for monitoring various cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure, with high accuracy. The sensor is designed as an implant to monitor cardiac events and arteriosclerotic progression over the long term.

  17. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  18. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-06-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at 7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at 6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing `only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around 2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  19. Implantable Impedance Plethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Theodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate by theory, as well as by ex vivo and in vivo measurements that impedance plethysmography, applied extravascularly directly on large arteries, is a viable method for monitoring various cardiovascular parameters, such as blood pressure, with high accuracy. The sensor is designed as an implant to monitor cardiac events and arteriosclerotic progression over the long term.

  20. Hip Resurfacing Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadossi, Matteo; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Sambri, Andrea; Mazzotti, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2015-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Describe the advantages of hip resurfacing. 2. Describe the disadvantages of hip resurfacing. 3. Identify the population in which hip resurfacing is most often indicated. 4. Demonstrate how to properly postoperatively manage patients with metal-on-metal prostheses. Hip resurfacing offers a suitable solution for young patients affected by hip disease who have high function demands and good bone quality. Bone stock preservation, restoration of the normal proximal femur anatomy, the lack of stress shielding, and the possibility of resuming sporting activity are proven advantages of hip resurfacing. However, there are some disadvantages, such as fracture of the femoral neck, onset of neck narrowing, and possible complications due to the metal-on-metal bearings, including pseudotumors, peri-implant osteolysis, and chronic elevation of metal ions in serum levels. Recent data suggest that the ideal candidate for hip resurfacing is an active male, younger than 65 years, with primary or posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and with a femoral head diameter larger than 50 to 54 mm. Based on these selection criteria, the literature reports implant survival to be similar to that of total hip arthroplasty. The current authors' experience confirms a low failure rate and excellent functional outcomes, with metal ion serum levels becoming stable over time in well-functioning implants. Proper surgical technique, correct patient selection, and the right choice of a well-established prosthetic model are essential elements for the long-term success of these implants.

  1. Cochlear Implants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few days About 2 to 4 weeks after surgery, the sound and speech processor is matched with the implant package and ... of these sounds and will quickly learn language. After the first few ... sounds and develop speech and language. This is an extended process with ...

  2. Laser Welded versus Resistance Spot Welded Bone Implants: Analysis of the Thermal Increase and Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Bonanini, Mauro; Lagori, Giuseppe; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Nammour, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The first aim of this “ex vivo split mouth” study was to compare the thermal elevation during the welding process of titanium bars to titanium implants inserted in pig jaws by a thermal camera and two thermocouples. The second aim was to compare the strength of the joints by a traction test with a dynamometer. Materials and Methods. Six pigs' jaws were used and three implants were placed on each side of them for a total of 36 fixtures. Twelve bars were connected to the abutments (each bar on three implants) by using, on one side, laser welding and, on the other, resistance spot welding. Temperature variations were recorded by thermocouples and by thermal camera while the strength of the welded joint was analyzed by a traction test. Results. For increasing temperature, means were 36.83 and 37.06, standard deviations 1.234 and 1.187, and P value 0.5763 (not significant). For traction test, means were 195.5 and 159.4, standard deviations 2.00 and 2.254, and P value 0.0001 (very significant). Conclusion. Laser welding was demonstrated to be able to connect titanium implant abutments without the risk of thermal increase into the bone and with good results in terms of mechanical strength. PMID:25110731

  3. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Maurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods: This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results: Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion: Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting.

  4. Embryonic stem cells: from markers to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Kaushik Dilip; Jayaprakash, Anitha Devi; Sharma, Vijay; Totey, Satish

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT Embryonic stem cells are considered the mother of all kinds of tissues and cells and it is envisioned as the holy grail of regenerative medicine. However, their use in cell replacement therapies (CRT) has so far been limited and their potentials are yet to be fully realized. The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) involves many safety issues pertaining to culture conditions and epigenetic changes. The role and importance of an epigenomic signature in derivation and maintenance of hESC are discussed. We provide a list of important epigenetic markers, which should be studied for evaluation of safety in hESC-based cell replacement therapies. These genes also need to be screened to determine an epigenetic signature for pluripotency in the hESCs. Finally a comprehensive list of all known stemness signature genes and the marker genes for different germ line lineages are presented. This review aims at summing up most of the intriguing molecules that can play a role in the maintenance of pluripotency and can help in determining hESC differentiation to various lineages. Extensive understanding of these markers will eventually help the researchers to transform the hESC research from bench to the bedside. The use of hESCs in CRTs is still in its infancy; much effort is warranted to turn them into the much dreamed about magic wand of regenerative medicine.

  5. Dynamics and Mechanics of Zebrafish Embryonic Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Burdine, R. D.; Steinberg, M. S.; Heisenberg, C.-P.; Foty, R. A.; Julicher, F.

    2008-03-01

    In early zebrafish embryonic development, complex flows of cell populations occur, which ultimately lead to the spatial organization of the three germ layers: Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Here, we study the material properties of these germ layer tissues which are important for their dynamics and spatial organization in the embryo. In general, tissues can be classified as inherently active complex fluids. However, here we present examples of observed tissue behavior, which can be described satisfactorily in terms of passive visco-elastic fluids. We determined the material properties of the germ layer tissues quantitatively and found that differences in their properties influence tissue interaction. Specifically, quantitative differences in tissue surface tension result in tissue immiscibility and cell sorting behavior analogous to that of ordinary immiscible liquids. Surface tensions were measured with a tissue surface tensiometer. Furthermore, by tracking individual cells in the developing zebrafish embryo, we found differences in the migratory behavior of the different tissue types, which are, to some extent, governed by their mechanical properties. Finally, we generated a 3D velocity flow profile describing the tissue movements during zebrafish embryonic organizer development.

  6. Disseminated Cerebrospinal Embryonal Tumor in the Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armocida, Daniele; Caporlingua, Federico; Lapadula, Gennaro; Elefante, Grazia Maria; Antonelli, Manila; Salvati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, the term Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor has been replaced by the term Embryonal Tumor (ET). We present a case of disseminated cerebrospinal ET presenting in an adult patient. Illustrative Case. A 49-year-old male presenting with low back pain, dysuria, and hypoesthesia of the lower extremities referred to our emergency department. Brain and whole spine contrast-enhanced MRI documented a diffusively disseminated heterogeneous neoplasm with intradural extra- and intramedullary involvement of the cervicothoracic tract and cauda equina. A primary biopsy of the lumbosacral localization was performed through L5 bilateral laminectomy. Histologic diagnosis was Embryonal Tumor Not Otherwise Specified. The patient underwent chemotherapy with postoperative adjuvant alternating Vincristine-Doxorubicin-Ifosfamide (VAI) and Ifosfamide-Etoposide (IE). Discussion. Spinal ETs are exceedingly rare especially when presenting in the adult patient. Neurosurgical and oncologic management is still unclear. When feasible, surgical removal should always be performed to obtain a histologic diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might entail both chemo- and radiotherapy; however a consensus on this matter is still lacking. PMID:27818821

  7. Quantum dot imaging for embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambhir Sanjiv S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs hold increasing potential for cellular imaging both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we aimed to evaluate in vivo multiplex imaging of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells labeled with Qtracker delivered quantum dots (QDs. Results Murine embryonic stem (ES cells were labeled with six different QDs using Qtracker. ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation were not adversely affected by QDs compared with non-labeled control cells (P = NS. Afterward, labeled ES cells were injected subcutaneously onto the backs of athymic nude mice. These labeled ES cells could be imaged with good contrast with one single excitation wavelength. With the same excitation wavelength, the signal intensity, defined as (total signal-background/exposure time in millisecond was 11 ± 2 for cells labeled with QD 525, 12 ± 9 for QD 565, 176 ± 81 for QD 605, 176 ± 136 for QD 655, 167 ± 104 for QD 705, and 1,713 ± 482 for QD 800. Finally, we have shown that QD 800 offers greater fluorescent intensity than the other QDs tested. Conclusion In summary, this is the first demonstration of in vivo multiplex imaging of mouse ES cells labeled QDs. Upon further improvements, QDs will have a greater potential for tracking stem cells within deep tissues. These results provide a promising tool for imaging stem cell therapy non-invasively in vivo.

  8. Organotypic slice culture of embryonic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Ray A M; Englund, Chris; Hevner, Robert F

    2007-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes how to dissect, assemble, and cultivate mouse embryonic (E) brain tissue from age E11.5 to E18.5 (days) for organotypic slice culture. These preparations can be used for a variety of assays and studies including coculture of different brain regions, cell migration assays, axon guidance assays, and DNA electroporation experiments. During electroporation, an electric current is applied to the surface of a specific target area of the brain slice in order to open holes in the plasma membrane and introduce a plasmid of coding DNA. The floating slice-on-membrane construct helps to preserve the structural integrity of the brain slices, while maintaining easy experimental access and optimal viability. Experiments can be monitored in living slices (e.g., with confocal imaging), and further studies can be completed using slices that have been fixed and cryosectioned at the end of the experiment. Any region of embryonic brain or spinal tissue can be used in this protocol.

  9. Embryonic stem cell differentiation: a chromatin perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Theodore P

    2003-11-13

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells hold immense promise for the treatment of human degenerative disease. Because ES cells are pluripotent, they can be directed to differentiate into a number of alternative cell-types with potential therapeutic value. Such attempts at "rationally-directed ES cell differentiation" constitute attempts to recapitulate aspects of normal development in vitro. All differentiated cells retain identical DNA content, yet gene expression varies widely from cell-type to cell-type. Therefore, a potent epigenetic system has evolved to coordinate and maintain tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. Recent advances show that mechanisms that govern epigenetic regulation of gene expression are rooted in the details of chromatin dynamics. As embryonic cells differentiate, certain genes are activated while others are silenced. These activation and silencing events are exquisitely coordinated with the allocation of cell lineages. Remodeling of the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes occurs in conjunction with lineage commitment. Oocytes, early embryos, and ES cells contain potent chromatin-remodeling activities, an observation that suggests that chromatin dynamics may be especially important for early lineage decisions. Chromatin dynamics are also involved in the differentiation of adult stem cells, where the assembly of specialized chromatin upon tissue-specific genes has been studied in fine detail. The next few years will likely yield striking advances in the understanding of stem cell differentiation and developmental biology from the perspective of chromatin dynamics.

  10. Embryonic stem cell differentiation: A chromatin perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen Theodore P

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cells hold immense promise for the treatment of human degenerative disease. Because ES cells are pluripotent, they can be directed to differentiate into a number of alternative cell-types with potential therapeutic value. Such attempts at "rationally-directed ES cell differentiation" constitute attempts to recapitulate aspects of normal development in vitro. All differentiated cells retain identical DNA content, yet gene expression varies widely from cell-type to cell-type. Therefore, a potent epigenetic system has evolved to coordinate and maintain tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. Recent advances show that mechanisms that govern epigenetic regulation of gene expression are rooted in the details of chromatin dynamics. As embryonic cells differentiate, certain genes are activated while others are silenced. These activation and silencing events are exquisitely coordinated with the allocation of cell lineages. Remodeling of the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes occurs in conjunction with lineage commitment. Oocytes, early embryos, and ES cells contain potent chromatin-remodeling activities, an observation that suggests that chromatin dynamics may be especially important for early lineage decisions. Chromatin dynamics are also involved in the differentiation of adult stem cells, where the assembly of specialized chromatin upon tissue-specific genes has been studied in fine detail. The next few years will likely yield striking advances in the understanding of stem cell differentiation and developmental biology from the perspective of chromatin dynamics.

  11. Mechanical signaling coordinates the embryonic heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Kevin; Rocks, Jason; Prosser, Benjamin; Discher, Dennis; Liu, Andrea

    The heart is an active material which relies on robust signaling mechanisms between cells in order to produce well-timed, coordinated beats. Heart tissue is composed primarily of active heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) embedded in a passive extracellular matrix. During a heartbeat, cardiomyocyte contractions are coordinated across the heart to form a wavefront that propagates through the tissue to pump blood. In the adult heart, this contractile wave is coordinated via intercellular electrical signaling.Here we present theoretical and experimental evidence for mechanical coordination of embryonic heartbeats. We model cardiomyocytes as mechanically excitable Eshelby inclusions embedded in an overdamped elastic-fluid biphasic medium. For physiological parameters, this model replicates recent experimental measurements of the contractile wavefront which are not captured by electrical signaling models. We additionally challenge our model by pharmacologically blocking gap junctions, inhibiting electrical signaling between myocytes. We find that while adult hearts stop beating almost immediately after gap junctions are blocked, embryonic hearts continue beating even at significantly higher concentrations, providing strong support for a mechanical signaling mechanism.

  12. Isotype and antibody specificity of spontaneously formed immunoglobulins in pig fetuses and germ-free piglets: production by CD5- B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowska, B; Sinkora, J; Reháková, Z; Sinkora, M; Splíchal, I; Tucková, L; Avrameas, S; Saalmüller, A; Barot-Ciorbaru, R; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    1996-08-01

    Pig fetuses, colostrum-deprived newborns and germ-free (GF) piglets, animals in which B-cell development is not influenced by maternal regulatory factors, were employed to study the occurrence and specificity of natural antibodies (NAb). Serum immunoglobulins of all isotypes were found in 44-day-old fetuses (the gestation period in pigs lasts 114 days) and their level, with predominating IgM, was increased during fetal ontogeny. In sera of fetuses at the end of embryonic life as well as of newborns and older GF piglets, antibody activity against autoantigens (thyroglobulin, hormones, ssDNA), phylogenetically conserved proteins (myosin), haptens (trinitrophenyl; TNP) and bacterial components (Escherichia coli O86, tetanic anatoxin) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antigen-biding activity of IgM NAb increased after isolation of the serum immunoglobulins on a Staphylococcus Protein A (SPA)-Sepharose column. IgM reactivity similar to that detected in serum was found in supernatants from polyclonally stimulated cultures of spleen of 8- and 12-day-old GF piglets. Pig fetal liver IgM+ B cells, which were able to produce IgM after polyclonal stimulation, did not express the CD5 molecule. Our results indicate that pig preimmune repertoire is comparable to that described in humans and mice, although in contrast to these species pig B-1 cells do not express CD5.

  13. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Trang; Peck Toung Ooi; Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki; Mustapha Mohamed Noordin

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastri...

  14. Engineered porous metals for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, B.; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2008-05-01

    Interest is significant in patient-specific implants with the possibility of guided tissue regeneration, particularly for load-bearing implants. For such implants to succeed, novel design approaches and fabrication technologies that can achieve balanced mechanical and functional performance in the implants are necessary. This article is focused on porous load-bearing implants with tailored micro-as well as macrostructures using laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™), a solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping technique that can be used to manufacture patient-specific implants. This review provides an insight into LENS, some properties of porous metals, and the potential applications of this process to fabricate unitized structures which can eliminate longstanding challenges in load-bearing implants to increase their in-vivo lifetime, such as in a total hip prosthesis.

  15. File list: Oth.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_palates [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  10. [From Rumanian folk medicine: Non-specific stimulus therapy using transcutaneous implantation of hellebore (Helleborus purpurascens, Fam. Ranunculaceae) in agriculturally useful animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, I; Nechifor, A; Băşea, I; Hruban, E

    1990-12-01

    In the Rumanian traditional medicine a transcutaneous implantation of the root of Helleborus purpurascens is used to provoke leucocytosis and neutrophils with the aim to activate chronic diseases for better healing. The skin is perforated with a thick needle (in cattle and horses in the area of the thorax, in sheep and pigs in the ear flap), the transplant is introduced and after 24 hours removed. Though the method is more than 100 years old, it is not reported in the literature. The way of action is unknown. The investigation are performed to show the efficacy of this method of Helleborus-implants in comparison with the effect of an placebo. It could be shown that Helleborus-implant increased leucocytes in horses, sheep and pigs and increased neutrophils in all animal species. In the same way the phagocytosis was increased. Only in horses an abscess was observed. As a loss of performance may occur and fever and inappetence is followed by the implantation the authors dissuade from the use of Helleborus-implants in cattle and horses. Pigs and sheep tolerate this procedure without any problems, so that the methods may be used in modern treatment.

  11. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...

  12. Sox2 in Embryonic Stem Cells and Lung Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Pardo (Cristina Gontan)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Sox2 is a fascinating transcription factor with multiple roles during embryonic development. In early embryonic development, Sox2 is one of the key transcription factors in the maintenance of the pluripotent status of the cells of the inner cell mass (ICM). Sox2 is also

  13. The mechanical consequences of mineralization in embryonic bone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, E.J.M.; Donkelaar, C.C. van; Jepsen, K.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Weinans, H.; Burger, E.H.; Huiskes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mineralization on the mechanical properties of embryonic bone rudiments. For this purpose, four-point bending experiments were performed on unmineralized and mineralized embryonic mouse ribs at 16 and 17 days of gestational age. Young's modulus

  14. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Meijerhof, R.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature,

  15. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Pskin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Phuman, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Phuman skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  16. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Nidhi Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All ...

  17. 4D embryonic cardiography using gated optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M. W.; Rothenberg, F.; Roy, D.; Nikolski, V. P.; Hu, Z.; Watanabe, M.; Wilson, D. L.; Efimov, I. R.; Rollins, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous imaging of very early embryonic heart structure and function has technical limitations of spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed a gated technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can rapidly image beating embryonic hearts in four-dimensions (4D), at high spatial resolution (10-15 μm), and with a depth penetration of 1.5 - 2.0 mm that is suitable for the study of early embryonic hearts. We acquired data from paced, excised, embryonic chicken and mouse hearts using gated sampling and employed image processing techniques to visualize the hearts in 4D and measure physiologic parameters such as cardiac volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness. This technique is being developed to longitudinally investigate the physiology of intact embryonic hearts and events that lead to congenital heart defects.

  18. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Fu FANG; Fan JIN; Hui GAI; Ying CHEN; Li WU; Ai Lian LIU; Bin CHEN; Hui Zhen SHENG

    2005-01-01

    Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF,Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.

  19. Transplantation of primary cultured embryonic mesencephalic neural precursor cells for treating Parkinsonian rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fei; Chengchuan Jiang; Linyin Feng; Yaodong Ji; Zhongliang Ding

    2006-01-01

    into the lesioned corpus striatum of rats in cell grafted group, and 4 μL D-Hank's solution was injected in sham transplantation group in the same way. There was no injection in control group.Apomorphine-induced rotation rate of PD rats were recorded respectively in cell grafted group and sham transplantation group pre-operation (initial value) and at postoperative 2, 4, 6 and 16 weeks. Apomorphine-induced rotation rate of PD rats was recorded in control group at postoperative 2 months (initial value) and following 2,4,6 and 16 weeks. To determine TH antigen with immunohistological ABC method (DAB developing) at 6 months post-transplantation to investigate the differentiation and survival of donor cells in the host body.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apomorphine-induced rotation behavior before and after transplantation and the survival and differentiation of implanted cells in the host body at 6 months post-transplantation.RESULTS: Among 19 model rats, one rat died after transplantation respectively in the cell grafted group and sham transplantation group; finally 17 model rats entered the stage of result analysis. Relative apomorphine-induced rotation rate was significantly decreased in the cell grafted group as compared with that before transplantation , with significant difference (P < 0.01 ,P < 0.05);the mean value of relative apomorphine-induced rotation rate was significantly decreased at postoperative 16 weeks in cell grafted group as compared with that of corresponding relative rotation rate in control group , also with significant difference (P < 0.05).lmmunohistological results showed that donor cells could differentiate into large and multi-polar dopaminergic neurons in the host body.CONCLUSION: Primary cultured embryonic MPCs can be used as the donor cells in CRT for treating PD.

  20. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  1. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  2. Peri-implant hastalıklar

    OpenAIRE

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Zihni, Meltem; Yavuz, M Selim

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of partially or totally edentulous subjects with oral implants is a common procedure. Biological complications are occur around implants which are peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is pathological condition which is normally localized in the soft tissues surrounding an oral implant. Peri-implantitis surrounding oral implants is an inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues resulting in rapid loss of supporting bone associated with b...

  3. Peri-implant hastalıklar

    OpenAIRE

    Dilsiz, Alparslan; Zihni, Meltem; YAVUZ, M. Selim

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of partially or totally edentulous subjects with oral implants is a common procedure. Biological complications are occur around implants which are peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. Peri-implant mucositis is pathological condition which is normally localized in the soft tissues surrounding an oral implant. Peri-implantitis surrounding oral implants is an inflammatory process affecting the soft and hard tissues resulting in rapid loss of supporting bone associated with b...

  4. Beat Rate Variability in Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Effect of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Niehoff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heart rate variability (HRV refers to the fluctuation of the time interval between consecutive heartbeats in humans. It has recently been discovered that cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells show beat rate variability (BRV that is similar to the HRV in humans. In the present study, clinical aspects of HRV were transferred to an in vitro model. The aims of the study were to explore the BRV in murine embryonic stem cell (mESC-derived cardiomyocytes and to demonstrate the influence of antiarrhythmic drugs on BRV as has been shown in clinical trials previously. Methods: The Microelectrode Array (MEA technique was used to perform short-term recordings of extracellular field potentials (FPs of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes derived from mESCs (D3 cell line, αPig-44. Offline analysis was focused on time domain and nonlinear methods. Results: The Poincaré-Plot analysis of measurements without pharmacological intervention revealed that three different shapes of scatter plots occurred most frequently. Comparable shapes have been described in clinical studies before. The antiarrhythmic drugs Ivabradine, Verapamil and Sotalol augmented BRV, whereas Flecainide decreased BRV parameters at low concentrations (SDSD 79.0 ± 8.7% of control at 10-9 M, p -5 M, p Conclusions: Spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes derived from mESCs showed BRV that appears to be similar to the HRV known from humans. Antiarrhythmic drugs affected BRV parameters similar to clinical observations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that this in vitro model can contribute to a better understanding of electrophysiological properties of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes and might serve as a valuable tool for drug safety screening.

  5. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  6. Efter cochlear implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders

    2007-01-01

      Dit barn har netop fået et cochlear implant. Hvad nu? Skal barnet fokusere udelukkende på at lære talt sprog, eller skal det også lære/fortsætte med tegnsprog eller støttetegn? Det er et vanskeligt spørgsmål, og før valget foretages, er det vigtigt at vurdere hvilke konsekvenser valget har, dels...... for den sproglige udvikling isoleret set, og dels for barnets udvikling ud fra en helhedsbetragtning. Dette indlæg fokuserer på, hvilke forventninger man kan have til cochlear implant-brugeres sproglige udvikling med talt sprog alene, hhv. med to sprog (tale og tegn). Disse forventninger er baseret på...

  7. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    JEON, Yubyeol; NAM, Yeong-Hee; CHEONG, Seung-A; KWAK, Seong-Sung; LEE, Eunsong; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation. PMID:27064112

  8. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  9. Opaque intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf IH; Patel CK

    2013-01-01

    Imran H Yusuf, CK Patel The Oxford Eye Hospital, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, United KingdomWe read with great interest the recent article by Lee et al,1 who described their clinical experience with three patients who underwent primary implantation of Morcher (Stuttgart, Germany) occlusive intraocular lenses (IOLs) across a variety of neuro-ophthalmic indications. We hope to offer some further insight into these clinical observations in the context of o...

  10. Current progress with primate embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Wolf, Don P

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated pluripotent state and differentiate into any cell type. Differentiation of ESCs into various specific cell-types may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. Unresolved issues regarding maintaining function, possible apoptosis and tumor formation in vivo mean a prudent approach should be taken towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. Rhesus macaques provide the ideal model organism for testing the feasibility, efficacy and safety of ESC based therapies and significant numbers of primate ESC lines are now available. In this review, we will summarize progress in evaluating the genetic and epigenetic integrity of primate ESCs, examine their current use in pre-clinical trials and discuss the potential of producing ESC-derived cell populations that are genetically identical (isogenic) to the host by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  11. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  12. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  13. Human embryonic stem cells for neuronal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, Tamir

    2006-02-01

    Human embryonic stem cells may serve as a potentially endeless source of transplantable cells to treat various neurologic disorders. Accumulating data have shown the therapeutic value of various neural precursor cell types in experimental models of neurologic diseases. Tailoring cell therapy for specific disorders requires the generation of cells that are committed to specific neural lineages. To this end, protocols were recently developed for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, spinal motor neurons and oligodendrocytes from hESC. These protocols recapitulate normal development in culture conditions. However, a novel concept emerging from these studies is that the beneficial effect of transplanted stem cells is not only via cell replacement in damaged host tissue, but also by trophic and protective effects, as well as by an immunomodulatory effect that down-regulates detrimental brain inflammation.

  14. Compatibility of embryonic stem cells with biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita; Naujoks, Christian; Kübler, Norbert R; Meyer, Ulrich; Ommerborn, Michelle; Lammers, Lydia

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal bone defects and atrophy of the jaws in an aging population are of special concern. Tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and biomaterials may offer new therapeutic options. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the compatibility of ESCs with biomaterials and the influence of biomaterials on the osteogenic gene expression profile.Therefore, ESCs are cultured with various biomaterials. The cytocompatibility of murine ESCs is measured regarding the proliferation of the cells on the materials by CyQUANT assay, the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and the influence on the gene expression by real time PCR.The results show that insoluble collagenous bone matrix, followed by beta-tricalciumphosphate, is most suitable for bone tissue engineering regarding cell proliferation, and phenotype. The gene expression analysis indicates that biomaterials do influence the gene expression of ESCs.Our results provide new insight into the cytocompatibility of ESCs on different scaffolds.

  15. Bone Substitutes for Peri-Implant Defects of Postextraction Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Letícia Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placement of implants in fresh sockets is an alternative to try to reduce physiological resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. This surgery can be used to preserve the bone architecture and also accelerate the restorative procedure. However, the diastasis observed between bone and implant may influence osseointegration. So, autogenous bone graft and/or biomaterials have been used to fill this gap. Considering the importance of bone repair for treatment with implants placed immediately after tooth extraction, this study aimed to present a literature review about biomaterials surrounding immediate dental implants. The search included 56 articles published from 1969 to 2012. The results were based on data analysis and discussion. It was observed that implant fixation immediately after extraction is a reliable alternative to reduce the treatment length of prosthetic restoration. In general, the biomaterial should be used to increase bone/implant contact and enhance osseointegration.

  16. Zirconia in fixed implant prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra Christine; Att, Wael; Strub, Joerg Rudolf

    2012-10-01

    CAD/CAM technology in combination with zirconia ceramic has increasingly gained popularity in implant dentistry. This narrative review presents the current knowledge on zirconia utilized as framework material for implant-borne restorations and implant abutments, laboratory tests and developments, clinical performance, and possible future trends for implant dentistry are addressed. A review of available literature from 1990 through 2010 was conducted with search terms zirconia,"implants,"abutment,"crown," and "fixed dental prosthesis" using electronic databases (PubMed) and manual searching. Latest applications of zirconia in implant dentistry include implant abutments, multiple unit and full-arch frameworks as well as custom-made bars to support fixed and removable prostheses. High biocompatibility, low bacterial surface adhesion as well as favorable chemical properties of zirconia ceramics are reported. Zirconia stabilized with yttrium oxide exhibits high flexural strength and fracture toughness due to a transformation toughening mechanism. Preliminary clinical data confirmed the high stability of zirconia for abutments and as a framework material for implant borne crowns and fixed dental prostheses. Zirconia abutment or framework damage has rarely been encountered. However, veneering porcelain fractures are the most common technical complication in implant-supported zirconia restorations. These porcelain veneer failures have led to concerns regarding differences in coefficient of thermal expansions between core and veneering porcelain and their respective processing techniques. As presently evidence of clinical long-term data is missing, caution with regard to especially extensive implant-borne zirconia frameworks is recommended. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycaj, Steven; Chesebro, John; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2010-05-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana represents a basal insect lineage that undergoes the ancestral hemimetabolous mode of development. Here, we examine the embryonic and post-embryonic functions of the hox gene Scr in Periplaneta as a way of better understanding the roles of this gene in the evolution of insect body plans. During embryogenesis, Scr function is strictly limited to the head with no role in the prothorax. This indicates that the ancestral embryonic function of Scr was likely restricted to the head, and that the posterior expansion of expression in the T1 legs may have preceded any apparent gain of function during evolution. In addition, Scr plays a pivotal role in the formation of the dorsal ridge, a structure that separates the head and thorax in all insects. This is evidenced by the presence of a supernumerary segment that occurs between the labial and T1 segments of RNAiScr first nymphs and is attributed to an alteration in engrailed (en) expression. The fact that similar Scr phenotypes are observed in Tribolium but not in Drosophila or Oncopeltus reveals the presence of lineage-specific variation in the genetic architecture that controls the formation of the dorsal ridge. In direct contrast to the embryonic roles, Scr has no function in the head region during post-embryogenesis in Periplaneta, and instead, strictly acts to provide identity to the T1 segment. Furthermore, the strongest Periplaneta RNAiScr phenotypes develop ectopic wing-like tissue that originates from the posterior region of the prothoracic segment. This finding provides a novel insight into the current debate on the morphological origin of insect wings.

  18. [Neurotology and cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    In this review we analyse cochlear implantation in terms of the fundamental aspects of the functioning of the auditory system. Concepts concerning neuronal plasticity applied to electrical stimulation in perinatal and adult deep hypoacusis are reviewed, and the latest scientific bases that justify early implantation following screening for congenital deafness are discussed. Finally, this review aims to serve as an example of the importance of fostering the sub-specialty of neurotology in our milieu, with the aim of bridging some of the gaps between specialties and thus improving both the knowledge in the field of research on auditory pathologies and in the screening of patients. The objectives of this review, targeted above all towards specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology, are to analyse some significant neurological foundations in order to reach a better understanding of the clinical events that condition the indications and the rehabilitation of patients with cochlear implants, as well as to use this means to foster the growth of the sub-specialty of neurotology.

  19. Integrative analysis of the mouse embryonic transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar V; Knudsen, Kenneth B; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2007-04-10

    Monitoring global gene expression provides insight into how genes and regulatory signals work together to guide embryo development. The fields of developmental biology and teratology are now confronted with the need for automated access to a reference library of gene-expression signatures that benchmark programmed (genetic) and adaptive (environmental) regulation of the embryonic transcriptome. Such a library must be constructed from highly-distributed microarray data. Birth Defects Systems Manager (BDSM), an open access knowledge management system, provides custom software to mine public microarray data focused on developmental health and disease. The present study describes tools for seamless data integration in the BDSM library (MetaSample, MetaChip, CIAeasy) using the QueryBDSM module. A field test of the prototype was run using published microarray data series derived from a variety of laboratories, experiments, microarray platforms, organ systems, and developmental stages. The datasets focused on several developing systems in the mouse embryo, including preimplantation stages, heart and nerve development, testis and ovary development, and craniofacial development. Using BDSM data integration tools, a gene-expression signature for 346 genes was resolved that accurately classified samples by organ system and developmental sequence. The module builds a potential for the BDSM approach to decipher a large number developmental processes through comparative bioinformatics analysis of embryological systems at-risk for specific defects, using multiple scenarios to define the range of probabilities leading from molecular phenotype to clinical phenotype. We conclude that an integrative analysis of global gene-expression of the developing embryo can form the foundation for constructing a reference library of signaling pathways and networks for normal and abnormal regulation of the embryonic transcriptome. These tools are available free of charge from the web-site http

  20. Metabolic properties of chicken embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism correlates with cell fate,but the metabolic properties of chicken embryonic stem (chES) cells are poorly understood.Using a previously established chES cell model and electron microscopy (EM),we found that undifferentiated chES cells stored glycogen.Additionally,undifferentiated chES cells expressed lower levels of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) mRNAs but higher levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1) and glycogen synthase (GYS) mRNAs compared with control primary chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) cells,suggesting that chES cells direct glucose flux towards the glycogenic pathway.Moreover,we demonstrated that undifferentiated chES cells block gluconeogenic outflow and impede the accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) from this pathway,as evidenced by the barely detectable levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PCX) and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2) mRNAs.Additionally,cell death occurred in undifferentiated chES cells as shown by Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI) double staining,but it could be rescued by exogenous G6P.However,we found that differentiated chES cells decreased the glycogen reserve through the use of PAS staining.Moreover,differentiated chES cells expressed higher levels of GLUT1,HK1 and PFK mRNAs,while the level of GYS mRNA remained similar in control CEF cells.These data indicate that undifferentiated chES cells continue to synthesize glycogen from glucose at the expense of G6P,while differentiated chES cells have a decreased glycogen reserve,which suggests that the amount of glycogen is indicative of the chES cell state.

  1. Human embryonic stem cells and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu İskender

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs possess a great potential in the field of regenerative medicine by their virtue of pluripotent potential with indefinite proliferation capabilities. They can self renew themselves and differentiate into three embryonic germ layers. Although they are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse feeder cells, there are in vitro culture systems utilizing feeder cells of human origin in order to prevent cross-species contamination. Recently established in vitro culture systems suggested that direct interaction with feeder cells is not necessary but rather attachment to a substrate is required to ensure long-term, efficient hESC culture in vitro. This substrate is usually composed of a mixture of extracellular matrix components representing in vivo natural niche. In hESC biology, the mechanism of interaction of hESCs with extracellular matrix molecules remained insufficiently explored area of research due to their transient nature of interaction with the in vivo niche. However, an in vitro culture system established using extracellular matrix molecules may provide a safer alternative to culture systems with feeder cells while paving the way to Good Manufacturing Practice-GMP production of hESCs for therapeutic purposes. Therefore, it is essential to study the interaction of extracellular matrix molecules with hESCs in order to standardize in vitro culture systems for large-scale production of hESCs in a less labor-intensive way. This would not only provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms that control pluripotency but also serve to dissect the molecular signaling pathways of directed differentiation for prospective therapeutic applications in the future. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 486-495

  2. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue.

  3. Embryonic environment and transgenerational effects in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Sophie; Gourichon, David; Leterrier, Christine; Labrune, Yann; Coustham, Vincent; Rivière, Sandrine; Zerjal, Tatiana; Coville, Jean-Luc; Morisson, Mireille; Minvielle, Francis; Pitel, Frédérique

    2017-01-26

    Environmental exposures, for instance to chemicals, are known to impact plant and animal phenotypes on the long term, sometimes across several generations. Such transgenerational phenotypes were shown to be promoted by epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is yet unknown whether transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of altered phenotypes exists in birds. The purpose of this study was to develop an avian model to investigate whether changes to the embryonic environment had a transgenerational effect that could alter the phenotypes of third-generation offspring. Given its impact on the mammalian epigenome and the reproductive system in birds, genistein was used as an environment stressor. We compared several third-generation phenotypes of two quail "epilines", which were obtained from genistein-injected eggs (Epi+) or from untreated eggs (Epi-) from the same founders. A "mirrored" crossing strategy was used to minimize between-line genetic variability by maintaining similar ancestor contributions across generations in each line. Three generations after genistein treatment, a significant difference in the sexual maturity of the females, which, after three generations, could not be attributed to direct maternal effects, was observed between the lines, with Epi+ females starting to lay eggs later. Adult body weight was significantly affected by genistein treatment applied in a previous generation, and a significant interaction between line and sex was observed for body weight at 3 weeks. Behavioral traits, such as evaluating the birds' reaction to social isolation, were also significantly affected by genistein treatment. Yet, global methylation analyses revealed no significant difference between the epilines. These findings demonstrate that embryonic environment affects the phenotype of offspring three generations later in quail. While one cannot rule out the existence of some

  4. Container with Pig Pattern Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Unearthed from Hemudu ruins of the New Stone Age in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province in 1977, this rectangular-mouthed container belongs to the Hemudu culture. It is carved with a pig pattern on both sides in realist style. A complete piece, the container has a flat bottom and slightly sloped belly, with a mouth 21.7 cm long and 17.5 cm wide. Most of the artifacts from Hemudu culture are charcoal black pottery. The stem and leaves of the pottery can be seen clearly. The walls of the artifacts are usually thick but porous. The carving lines are rough and the designs are simple and natural, reflecting the ancient people’s love of nature and life. The pig’s four strong feet and backward bristles carved on the container are vivid, with ears sticking out and mouth

  5. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers...

  6. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  7. HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECT OF AZAPERONE SEDATION IN PIGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan. Ibadan ... the solution to the handling problems inherent in this species (Callear & Van Gestel, 1971). Although .... analysis of the results of field experiemts in pigs in.

  8. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  9. Altered expression of heat shock proteins in embryonal carcinoma and mouse early embryonic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, M; Diu, A; Bensaude, O; Babinet, C

    1984-04-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that in the absence of stress, mouse embryonal carcinoma cells, like mouse early embryo multipotent cells, synthesize high levels of 89- and 70-kilodalton heat shock proteins (HSP)(O. Bensaude and M. Morange, EMBO J. 2:173-177, 1983). We report here the pattern of proteins synthesized after a short period of hyperthermia in various mouse embryonal carcinoma cell lines and early mouse embryo cells. Among the various cell lines tested, two of them, PCC4-Aza R1 and PCC7-S-1009, showed an unusual response in that stimulation of HSP synthesis was not observed in these cells after hyperthermia. However, inducibility of 68- and 105-kilodalton HSP can be restored in PCC7-S-1009 cells after in vitro differentiation triggered by retinoic acid. Similarly, in the early mouse embryo, hyperthermia does not induce the synthesis of nonconstitutive HSP at the eight-cell stage, but induction of the 68-kilodalton HSP does occur at the blastocyst stage. Such a transition in the expression of HSP has already been described for Drosophila melanogaster and sea urchin embryos and recently for mouse embryos. It may be a general property of early embryonic cells.

  10. Use of murine embryonic stem cells in embryotoxicity assays: the embryonic stem cell test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Andrea E M; Buesen, Roland; Visan, Anke; Spielmann, Horst

    2006-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) takes advantage of the potential of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate in culture to test embryotoxicity in vitro. The EST represents a scientifically validated in vitro system for the classification of compounds according to their teratogenic potential based on the morphological analysis of beating cardiomyocytes in embryoid body outgrowths compared to cytotoxic effects on murine ES cells and differentiated 3T3 fibroblasts. Through a number of prevalidation and validation studies, the EST has been demonstrated to be a reliable alternative method for embryotoxicity testing based on the most important mechanisms in embryotoxicity-cytotoxicity and differentiation--as well as on differences in sensitivity between differentiated and embryonic tissues. Improvements of the EST protocol using flow cytometry analysis showed that differential expression of sarcomeric myosin heavy chain and alpha-actinin proteins quantified under the influence of a test compound is a useful marker for detecting potential teratogenicity. The in vitro embryotoxicity test described in this chapter is rapid, simple, and sensitive and can be usefully employed as a component of the risk/hazard assessment process.

  11. Cochlear implants in children implanted in Jordan: A parental overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A

    2015-07-01

    Exploring the perspective of parents on the cochlear implant process in Jordan. Sixty parents of deaf children were surveyed on the information gathering process prior to cochlear implant surgery, and their implant outcome expectations post-surgery. Whether child or parent characteristics may impact parents' post-surgical expectations was explored. Although parents used a variety of information sources when considering a cochlear implant, the ear, nose and throat doctor comprised their major source of information (60%). Parents received a range of information prior to cochlear implant but agreed (93.3%) on the need for a multidisciplinary team approach. Post-surgically, parents' expected major developments in the areas of spoken language (97%), and auditory skills (100%). Receiving education in mainstream schools (92%) was expected too. Parents perceived the cochlear implant decision as the best decision they can make for their child (98.3%). A significant correlation was found between parents contentment with the cochlear implant decision and expecting developments in the area of reading and writing (r=0.7). Child's age at implantation and age at hearing loss diagnosis significantly affected parents' post-implant outcome expectations (pparents agree on the need for a comprehensive multidisciplinary team approach during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Parents' education about cochlear implants prior to the surgery can affect their post-surgical outcome expectations. The parental perspective presented in this study can help professionals develop better understanding of parents' needs and expectations and henceforth improve their services and support during the different stages of the cochlear implant process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Regulation of embryonic size in early mouse development in vitro culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Kawai, Ikuma; Sugiura, Koji; Naito, Kunihiko; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Mammals self-regulate their body size throughout development. In the uterus, embryos are properly regulated to be a specific size at birth. Previously, size and cell number in aggregated embryos, which were made from two or more morulae, and half embryos, which were halved at the 2-cell stage, have been analysed in vivo in preimplantation and post-implantation development in mice. Here, we examined whether or not the mouse embryo has the capacity to self-regulate growth using an in vitro culture system. To elucidate embryonic histology, cells were counted in aggregated or half embryos in comparison with control embryos. Both double- and triple-aggregated embryos contained more cells than did control embryos during all culture periods, and the relative growth ratios showed no growth inhibition in an in vitro culture system. Meanwhile, half embryos contained fewer cells than control embryos, but the number grew throughout the culture period. Our data suggest that the growth of aggregated embryos is not affected and continues in an in vitro culture system. On the other hand, the growth of half embryos accelerates and continues in an in vitro culture system. This situation, in turn, implied that post-implantation mouse embryos might have some potential to regulate their own growth and size as seen by using an in vitro culture system without uterus factors. In conclusion, our results indicated that embryos have some ways in which to regulate their own size in mouse early development.

  13. Comparison of ectopic bone formation of embryonic stem cells and cord blood stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Langenbach, Fabian; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita A; Ommerborn, Michelle A; Kübler, Norbert R; Brinkmann, Matthias; Kögler, Gesine; Meyer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Cell-based reconstruction therapies promise new therapeutic opportunities for bone regeneration. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) from cord blood and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be differentiated into osteogenic cells. The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare their ability to induce ectopic bone formation in vivo. Human USSCs and murine ESCs were cultured as both monolayer cultures and micromasses and seeded on insoluble collagenous bone matrix (ICBM). One week and 1, 2, and 3 months after implanting the constructs in immune-deficient rats, computed tomography scans were performed to detect any calcification. Subsequently, the implanted constructs were examined histologically. The radiological examination showed a steep increase in the mineralized bone-like tissue in the USSC groups. This increase can be considered as statistically significant compared to the basic value. Moreover, the volume and the calcium portion measured by computed tomography scans were about 10 times higher than in the ESC group. The volume of mineralization in the ESC group increased to a much smaller extent over the course of time, and the control group (ICBM without cells) showed almost no alterations during the study. The histological examinations parallel the radiological findings. Cord blood stem cells in combination with ICBM-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo are stronger than ESCs.

  14. Essential Role of Chromatin Remodeling Protein Bptf in Early Mouse Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Joseph; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Xiao, Hua; Southon, Eileen; Matta, Jennifer; Tessarollo, Lino; Zhang, Ying E.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Kuehn, Michael R.; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Wu, Carl

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor), the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor) in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf−/− embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf−/− embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo. PMID:18974875

  15. Essential role of chromatin remodeling protein Bptf in early mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Landry

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the biological functions of the chromatin remodeling protein Bptf (Bromodomain PHD-finger Transcription Factor, the largest subunit of NURF (Nucleosome Remodeling Factor in a mammal. Bptf mutants manifest growth defects at the post-implantation stage and are reabsorbed by E8.5. Histological analyses of lineage markers show that Bptf(-/- embryos implant but fail to establish a functional distal visceral endoderm. Microarray analysis at early stages of differentiation has identified Bptf-dependent gene targets including homeobox transcriptions factors and genes essential for the development of ectoderm, mesoderm, and both definitive and visceral endoderm. Differentiation of Bptf(-/- embryonic stem cell lines into embryoid bodies revealed its requirement for development of mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm tissue lineages, and uncovered many genes whose activation or repression are Bptf-dependent. We also provide functional and physical links between the Bptf-containing NURF complex and the Smad transcription factors. These results suggest that Bptf may co-regulate some gene targets of this pathway, which is essential for establishment of the visceral endoderm. We conclude that Bptf likely regulates genes and signaling pathways essential for the development of key tissues of the early mouse embryo.

  16. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  17. Insulin and growth hormone in lean and obese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Martin, R J; Gahagan, J H

    1977-08-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and growth hormone (GH) were determined in fasted lean and genetically obese pigs at 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Rate of glucose clearance and plasma IRI and GH response in provocative stimulation were also measured. Fasting glucose was similar in lean and obese pigs, whereas glucose clearance rate was more rapid in lean pigs. Obese pigs were not hyperinsulinemic but had lower plasma GH than lean pigs. At 1 mo of age, both lean and obese pigs had higher plasma IRI and GH as compared to 3 and 6 mo. Glucose infusion produced increases in plasma IRI at 1, 3, and 6 mo, respectively, with the greatest increases at 6 mo. Plasma IRI peaked at the same level in both pig types at a given age; but due to a more prolonged response in obese pigs, the overall IRI response to glucose infusion was greater in obese pigs. Arginine infusion caused much smaller IRI responses than glucose, but the response of obese pigs was significantly greater than that of lean pigs. Both provocative stimuli caused increases in plasma GH. The GH response to glucose infusion in obese pigs was considerably less than in lean pigs. These observations suggest mild insulin insensitivity and a reduced GH secretory potential in the obese as compared to lean pigs.

  18. Genome-wide association study reveals regions associated with gestation length in two pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A M; Lopes, M S; Harlizius, B; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction traits, such as gestation length (GLE), play an important role in dam line breeding in pigs. The objective of our study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with GLE in two pig populations. Genotypes and deregressed breeding values were available for 2081 Dutch Landrace-based (DL) and 2301 Large White-based (LW) pigs. We identified two QTL regions for GLE, one in each population. For DL, three associated SNPs were detected in one QTL region spanning 0.52 Mbp on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 2. For LW, four associated SNPs were detected in one region of 0.14 Mbp on SSC5. The region on SSC2 contains the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) gene, which promotes embryo implantation and has been described to be involved in embryo survival throughout gestation. The associated SNP can be used for marker-assisted selection in the studied populations, and further studies of the HBEGF gene are warranted to investigate its role in GLE.

  19. Improved sustainability in organic pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John E.; Jakobsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    The local and global sale of organic pork produced in Denmark has increased markedly in recent years. Organic pig production is associated with several positive aspects from a societal point of view e.g. very low use of antibiotics and animals being able to express more of their natural behavior compared to conventional production. However, there are some challenges regarding sustainability that needs to be addressed. In Denmark, organic pig production is based on outdoor sow production all y...

  20. The effects of surgical preparation techniques and implant macro-geometry on primary stability: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Marco; Rastelli, Claudio; Bernardi, Sara; Caruso, Silvia; Galli, Massimo; Lamazza, Luca; Di Paolo, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background The attainment of a good primary stability is a necessary condition to ensure the success of osseointegration in implantology. In type IV cancellous bone, however, it is possible that a reduced primary stability can lead to an increased rate of failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine, with the help of the resonance frequency (Osstell mentor), which technique of implant site preparation (piezo surgery, conventional, under-preparation, bone compaction, osteodistraction) and macro-geometry is able to improve implant stability in type IV cancellous bone. Material and Methods 10 pig ribs were prepared with a surgical pre-drilled guide, calibrated for a correct implant positioning. On each rib, 5 implant sites (one for each technique) were prepared. Successively, 50 conical implants (Tekka Global D) were inserted and measured with the resonance frequency to evaluate the primary stability. Data collected were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) values of the five techniques were significantly different. Results The results showed that no significant differences among the ISQ values of the five techniques used were found. Also, no significant differences in the macro-geometry of the two types of compared implants were observed. However, the macro-geometry of Tekka implants, characterized by a double condensing thread, seems to provide greater ISQ values than those of single thread implants when using the same technique. Conclusions In light of these preliminary data, it is conceivable that in cases of reduced stability, such as those occurring with a type IV bone, all means ameliorating the primary stability and accelerating the osseointegration can be utilized. Key words:Implant primary stability, resonance frequency analysis, implant site preparation. PMID:28160577

  1. Sub-meninges implantation reduces immune response to neural implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Neil T; Stokol, Jodi; Rennaker, Robert L

    2013-04-15

    Glial scar formation around neural interfaces inhibits their ability to acquire usable signals from the surrounding neurons. To improve neural recording performance, the inflammatory response and glial scarring must be minimized. Previous work has indicated that meningeally derived cells participate in the immune response, and it is possible that the meninges may grow down around the shank of a neural implant, contributing to the formation of the glial scar. This study examines whether the glial scar can be reduced by placing a neural probe completely below the meninges. Rats were implanted with sets of loose microwire implants placed either completely below the meninges or implanted conventionally with the upper end penetrating the meninges, but not attached to the skull. Histological analysis was performed 4 weeks following surgical implantation to evaluate the glial scar. Our results found that sub-meninges implants showed an average reduction in reactive astrocyte activity of 63% compared to trans-meninges implants. Microglial activity was also reduced for sub-meninges implants. These results suggest that techniques that isolate implants from the meninges offer the potential to reduce the encapsulation response which should improve chronic recording quality and stability.

  2. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496 were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217, and the least were found in Obrenovac (47. In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were tested 34929 blood serums of pigs from farms located at the territory of Belgrade. For the investigations there was used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT on seven varieties of L. interrogans: L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. sejroe, L. canicola, L. bataviae and L. australis. Seropositivity in pigs was determined in 760 blood serums, or in 2.17%. Leptospirosis prevalence was not very high, but it was constant, which indicates that leptospirosis infection maintained at the territory of Belgrade for ten years throughout our continual investigation.

  3. Growth-promoting effects of different fractions of extra-embryonic coelomic fluid on embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, A K; Layfield, R; Pratten, M K

    2000-08-01

    In the early stages of embryonic development, many growth-promoting molecules must be provided by the maternal system. These factors may be supplied locally to the embryo, by the decidua, the placenta, or the yolk sac. In this study the growth-promoting potential of extra-embryonic coelomic fluid (EECF) and its fractions was investigated. The embryonic requirement of growth-promoting molecules may be studied by reducing the growth-supporting capacity of serum. Thus, ultrafiltration of rat serum was carried out for 8 h using Millipore filters with a molecular weight exclusion of 30 kDa. Rat embryos at 9.5 days of age were cultured for 8 days for anembryonic yolk sacs, and then EECF was collected and divided into three different molecular weight fractions by ultrafiltration. Rat embryos were cultured for 48 h in whole rat serum and the serum retenate (which has low growth-supporting capacity) in the presence and absence of EECF, its fractions, or in EECF only. Embryos grown in retenate showed severe growth retardation, and the addition of EECF significantly improved embryonic growth. The fraction which contained the molecules with molecular weight between 10 and 30 kDa had significantly more effect on embryonic development than the other fractions. This fraction of EECF was analysed by gel electrophoresis. Three of the four protein bands observed in this fraction were identified by amino-terminal sequencing as alpha-fetoprotein precursor (22 kDa), apolipoprotein A1 precursor (24 kDa) and fetal haemoglobin Y2 chain (14 kDa), none of which are likely to be responsible for the growth-promoting activity. To further investigate growth-promoting proteins, EECF was Western-blotted to nitrocellulose membranes and probed with antisera against rat prolactin, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factors I and II and human placental lactogen. No immunoreactive bands were detected in the EECF, suggesting that either these proteins are not present or are present at levels

  4. Fixation of trapezial implants in a trapeziometacarpal total joint prosthesis tested in a model of porcine bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Hengst, David; Mortensen, Jesper; Amstrup, Anders Læssøe

    2011-12-01

    High aseptic loosening rates have been reported in total joint prostheses of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, particularly in the trapezial component. The primary fixation of new implants may be tested in cadaver bones, but the anatomy of the pig is in many ways similar to that of the human, so we compared the central carpal bone from the forefoot of 6-month-old pigs, which has a saddle joint surface similar to the trapezium, to the trapezium in patients with carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. The mean (SD) bone mineral density of the 13 pig forefoot bones was 0.88 (0.12) g/cm(2) compared with 0.63 (0.16) g/cm(2) in the 31 human trapeziums. The measured size of the porcine bones was slightly larger than that of the human trapeziums. The similarity in form, size, and bone mineral density means that the central bone of the forefoot of 6-month-old pigs may be used for fixation tests in trapezial implants.

  5. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  6. Macrophage Polarization and Activation in Response to Implant Debris: Influence by “Particle Disease” and “Ion Disease”

    OpenAIRE

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Pajarinen, Jukka; Takakubo, Yuja; Gallo, Jiri; Nich, Christophe; TAKAGI, Michiaki; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages derive from human embryonic and fetal stem cells and from human bone marrow-derived blood monocytes. They play a major homeostatic role in tissue remodeling and maintenance facilitated by apoptotic “eat me” opsonins like CRP, serum amyloid P, C1q, C3b, IgM, ficolin, and surfactant proteins. Three subsets of monocytes, classic, intermediate, and nonclassic, are mobilized and transmigrate to tissues. Implant-derived wear particles opsonized by danger signals regulate macrophage prim...

  7. Identification of genes induced by the conceptus in the bovine endometrium during the pre-implantation period

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    An intact embryo-maternal communication in the pre-implantation period is particularly critical for establishment of pregnancy and early embryonic losses have been identified as the major cause of reproductive failure in cattle. Thus, to gain deeper insight into this complex embryo-maternal crosstalk, a combination of subtracted cDNA libraries and cDNA array hybridization was applied to identify mRNAs differentially regulated genes in the bovine endometrium by the presence of a conceptus. One...

  8. Current trends in dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evoluti...

  9. Dental Implants: Dual Stabilization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    More recent epidemiological data seem to show an increasing trend of tooth loss due to periodontal reasons rather than caries; the presence of initial attachment loss, bone height and the habit of smoking significantly increase the risk of tooth mortality. A dental implant is a titanium screw which is placed into bone to replace missing teeth. The implant mimics the root of a tooth in function. Dental Implants have changed the face of dentistry over the last three decades. Success of dental i...

  10. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... performed the unloading of the pigs from the trucks in the available datasets, indicates that the drivers perform significantly differently. Driver 1 has 2.95 times higher odds to have pigs tripping and stepping on each other than the two others, and Driver 2 has 1.11 times higher odds than Driver 3. (C...

  11. Impacts of amino acid nutrition on pregnancy outcome in pigs: mechanisms and implications for swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G; Bazer, F W; Burghardt, R C; Johnson, G A; Kim, S W; Li, X L; Satterfield, M C; Spencer, T E

    2010-04-01

    Pigs suffer up to 50% embryonic and fetal loss during gestation and exhibit the most severe naturally occurring intrauterine growth retardation among livestock species. Placental insufficiency is a major factor contributing to suboptimal reproductive performance and reduced birth weights of pigs. Enhancement of placental growth and function through nutritional management offers an effective solution to improving embryonic and fetal survival and growth. We discovered an unusual abundance of the arginine family of AA in porcine allantoic fluid (a reservoir of nutrients) during early gestation, when placental growth is most rapid. Arginine is metabolized to ornithine, proline, and nitric oxide, and these compounds possess a plethora of physiological functions. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator and angiogenic factor, whereas both ornithine and proline are substrates for placental synthesis of polyamines, which are key regulators of protein synthesis and angiogenesis. Additionally, arginine, leucine, glutamine, and proline activate the mammalian target of rapamycin cell-signaling pathway to enhance protein synthesis and cell proliferation in placentae. To translate basic research on AA biochemistry and nutrition into application, dietary supplementation with 0.83% l-arginine to gilts on d 14 to 28 or d 30 to 114 of gestation increased the number and litter birth weight of live-born piglets. In addition, supplementing the gestation diet with 0.4% l-arginine plus 0.6% l-glutamine enhanced the efficiency of nutrient utilization, reduced variation in piglet birth weight, and increased litter birth weight. By regulating syntheses of nitric oxide, polyamines, and proteins, functional AA stimulate placental growth and the transfer of nutrients from mother to embryo or fetus to promote conceptus survival, growth, and development.

  12. Apposition to endometrial epithelial cells activates mouse blastocysts for implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Peter T; Berneau, Stéphane C; Koeck, Rebekka; Watts, Jessica; Kimber, Susan J; Brison, Daniel R; Westwood, Melissa; Aplin, John D

    2017-09-01

    How do interactions between blastocyst-stage embryos and endometrial epithelial cells regulate the early stages of implantation in an in vitro model? Mouse blastocyst apposition with human endometrial epithelial cells initiates trophectoderm differentiation to trophoblast, which goes on to breach the endometrial epithelium. In vitro models using mouse blastocysts and human endometrial cell lines have proven invaluable in the molecular characterisation of embryo attachment to endometrial epithelium at the onset of implantation. Genes involved in embryonic breaching of the endometrial epithelium have not been investigated in such in vitro models. This study used an established in vitro model of implantation to examine cellular and molecular interactions during blastocyst attachment to endometrial epithelial cells. Mouse blastocysts developed from embryonic day (E) 1.5 in vitro were hatched and co-cultured with confluent human endometrial adenocarcinoma-derived Ishikawa cells in serum-free medium. A scale of attachment stability based on blastocyst oscillation upon agitation was devised. Blastocysts were monitored for 48 h to establish the kinetics of implantation, and optical sectioning using fluorescence microscopy revealed attachment and invasion interfaces. Quantitative PCR was used to determine blastocyst gene expression. Data from a total of 680 mouse blastocysts are reported, with 3-6 experimental replicates. T-test and ANOVA analyses established statistical significance at P cells over the first 24 h of co-culture, with intermediate and stable attachment occurring from 28 h (E5.5 + 4 h) in a hormone-independent manner. Attached embryos fixed after 48 h (E6.5) frequently exhibited outgrowths, characterised morphologically and with antibody markers as trophoblast giant cells (TGCs), which had breached the Ishikawa cell layer. Beginning co-culture at E5.5 also resulted in intermediate and stable attachment from E5.5 + 4 h; however, these embryos did not go on to

  13. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally

  14. Progress of farrowing and early postnatal pig behavior in relation to genetic merit for pig survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.L.; Almeida Junior, de C.A.; Knol, E.F.; Lende, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pigs with different genetic merit for survival differed in birth weight, progress of farrowing, early postnatal behavior, or rectal temperature within 24 h after birth. On a nucleus farm in Rio Verde, Brazil, information was collected on 280 pig

  15. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally der

  16. Immediate Direct-To-Implant Breast Reconstruction Using Anatomical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn 2012, a new anatomic breast implant of form-stable silicone gel was introduced onto the Korean market. The intended use of this implant is in the area of aesthetic breast surgery, and many reports are promising. Thus far, however, there have been no reports on the use of this implant for breast reconstruction in Korea. We used this breast implant in breast reconstruction surgery and report our early experience.MethodsFrom November 2012 to April 2013, the Natrelle Style 410 form-stable anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant was used in 31 breasts of 30 patients for implant breast reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix. Patients were treated with skin-sparing mastectomies followed by immediate breast reconstruction.ResultsThe mean breast resection volume was 240 mL (range, 83-540 mL. The mean size of the breast implants was 217 mL (range, 125-395 mL. Breast shape outcomes were considered acceptable. Infection and skin thinning occurred in one patient each, and hematoma and seroma did not occur. Three cases of wound dehiscence occurred, one requiring surgical intervention, while the others healed with conservative treatment in one month. Rippling did not occur. So far, complications such as capsular contracture and malrotation of breast implant have not yet arisen.ConclusionsBy using anatomic breast implants in breast reconstruction, we achieved satisfactory results with aesthetics better than those obtained with round breast implants. Therefore, we concluded that the anatomical implant is suitable for breast reconstruction.

  17. Cochlear implants in genetic deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic defects are one of the most important etiologies of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss and play an important role in determining cochlear implantation outcomes. While the pathogenic mutation types of a number of deafness genes have been cloned, the pathogenesis mechanisms and their relationship to the outcomes of cochlear implantation remain a hot research area. The auditory performance is considered to be affected by the etiology of hearing loss and the number of surviving spiral ganglion cells, as well as others. Current research advances in cochlear implantation for hereditary deafness, especially the relationship among clinic-types, genotypes and outcomes of cochlear implantation, will be discussed in this review.

  18. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  19. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  20. Comparative physical and immunological aspects of the chimpanzee and guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber models of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R J; Wong, K H

    1977-01-01

    Physical and immunological characteristics of the chimpanzee and guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber models for Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection were compared to evaluate their usefulness for gonococcal research. Urethral infection in chimpanzees anatomically resembled the human infection; however, individual variation in response, limited availability, and the presence of interfering micro-organisms in the urethra were found to limit the usefulness of the chimpanzee in immunological research. Although the guinea-pig subcutaneous chamber model may not be suitable for studying the attachment of gonococci to host cells or for the local production of IgA, it does have the immunological advantages of being more sensitive to infection, less variable in response, free of interfering micro-organisms, and is readily available to investigators. Except for differences in sensitivity and variability, results with the guinea-pig model paralleled results obtained in experiments with chimpanzees. Unlike chimpanzees, guinea-pigs are a comparatively inexpensive, rapidly replenishable animal, which after subcutaneous implantation with small porous chambers provide a convenient model for studying most immunological aspects of gonococcal infections. PMID:403994