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Sample records for pig cavia porcellus

  1. Leishmaniose cutânea em cobaias (Cavia porcellus Cutaneous leishmaniasis in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Roselene Ecco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos três casos de leishmaniose cutânea em cobaias (Cavia porcellus machos de dois anos de idade que eram criadas como animais de estimação. As lesões macroscópicas eram semelhantes em duas cobaias e consistiam de nódulos cutâneos ulcerados no aspecto dorsal do pavilhão auricular de ambas as orelhas. Na outra cobaia, a lesão consistia de engrossamentos irregulares na pele do escroto que apareceram após uma orquiectomia realizada dois meses antes. A histopatologia era semelhante nos três casos e consistia de acentuada dermatite granulomatosa, com ulceração e numerosas formas protozoárias amastigotas no citoplasma de macrófagos, sugestivas de Leishmania sp. A microscopia eletrônica confirmou o diagnóstico de leishmaniose.Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in three two-year-old male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus raised as pets are described. Gross lesions were similar in two of the guinea pigs and consisted of raised and ulcerated cutaneous nodules in the dorsal aspect of the pinna of both ears. In another guinea pig the lesion consisted of irregular thickenning in the skin of the scrotum which followed an orchiectomy performed two months before. Histopathology was similar in the three cases and consisted of severe diffuse granulomatous dermatitis with ulceration and numerous intrahistiocytic protozoal amastigotes resembling Leishmania sp. Electron microscopy confirmed the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

  2. Prolactin family of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

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    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.

  3. Do young guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) develop an attachment to inanimate objects?

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    Janzen, MID; Timmermans, PJA; Kruijt, JP; Vossen, JMH

    1999-01-01

    Filial imprinting has been studied extensively in precocial birds. In these studies, inanimate objects were used as imprinting objects. Although attachment to the parents is common in mammals, experiments with inanimate objects are rare and mostly restricted to guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The res

  4. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

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    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic vo...

  5. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

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    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  7. A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)

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    Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...

  8. Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

    2013-04-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.

  9. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans.

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    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.

  10. Tibial osteosynthesis in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

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    A.S. Macedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A guinea pig was presented with left pelvic limb lameness after unknown trauma. Radiographs revealed complete oblique diaphyseal fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula. The guinea pig was treated surgically with an intramedullary pin. The day after surgery the guinea pig was using the limb comfortably (grade 1/5 lameness. Callus formation was obtained 21 days after surgery without complications.

  11. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  12. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  13. Immunoglobulin genomics in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus.

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    Yongchen Guo

    Full Text Available In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 V(H segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes, 41 D(H segments, six J(H segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α, and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many V(H pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 V(κ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes, three J(κ and one C(κ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 V(λ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes and 11 J(λ -C(λ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig's large germline V(H gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves.

  14. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic.

  15. Anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. Macroscopically, the fetuses livers have a reddish brown color and their division into lobes is clearly seen, as well as the presence of the gallbladder. The liver is divided into left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe with caudate and papillary processes. Through light microscopy, highly vascularized tissue is observed, and the left portion of the liver receive blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein, and the right portion is irrigated by the portal vein. The structures found on the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation are anatomically similar to those of other mammalian species.

  16. Anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four cavities, it is surrounded by the pericardium, and it has three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Foramen ovale has a great importance in the fetal circulation, but it could not be visualized in sections carried out in this study. Through these results we conclude that the hearts of Guinea pig fetuses differ from those of other species in structures such as the cranial vena cava, which is not divided into left and right, and that the walls thickness of left and right ventricles does not differ significantly.

  17. Comparison of fibre digestion and digesta retention time between nutrias (Myocaster coypus) and guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Sakaguchi, E; Nabata, A

    1992-11-01

    1. Digestibilities of feed, and transit and retention time of fluid and particle digesta marker measured in nutrias (Myocaster coypus) and guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed on a diet containing 50% alfalfa. 2. The digestibility of fibre was higher in the nutria, along with the longer retention time of digesta. 3. The liquid and particle marker were similarly excreted, suggesting no separation mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract of both the animals. 4. The apparent digestibility of protein in the nutria was superior to the guinea-pig and other small hindgut fermenters, suggesting that the contribution of coprophagy on protein nutrition of nutrias is significant.

  18. Infecção natural por Listeria monocytogenes em cobaios Cavia porcellus Natural infection by Listeria monocytogenes in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Hugo Henrique Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeriose foi identificada em quatro porcos-da-índia (Cavia porcellus enviados para diagnóstico postmortem. Dois cobaios (1 e 2, apresentaram especialmente nódulos esbranquiçados multifocais no fígado e ceco, alterações que corresponderam microscopicamente a múltiplos focos necróticos associados com estruturas bacterianas basofílicas, degeneração gordurosa difusa e infiltrado linfocitário periportal. Lesões similares estavam presentes no intestino delgado, ceco e baço desses dois cobaios. Os outros cobaios (3 e 4 apresentavam exclusivamente alterações pulmonares caracterizadas por coloração avermelhada difusa e áreas esbranquiçadas multifocais na superfície pleural associadas histologicamente com infiltrado neutrofílico multifocal acentuado nos lúmens alveolar e bronquiolar, além de edema interseptal e alveolar, trombos vasculares e numerosos macrófagos alveolares (pneumonia supurativa. Em seções histológicas coradas pelo Brown-Hopps, foram identificadas estruturas bacilares Gram-positivas. A avaliação imuno-histoquímica para anticorpos antiListeria monocytogenes revelou marcação fortemente positiva nos focos necróticos do fígado, ceco, baço, útero, estômago e linfonodos mesentéricos dos dois cobaios com listeriose sistêmica. Nos cobaios com pneumonia supurativa, observou-se intensa marcação nos lúmens alveolares. L. monocytogenes foi isolada de amostras de fígado e de casca de arroz utilizada como cama dos cobaios. Sugere-se que as lesões pulmonares foram consequentes à aspiração de partículas da cama de casca de arroz contaminada com L. monocytogenes.Listeriosis was identified in four guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus received for post mortem evaluation. Two animals showed multifocal white nodules in the liver and cecum. These changes corresponded microscopically to multiple necrotic foci associated with basophilic bacterial structures, diffuse lipid vacuolation, and periportal lymphocytic

  19. Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs.

  20. AISLADA DE Cavia porcellus

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    H. Jurado-Gámez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efectoin vitrodeLactobacillus plantarumsobreYersinia pseudotuberculosisaislada de cuyes (Cavia porcellus e identificada bioquímica y molecularmente. Se deter-minó la viabilidad deL. plantaruma diferentes pH (3.25, 4.5, 7.6 y 8.2, sales biliaresbovinas (3, 4 y 5%, bilis bovina (0.5, 1 y 2% y temperatura (38 y 45°C. Se realizóantibiograma a ambas bacterias con Cefalotina, Cefepima, Ciprofloxacina, Dicloxacilina,Enrofloxacina, Gentamicina, Penicilina y Trimetropim-Sulfametoxasol. Se determina-ron los péptidos deL. plantarummediante HPLC y la cinética de crecimiento en dossustratos (MRS y Pro, midiéndose: biomasa, pH, consumo de azúcar total y ácidoláctico. Se observó un mejor crecimiento bajo pH 3.25, sales biliares 5%, bilis bovina2% y temperatura de 45°C con valores de 3.0·1012, 2.3·1012, 8.6·1011y 3.0·1012UFC/ml, respectivamente.L. plantarumy el sobrenadante inhibieron aY. pseudotuberculosis,con halos de 3 y 5 mm. Se observó resistencia deL. plantarumyY. pseudotuberculosisaPenicilina y Dicloxacilina, respectivamente, con sensibilidad de ambas cepas a los demásantibióticos. Se evidenciaron los péptidos VAL-TIR-VAL y TIR-GLI-GLI-FA-METen el sobrenadante deL. plantarum. Durante la fase logarítmica para los medios MRSy Pro se alcanzaron valores de 6.75·1012y 1.20·1012UFC/ml (biomasa, 6.96 y 5.49(pH, y 0.65 y 0.76%, (ácido láctico, respectivamente. La comparación de los mediosmediante un diseño de bloques al azar (P> 0.05, mostró similar comportamiento.L.plantarumdemostró su potencial probiótico en condicionesin vitro.

  1. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Cohn, D W H; Tokumaru, R S; Ades, C

    2004-06-01

    In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions). A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session). The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking), following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time) to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively). Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking) were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  2. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Cohn D.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  3. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

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    Leitão, D P; Polizello, A C; Rothschild, Z

    2000-01-01

    Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response. Zymography of capybara and guinea-pig plasma gave the same patterns of activity as human or bovine plasma. Human urokinase (UK) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) produced lysis in capybara fibrin plates. Streptokinase (SK) (500 IU/ml) did not activate capybara or guinea-pig plasma. In this system, human plasma was extensively activated. Coagulation tests for both species of rodent were prolonged. The capybara showed values for prothrombin time (PT) shorter than activated thromboplastin time (APTT). The guinea-pig, as already shown, had longer PT values. Factors X and VII were very low for capybara and guinea-pig when tested using reference curves and diagnostic kits for human plasma. It is suggested that the capybara could be a valuable laboratory animal considering its size and closeness to the guinea-pig, and this could allow for the provision of materials from one single animal when convenient or necessary.

  4. Evaluating the clinical and physiological effects of long term ultraviolet B radiation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Watson, Megan K; Stern, Adam W; Labelle, Amber L; Joslyn, Stephen; Fan, Timothy M; Leister, Katie; Kohles, Micah; Marshall, Kemba; Mitchell, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important hormone in vertebrates. Most animals acquire this hormone through their diet, secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, or a combination thereof. The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over the course of six months. Twelve juvenile acromelanic Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received only ambient fluorescent light for 12 hours daily. Animals in both groups were offered the same diet and housed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected every three weeks to measure blood chemistry values, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) levels. Serial ophthalmologic examinations, computed tomography scans, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the course of the study. At the end of the study the animals were euthanized and necropsied. Mean ± SD serum 25-OHD3 concentrations differed significantly in the guinea pigs (pguinea pigs to UVB radiation long term significantly increased their circulating serum 25-OHD3 levels, and that this increase was sustainable over time. Providing guinea pigs exposure to UVB may be an important husbandry consideration that is not currently recommended.

  5. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P.; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. PMID:27043446

  7. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  9. Evaluating the clinical and physiological effects of long term ultraviolet B radiation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K Watson

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an important hormone in vertebrates. Most animals acquire this hormone through their diet, secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, or a combination thereof. The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over the course of six months. Twelve juvenile acromelanic Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received only ambient fluorescent light for 12 hours daily. Animals in both groups were offered the same diet and housed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected every three weeks to measure blood chemistry values, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3 levels. Serial ophthalmologic examinations, computed tomography scans, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the course of the study. At the end of the study the animals were euthanized and necropsied. Mean ± SD serum 25-OHD3 concentrations differed significantly in the guinea pigs (p<0.0001 between the UVB supplementation group (101.49±21.81 nmol/L and the control group (36.33±24.42 nmol/L. An increased corneal thickness in both eyes was also found in the UVB supplementation compared to the control group (right eye [OD]: p<0.0001; left eye [OS]: p<0.0001. There were no apparent negative clinical or pathologic side effects noted between the groups. This study found that exposing guinea pigs to UVB radiation long term significantly increased their circulating serum 25-OHD3 levels, and that this increase was sustainable over time. Providing guinea pigs exposure to UVB may be an important husbandry consideration that is not currently recommended.

  10. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  11. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  12. Hypervitaminosis D and Metastatic Calcification in a Colony of Inbred Strain 13 Guinea Pigs, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T

    2015-07-01

    A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs.

  13. Intraocular Pressure, Tear Production, and Ocular Echobiometry in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Sadjadi, Reza; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) by means of rebound tonometry, to assess tear production by using the endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and to determine the effects of time of day on IOP and tear production in guinea pigs. The study population comprised 24 healthy adult guinea pigs (12 male, 12 female; 48 eyes) of different breeds and ranging in age from 12 to 15 mo. IOP and tear production were measured at 3 time points (0700, 1500, and 2300) during a 24-h period. Overall values (mean ± 1 SD) were: IOP, 6.81 ± 1.41 mm Hg (range, 4.83 to 8.50); PRTT, 14.33 ± 1.35 mm (range, 12.50 to 16.83); and EAPTT, 8.54 ± 1.08 mm (range, 7.17 to 10.0 mm). In addition, ultrasound biometry was performed by using a B-mode system with linear 8-MHz transducer. This study reports reference values for IOP and tear production in guinea pigs.

  14. Analysis of normal and denerved laryngeal vocalization in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Taboada-Picazo, Verónica; Mota-Rojas, Daniel; Alonso-Spilsbury, Maria de Lourdes; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Paralysis of the left vocal chord is frequent in human clinical practice; because of its anatomic similarity with human, the guinea pig might be a suitable biological model to analyze the phoniatric behavior in denerved animals. Forty newborn guinea pigs were used (20 control and 20 experimental); an incision was made in the ventricular region with the animals under general anesthesia over the middle line of the neck, until the lower left laryngeal nerve was found, the same was secured with alligator clips so that afterward a two-part dissection could be performed and the middle section could be removed (1cm) from the nerve endings (distal and proximal) before they were separated from the laryngeal structure. After recovery from surgery, vocal emissions were recorded in solitary for 6 minutes. The animals that had nerves removed showed an increase in fundamental vocalization frequency compared with the controls. F test was carried out (P=0.05) and no significant difference was found. When analyzing functional recovery, we found that the guinea pigs compensated vocal emissions at 20 days. With regard to the unilateral paralysis, the motility was frequently compensated by the healthy vocal chord, improving voice emission, and loss of air inhalation.

  15. Development of the central nervous system in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study describes the development of the central nervous system in guinea pigs from 12th day post conception (dpc until birth. Totally, 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed macroscopically and by means of light and electron microscopy. The neural tube closure was observed at day 14 and the development of the spinal cord and differentiation of the primitive central nervous system vesicles was on 20th dpc. Histologically, undifferentiated brain tissue was observed as a mass of mesenchymal tissue between 18th and 20th dpc, and at 25th dpc the tissue within the medullary canal had higher density. On day 30 the brain tissue was differentiated on day 30 and the spinal cord filling throughout the spinal canal, period from which it was possible to observe cerebral and cerebellar stratums. At day 45 intumescences were visualized and cerebral hemispheres were divided, with a clear division between white and gray matter in brain and cerebellum. Median sulcus of the dorsal spinal cord and the cauda equina were only evident on day 50. There were no significant structural differences in fetuses of 50 and 60 dpc, and animals at term were all lissencephalic. In conclusion, morphological studies of the nervous system in guinea pig can provide important information for clinical studies in humans, due to its high degree of neurological maturity in relation to its short gestation period, what can provide a good tool for neurological studies.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, caviidae in Colombia

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    William Burgos-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  17. Anatomia do coração de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p91 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do coração de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O coração do feto é dividido em quatro cavidades, envolvido pelo pericárdio, e possui três camadas: epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio. O forame oval possui grande importância na circulação fetal, porém não foi visualizado nos cortes realizados neste estudo. Através desses resultados concluímos que os corações de fetos de Guinea pig diferem dos de outras espécies em estruturas como a veia cava cranial, que não se divide em esquerda e direita, e que a espessura das paredes dos ventrículos direito e esquerdo não diferem significativamente.

  18. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  19. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from Guinea pig faecal samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 2

  20. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

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    Yang Deming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  1. An Investigation into the Relationship between Owner Knowledge, Diet, and Dental Disease in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosemary; Wills, Alison P

    2016-11-14

    Recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of dental disease in domestic guinea pigs, yet the aetiology of this multi-factorial disease is still unclear. Factors that have been associated with dental disease include feeding a diet that is high in energy but low in fibre, feeding an insufficiently abrasive diet, a lack of dietary calcium, and genetics. As many of these factors relate to the husbandry requirements of guinea pigs, owner awareness of dietary requirements is of the utmost importance. An online questionnaire was created based on previous research into the husbandry and feeding of rabbits. Guinea pig owners were asked to answer questions on the clinical history of their animals and their diet and management. In total, 150 surveys were completed for 344 guinea pigs, where owners of multiple animals could complete the survey for individuals. According to the owners, 6.7% of guinea pigs had been clinically diagnosed with dental disease, but 16.6% had signs consistent with dental disease. The specific clinical signs of having difficulty eating (Exp(B) = 33.927, Nagelkerke R ² = 0.301, p guinea pig diet, and dental disease in the study population. This study highlights the importance of access to the outdoors for the health and welfare of guinea pigs in addition to the need for owners to be alert to key clinical signs. A relationship between diet and dental disease was not identified in this study; however, the underlying aetiological causes of this condition require further investigation.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

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    Diana Aviles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total of 20 microsatellites, looking for laboratory efficiency and good statistical parameters. The set was tested in 100 unrelated individuals of guinea pigs from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Spain. Our results show a high degree of polymorphisms with a total of 216 alleles and a mean number of 10.80±3.49 for markers with a combined exclusion probability of 0.99.

  3. Le cobaye Cavia porcellus L., comme animal de boucherie au Cameroun

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    Ngou Ngoupayou, JD.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus L. As A Meat Producing Animal In Cameroon. Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  4. An Investigation into the Relationship between Owner Knowledge, Diet, and Dental Disease in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Norman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of dental disease in domestic guinea pigs, yet the aetiology of this multi-factorial disease is still unclear. Factors that have been associated with dental disease include feeding a diet that is high in energy but low in fibre, feeding an insufficiently abrasive diet, a lack of dietary calcium, and genetics. As many of these factors relate to the husbandry requirements of guinea pigs, owner awareness of dietary requirements is of the utmost importance. An online questionnaire was created based on previous research into the husbandry and feeding of rabbits. Guinea pig owners were asked to answer questions on the clinical history of their animals and their diet and management. In total, 150 surveys were completed for 344 guinea pigs, where owners of multiple animals could complete the survey for individuals. According to the owners, 6.7% of guinea pigs had been clinically diagnosed with dental disease, but 16.6% had signs consistent with dental disease. The specific clinical signs of having difficulty eating (Exp(B = 33.927, Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.301, p < 0.05 and producing fewer or smaller faecal droppings (Exp(B = 13.733, Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.149, p < 0.05 were predictive for the presence of dental disease. Having access to an outside environment, including the use of runs on both concrete and grass, was significantly related to not displaying clinical signs of dental disease (Exp(B = 1.894, Nagelkerke R 2 = 0.021, p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between owner knowledge, guinea pig diet, and dental disease in the study population. This study highlights the importance of access to the outdoors for the health and welfare of guinea pigs in addition to the need for owners to be alert to key clinical signs. A relationship between diet and dental disease was not identified in this study; however, the underlying aetiological causes of this condition require further investigation.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Paw Withdrawal Pressure in Female Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Treated with Sustained-Release Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Wegenast, Daniel J; Hansen, Ryan J; Hess, Ann M; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-11-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Plasma levels of Bup-HCl peaked at 2331 pg/mL at 1 h after administration and declined to 165 pg/mL by 12 h. Plasma concentrations of Bup-SR peaked at 1344 pg/mL at 26 h after administration and declined to 429 pg/mL by 48 h. The PWP of the Bup-HCltreated guinea pigs peaked at 674 g at 1 h and declined to 402 g at 6 h, whereas that of Bup-SRtreated guinea pigs at 1 h was 361 g, 555 g at 6 h (significantly higher than that after Bup-HCl), and peaked at 680 g at 12 h. The PWP of both treatments was similar from 24 to 72 h and ranged from 348 to 450 g. The plasma concentration and PWP showed good correlation. These results suggest that Bup-SR provides consistent analgesia equivalent to that of Bup-HCl for a prolonged period of time and that Bup-SR is an alternative method of analgesia in guinea pigs.

  6. Morphological and morphometric study of the prostate of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, Linnaeus, 1758 during postnatal development

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    Adriana Gradela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prostate is clinically very important because it plays an important role in the production of sperm and fertilization of the egg, and is frequently affected by diseases, such as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology, morphometry, organo-somatic index (SOI, wall thickness and height of the prostate epithelium of guinea pigs at different stages of postnatal development. Based on the results, it was concluded that the prostate of guinea pigs resembles the prostate of Chinchilla laniger (because of similar tubulo-alveolar units, pacas and capybara (because of the presence of highly branched mucosal folds and humans (because of the secretory epithelium of the simple cubic type. The major changes observed during postnatal development were the significant increases in muscle stroma and the height of the secretory epithelium from late prepubertal until post-pubertal 1, and then a decrease in the post-pubertal 2, which was significant only for the muscle stroma. These results support the need for further studies on the postnatal development and aging of the prostate and substantiate the use of guinea pigs as an experimental model for research on this complex organ.

  7. Culture, characterization and differentiation of neural precursors from the central nervous system of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Erika Toledo da Fonseca

    Full Text Available Abstract: Potentially neurogenic areas were initially identified by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU in cells underlying the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles wall, hippocampus and olfactory bulbs of newborn guinea pigs. Neural precursors from the SVZ were cultured in suspension, generating neurospheres (NSFs, which, upon dissociation were able to generate new NSFs. Upon culture in the absence of growth factors, cells dissociated from NSFs displayed evidence for neural differentiation, giving rise to cells from neural lineage. Flow cytometry analysis for of NSFs-derived cells after differentiation revealed approximately 13.3% nestin positive, 5.5% Beta-III-tubulin positive, 9% GFAP positive and 7.8% mGalC positive. Functional assays by measurement of calcium influx upon gamma butiric amino acid (GABA and glutamate stimuli, revealed stimulation in differentiated cells, an indicator of neuronal differentiation. The ability of guinea pig SVZ cells to originate functional neurons in vitro is promising for research and towards a future use of neural stem cells in the therapy of neurological disorders.

  8. Fetal Growth Restriction Induces Heterogeneous Effects on Vascular Biomechanical and Functional Properties in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Daniel; Herrera, Emilio A.; García-Herrera, Claudio; Celentano, Diego; Krause, Bernardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery. At the term of gestation, systemic arteries (aorta, carotid and femoral) and umbilical vessels were isolated to determine ex vivo contractile and biomechanical responses (stretch-stress until rupture) on a wire myograph, as well as opening angle and residual stresses. Histological characteristics in tissue samples were measured by van Gieson staining. Results: Aorta and femoral arteries from FGR showed an increased in biomechanical markers of stiffness (p < 0.01), contractile capacity (p < 0.05) and relative media thickness (p < 0.01), but a reduced internal diameter (p < 0.001), compared with controls. There were no differences in the biomechanical properties of carotid and umbilical from control and FGR fetuses, but FGR umbilical arteries had a decreased contractile response to KCl (p < 0.05) along with a reduced relative media thickness (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Altogether, these changes in functional, mechanical and morphological properties suggest that FGR is associated with a heterogeneous pro-constrictive vascular remodeling affecting mainly the lower body fetal arteries. These effects would be set during a pathologic pregnancy in order to sustain the fetal blood redistribution in the FGR and may persist up to adulthood increasing the risk of a cardiovascular disease. PMID:28344561

  9. Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus

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    Chacón Cecilia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016, and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026, while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027, while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011; VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for

  10. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera

  11. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in subplacental trophoblasts from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough, E R; DiVerde, K D; Sahin, O; Plummer, P J; Zhang, Q; Yaeger, M J

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) are well-characterized cell surface receptors that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play an important role in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune system. Variable expression of TLR2 and TLR4 has been described in trophoblasts from normal and diseased placentas; yet, there are limited data regarding trophoblast TLR expression in response to specific placental pathogens, and TLR expression in the guinea pig placenta has not been described. The guinea pig is an effective model for Campylobacter-induced abortion of small ruminants, and the authors have shown by immunohistochemistry that C jejuni localizes within syncytiotrophoblasts of the guinea pig subplacenta. The present study was designed to determine if the expression of either TLR2 or TLR4 would be affected in subplacental trophoblasts following infection with C jejuni. Immunohistochemistry for TLR2 and TLR4 was performed on placenta from guinea pigs that aborted following inoculation with C jejuni and from sham-inoculated controls. Quantitative assessment of TLR expression was performed, and mean immunoreactivity for TLR2 was significantly higher in subplacental trophoblasts from animals that aborted compared with uninfected controls (P = .0283), whereas TLR4 expression was not statistically different (P = .5909). These results suggest that abortion in guinea pigs following infection with C jejuni is associated with increased TLR2 expression in subplacental trophoblasts and may reveal a possible role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of Campylobacter-induced abortion.

  12. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky

  13. Spatio-temporal expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue kallikrein in uteroplacental units of the pregnant guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus

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    Rey Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans trophoblast invasion and vascular remodeling are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs share with women an extensive migration of the trophoblasts through the decidua and uterine arteries, and a haemomonochorial placenta, this species was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal expression of three enzymes that have been associated to trophoblast invasion, MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue kallikrein (K1. Methods Uteroplacental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1 were analysed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by gelatin zymography. Results Immunoreactive MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1 were detected in the subplacenta, interlobar and labyrinthine placenta, syncytial sprouts and syncytial streamers throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts expressed the three enzymes. The intensity of the signal in syncytial streamers was increased in mid and late pregnancy for MMP-2, decreased in late pregnancy for MMP-9, and remained stable for K1. Western blots of placental homogenates at days 20, 40 and 60 of pregnancy identified bands with the molecular weights of MMP-2, MMP-9 and K1. MMP-2 expression remained constant throughout gestation. In contrast, MMP-9 and K1 attained their highest expression during midgestation. Placental homogenates of 20, 40 and 60 days yielded bands of gelatinase activity that were compatible with MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. ProMMP-2 and MMP-9 activities did not vary along pregnancy, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 increased at 40 and 40–60 days respectively. Conclusion The spatio-temporal expression of MMPs and K1 supports a relevant role of these proteins in trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental angiogenesis, and suggests a functional association between K1 and MMP-9 activation.

  14. Reação em cadeia da polimerase para detecção de Clostridium chauvoei em tecidos de Cavia porcellus PCR detection of Clostridium chauvoei in tissues of Cavia porcellus

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    Ronnie Antunes de Assis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi padronizar uma técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, para detecção de Clostridium chauvoei, em tecidos fixados em formol e incluídos em parafina de cobaias (Cavia porcellus experimentalmente infectadas com esse microrganismo. Os animais foram sacrificados, e amostras do músculo da área de inoculação (MAI, fígado, miocárdio e baço foram disponibilizadas para a técnica de PCR. O clostrídio foi detectado em todas as secções do MAI, fígado e miocárdio, mas não foi observado em secções do baço. Reações cruzadas não foram observadas a partir de secções do MAI dos animais com inoculação de outras espécies de clostrídios, bem como nenhuma amplificação foi observada a partir de secções do MAI dos animais controle. Esses resultados mostram que a técnica de PCR desenvolvida neste estudo, pode ser usada para detecção de Clostridium chauvoei em tecidos fixados em formol e incluídos em parafina.The objective of this work was the standardization of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of Clostridium chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus infected experimentally with this microorganism. The animals were sacrificed, and samples of muscle from inoculation area (MIA, liver, myocardium and spleen were available for PCR technique. Clostridium chauvoei was detected in all sections of the MIA, liver and myocardium, and no product was observed in sections of the spleen. Cross-reactions were not observed in sections of MIA of the animals inoculated with other clostridia, as well as no amplification was observed in sections of MIA of control animals. These results show that the PCR technique developed in this study may be useful for detection of C. chauvoei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

  15. Effet de Panicum maximum sur la productivité des femelles primipares durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    Danho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.

  16. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  17. Efeito da casca da berinjela (Solanum melongena) sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicerídeos, colesterol total e frações lipídicas, em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) hiperlipidêmicos ( The effect of the eggplant core on blood lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherem, A.D.R.; Tramonte, V.L.C.G.; Fett, R.; Dokkum, W. van

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the eggplant core on the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total- LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, in male guinea pigs, randomly assigned into five groups: 1 (N) - normolipidic diet AIN-93G, 2 (NB) - normolipidic diet, supplemented with eggplant core, halfway of the expe

  18. SUSTITUCIÓN GRADUAL DE LA ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L.) POR EL GERMINADO DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare) EN RACIONES DE CUYES (Cavia porcellus L.) EN LA ETAPA DE CRECIMIENTO/MANIFESTATIONS FADED GRADUALLY REPLACEMENT OF ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L.) BY BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.) SPROUT IN PORTIONS OF GUINEA PIGS (Cavia porcellus L.) IN THE STAGE OF GROWTH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freddy C Cayllahua; Daisy U D Condori; Alfonso G F Cordero; Miriam L Veliz; José L P Contreras

    2015-01-01

    ...%) of hydroponic barley (CH) in substitution of alfalfa in the feeding male and female guinea pigs of Peru line, in the growth phase, in number of 72, with 18 days of age and 175 g of initial PV means confined for 42 days...

  19. Efeito da casca da berinjela (Solanum melongena) sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de triglicerídeos, colesterol total e frações lipídicas, em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) hiperlipidêmicos ( The effect of the eggplant core on blood lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherem, A.D.R.; Tramonte, V.L.C.G.; Fett, R.; Dokkum, W. van

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the eggplant core on the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total- LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, in male guinea pigs, randomly assigned into five groups: 1 (N) - normolipidic diet AIN-93G, 2 (NB) - normolipidic diet, supplemented with eggplant core, halfway of the

  20. Rationalité économique et objectifs de gestion de la production de cobayes (Cavia porcellus L. en zones tropicales

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    Ndébi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Rationality and Production Management Goals of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L. in Tropical Zones. The economic productivity of guinea pig in tropical environment was assessed from one hundred and ninety-seven pairs of measures related to reproductive female and weaning weights per litter reared in-door at the Research and Experimental Farm of the University of Dschang between February 2012 and March 2013. An econometric model of linear regression was developed to take into account the main factors affecting the relative weight productivity index at the weaning age of each gestating female. The main results reveal that the economic productivity of guinea pigs in tropical zone, already of a substantial level, could be even more improved by taking into account the main factors of variability. The analysis thus put into evidence that the relative importance of female reproductive weight; the litter size, and the total weight of the kids at weaning are factors having significant effects on the relative weight productivity index of the guinea pig. However, in linking the female weight to economic productivity, the study led to an irrational management of the reproductive herd and put in evidence that the decrease in productivity observed in guinea pig is mostly attributable to the fattening of the female.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS GENOTIPOS DE CUYES (Cavia porcellus) ALIMENTADOS CON CONCENTRADO Y EXCLUSIÓN DE FORRAJE VERDE.

    OpenAIRE

    Camino M., Javier; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.; Hidalgo L., Víctor; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.

    2014-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los parámetros productivos y el porcentaje de grasa en la carcasa de dos genotipos de cuyes (Cavia porcellus) alimentados por nueve semanas con dos tipos de dieta. Se utilizó el diseño estadístico completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x2, teniendo como factores dos genotipos (Cieneguilla-UNALM y Perú-INIA) y dos tipos de dietas (dieta 1: alimento balanceado, forraje verde y agua; dieta 2: alimento balanceado más vitamina C y agua), y se evaluó el p...

  2. Estereologia das glândulas bulbouretrais do coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus e da cobaia (Cavia porcellus

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    Bélgica Vásquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As glândulas bulbouretrais (GBU no coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus e na cobaia (Cavia porcellus desempenham um papel importante na fisiologia reprodutiva. No entanto, seus aspectos histológico e estereológico são escassos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar características estereológicas entre as GBU do coelho e da cobaia como um primeiro passo para a compreensão das variáveis morfométricas que participam nos processos reprodutivos. Foram utilizados 5 coelhos e 5 cobaias adultos machos, saudáveis, obtidos do Biotério da Universidade de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. A região pélvica foi dissecada isolando-se a GBU de cada animal. Determinou-se o peso e o volume de cada glândula. Estas foram fixadas em formalina tamponada durante 24 horas e incluídas em paraplast. Cortes seriados de 4 μm de espessura foram corados com HE para análise estereológica. A média de células glandulares na GBU do coelho foi 19,50 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,35 e da cobaia 10,57 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,07 e a porcentagem média de tecido glandular foi de 25,52% (DP 2,20 e 17,20% (DP 3,33, respectivamente. Todos os parâmetros estereológicos comparados tiveram uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (p<0,0001. Estas diferenças poderiam ser explicadas porque há maior proximidade celular do epitélio secretor, menor diâmetro do lúmen dos ácinos e da relação núcleo citoplasma na GBU do coelho. Assim, os ácinos da GBU apresentam maior quantidade de células por mm³ do que na GBU do coelho. Estes parâmetros podem ser influenciados por fatores hormonais, etários, sazonais e ambientais, entre outros. Considerar as características morfológicas da GBU nesses animais poderia condicionar o êxito da reprodução por parte do macho.

  3. Transmissão do Trypanosoma cruzi em três gerações de Cavia porcellus sem a participação de triatomíneos

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a transmissão sucessiva do T. cruzi em três gerações da cobaia Cavia porcellus sem a participação de triatomíneos. Embora não fosse determinado qual das vias, se placentária, leite, excreções ou contágio direto pelo qual o protozoário foi transmitido para os descendentes, chama-se atenção para a importância da manutenção de reservatórios da Doença de Chagas, mesmo na ausência de vetores invertebrados.The sucessive transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among three generations of the guinea pig Cavia porcellus without the participation of triatomine bugs is verified. Although the mode of transmission, such as congenital, infected milk or other excretion or direct contagion was not defined, this maybe of importance in natural maintenance of reservoirs of T. cruzi without the invertebrate vectors.

  4. Effets de Panicum maximum Jacq. associé à Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke sur la productivité des femelles durant le cycle de reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.

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    N'G. D.V. Kouakou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.

  5. [Tooth regeneration in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, F; Artis, J P; Lanot, R

    1977-01-01

    The first inferior molar has been extracted, a part of its being reimplanted or not. A new molar of normal form regenerated, apparently from the apex of the tooth germ, in all cases in which the alveolus was left free or implanted with a tooth freagment deprived of pulpa.

  6. Medición del pH intramuscular del cuy (Cavia porcellus) durante las primeras 24 horas post beneficio tradicional.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakandakari, Luis; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Chauca, Lilia; Valencia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    La carne de cuy tiene un alto valor nutricional para el ser humano. Sin embargo, es un excelente medio de cultivo para microorganismos que pueden ser nocivos para el consumidor. Durante la transformación del músculo a carne se producen reacciones biológicas y químicas que ayudan a descender el pH muscular, reduciendo el crecimiento bacteriano. Objetivo: Determinar los cambios del pH intramuscular del cuy (Cavia porcellus), durante las primeras 24 horas post beneficio tradicional. Materiales y...

  7. Crioconservación de los recursos genéticos del cuy (Cavia porcellus): producción y congelación de embriones

    OpenAIRE

    Grégoire, Anne; Joly, Thierry; Huamán Fuertes, Ethel; Silva Arce, Rosa María; León Trinidad, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    El cuy (Cavia porcellus) es un animal emblemático de la diversidad genética de los animales domésticos de los Andes. Como tal, la conservación de la biodiversidad intraespecífica del cuy es primordial, tanto por ser una fuente de proteínas importante para los pobladores andinos como para conservar la herencia simbólica del cuy, las prácticas culturales relacionadas con su crianza, como animal de consumo y en medicina tradicional. Por otro lado, los programas de selección llevados a cabo desde...

  8. Teste intradérmico com proteínas recombinantes de Mycobacterium bovis como antígenos em Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S.P. Melo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O teste intradérmico para o diagnóstico da tuberculose bovina utiliza derivados proteicos purificados (PPD de Mycobacterium bovis que são capazes de induzir reações de hipersensibilidade em animais infectados. No entanto, apresenta baixa especificidade devido à ocorrência de reações cruzadas com outras micobactérias. Neste sentido, o objetivo desse trabalho foi produzir proteínas recombinantes (ESAT-6, PE13, PE5 e ESX-1 de Mycobacterium bovis e avaliá-las como antígenos em teste intradérmico utilizando Cavia porcellus como modelo, e verificar se as condições empregadas na purificação (nativa ou desnaturante interferem no desempenho antigênico dessas proteínas. As proteínas foram testadas em Cavia porcellus previamente sensibilizados com cepa M. bovis AN5 inativada, individualmente (160 µg ou combinadas na forma de um coquetel (40 µg cada. O coquetel de proteínas induziu reações de hipersensibilidade nos animais sensibilizados significativamente superiores (p=0,002 as observadas nos animais não sensibilizados, possibilitando diferenciação. No entanto, as proteínas isoladamente não foram capazes de promover essa diferenciação. As condições de solubilização e purificação influenciaram o desempenho antigênico da proteína ESAT-6, pois, quando produzida em condição desnaturante desencadeou reações inespecíficas nos animais não sensibilizados, enquanto que aquela produzida em condições nativas e aplicada em concentrações de 6, 12, 24 e 48µg induziu reações significativas apenas nos animais sensibilizados, confirmando o seu potencial como antígeno.

  9. (Cavia porcellus) in Benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    choisie à cause de la faible pratique de la caviaculture au Bénin. ..... Tableau 4: Evolution du pourcentage cumulé de la variance expliquée en fonction des 5 premiers axes factoriels. Dim.1 ..... l'exécution du protocole, a procédé à la lecture.

  10. Genética poblacional de cobayas de Colombia, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae con marcadores moleculares RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aníbal Campos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, mostramos los primeros resultados moleculares de formas colombianas de Cavia. Claramente, la población silvestre de C. anolaimae fue genéticamente diferenciada de la forma doméstica, C. porcellus, tal como ha sido demostrado por otros autores utilizando resultados morfométricos, osteológicos y cariotípicos. Ambas especies mostraron un considerable nivel de diversidad genética, aunque el segundo taxon mostró niveles mayores de esta diversidad. Los niveles de heterogeneidad genética también fueron mayores entre las poblaciones de C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 que entre las poblaciones de C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. Esos niveles significativos de heterogeneidad genética, y los consiguientes bajos niveles de flujo génico, fueron discutidos comparativamente con los resultados por otros autores analizando otros marcadores moleculares (citocromo-b mitocondrial. Los resultados aquí mostrados son coherentes con un complejo proceso de domesticación en Cavia porcellus.Population genetics of Colombian Guinea Pigs, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae with RAPD molecular markers. The genus Cavia occurs in South America, mainly in grasslands.. We collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with RAPD molecular markers. One wild type (C. anolaimae was differentiated from the domestic form (C. porcellus, in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. Genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in C. porcellus. The levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 than among the populations of C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. These significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for Cavia porcellus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1481-1501. Epub 2008 September 30.

  11. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  12. ANÁLISIS PROXIMAL, PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LAS VÍSCERAS DEL CUY (Cavia porcellus Y SU USO POTENCIAL EN ALIMENTACIÓN ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Parra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el valor nutritivo de materias primas no convencionales en la elaboración de concentrado animal, de bajo coste y que no compitan con la alimentación del hombre, en la presente investigación se analizó el contenido nutricional de las vísceras abdominales de cuy (Cavia porcellus y de su harina, usando análisis proximal y perfil de ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases. Se compararon estos resultados con materias primas convencionales como la harina de pescado y con vísceras de diversos animales. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la harina de vísceras de cuy puede competir con harinas de diversas procedencias dadas sus cualidades nutricionales (58% proteína, 28% grasa, 4% cenizas; además, el alto contenido de grasa en las vísceras frescas (55% base seca está constituido principalmente ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tipo omega 3, 6 y 9, siendo relevante el contenido de ácido linolénico, ácidos grasos que en la dieta de los animales son escasos y de alto costo. Es posible concluir que los componentes nutricionales de las vísceras de cuy la convierten en una materia prima promisoria en alimentación animal, estimulando así el aprovechamiento de estos residuos.

  13. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of lung tissue from guinea pigs with Leptospiral Pulmonary Haemorrhage Syndrome (LPHS) reveals a decrease in abundance of host proteins involved in cytoskeletal and cellular organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent completion of the complete genome sequence of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides innovative opportunities to apply proteomic technologies to an important animal model of disease. In this study, a 2-D guinea pig proteome lung map was used to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of ...

  15. Isolation induced changes in Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus pup distress whistles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia F. Monticelli; Rosana S. Tokumaru; César Ades

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to assess the influence of the duration of a brief isolation period on whistle acoustic structure, werecorded the distress whistles of six 8-day old pups separated for 15 min from their...

  16. Cell death and serum markers of collagen metabolism during cardiac remodeling in Cavia porcellus experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagahira E Castro-Sesquen

    Full Text Available We studied cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in cardiac remodeling produced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In addition, we evaluated collagen I, III, IV (CI, CIII and CIV deposition in cardiac tissue, and their relationship with serum levels of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP and procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP. Eight infected and two uninfected guinea pigs were necropsied at seven time points up to one year post-infection. Cell death by necrosis and apoptosis was determined by histopathological observation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. Deposition of cardiac collagen types was determined by immunohistochemistry and serum levels of PICP, PIIINP, and anti-T. cruzi IgG1 and IgG2 by ELISA. IgG2 (Th1 response predominated throughout the course of infection; IgG1 (Th2 response was detected during the chronic phase. Cardiac cell death by necrosis predominated over apoptosis during the acute phase; during the chronic phase, both apoptosis and necrosis were observed in cardiac cells. Apoptosis was also observed in lymphocytes, endothelial cells and epicardial adipose tissue, especially in the chronic phase. Cardiac levels of CI, CIII, CIV increased progressively, but the highest levels were seen in the chronic phase and were primarily due to increase in CIII and CIV. High serum levels of PICP and PIIINP were observed throughout the infection, and increased levels of both biomarkers were associated with cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.038, respectively. These results confirm the role of apoptosis in cell loss mainly during the chronic phase and the utility of PICP and PIIINP as biomarkers of fibrosis in cardiac remodeling during T. cruzi infection.

  17. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus caviae Strain Cavy grass 6T, Isolated from Domesticated Guinea Pig Fecal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus caviae strain Cavy grass 6T, isolated from fecal samples of pet guinea pigs, can metabolize a range of plant mono- and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 2.11 Mb. PMID:28360157

  19. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  20. Análise morfológica e funcional do processo espermatogênico em cobaios (Cavia porcellus da pré-puberdade até a pós-puberdade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K.R. Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu as análises morfológica e funcional do processo espermatogênico em cobaios (Cavia porcellus de cinco (S5; seis (S6; nove (S9 e onze (S11 semanas de idade (N=5/grupo. Os aspectos analisados incluíram a contagem das populações celulares presentes no estádio 1 do ciclo do epitélio seminífero (CES, eficiência das mitoses espermatogoniais (RMi, produção meiótica (RMe, rendimento geral da espermatogênese (RGE, índice de células de Sertoli (ICS e capacidade de suporte das células de Sertoli (CSCS. Os resultados mostraram que número médio de espermatogônias A, espermatócitos primários em pré-leptóteno/leptóteno, espermatócitos primários em paquíteno, células espermatogênicas totais e células de Sertoli mostraram variações numéricas em função da idade, entretanto, não detectadas estatisticamente, enquanto espermátides arredondadas aumentaram significativamente na puberdade e depois se estabilizaram. A produção espermatogênica de cobaios de 5 a 11 semanas não atingiu o ponto de estabilização e o RMi, RMe, RGE, ICS e CSCS mostraram variação numérica significativa em função da idade. Os resultados demonstraram que Cavia porcellus na pós-puberdade 2 são um modelo experimental vantajoso para estudos de processos de reconhecimento homólogos, alinhamento, e sinapses durante a prófase meiótica; o rendimento intrínseco da espermatogênese em cobaios é semelhante ao relatado para ratos Wistar, pacas e cutias (Dasyprocta sp. e menor do que em preás, enquanto que a eficiência funcional das células de Sertoli é superior a de cutias e ratos Wistar e inferior à de pacas, rato espinhoso e catetos. Concluiu-se que em cobaios a espermatogênese está completamente estabelecida na semana 6 de idade, indicando a fase púbere do desenvolvimento sexual, e até a semana 11 eles não atingiram a produção espermática diária máxima e, portanto, a maturidade sexual.

  1. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2 orally.

  2. COMPARACIÓN DE DOS TIPOS DE SACRIFICIO Y DIFERENTES TIEMPOS DE MADURACIÓN SOBRE VARIABLES FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS Y MICROBIOLÓGICAS DE LA CARNE DE CUY (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Jurado-Gámez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento de las variables fisicoquímicas y microbiológicasdurante la maduración de la carne de cuy (Cavia porcellus, utilizandodos métodos de insensibilización (desnucamiento y electronarcosis. La investigaciónse realizó en los laboratorios de la Universidad de Nariño y se utilizaron 24 animales:12 para cada método. Los animales ayunaron 12 h antes del sacrificio y las canalesse maduraron en refrigeración (2 a 4°C durante 24 h. Se determinaron las variablespH, acidez, temperatura, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA, conductibilidadeléctrica (CE y pérdida de agua en refrigeración cada 4 h. Se evaluaron los parámetrosmicrobiológicos coliformes totales y fecales a las 0, 16 y 24 h, además de Listeria sp. yla presencia de antibióticos (sulfamidas al inicio de la maduración. Para detectar diferenciaentre métodos de insensibilización para las variables fisicoquímicas se utilizó undiseño de medidas repetidas en el tiempo; para las demás variables se utilizó estadísticadescriptiva. Los resultados mostraron que el mejor tiempo de maduración fue a las 16horas, con un pH promedio de 5,42, acidez de 0,272 % y CRA de 12,73. Además, lasvariables microbiológicas estuvieron por debajo de la norma vigente garantizando lainocuidad de la carne evaluada. No se observó diferencia estadísticas entre métodos deinsensibilización y los resultados de antibióticos fueron negativos. Se concluye que eltiempo adecuado de maduración para la carne de cuy fue de 16 horas sin diferencias enel método de insensibilización.

  3. Trixacarus caviae Fain, Howell & Hyatt 1972 (Acari: Sarcoptidae) as a cause of mange in guinea-pigs and papular urticaria in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrestein, G.M.; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    1979-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of infestation with Trixacarus caviae in guinea-pigs are described. In general large areas of thickened, denuded skin, with a heavy secondary bacterial infection, and sometimes neurological signs, are observed in mangy cases. Antiparasitic therapy was successful with one or sev

  4. Trixacarus caviae Fain, Howell & Hyatt 1972 (Acari: Sarcoptidae) as a cause of mange in guinea-pigs and papular urticaria in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrestein, G.M.; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    1979-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of infestation with Trixacarus caviae in guinea-pigs are described. In general large areas of thickened, denuded skin, with a heavy secondary bacterial infection, and sometimes neurological signs, are observed in mangy cases. Antiparasitic therapy was successful with one or sev

  5. Efek Pemberian Ekstrak Lidah Buaya (Aloe Barbadensis Miller pada Soket Gigi terhadap Kepadatan Serabut Kolagen Pasca Ekstraksi Gigi Marmut (Cavia Porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yuza

    2014-12-01

    sockets density of collagen were observed using light microscope 400x magnification. Analyzing data is done by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Post Hoc test using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing collagen density between groups. Statistically results between groups showed that the extract of 90% Aloe barbadensis Miller affected the formation of collagen fibers when compared to the control group (p <0.05 on day 7 after tooth extraction of guinea pig. The conclusion of this study was 90% Aloe barbadensis Miller extract increased the density of collagen fibers from the tooth socket seven days after tooth extraction of guinea pig.

  6. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  7. Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Jeklova, E; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V

    2015-08-22

    Guinea pigs are commonly kept as pet animals; however, information about particular disease prevalence is lacking. The objective of this article was to present disease prevalence in 1000 pet guinea pigs from private owners divided into three age groups: under two years; between two and five years; and above five years. Medical records of guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) that were presented to the authors' clinic in the period from January 2008 to August 2013 were reviewed. The most commonly diagnosed disease in guinea pigs was dental disease (36.3 per cent), with higher prevalence in the middle age group (Pguinea pigs (Pguinea pigs from a total of 1000 animals were healthy. This is the first study to describe the disease prevalence in three age groups of pet guinea pigs.

  8. [Palaeoparasitological analysis of guinea pig mummies of the Chiribaya culture, Moquegua Valley, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar de la Cruz, Katharina; Ribbeck, Regine; Daugschies, Arwid

    2003-01-01

    During several excavations of archeological sites in the Moquegua Valley, Southern Peru, various guinea pig mummies (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) have been discovered. They belong to the Chiribaya Culture (900-1100 AD). The outstanding preservation of the mummified animals gave rise to the idea of a paleoparasitological analysis. In the fur, numerous well preserved ectoparasites (lice, fleas, mites) could be recovered. Generally, ectoparasite remains are rarely found among archeological material. This is the first account of an extensive ectoparasitological analysis of animal mummies in Peru. A modified technique for recovery and preservation of the ectoparasites has been developed.

  9. Histological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of a Case of Endometriosis in a Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by the ectopic proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. The pathogenesis of this disease is still obscure, and Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation is still the most widely accepted explanation. Endometriosis in animals has been so far described not only in baboons and a rhesus macaque but also in dogs and horses that are nonmenstruating animals. In this article, we report the histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the first case of ovarian cystic endometriosis and adenomyosis in a guinea pig. The case presented supports the hypothesis that endometriosis is a disease not at all related to the phenomenon of retrograde menstruation but is a consequence of some alterations in the morphogenesis of the female genital system and therefore it could be found in any mammal. We suggest considering endometriosis among the other pathological phenotypes in animals displaying ovarian and uterine alterations and having a history of difficulties in conceiving.

  10. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  11. Blood-feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi But Not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    that this conclusion is made with the experimental design caveat that host species used, insect species used, changes in ambient environ- ment...often used to study hematophagous insect feeding behavior and evaluate products such as topical repellents. However, when these models are used the study...or not. These results are discussed and it is recommended that warming devices are used when conducting feeding experiments with insects sensitive to

  12. Neurons in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) lateral lumbosacral spinal cord project to the central part of the lateral periaqueductal gray matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Rutger; Klop, Esther Marije

    2006-01-01

    In order to micturate successfully, information from the bladder has to be conveyed to the brainstem. In most experimental animals, this information is relayed, via the lumbosacral spinal cord, to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Although the rat is the most used experimental animal in

  13. Family Outbreaks of Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis following a Meal of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Fournier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.

  14. EVALUACIÓN in vivo DE Lactobacillus plantarum CON CARACTERÍSTICAS PROBIOTICAS MEDIANTE QUÍMICA SANGUÍNEA, INMUNOHISTOQUÍMICA Y MICROSCOPIA ELECTRÓNICA EN Cavia porcellus

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    HENRY JURADO GÁMEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Health problems mainly the lack of a specific pharmacology, affect the production parameters and the profitability of productions guinea pig in the department of Nariño. Which is why, new alternatives that promote cleaner production through the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB are raised. Therefore, the in vivo effect of L. plantarum administration in guinea pigs of alternative to antibiotics in two different diets was assessed. peptides by HPLC was determined in the supernatant, resistance to basic pH, analysis of zootechnical parameters, laboratory tests (Table hematic, blood chemistry, partial urine and stool before and after administration to the further selected animals was analyzed effectiveness by colonization tests histopathology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. GPT and CA statistically significant differences between diets. Also different degrees of severity and type of injury in the intestinal tissues adherent bacteria was observed hairiness with Gram staining and scanning electron microscopy. The PAS was positive for all treatments and immunostaining was mild, moderate or severe depending on the intestinal segment.

  15. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  16. Expression of the secreted FAD-dependent sulfydryl oxidase (QSOX) in the guinea pig central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, C; Musard, J F; Hadjiyiassemis, M; Jouvenot, M; Fellmann, D; Risold, P Y; Adami, P

    2004-06-18

    cpQSOx1 is a member of the QSOx family of proteins, expressed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and ortholog of the rat rQSOx1. In this study, in vitro experiments were conducted and showed that, as other member of this family, cpQSOx1 has a sulfydryl oxidase activity, and is a secreted protein. Then, the expression of this enzyme was researched in the guinea pig brain, as very little information exists yet on the expression of QSOx family members in the central nervous system. By immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, cpQSOx1 is synthesized by neurons throughout the whole guinea pig central nervous system. Reticular structures as the basal forebrain, reticular thalamic nucleus and reticular nuclei of the brainstem contained the densest labeling. These results are discussed in terms of putative roles of this protein in synaptic strengthening and in redox activities.

  17. Use of saprophytic leptospira strains in the serodiagnosis of experimental leptospirosis in guinea-pigs (Cavia sp

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    Raul J. S. Girio

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of four Leptospira biflexa strains (Buenos Aires, Patoc 1, Rufino and São Paulo as single antigen in the serodiagnosis in guinea-pigs experimentally infected with seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, tarassovi and wolffi was evaluated by the microscopic agglutination test. The four saprophytic strains were not able to reveal antibody titres in sera of guinea-pigs experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans. Serological cross-reactions were observed between strains Patoc 1 and São Paulo and between serovars wolffi and hardjo.

  18. Observaciones sobre la Bartonelosis en el Cuy: Cavia Porcellus

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    N. Van Der Walle

    1943-03-01

    Full Text Available 1. La Haemobartonella tyzzeri ha sido observada microscópicamente en 3 cuyes machos de 10 cuyes esplenectomizados procedentes de la zona verrucógena del Rímac.,, (5 machos, 5 hembras, mientras que 3 machos y 1 hembra de Lima resultaron negativos. 2. Una vez se ha cultivado la H. tyzzeri en el medio semi-sólido de NOGUCHI a 28ºC. 3. Sangre de un cuy naturalmente infectado fué inyectado intraperitonealmente a un cuy esplenectomizado de Lima; a las 2 semanas las bartonellas eran visibles en la sangre. De esta manera fueron inoculados 6 cuyes en pasajes sucesivos, siempre con resultados positivos. El porcentaje de glóbulos infectados (± 0.05 % en el cuy original, subió durante estos pasajes, hasta un máximo de 6.25%. El período de incubación bajó en los dos últimos pasajes hasta 1 semana. Tres de los 6 animales mostraron una ligera anemia (con 3.48, 3.74, y 3,19 millones de hematíes por mm.3, respectivamente y otro (el del segundo pasaje una anemia fuerte (1.25 millón, con macrocitos, normoblastos y un alto porcentaje de reticulocitos. Está comprobado pues, que la virulencia de la H. tyzzeri puede ser aumentada. 4. Se ha estudiado el cuadro hemático con los resultados siguientes. El diámetro medio del glóbulo parasitado resulta por lo. general un poco más pequeño que el del no infectado, diferencia que por lo menos en un caso no se podría atribuir al azar. En tres cuyes se observó un aumento de los hematíes, precediendo al descenso de éstos. En algunos de los cuyes parasitados se notó una disminución del número de los leucocitos, seguido por una leucocitosis, la cual era unas veces acompañada, de un aumento del porcentaje de los granulocitos neutrófilos. Eosinofílía durante o después de la infección fué observada en tres cuyes, monocitosis en dos. Algunas veces se pudo poner de manifiesto una hipersegmentación del núcleo de los granulocitos. 5. Se realizó un estudio anátomo-patológico del hígado de algunos cuyes parasitados y del bazo de un cuy naturalmente infectado; también dé un pedazo del bazo, dejado con una esplenectomía incompleta en otro cuy experimentalmente infectado.

  19. Performances de production des cobayes (Cavia porcellus L.) en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Cameroun, l'élevage des cobayes se pratique encore dans les cuisines et à même le sol et leur ..... Figure 1 : Evolution des poids des mères allaitantes de la naissance au sevrage des petits. .... lecture critique du manuscrit ; EM a participé.

  20. An ecologically relevant guinea pig model of fetal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, S A; Lucas, D; Kleven, G A

    2015-04-15

    The laboratory guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, shares with humans many similarities during pregnancy and prenatal development, including precocial offspring and social dependence. These similarities suggest the guinea pig as a promising model of fetal behavioral development as well. Using innovative methods of behavioral acclimation, fetal offspring of female IAF hairless guinea pigs time mated to NIH multicolored Hartley males were observed longitudinally without restraint using noninvasive ultrasound at weekly intervals across the 10 week gestation. To ensure that the ultrasound procedure did not cause significant stress, salivary cortisol was collected both before and after each observation. Measures of fetal spontaneous movement and behavioral state were quantified from video recordings from week 3 through the last week before birth. Results from prenatal quantification of Interlimb Movement Synchrony and state organization reveal guinea pig fetal development to be strikingly similar to that previously reported for other rodents and preterm human infants. Salivary cortisol readings taken before and after sonography did not differ at any observation time point. These results suggest this model holds translational promise for studying the prenatal mechanisms of neurobehavioral development, including those that may result from adverse events. Because the guinea pig is a highly social mammal with a wide range of socially oriented vocalizations, this model may also have utility for studying the prenatal origins and trajectories of developmental disabilities with social-emotional components, such as autism.

  1. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model.

  2. Prokaryotic expression and in vitro functional analysis of IL-1β and MCP-1 from guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ly, Lan H; McMurray, David N

    2013-06-01

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an excellent animal model for studying human tuberculosis (TB) and also for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases. One of the major roadblocks in effective utilization of this animal model is the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In order to address this issue, guinea pig interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were efficiently cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector, and the expressed proteins in soluble form from both the genes were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The biological activity of recombinant guinea pig IL-1β was demonstrated by its ability to drive proliferation in thymocytes, and the recombinant guinea pig MCP-1 exhibited chemotactic activity for guinea pig resident peritoneal macrophages. These biologically active recombinant guinea pig proteins will facilitate an in-depth understanding of the role they play in the immune responses of the guinea pig to TB and other diseases.

  3. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development.

  4. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  5. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  6. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

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    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  7. Evaluation of femur of orchiectomized Guinea pigs by bone densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estanislau, Cristiane de Abreu; Rahal, Sheila Canavese; Araujo, Fabio Andre Pinheiro de, E-mail: crisestanislau@hotmail.co, E-mail: sheilacr@fmvz.unesp.b, E-mail: fabioandre@fmvz.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Sergio Swain Muller, E-mail: diretoria@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Louzada, Mario Jefferson Quirino, E-mail: louzada@fmva.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria; Estanislau, Caroline de Abreu, E-mail: caestanis@hotmail.co

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of castration on bones in the male guinea pigs and to observe whether mechanical testing correlates with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Twelve male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 21-27 days, and with average initial weight of 279 grams were used. The animals were equally allocated to two groups: GI - orchiectomized animals and GII - intact control animals. They underwent euthanasia at seven months following surgery. DXA measurement was performed at the mid third of the right femoral diaphysis in the cortical region and at the left femoral neck in order to verify its correlation with results of mechanical testing. Three-point bending test of right femur and axial compression test of left femur were performed. Bone mineral density of GI was significantly lower only at femoral neck. No differences were observed in the maximum load values between GI and GII for both bending and axial compression tests. The bending test revealed lower bone stiffness in GI compared to GII, but in the axial compression test no differences between groups were observed. Only left femur showed positive correlation coefficient between maximum load and bone mineral density according to Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results suggest that hormonal deprivation in guinea pigs induces reduction of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck area and reduction of bone stiffness in the mid-femoral diaphysis. (author)

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of the IL-10 gene from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Bix, Gregory; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N

    2012-04-25

    The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most relevant small animals for modeling human tuberculosis (TB) in terms of susceptibility to low dose aerosol infection, the organization of granulomas, extrapulmonary dissemination and vaccine-induced protection. It is also considered to be a gold standard for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases; however, this animal model has a major disadvantage due to the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In the present study, we successfully cloned a cDNA for the critical Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), from inbred Strain 2 guinea pigs using the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project. The complete open reading frame (ORF) consists of 537 base pairs which encodes a protein of 179 amino acids. This cDNA sequence exhibited 87% homology with human IL-10. Surprisingly, it showed only 84% homology with the previously published IL-10 sequence from the C4-deficient (C4D) guinea pig, leading us to clone IL-10 cDNA from the Hartley strain of guinea pig. The IL-10 gene from the Hartley strain showed 100% homology with the IL-10 sequence of Strain 2 guinea pigs. In order to validate the only published IL-10 sequence existing in Genbank reported from C4D guinea pigs, genomic DNA was isolated from tissues of C4D guinea pigs. Amplification with various sets of primers showed that the IL-10 sequence reported from C4D guinea pigs contained numerous errors. Hence the IL-10 sequence that is being reported by us replaces the earlier sequence making our IL-10 sequence to be the first one accurate from guinea pig. Recombinant guinea pig IL-10 proteins were subsequently expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, purified and were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. Polyclonal anti-IL-10 antibodies were generated in rabbits using the recombinant IL-10 protein expressed in this study. Taken together, our results indicate that the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project

  9. The Guinea Pig as a Model for Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD: The Impact of Cholesterol Intake on Expression of AD-Related Genes.

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    Mathew J Sharman

    Full Text Available We investigated the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus, as a model for Alzheimer's disease (AD, both in terms of the conservation of genes involved in AD and the regulatory responses of these to a known AD risk factor - high cholesterol intake. Unlike rats and mice, guinea pigs possess an Aβ peptide sequence identical to human Aβ. Consistent with the commonality between cardiovascular and AD risk factors in humans, we saw that a high cholesterol diet leads to up-regulation of BACE1 (β-secretase transcription and down-regulation of ADAM10 (α-secretase transcription which should increase release of Aβ from APP. Significantly, guinea pigs possess isoforms of AD-related genes found in humans but not present in mice or rats. For example, we discovered that the truncated PS2V isoform of human PSEN2, that is found at raised levels in AD brains and that increases γ-secretase activity and Aβ synthesis, is not uniquely human or aberrant as previously believed. We show that PS2V formation is up-regulated by hypoxia and a high-cholesterol diet while, consistent with observations in humans, Aβ concentrations are raised in some brain regions but not others. Also like humans, but unlike mice, the guinea pig gene encoding tau, MAPT, encodes isoforms with both three and four microtubule binding domains, and cholesterol alters the ratio of these isoforms. We conclude that AD-related genes are highly conserved and more similar to human than the rat or mouse. Guinea pigs represent a superior rodent model for analysis of the impact of dietary factors such as cholesterol on the regulation of AD-related genes.

  10. Efeitos da cisplatina em cobaias: histologia coclear e genotoxidade Cisplatin effects on guinea pigs: cochlear histology and genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacineli Marion de Franceschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer as respostas do DNA aos agentes externos como a cisplatina pode ser relevante para o diagnóstico e tratamento das alterações auditivas causadas pela administração deste fármaco. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a influência da cisplatina sobre a cóclea e o DNA de cobaias. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo experimental executado com 12 cobaias (Cavia porcellus. O critério de inclusão de cobaias na amostra foi a presença de reflexo de Preyer e emissões otoacústicas produto de distorção (EOAPDs. As cobaias foram dividas em dois grupos: Grupo controle (GC - composto de seis cobaias, às quais foi administrada solução fisiológica por seis dias consecutivos, via intraperitoneal; Grupo estudo (GE - composto por seis cobaias, às quais foi administrada cisplatina em seis doses consecutivas de 3mg/kg/dia via intraperitoneal. Vinte e quatro horas após a última aplicação de cisplatina as cobaias foram sacrificadas, foi coletada amostra sanguínea e as cócleas foram removidas. RESULTADOS: Administração de cisplatina não provocou alterações genotóxicas. A análise histológica mostrou alterações no órgão de Corti e gânglio espiral. CONCLUSÃO: A cisplatina provoca alterações na histologia coclear como perda da microcitoarquitetura normal do órgão de Corti e redução dos neurônios do gânglio espiral com alterações celulares. No entanto, não foram detectados danos genotóxicos.To understand how the DNA answers to external agents such as cisplatin may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of hearing disorders caused by the administration of such drug. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cisplatin influence on the cochlea and DNA of guinea pigs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental study carried out with 12 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus. The inclusion criterion was the presence of Preyer's reflex and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. Guinea pigs were divided into two groups: Control Group (CG - made up of six guinea pigs

  11. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agata; Alibhai, Aziza; Hughes, Chloe; Price, Jennifer; Klisch, Karl; Sturrock, Craig J; Rutland, Catrin S

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8-12 months and life expectancy is ∼5-6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0-1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6 months-1 year and 1-4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point at which most guinea pigs have

  12. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Witkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23 that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethical permission was given under the UK Home Office guidelines and the Veterinary Surgeons Act. X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (microCT was undertaken on the left and right scapula, humerus and femur from each animal to ascertain bone local thickness. Images were also used to undertake manual and automated bone measurements, volumes and surface areas, identify and describe nutrient, supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina. Statistical analysis between groups was carried out using ANOVA with post-hoc testing. Our data mapped a number of dimensions, and mean and maximum bone thickness of the scapula, humerus and femur in guinea pigs aged 0–1 month, 1–3 months, 3–6 months, 6 months–1 year and 1–4 years. Bone dimensions, growth rates and local bone thicknesses differed between ages and between the scapula, humerus and femur. The microCT and imaging software technology showed very distinct differences between the relative local bone thickness across the structure of the bones. Only one bone showed a singular nutrient foramen, every other bone had between 2 and 5, and every nutrient canal ran in an oblique direction. In contrast to other species, a supratrochlear foramen was observed in every humerus whereas the supracondylar foramen was always absent. Our data showed the bone local thickness, bone structure and measurements of guinea pig bones from birth to 4 years old. Importantly it showed that bone development continued after 1 year, the point

  13. Guinea pigs experimentally infected with vaccinia virus replicate and shed, but do not transmit the virus Cobaias infectadas experimentalmente com vírus vaccínia replicam e excretam, porém não transmitem o vírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of vaccinia viruses (VACV associated with vesicular disease in cattle and humans in Southeast Brazil remains uncertain, yet the role of wild species in virus transmission has been suggested. This study investigated the susceptibility and transmission potential by guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus - phylogenetically close to an abundant Brazilian rodent (Cavia aperea - to two VACV strains (P1V and P2V isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. Eight guinea pigs inoculated intranasally with P1V and P2V (10(6 TCID50.ml-1 did not develop clinical signs, but six animals shed virus in nasal secretions (day 1 to 9 post-inoculation - pi, developed viremia (between days 1 and 10 pi and seroconverted to VACV. In spite of virus replication and shedding, the virus was not transmitted to sentinel animals by direct or indirect contact (aerosols or through food and water contaminated with virus. These results demonstrate that, in spite of replicating and shedding the virus, guinea pigs do not transmit the virus upon experimental inoculation. This finding makes unlikely a possible participation of related species in VACV maintenance and transmission in nature.A origem dos vírus vaccínia (VACV, envolvidos em surtos de doença vesicular em bovinos e humanos no Sudeste do Brasil, permanece desconhecida, e a participação de espécies silvestres na manutenção e transmissão do vírus tem sido sugerida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a susceptibilidade e o potencial de transmissão por cobaias (Cavia porcellus - filogeneticamente relacionada a uma espécie de roedor, conhecido por preá (Cavia aperea, bastante abundante no país - a duas cepas de VACV (P1V e P2V isoladas de um surto de doença cutânea em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Oito cobaias inoculadas pela via intranasal com uma mistura das amostras P1V e P2V (10(6 DICC50.ml-1 não apresentaram sinais clínicos, porém seis animais excretaram o vírus nas

  14. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

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    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  15. Demography and microhabitat use of the wild guinea pig(Cavia aperea) in freshwater Spartina densiflora marshes in Argentina%阿根廷淡水大米草沼泽中野生豚鼠的种群统计和微生境的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    StellaM.BONAVENTURA; VeronicaPANCOTTO; RicardoL.VICARI; NoraMADANES; MariaI.BELLOCQ

    2003-01-01

    本文研究了秋冬季节淡水大米草(Spartina densiflora)沼泽中野生豚鼠(Cavia aperea)的丰度、繁殖和微生境利用,以及其对当地植被和棉鼠类(Sigmodontine)啮齿动物的影响.野生豚鼠喜好S. densiflora覆盖度高的生境.繁殖个体(成体)主要利用矮草为主的斑块,幼体则主要利用禾本科植物为主的斑块.结果说明,野生豚鼠微生境的利用受捕食风险和食物种类的影响.在淡水沼泽中,野生豚鼠的丰度、繁殖、体重和微生境利用没有季节性变化,它们对植物的取食和活动跑道的建造对植被结构和同域的啮齿类动物没有负面影响.通过对具有中度季节性变化的淡水生境中的豚鼠种群和具有高度季节变化的草地和路边中的豚鼠种群进行比较,表明野生豚鼠的种群动态以及豚鼠种群对植被和与其共生的啮齿动物群落的影响都受到冬季植被盖度的限制[动物学报 49(1):20~31,2003].%We studied abundance, reproduction and microhabitat use of the wild guinea pig (WGP), Cavia aperea, and its influence on vegetation and sigmodontine rodents during the fall-winter period in freshwater Spartina densiflora marshes. WGP preferred microhabitats with high S. densiflora cover. Reproductive individuals (=adults) mainly used patches dominated by short grasses, while juveniles used patches with forbs. These results suggest that microhabitat use in the WPG is influenced by predation risk (availability of safe foraging sites and refuges) and type of food. In freshwater marshes, WGP abundance, reproduction, body weight and microhabitat use exhibited no seasonal variations, and their herbivory and runway construction activities had no negative effect on vegetation structure and sigmodontine rodents. Results from a comparison between WGP populations living in freshwater habitats (moderate seasonality) vs grasslands and roadsides (strong seasonality), suggest that the population dynamics of the WGP, as

  16. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  17. Aeromonas caviae septicemia in immunocompetent gastrointestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.

  18. Drug use study recommended for agricultural storage for guinea pigs farms in pasto city, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Revelo-C., Alex F.; Tobar-Torres, Mario J.; Benavides-Melo, Janneth C.; Astaiza Martínez, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo. Identificar los principales medicamentos recomendados por los almacenes agropecuarios para las explotaciones destinadas a la producción de cuyes (Cavia porcellus) en el municipio de Pasto (Colombia). Materiales y métodos. Se caracterizaron patrones de utilización de medicamentos en treinta almacenes agropecuarios mediante la aplicación de una encuesta. Los datos se analizaron con la ayuda del paquete estadístico Statgraphics Plus 5.0. Resultados. La estadística descriptiva indicó qu...

  19. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  20. Effect of motilin on the contractility of gastric smooth muscle via NO pathway in guinea pig

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    Luo XU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the gastroprokinetic effects of motilin and erythromycin A (EM-A and its potential mechanism in guinea pigs Cavia porcellus in vitro. Guinea pig stomach strips were mounted under organ baths containing Krebs solution. Motilin, EM-A, Nω- Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, L-arginine (L-AA were added to the bathing solution in a non-cumulative way. Then the effects of motilin and EM-A was studied during electrical field stimulation (EFS in the absence and presence of L-NNA and L-AA in the gastric anturm and fundus of guinea pigs. In addition, we observed the co-expression of motilin receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in the gastric myenteric plexus of guinea pigs by fluo-immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the Circular muscle tissues of the gastric fundus generated on-relaxations and off-contractions with the frequency of 1–16 Hz. The on-responses induced a relaxation, partially mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO because addition of L-NNA turned the relaxations into cholinergically mediated contractions. The off-contractions were also cholinergically mediated as they disappeared under non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC conditions using atropine and guanethidine. In fundic strips, motilin and EM-A induced on-relaxation and off-contraction and both motilin (1 µmol/L and EM-A (100 µmol/L may significantly increased on-response and reduced off-response (P<0.05–0.001. And the effects of motilin on strip responses were significantly enhanced compared with EM-A. The on-responses could be reversed into a cholinergically mediated contraction by addition of NOS inhibitors L-NNA. In contrast, administration of substrate of NOS, L-AA, significantly increased on-relaxations and reduced cholinergic motor responses which were induced by motilin or EM-A. However D-arginine (D-AA did not change the above response induced by motilin or EM-A. In the antral strips, motilin and EM-A only increased off

  1. UniProt search blastx result: AK287578 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287578 J065038J02 P36366|FMO2_CAVPO Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig) 5.00E-16 ...

  2. UniProt search blastx result: AK287696 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287696 J065129N03 P36366|FMO2_CAVPO Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 2 (EC 1.14.13.8) (Pulm...onary flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) (FMO 2) (Dimethylaniline oxidase 2) (FMO 1B1) - Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig) 4.00E-15 ...

  3. Omecamtiv Mecarbil Abolishes Length-Mediated Increase in Guinea Pig Cardiac Myofiber Ca(2+) Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, Sampath K; Reda, Sherif M; Chandra, Murali

    2017-08-22

    Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a pharmacological agent that augments cardiac contractile function by enhancing myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Given that interventions that increase myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity have the potential to alter length-dependent activation (LDA) of cardiac myofilaments, we tested the influence of OM on this fundamental property of the heart. This is significant not only because LDA is prominent in cardiac muscle but also because it contributes to the Frank-Starling law, a mechanism by which the heart increases stroke volume in response to an increase in venous return. We measured steady-state and dynamic contractile indices in detergent-skinned guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) cardiac muscle fibers in the absence and presence of 0.3 and 3.0 μM OM at two different sarcomere lengths (SLs), short SL (1.9 μm) and long SL (2.3 μm). Myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, as measured by pCa50 (-log of [Ca(2+)]free concentration required for half-maximal activation), increased significantly at both short and long SLs in OM-treated fibers when compared to untreated fibers; however, the magnitude of increase in pCa50 was twofold greater at short SL than at long SL. A consequence of this greater increase in pCa50 at short SL was that pCa50 did not increase any further at long SL, suggesting that OM abolished the SL dependency of pCa50. Furthermore, the SL dependency of rate constants of cross-bridge distortion dynamics (c) and force redevelopment (ktr) was abolished in 0.3-μM-OM-treated fibers. The negative impact of OM on the SL dependency of pCa50, c, and ktr was also observed in 3.0-μM-OM-treated fibers, indicating that cooperative mechanisms linked to LDA were altered by the OM-mediated effects on cardiac myofilaments. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Haltung und Reproduktion des Wildmeerschweinchens (Cavia aperea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rübensam, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effect of two different housing conditions on physiological parameters as well as fetal growth and seasonally different reproductive investment in the wild guinea pig was examined. We found a significant effect of housing condition characterized by a body mass loss and higher basal cortisol levels in animals kept indoors compared to animals kept outdoors. Furthermore, the fetal growth was characterized by repeated ultrasound measurements during pregnancy. The data may hel...

  5. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M., E-mail: indiramadambath@gmail.com

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  6. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia caviae in the first Brazilian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Geraldo Magela; Oliveira, Sílvia Cristina de Castro; Soares, Ana Cláudia de Brito; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by exogenous fungi or actinomycetes. This infection has a progressive course and shows a typical clinical characteristic of tumefaction, draining sinuses, and grains. Infection initiation is related to local trauma and can spread to muscle, underlying bone, and adjacent organs. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most frequent actinomycete isolated, while N. caviae is a rare agent. We present a case of mycetoma in a 37-year-old African-American man on the right hand. The infection had been apparent for four years prior to the consultation. When the infection did not respond to antibiotic therapy, the patient was referred to the Dermatology department. Routine laboratory studies were normal. X-ray examination of the hand showed an osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. On skin biopsy culture, on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar at 28 degrees C, a colony was isolated which was further identified as N. caviae by biochemical and hydrolysis testing. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) 160/800 mg twice a day for 10 months. Four months after the beginning of the therapy, the subject exhibited clinical improvement and functional recovery of the hand. Five-year follow-up X-ray examination of the hand showed no osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. We report the first mycetoma case caused by N. caviae in our country with an unusual location on the hand. The patient showed clinical improvement with oral TMP/SMZ.

  7. Chlamydial development is blocked in host cells transfected with Chlamydophila caviae incA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzhanov, Damir; Barnes, Jennifer; Hruby, Dennis E; Rockey, Daniel D

    2004-07-01

    Chlamydiae produce a set of proteins, termed Inc proteins, that are localized to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the host cell cytosol. Little information exists regarding the interaction of Inc proteins with the eukaryotic cell. To examine these interactions, Vaccinia virus vectors and mammalian plasmid-based systems were used to express inc genes in mammalian cells. Cells transfected with plasmids expressing Chlamydophila caviae incA were not productively infected by C. caviae. Expression of C. caviae incA also reduced inclusion formation by Chlamydia trachomatis, but not to the degree seen for C. caviae. Chlamydia trachomatis incA did not block development of either C. trachomatis or C. caviae. Deletion mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that plasmids encoding either the amino or carboxy-terminal regions of the protein, as well as the changing of a single amino acid within IncA (serine 17) could not block C. caviae infection. Immunoblot analysis of truncated IncA in a Vaccinia virus system provided evidence that serine 17 of C. caviae IncA is a target for phosphorylation. These experiments provide insight into the interaction of Inc proteins with the host cell and introduce a model system where these interactions can be explored further.

  8. Chlamydial development is blocked in host cells transfected with Chlamydophila caviae incA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae produce a set of proteins, termed Inc proteins, that are localized to the inclusion membrane and exposed to the host cell cytosol. Little information exists regarding the interaction of Inc proteins with the eukaryotic cell. To examine these interactions, Vaccinia virus vectors and mammalian plasmid-based systems were used to express inc genes in mammalian cells. Results Cells transfected with plasmids expressing Chlamydophila caviae incA were not productively infected by C. caviae. Expression of C. caviae incA also reduced inclusion formation by Chlamydia trachomatis, but not to the degree seen for C. caviae. Chlamydia trachomatis incA did not block development of either C. trachomatis or C. caviae. Deletion mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that plasmids encoding either the amino or carboxy-terminal regions of the protein, as well as the changing of a single amino acid within IncA (serine 17 could not block C. caviae infection. Immunoblot analysis of truncated IncA in a Vaccinia virus system provided evidence that serine 17 of C. caviae IncA is a target for phosphorylation. Conclusions These experiments provide insight into the interaction of Inc proteins with the host cell and introduce a model system where these interactions can be explored further.

  9. Determinación de la merma de la carne de cuy (Cavia porcellus) por congelación y descongelación

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, J.; Departamento de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS; Tapia, N.; Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Condorhuamán, C.; Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Diaz, P.; Departamento de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS; Vera, M.; Departamento de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS; Carcelen, F.; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Huamán, D.; Estudiante de la E.A.P. de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Arias, C.; Estudiante de la E.A.P. de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Peña, D.; Estudiante de la E.A.P. de Ingeniería Agroindustrial, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2016-01-01

    Determinar el porcentaje de la merma de la carne de cuy por congelación y descongelación fue el objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación. Se realizó de junio a octubre del 2014. Se emplearon 16 cuyes machos de genotipo Cieneguilla con un peso comercial de 850 a 900 gramos de peso vivo. Se empleó la prueba de T para muestras independientes de la estadística básica con 2 tratamientos y 16 repeticiones. T1: Cuyes beneficiados pesados en el mes de junio y T2: Cuyes beneficiados pesados en e...

  10. Efek Relaksasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) Terhadap Kontraksi Otot Polos Ileum Marmut (Cavia porcellus) Terisolasi Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Michi, Anddora

    2015-01-01

    Pugun Tanoh (Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr.) is a plant of Scropulariaceae family which is often used by the native people of Tiga Lingga village in Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia to cure diarrhea and stomachache. This research aims to observe the relaxation effect of Pugun Tanoh leaf ethanol extract on the contraction of isolated guinea pig’s ileum by acetylcholine. This research was conducted using in vitro. The parameter measured in this research is the contract...

  11. Determinación in vitro de la acción probiótica de lactobacillus plantarum sobre yersinia pseudotuberculosis aislada de cavia porcellus

    OpenAIRE

    H. Jurado-Gámez; Calpa-Yama, F.; Chaspuengal-Tulcán, A.

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto in vitro de Lactobacillus plantarum sobre Yersinia pseudotuberculosis aislada de cuyes e identificada bioquímica y molecularmente. Se determinó la viabilidad de L. plantarum a diferentes pH (3,25, 4,5, 7,6 y 8,2), sales biliares bovina (3, 4 y 5%), bilis bovina (0,5, 1 y 2%) y temperatura (38 y 45°C). Se realizó antibiograma a ambas bacterias con Cefalotina, Cefepima, Ciprofloxacina, Dicloxacilina, Enrofloxacina, Gentamicina, Penicilina y Trimetropim-Sulfametoxasol. Se det...

  12. Biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polymer with addition of calcium carbonate compared to titanium. Experimental study in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Yorgos Luiz Santos De Salles; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Barboza, Barbara Evelin Gonçalves; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Sucharski, Enéas Eduardo; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction.

  13. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus,. Microarray profiling of...

  14. Estimation of Value-at-Risk for Energy Commodities via CAViaR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiliang, Zhao; Xi, Zhu

    This paper uses the Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk model (CAViaR) proposed by Engle and Manganelli (2004) to evaluate the value-at-risk for daily spot prices of Brent crude oil and West Texas Intermediate crude oil covering the period May 21th, 1987 to Novermber 18th, 2008. Then the accuracy of the estimates of CAViaR model, Normal-GARCH, and GED-GARCH was compared. The results show that all the methods do good job for the low confidence level (95%), and GED-GARCH is the best for spot WTI price, Normal-GARCH and Adaptive-CAViaR are the best for spot Brent price. However, for the high confidence level (99%), Normal-GARCH do a good job for spot WTI, GED-GARCH and four kind of CAViaR specifications do well for spot Brent price. Normal-GARCH does badly for spot Brent price. The result seems suggest that CAViaR do well as well as GED-GARCH since CAViaR directly model the quantile autoregression, but it does not outperform GED-GARCH although it does outperform Normal-GARCH.

  15. Epidemiology of Chlamydophila caviae-like Chlamydia Isolated from Urethra and Uterine Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariyama,Reiko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, chlamydial strains OK133 and OK135 were isolated from 2 female patients with cervicitis. These strains were unresponsive to commercially available PCR and LCR test kits for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and their phenotypic characteristics were very similar. The OK135 nucleotide sequence in MOMP-VD2 gene closely resembled that of Chlamydophila caviae GPIC. A similar strain was isolated in 2003 from a male patient OKM2 with urethritis, from which the strain SC10-6 was cloned by the plaque purification method. The nucleotide sequence of the entire MOMP gene of SC10-6 was exactly the same as that of OK135. Thus, the strains OK135 and SC10-6, together with OK133, have been called C. caviae-like Chlamydia. We designed primers for nested PCR assay, the product of which showed a single-band 311-bp fragment, to detect C. caviae-like Chlamydia. Of swab specimens obtained from 202 patients from 2003 to 2006 (119 male and 83 female patients, 18 specimens (8.9% from 14 male and 4 female patients were positive, suggesting that C. caviae-like Chlamydia infection is rather common. Thus far, it has not been determined whether C. caviae-like Chlamydia is pathogenic for humans.

  16. Epidemiology of Chlamydophila caviae-like Chlamydia isolated from urethra and uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Wataru; Wada, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Fujiwara, Michihisa; Fukushi, Hideto; Kishimoto, Toshio; Monden, Koichi; Kariyama, Reiko; Kumon, Hiromi

    2010-02-01

    In 2000, chlamydial strains OK133 and OK135 were isolated from 2 female patients with cervicitis. These strains were unresponsive to commercially available PCR and LCR test kits for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and their phenotypic characteristics were very similar. The OK135 nucleotide sequence in MOMP-VD2 gene closely resembled that of Chlamydophila caviae GPIC. A similar strain was isolated in 2003 from a male patient OKM2 with urethritis, from which the strain SC10-6 was cloned by the plaque purification method. The nucleotide sequence of the entire MOMP gene of SC10-6 was exactly the same as that of OK135. Thus, the strains OK135 and SC10-6, together with OK133, have been called C. caviae-like Chlamydia. We designed primers for nested PCR assay, the product of which showed a single-band 311-bp fragment, to detect C. caviae-like Chlamydia. Of swab specimens obtained from 202 patients from 2003 to 2006 (119 male and 83 female patients), 18 specimens (8.9%) from 14 male and 4 female patients were positive, suggesting that C. caviae-like Chlamydia infection is rather common. Thus far, it has not been determined whether C. caviae-like Chlamydia is pathogenic for humans.

  17. INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADO SOBRE EL GRADO DE ACEPTACIÓN DE LA CARNE DE CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS EN PRESENTACIONES DE AHUMADO, CROQUETAS Y APANADO EN LA CIUDAD DE PASTO MARKET RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF ACCEPTANCE OF MEAT FROM CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS PRESENTATIONS SMOKED, AND BROSTER CROQUETTES IN THE CITY OF PASTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO E ARGOTE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios de hábitos en el consumo de alimentos, insinúan productos de fácil preparación y oportuna adquisición en supermercados, motivo por el cual se hizo necesario indagar a los consumidores de la ciudad de Pasto, su interés y disponibilidad por adquirir Cuy, en presentaciones diferentes a la tradicional. Los objetivos desarrollados fueron valoración de la demanda potencial, realización de test de mercado, determinación de la participación de la carne de Cuy con sustitutos y diseño de estrategias de mercadeo. El modelo de investigación empleado fue el cuantitativo y obedeció a muestreo probabilístico aleatorio con estratificación proporcional. La recolección de la información se realizó mediante encuesta. La población objeto de estudio de la ciudad de Pasto correspondió a 27.428 hogares distribuidos en los estratos, tres, cuatro, cinco y seis. La muestra calculada fue de 383 observaciones, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 5%. Las estrategias se formularon con base en la mezcla de mercadeo (precio, producto, plaza, promoción y publicidad. Como resultados y conclusiones se logró determinar que el consumo de la carne de Cuy es ocasional con cantidades entre una y cuatro canales. El Cuy en el momento no se vende en famas ni en supermercados, los precios se analizaron en asaderos comerciales (700 gramos de Cuy asado $24.000 y plazas de mercados (Kilo de Cuy vivo alrededor de $12.000. El porcentaje de participación de la carne de Cuy fue de 3,3% del consumo total de carnes. El estimativo de la demanda potencial para las nuevas presentaciones fue de: 92.158 unidades/año para el Cuy ahumado, 69.119 unidades/año para el apanado, y croquetas con 65.827 unidades/año, con pesos de 750 g y 500 g. Los encuestados prefirieron la carne de Cuy ahumada.The changes of habits in the consumption of foods, insinuate products of easy preparation and opportune acquisition in supermarkets, reason for which became necessary to investigate consumers of the city of Pasto, their interest and readiness to acquire cuy, in presentations different to the traditional one. The developed objectives were valuation of the potential demand, realization of market test, determination of the participation of the cuy meat with substitutes and design of marketing strategies. The used investigation pattern was the quantitative one and it obeyed probabilistic aleatory sampling with proportional stratification. The gathering of information was carried out by means of survey. The population object of study the city of Pasto corresponded to 27.428 homes distributed in the strata, three, four, five and six. The calculated sample was of 383 observations, with a level of trust of 95% and a margin of error of 5%. The strategies were formulated with base in the marketing mixture (price, product, square, promotion and publicity. As results and conclusions it was possible to determine that the consumption of the cuy meat is occasional with quantities between one and four channels. The cuy in the moment is not sold in fame neither in supermarkets, the prices were analyzed in commercial (700 grams of roasted cuy $24.000 assayers and squares of markets (Kilo of alive cuy around $ 12.000. The percentage of participation of the cuy meat was of 3,3% of the total consumption of meats. The estimative of the potential demand for the new presentations was of: 92.158 units/year for the smoky cuy, 69.119 units/year for the one broster, and croquettes with 65.827 units/year, with pesos of 750 g and 500 g. Those interviewed preferred the smoky cuy meat.

  18. Immunohistochemical demonstration of airway epithelial cell markers of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Jing; He, Hai Yan; Ma, Ling Jie; Zeng, Jin; Deng, Guang Cun; Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F; Wang, Yujiong

    2011-10-01

    The guinea pig (Cavea porcellus) is a mammalian non-rodent species in the Caviidae family. The sensitivity of the respiratory system and the susceptibility to infectious diseases allows the guinea pig to be a useful model for both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases such as asthma and tuberculosis. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time, the major cell types and composition in the guinea pig airway epithelium, using cell type-specific markers by immunohistochemical staining using the commercial available immunological reagents that cross-react with guinea pig. Our results revealed the availability of antibodies cross-reacting with airway epithelial cell types of basal, non-ciliated columnar, ciliated, Clara, goblet and alveolar type II cells, as well as those cells expressing Mucin 5AC, Mucin 2, Aquaporin 4 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. The distribution of these various cell types were quantified in the guinea pig airway by immunohistochemical staining and were comparable with morphometric studies using an electron microscopy assay. Moreover, this study also demonstrated that goblet cells are the main secretory cell type in the guinea pig's airway, distinguishing this species from rats and mice. These results provide useful information for the understanding of airway epithelial cell biology and mechanisms of epithelial-immune integration in guinea pig models.

  19. Learning and personality types are related in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Anja; Brust, Vera; Dersen, Mona; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of consistent individual differences, so called animal personalities, have attracted much research interest over the past decades. Variation along common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Individuals that are bolder and hence take more risks may be more successful in acquiring resources over the short term. Cautious individuals taking fewer risks may, on the other hand, live longer, but may also gather fewer resources over the short term. According to recent theory, individual differences in personality may be functionally related to individual differences in cognitive performance (i.e., the way in which individuals acquire or use information). Individual differences in the acquisition speed of cognitively challenging tasks are often associated with a speed-accuracy trade-off. Accuracy can be improved by investing more time in the decision-making process or, conversely, decisions can be made more quickly at the cost of making more mistakes. Hence, the speed-accuracy trade-off often involves a risk-reward trade-off. We tested whether 3 personality traits, boldness, activity, and aggressiveness, are correlated with individual learning, associative learning speed, and behavioral flexibility as assessed by reversal learning in wild cavies (Cavia aperea). We found strong positive relationships between all personality traits and learning speed, whereas flexibility was negatively associated with aggressiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that performance reflects individual differences in personality in a predictable way. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine-Derived Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a Potential Chitinase Producer Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here a draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CHZ306, a marine-derived bacterium with the ability to hydrolyze chitin and express high levels of chitinases. The assembly resulted in 65 scaffolds with approximately 4.78 Mb. Genomic analysis revealed different genes encoding chitin-degrading enzymes that can be used for chitin derivative production. PMID:27856589

  1. Identification of hydroxy fatty acids in Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters obtained from clinical isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae revealed the presence of two hydroxy fatty acid species, 3-OH 12:0 and 3-OH 14:0.

  2. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianfang Liu

    Full Text Available Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions.The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE.The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7.

  3. Characterisation of potential virulence markers in Aeromonas caviae isolated from polluted and unpolluted aquatic environments in Morocco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imziln, Boujama; Krovacek, Karel; Baloda, Suraj B.

    1998-01-01

    .406) than those isolated from raw sewage (PVI = 0.175) or those from river waters (PVI = 0.09). These results suggest that stabilisation pond systems used for sewage purification under arid climate conditions in Marrakech, may have selected potentially enteropathogenic A. caviae strains.......A total of 100 Aeromonas caviae strains isolated from river waters (38 isolates), raw sewage (30 isolates) and effluents of stabilisation ponds (i.e. treated sewage; 32 isolates) in Marrakech, Morocco, were tested for the presence of putative virulence factors to delineate differences, if any......, in their enteropathogenic potential in relation to the source of isolation. A number of A. caviae isolates were able to elaborate at least one of the tested virulence factors. Of the 100 strains tested, 27 were capable of producing haemolysins, 19 produced cytotoxin, 24 produced cytotonic toxin, while 18 of the isolates...

  4. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  5. DIARRHEA OUTBREAK IN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, ASSOCIATED WITH A HEAT-STABLE CYTOTOXIC ENTEROTOXIN PRODUCED BY Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Carolina Amaral; Martins, Luciano Moura; Gatti, Maria Silvia Viccari; Falavina Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura; Hofer, Ernesto; Yano, Tomomasa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study enterotoxic and cytotoxic activities of twenty Aeromonas caviae strains were examined. They originated from fecal specimens of patients with acute diarrhea during an outbreak in Brazil in 2004. Culture supernatants of fourteen strains (70%) caused fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal intestinal loops and in suckling mice assays, and also showed a cytotoxic activity in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The enterotoxic and cytotoxic factors were heat-stable after culture supernatants treatment at 100 ºC. The results revealed that A. caviae strains produce a putative diarrheagenic virulence factor, a heat-stable cytotoxic enterotoxin that could be linked to the diarrhea outbreak that took place in Brazil.

  6. Detection of Chlamydophila caviae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in horses with signs of rhinitis and conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Wolfgang; Reckling, Karl-Friedrich; Schliephake, Anette; Missal, Dirk; Hotzel, Helmut; Sachse, Konrad

    2010-05-19

    At a stud farm of Trakehner horses, all 33 foals of a birth cohort developed conjunctivitis and serous to muco-purulent rhinitis, and 7 older horses showed recurrent signs of conjunctivitis. Examination of nasal and conjunctival swabs by bacterial and cell culture, as well as real-time PCR, ArrayTube microarray analysis and DNA sequencing led to the identification of Chlamydophila (C.) caviae (first description in horses) and Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus. We presume a synergistic effect associated with these two agents by hypothesising that primary lesions were set by C. caviae and subsequently aggravated by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Indications supporting this assumption include (i) the conjunctivitis caused by mono-infection with C. caviae, (ii) recurrent clinical symptoms in the affected animals, and (iii) the absence of a sustained clinical effect of antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfonamide, enrofloxacin and amoxicillin. The detection of C. caviae in horses raises questions about the significance and natural host range of this agent.

  7. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Regolin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females, representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae. In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES NIVELES DE HARINA DE LEGUMBRE DE VILQUILLA (LEUCAENA LEUCACEPHALA) EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CUYES (CAVIA PORCELLUS) EN CRECIMIENTO Y ENGORDE TACNA-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    GENERALIDADES TEÓRICAS ESTRUCTURA DE LA POBLACIÓN PECUARIA PRODUCCIÓN Y DESTINO FISIOLOGÍA DIGESTIVA DEL CUY CECOGRAFÍA EN CUYES NECESIDADES NUTRITIVAS DEL CUY VILQUILLA DESCRIPCIÓN DISTRIBUCIÓN EXTENSIÓN Y ORIGEN ESTATUS HÁBITAT PROPIEDADES FISIOLÓGICAS SEMILLA TRATAMIENTO PRE GERMINATIVO USOS VARIABLES EVALUADAS GANANCIA DE PESO CONVERSIÓN ALIMENTICIA

  9. INCLUSIÓN DE HARINAS DE FOLLAJES ARBÓREOS Y ARBUSTIVOS TROPICALES (Morus alba, Erythrina poeppigiana, Tithonia diversifolia EHibiscus rosa-sinensis EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CUYES (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Meza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se ejecutó en la Finca Experimental “La María” propiedad de la Univer-sidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo (UTEQ localizada en el km 71/2de la vía Quevedo-Mocache; Provincia de Los Ríos cuya ubicación geográfica de 1º 6’ 23” de latitud sury 79º 29’ 12” de longitud oeste y a una altura de 73 m.s.n.m. El objetivo principal fueevaluar el comportamiento productivo de cuyes con la inclusión del 20% de harinasderivadas de follajes arbustivos y arbóreos tropicales. Se utilizaron 40 cuyes macho de 30días de edad. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco tratamientos, cuatroréplicas y la unidad experimental estuvo conformado por dos cuyes. Para determinarlas diferencias entre medias de tratamientos se aplicó la prueba de Tukey (P≤0.05. Seevaluaron cinco dietas-tratamientos: (T0 dieta 100% balanceado, (T1 80% dieta y 20%harina deMorus alba, (T2 80% dieta y 20% harina deErythrina poeppigiana, (T3 80%dieta y 20% harina deTithonia diversifolia, (T4 80% dieta y 20% harina deHibiscusrosa-sinensis. Las variables bajo estudio fueron: consumo de alimento de balanceado enmateria seca (CABMS, g, ganancia de peso (GP, g, índice de conversión alimenticia(ICA y rendimiento en canal (RC, %. La rentabilidad de los tratamientos se determinóa través de la relación beneficio-costo (R b/c. Los mayores (P<0.01 CABMS, GP-ICAy RC-Rentabilidad, la registraron los tratamientos: T0 (48.34 g MS animal-1d-1, T1(8.80 g animal-1d-1y 5.04 y el T3 (77.67% y 26.20%, respectivamente.

  10. Estudio descriptivo de la anatomía radiográfica ósea del cuy (Cavia porcellus) no mejorado y el cuy mejorado raza Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Karina; Grandez, Ricardo; Chauca, Lilia; Chauca, Denise; Valencia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: el presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de conocer las características del esqueleto del cuy raza Perú mediante el empleo de radiografías y determinar los cambios experimentados por el mejoramiento genético, comparándolos con el cuy no mejorado. Metodología: se evaluaron 31 animales machos de 16 semanas de edad (16 animales raza Perú y 15 animales no mejorados), ambos grupos compartieron las mismas condiciones de ambiente, tipo de ración y manejo. Los animales fueron manipul...

  11. 基于CAViaR模型的银行间质押回购利率风险研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊; 王晓莹

    2016-01-01

    Value at Risk is widely used in commercial bank interest rate risk management, but domestic commercial banks are still confined to use parameter method (the family of GARCH) and the historical simulation method to calculate the Value at Risk at present. Based on the overnight repo rate as the research object, this paper study the pledged repo operation law and wave characteristics of interest rate risk by constructing CAViaR risk measurement model. The results found that, CAViaR model can better depict the risk prediction effect of pledged repo rate risk. Based on the back test results found that, AS model is the optimal model in estimating China pledged repo rate risk. In addition, based on the overnight repo rate from 2006 to 2014 in VaR value analysis, this paper confirms the CAViaR model can better fitting of monetary market rate changes and the size of interest rate risk.%“在险价值”管理方法在商业银行利率风险管理中被广泛应用,但目前国内商业银行在计算“在险价值”时仍局限于参数方法(GARCH族模型)和历史模拟法。以隔夜质押回购利率作为研究对象,构建基于CAViaR的质押回购利率风险计量模型,研究质押回购利率风险的运行规律和波动特征。研究结果发现,CAViaR模型的风险预测效果能够较好地刻画质押回购利率的利率风险。基于后测检验结果发现,AS模型在估计我国质押回购利率风险时表现最优。此外,基于2006—2014年隔夜回购利率VaR值变化趋势的分析,证实了CAViaR模型能够较好地拟合货币市场利率变化情况及其利率风险的大小。

  12. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  13. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Derek J; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB-RB transitions.

  14. Zooarqueología y tafonomía de Cavia aperea en el humedal del Paraná inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acosta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavia aperea, comúnmente denominado cuis pampeano, es un pequeño roedor gregario de amplia representación en varios depósitos arqueológicos del humedal del Paraná inferior. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir en qué medida su depósito se relaciona con factores naturales y/o antrópicos. Para ello, se evalúan distintos aspectos ecológicos y etológicos de este taxón con el fin de establecer sus posibles implicancias tafonómicas y conductuales como potencial recurso. Se estudiaron dos muestras de Cavia aperea; para el análisis se consideró su abundancia taxonómica y anatómica y diferentes aspectos tafonómicos. A su vez, su posible incorporación a la dieta es abordada desde una perspectiva teórica que la articula con la subsistencia y movilidad de las poblaciones prehispánicas del sector, cronológicamente ubicadas entre los 1.700 y 700 años AP.Cavia aperea, commonly named cuis, is a small gregarious rodent widely represented in several archaeological deposits of the lower Paraná wetlands. The aim of this paper is to discuss its presence in deposits related to natural and/or anthropic factors. Different ecological and ethological aspects of the cuis are evaluated with the purpose of establishing its taphonomic and behavioral implications as a consumed resource. Taxonomic and anatomical abundance and several taphonomic aspects were considered for the analysis of two samples of Cavia aperea. Moreover, the possible contribution of cuis to diet is linked theoretically to pre-Hispanic groups' subsistence and mobility systems (1700-700 BP.

  15. Aeromonas caviae alters the cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities in experimentally infected silver catfish: Impairment on renal bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Júnior, Guerino B; Verdi, Camila Marina; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Santos, Roberto C V; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    Cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinases (CK), through the creatine kinase-phosphocreatine (CK/PCr) system, provide a temporal and spatial energy buffer to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, the effects of bacterial infections on the kidney remain poorly understood and are limited only to histopathological analyses. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activities in renal energetic homeostasis in silver catfish experimentally infected with Aeromonas caviae. Cytosolic CK activity decreased in infected animals, while mitochondrial CK activity increased compared to uninfected animals. Moreover, the activity of the sodium-potassium pump (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Based on this evidence, it can be concluded that the inhibition of cytosolic CK activity by A. caviae causes an impairment on renal energy homeostasis through the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. This contributes to the inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, although the mitochondrial CK activity acted in an attempt to restore the cytosolic ATP levels through a feedback mechanism. In summary, A. caviae infection causes a severe energetic imbalance in infected silver catfish, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spirulina chitosan gel induction on healing process of Cavia cobaya post extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prominent residual ridge is necessary to gain retention and stabilility for succesful prosthodontic treatment such as removable, fixed or implant. Spirulina is a natural substance that can help tissue healing and chitosan also a natural substance that reported to have the ability to help bone remodelling. The combination gel of spirulina and chitosan could be considered as an alternative material to maintain residual ridge height after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of study was to examine the effect of combination gel of Spirulina and chitosan on healing process of Cavia cobaya post tooth extraction socket by counting the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and colagen as an indicator. Methods: Twenty eight cavia cobaya were divided into 4 groups. Insisive mandible extraction was done and the sockets were filled with 3% CMCNa for control groups, 3% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 1, 6% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 2, 12% spirulina chitosan 200 mg for group 3. After 30 days, histopathology examination was done by using microscope to count the amount of osteoclast, osteoblast and collagen. Results: Data was analyzed by using Anova and Tukey HSD. For osteoclast, there was no significant different between every groups, while for osteoblast and collagen there was significant different between groups. The results showed that induction of combination gel spirulina chitosan was able to accumulate collagen fiber and resulting faster wound healing. Conclusion: Combination 12% gel spirulina chitosan 200 mg could be used as an alternative material for better bone remodeling after tooth extraction.Latar belakang: Residual ridge yang prominen sangat dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan retensi dan stabilitas untuk menunjang keberhasilan perawatan di bidang prostodonsia seperti pada kasus removable, fixed atau implant. Tindakan pencabutan gigi dapat merusak jaringan periodontal, sementum dan tulang alveolar yang mengakibatkan resorbsi ridge

  17. L’immunogenicità nella cavia e nel cavallo di due formulazioni di un vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per la peste equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L’efficacia di due vaccini monovalenti, inattivati e adiuvati per il controllo della Peste Equina, allestiti con i sierotipi 5 e 9, è stata saggiata su cavia per selezionare la formulazione con le migliori capacità immunogene. Nella formulazione dei vaccini sono state prese in considerazione: la risposta immunitaria evocata nella cavia e le proprietà infiammatorie di due diversi tipi di adiuvanti precedentemente saggiati nella specie di destino del vaccino.Il vaccino allestito con il sierotipo 9, saggiato in uno studio pilota su cavallo, si è dimostrato capace fin dalla prima somministrazione di stimolare la produzione di anticorpi neutralizzanti. La risposta anticorpale evocata ha subito un marcato rialzo dopo la somministrazione della dose di richiamo, effettuata dopo 28 giorni, perdurando per almeno 10 mesi. La cavia sembra essere un utile modello di laboratorio per la valutazione delle proprietà antigeniche dei vaccini contro la peste equina.

  18. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the gene encoding the extracellular metalloprotease of Aeromonas caviae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, K; Toma, C; Honma, Y

    2000-01-01

    A gene (apk) encoding the extracellular protease of Aeromonas caviae Ae6 has been cloned and sequenced. For cloning the gene, the DNA genomic library was screened using skim milk LB agar. One clone harboring plasmid pKK3 was selected for sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the 3.5 kb region of pKK3 revealed a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1,785 bp encoding 595 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide contained a putative 16-amino acid signal peptide followed by a large propeptide. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified recombinant protein (APK) was consistent with the DNA sequence. This result suggested a mature protein of 412 amino acids with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. However, the molecular mass of purified recombinant APK revealed 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that further processing at the C-terminal region took place. The 2 motifs of zinc binding sites deduced are highly conserved in the APK as well as in other zinc metalloproteases including Vibrio proteolyticus neutral protease, Emp V from Vibrio vulnificus, HA/P from Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. Proteolytic activity was inhibited by EDTA, Zincov, 1,10-phenanthroline and tetraethylenepentamine while unaffected by the other inhibitors tested. The protease showed maximum activity at pH 7.0 and was inactivated by heating at 80 C for 15 min. These results together suggest that APK belongs to the thermolysin family of metalloendopeptidases.

  19. Measuring Contagion of Subprime Crisis Based on MVMQ-CAViaR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial contagion is a topical issue in international finance and portfolio management. In this paper, we investigate whether the global financial crisis originating from American subprime crisis spreads to China, Japan, UK, France, and Germany. Firstly, multivariate conditional autoregressive value at risk (MV-CAViaR models are applied to the whole sample to analyze the variation of market risk among these countries. By dividing the sampling period into three important subperiods (precrisis period, crisis period, and recovery period, we examine the changes of the dependence structure of risk during each period. Comparing with the situations in precrisis period, if the estimated coefficients become significant or market risk increases during the crisis, it implies the existence of contagion from the angle of coefficient significance or risk. The findings show that the concerned coefficients are significant or the market risks of the tested countries increase during the crisis except for China. The results imply that there is contagion from the US to all other countries, except for China. Furthermore, the changes of the market risk are found to be consistent with market events and media reports during that period.

  20. The Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgolide B on Fast-EPSP in the Celiac Ganglion Neurons of Guinea Pig%银杏内酯B对豚鼠腹腔神经节神经元Fast-EPSP的抑制效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金兰; 孔淼; 许奇; 王烈成; 柯道平; 马嵘; 孔德虎

    2008-01-01

    应用细胞内记录技术,观察并分析了银杏内酯B(GB)对豚鼠(Cavia porcellus)离体腹腔神经节(CG)神经元快兴奋性突触后电位(fast-EPSP)的影响及可能机制.用4×10-6mol/L的GB灌流CG,fast-EPSP的幅值均明显降低,与对照组相比有显著性差异(n=12,P<0.05);用低Ca2+/高Mg2+ Krebs液灌流,fastEPSP被完全抑制(n=3);用高Ca2+ Krebs液灌流,fast-EPSP幅度则增大(n=12,P<0.05),而用4×10-6mol/L GB与高Ca2+ Krebs液联合灌流,fast-EPSP幅度则减小(n=12,P<0.05).结果提示,GB对CG神经元fast-EPSP的抑制效应可能与减少或抑制CG神经元的外Ca2+内流有关.

  1. An Aeromonas caviae Genomic Island Is Required for both O-Antigen Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Flagellin Glycosylation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tabei, S. Mohammed B.; Hitchen, Paul G.; Day-Williams, Michaela J.; Merino, Susana; Vart, Richard; Pang, Poh-Choo; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Viches, Silvia; Wilhelms, Markus; Tomás, Juan M.; Dell, Anne; Shaw, Jonathan G

    2009-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae Sch3N possesses a small genomic island that is involved in both flagellin glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen biosynthesis. This island appears to have been laterally acquired as it is flanked by insertion element-like sequences and has a much lower G+C content than the average aeromonad G+C content. Most of the gene products encoded by the island are orthologues of proteins that have been shown to be involved in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis and flagellin gl...

  2. PARTICIPACION DEL COMPLEJO PIRUVATO DESHIDROGENASA DE AEROMONAS CAVIAE ST EN RESISTENCIA TELURITO DE POSTASIO (K2TEO3)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El telurito de potasio (K2TeO3) es altamente tóxico para la mayoría de los seres vivos. Aunque se desconoce el mecanismo de toxicidad especifico, recientemente se ha demostrado que estaría dado, al menos en parte, por el establecimiento de un estrés oxidativo. Aeromonas caviae ST, el microorganismo utilizado en este estudio es altamente resistente a K2TeO3 y extractos crudos de esta bacteria catalizan la reducción de K2TeO3 in vitro. Se obtuvo fracciones con actividad telurito reductasa qu...

  3. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2–6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3–6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso’s anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs. PMID:28328950

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a Marine-Derived Bacterium Isolated from the Coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso Vargas, Nadia Catalina; Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Pessoa, Adalberto; Rivera, Irma Nelly Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae CH129, a marine-derived bacterium isolated from the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. Genomic analysis revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in binding, transport, and chitin metabolism and different virulence-associated factors. PMID:27908996

  5. Streptomycin action to the mammalian inner ear vestibular organs: comparison between pigmented guinea pigs and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Graciela; Aguilar-Maldonado, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Streptomycin is the antibiotic of choice to treat tuberculosis and other infectious diseases but it causes vestibular malfunction and hipoacusia. Rodents are usually employed as models of drug action to the inner ear and results are extrapolated to what happens in humans. In rats, streptomycin destroys macular sensory cells and does not affect cochlear ones, whereas in guinea pigs the contrary is true. Action on the vestibular cristae cells involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex integrity is less clear. Thus, we compared this response in both pigmented guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) after parallel streptomycin chronic treatment. In guinea pigs, the reflex was obliterated along treatment time; in rats this behavior was not observed, suggesting that the end organ target was diverse. In recent studies, streptidine, a streptomycin derivative found in the blood of humans and rats treated with streptomycin, was the actual ototoxic agent. The putative streptomycin vestibular organ target observed in humans corresponds with the guinea pig observations. Results observed in rats are controversial: streptidine did not cause any damage either to vestibular cristae nor auditory cells. We hypothesize differential drug metabolism and distribution and conclude that results in laboratory animals may not always be applicable in the human situation.

  6. 豚鼠交感神经节非胆碱能迟慢兴奋性突触后电位与蛙皮素、P物质的关系%The Relationship between Non-cholinergic, Late Slow-excitatory Postsynaptic Potential and Bombesin or Substance P in Sympathetic Ganglia of Guinea-pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 柯道平; 孔德虎

    2005-01-01

    运用玻璃微电极细胞内记录技术,观察豚鼠(Cavia porcellus)离体肠系膜下神经节(IMG)细胞非胆碱能迟慢兴奋性突触后电位(ls-EPSP)与蛙皮素(BOM)、P物质(SP)的关系,以探讨肽类神经递质在外周神经系统中的作用.结果显示,SP去极化、BOM去极化与ls-EPSP具有相关性;SP受体脱敏使SP敏感细胞的ls-EPSP减弱或消失,但不影响BOM引起的去极化;BOM受体脱敏使BOM敏感细胞的ls-EPSP减弱或消失,但不影响SP引起的去极化.大部分ls-EPSP阳性细胞对SP、BOM敏感,而对SP、BOM均不敏感的细胞多数不出现ls-EPSP.结果提示,BOM、SP通过IMG细胞膜上相应受体参与了ls-EPSP的形成,受体间无交互脱敏现象.

  7. The use of 90% Aloe vera freeze drying as the modulator of collagen density in extraction socket of incicivus Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Arijani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is basically a complex process in which cellular and matrix act in concern to re-establish the integrity of injury tissues. This process can be simplified to be healing process consisted of haemostatic, inflammation, cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. The aimed of this research was to know the influence of freeze drying 90% Aloe vera application as mandible collagen density modulator in extraction socket of incisive Cavia cobaya. This research was done using Post Test Only Control Groups Design and Cavia cobaya as the sample. Six samples of each control group and 90% Aloe vera group applied to test each collagen density for three days and seven days. Then, the data was analyzed statistically using Mann Whitney with 5% significance rate. The result of the study indicates that administering 90% Aloe vera can accelerate the growth of collagen density in healing process of extraction socket. The conclusion is 90% Aloe vera can modulate the density of collageneous fiber in socket of extraction incicivus tooth wound of Cavia cobaya.

  8. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : VI. ON THE VIRULENCE OF THE OVERGROWTH IN THE LYSED CULTURES OF BACILLUS PESTIS CAVIAE (M. T. II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Muckenfuss, R S; Korb, C

    1926-10-31

    Resistants isolated from the overgrowth of cultures of B. pestis caviae (M. T. II) lysed by various strains of specific bacteriophage proved to be avirulent when administered to mice by feeding, or by intraperitoneal injection. These cultures remained resistant to the action of bacteriophage so long as they were carried on agar. When transferred to broth, however, one group of resistants, namely, those isolated by means of "weak" phages, became susceptible to lysis after five to seven daily passages. The other group of resistants, isolated from the cultures lysed by one of the "strong" phages, failed to become susceptible to lysis even after nearly 200 passages in broth. Simultaneously with the recovery of susceptibility, the cultures of the first group regained a degree of virulence comparable to that of the parent culture of B. pestis caviae. The cultures of the second group of resistants have failed thus far to recover virulence (10 months after isolation). The latter cultures, apart from lack of both virulence and susceptibility to lysis, are identical with the parent culture of B. pestis caviae, as indicated by biochemical and antigenic properties. Our findings offer evidence in favor of the view that resistant strains result from selection among variants already existing in the parent culture and do not arise through the inheritance of specific immunity properties produced by the action of phage.

  9. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  10. 基于流动性调整CAViaR模型的风险度量方法%A New Method of Risk Measurement Based on Liquidity Adjusted CAViaR Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫昌荣

    2012-01-01

    The measurement and management of the liquidity risk, which is one of the major risks faced by investors, has always been one of the most difficult problems in both academia and practice. In this paper, we propose a new risk measurement method, called liquidity adjusted CAViaR models, to help investors manage future risks better, especially liquidity risk. This method can directly reflect the impacts of liquidity changes on the future risks, and the future liquidity adjusted VaR can be calculated simultanuously. Empirical studies suggest that this model can characterize the behavior of dynamic changes of liquidity risks in Chinese stock market, and conclude that a substantial decline of stock liquidity may lead to a significant increase of future risks. The positive liquidity may have a more significant effect than that of negative liquidity, thus it is more worthy of attentions from investors.%本文提出了流动性风险度量的一个新的方法,流动性调整的CAViaR模型。该模型能够直接反映资产流动性的变动对未来风险的影响,并在此基础上计算资产未来经过流动性调整的风险VaR,从而使投资者能够更好地管理风险,尤其是流动性风险。实证研究表明,该模型能够较好地刻画中国股市流动性风险的动态变化特征;并且发现股票流动性的大幅下降通常导致未来风险明显加大,且正向流动性下降所带来的风险往往较负向流动性要更大,因此更值得投资者关注。

  11. Fatal epizootic equine herpesvirus 1 infections in new and unnatural hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Lehmbecker, Annika; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Böer, Michael; Kummrow, Maja; Haas, Ludwig; Grummer, Beatrice

    2011-05-05

    In a zoological collection, four black bears (Ursus americanus) died from neurological disease within six months. Independently in a geographically different zoo, two Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsoni) and 18 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus f. dom.) suffered from neurological disorders. In addition, guinea pigs showed abortions and stillbirths. All affected animals displayed a non suppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistology demonstrated equine herpes virus antigen and ultrastructurally herpes viral particles were detected. Virus isolation and molecular analysis identified neurotropic equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 strains in both epizootics. There is serological evidence of a possible virus transmission from other equids to the affected animals. Cross-species transmission of EHV-1 should be considered in the management of captive wild equids and ungulates, particularly with respect to fatal disease in irreplaceable species.

  12. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  13. Reseña descriptiva de la explotación del cuy Cavia porceilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar L. Gustavo A.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available It was revised 241 scientific and empiric references about guinea pig based on which it was formulated a description about such an exploitation this summary is composed of thirteen chapters with the following contents: history, taxonomy, geographical distribution, anatomy, physiology, ethology, nutrition, genetic and improvement, production and handling, soundness, benefic construction and cost production and market.Con base en 241 bibliografías relacionadas con el conocimiento del cuy, se formuló una reseña descriptiva que consta de trece acápites en las siguientes áreas: historia, taxonomía, distribución geográfica, anatomía, fisiología, etología, nutrición, genética y mejoramiento, producción y manejo, sanidad, construcciones y costos de producción y mercadeo.

  14. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  15. Conservation of the biochemical properties of IncA from Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae: oligomerization of IncA mediates interaction between facing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevoye, Cédric; Nilges, Michael; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Subtil, Agathe

    2004-11-05

    The developmental cycle of Chlamydiaceae occurs in a membrane compartment called an inclusion. IncA is a member of a family of proteins synthesized and secreted onto the inclusion membrane by bacteria. IncA proteins from different species of Chlamydiaceae show little sequence similarity. We report that the biochemical properties of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae are conserved. Both proteins self-associate to form multimers. When artificially expressed by the host cell, they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Strikingly, heterologous expression of IncA in the endoplasmic reticulum completely inhibits concomitant inclusion development. Using truncated forms of IncA from C. caviae, we show that expression of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein at the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum is sufficient to disrupt the bacterial developmental cycle. On the other hand, development of a C. trachomatis strain that does not express IncA is not inhibited by artificial IncA expression, showing that the disruptive effect observed with the wild-type strain requires direct interactions between IncA molecules at the inclusion and on the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, we modeled IncA tetramers in parallel four helix bundles based on the structure of the SNARE complex, a conserved structure involved in membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells. Both C. trachomatis and C. caviae IncA tetramers were highly stable in this model. In conclusion, we show that the property of IncA proteins to assemble into multimeric structures is conserved between chlamydial species, and we propose that these proteins may have co-evolved with the SNARE machinery for a role in membrane fusion.

  16. Identification of clinical aeromonas species by rpoB and gyrB sequencing and development of a multiplex PCR method for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Søren; Al-Shuweli, Suzan; Yapici, Seval; Jensen, Joan N; Olsen, Katharina E P

    2015-02-01

    Conventional identification of Aeromonas species based on biochemical methods is challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the species. Here, we present a new multiplex PCR method directed toward the gyrB and rpoB genes that identifies four Aeromonas species, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. veronii, and A. caviae, and we describe the application of this method on a Danish strain collection.

  17. Fermentation characteristics ofMegasphaera elsdeniiJ6 derived from pig feces on different lactate isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-lin; SU Yong; ZHU Wei-yun

    2016-01-01

    D-Lactate-utilizing bacteria play important roles in maintaining the balance of gut lactate; however, studies on gut D-lactate-uti-lizing bacteria have been limited. This study aimed to isolate and identify D-lactate-utilizing bacteria from pig gut using the Hungate rol-tube method, and to investigate their metabolic characteristicsin vitro. Six different anaerobes were isolated from pig feces, which were identiifed as related toBacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides acidifaciens,Veilonela denticariosi, Veilonela caviae,Bacteroides uniformis, andMegasphaera elsdenibased on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Al strains had a signiifcant ability to utilize D-lactate, which was concluded afterin vitro fermentation with 25 mmol L–1 D-lactate as the primary carbon source. Of al 6 strains,M. elsdeniJ6 showed the highest efifciency of D-lactate utilization and produced a higher ratio of butyrate in total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Thus, thein vitro fermentation characteristics of this strain in D-, L-, and DL-lactate mixtures (D-lactate:L-lactate=1:1 or 1:2) were further studied. The results showed that M. elsdeni J6 preferred utilizing D-lactate, and produced more SCFA when using D-lactate as the primary carbon source. The ifndings suggest that the administration of D-lactate-utilizing bacteria such asM. elsdeni J6 may have a potential advantage in the aleviation of D-lactic acidosis in the animal gut.

  18. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  19. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  20. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  1. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  2. 柳叶洗眼液对豚鼠皮肤过敏性实验研究%Skin hypersensitivity experimental research of weeping willow leaf on cavia cobaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫; 邓淑凤; 齐丽荣; 秦葵; 孙晓丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 研制柳叶洗眼液并观察其对豚鼠的过敏反应,方法取新鲜柳叶,采用水提、醇沉、超滤、灭菌等工艺制成柳叶洗眼液;豚鼠30只随机分为3组,观察柳叶对豚鼠皮肤过敏实验.结果 柳叶洗眼液对豚鼠皮肤毒性实验观察期间,对豚鼠无任何皮肤过敏反应.结论 用柳叶洗眼液治疗流行性出血性结膜炎,安全无毒、效果好、易推广.%Objective To study weeping willow leaf eye lotion and observe cavia cobayas'allergic reaction. Method Taking fresh weeping willow leaf, adopting water extraction, alcohol precipitation, ultrafiltration and sterilization to made eye lotion. Selecting 30 cobayas, divided into 3 groups randomly and observed the cavia cobayas'allergic reaction. Results Willow leaves eye washing liquid showed no skin allergy to cavia cobaya by toxicity test Conclusions Willow leaves eye washing liquid can used for epidemic hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, it was safe and no toxicity, better medical, and easily extended application.

  3. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...

  4. Measuring emotions in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inonge Reimert monitored pig behaviors in positive and negative emotional states and compared the results. For her research, she used The Observer XT for behavioral annotation. She found very different behaviors to be associated with the two situations, such as play and tail wagging in the positive

  5. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  6. Combination of Aloe vera and xenograft induction on decreasing of NF-kb of tooth extraction socket preservation in Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb. As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan

  7. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  8. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  9. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi;

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...... the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM...

  10. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  11. An Innovation of Estimating Value at Risk of International Carbon Market: Conditional Autoregressive Value at Risk Models with Refinements from Extreme Value Theory%国际碳市场风险价值度量的新方法——基于EVT-CAViaR模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 丁洋; 汪文隽

    2015-01-01

    受全球经济、政治、能源和政策等各方面因素影响,碳资产价格波动剧烈,探寻适合碳市场风险度量的计量方法具有重要的现实意义.论文以EUA和CER市场为研究对象,对比了CAViaR与GARCH-GED模型在不同预测区间、不同置信水平下度量碳市场风险时的表现,发现CAViaR模型在模型拟合和预测方面要优于GARCH-GED模型,但由于CER市场具有更大的不确定性,导致了CAViaR模型在CER市场的预测表现比EUA市场更差,并且在预测1% VaR时,CAViaR模型表现出不稳定性;论文进一步将EVT与CAViaR模型结合来改进碳市场1% VaR的预测效果,发现在处理具有高风险预测区间以及高风险的CER市场,EVT-CAViaR模型的预测表现都更加稳健,说明该方法能够一定程度上提升碳市场风险的预测精度.

  12. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  13. Providing Homes For The Homeless - The Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  14. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  15. The effect of combined Moringa oleifera and demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft on the amount of osteoblast and osteoclast in the healing of tooth extraction socket of Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone has an important role in providing support to teeth and dentures. Loss of support caused by alveolar resorption will cause functional and aesthetic problems. Preservation socket using bone graft is one way to maintain the dimensions of the alveolar bone. Moringa oleifera leaf can increase the activity of bone graft in the formation of new bone. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of combined Moringa oleivera leaf extract and demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX towards the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tooth extraction sockets of cavia cobaya. Method: This study used 28 cavia cobayas divided into four groups. The combination of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX was inducted into the sockets of lower incisor tooth with certain dose in each group, ointment 1 containing PEG (a mixture of PEG 400 and PEG 4000 for control group, ointment 2 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active subtance consentration of 0.5% for group 1, ointment 3 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active substance concentration of 1% for group 2, and Ointment 4 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active substance consentration of 2% for group 3. paraffin block preparations were made for histopathology examination using hematoxylin eosin staining. Result: The results showed that there were significant differences of the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in each treatment group (p <0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the combination of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX at 2% cocentration can increase the number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the healing of tooth extraction sockets of cavia cobaya.

  16. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03648-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0068 ) Cavia porcellus clone CH234-118A4, WORKING DRAFT ... 44 0.21 3 ( EU677193 ) Oedogonium cardiacum stra...DKEY-46J3 in li... 34 2.5 2 ( EF587370 ) Oedogonium cardiacum strain SAG 575-1b ribosomal ... 34 2.5 3 ( FG2

  18. Effect of inflammatory response on in vivo competition between two chlamydial variants in the guinea pig model of inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Tormanen, Kati I; Wang, Yin; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-02-01

    In order to study the interaction of variants in in vivo infection, we employed an azithromycin-resistant mutant (AZ(2)) and its wild-type parent (SP(6)) in the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae conjunctival infection. When each strain was inoculated individually into conjunctiva, both attained the same level of growth, but AZ(2) elicited less pathology. However, when equal numbers of the two strains were inoculated together into the guinea pig conjunctiva, SP(6) produced a significantly greater number of inclusion-forming units than AZ(2), and the pathology reflected that of a SP(6) monoinfection. The goal of this study was to further characterize the dynamics of concomitant infection of these two distinct variants, with particular emphasis on the impact of the host response on the in vivo growth of each organism and the development of pathology. Animals infected with AZ(2) had reduced conjunctival infiltration with CD45(+) cells and neutrophils as well as a reduced interleukin-8 (IL-8) response. Gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CCL2, and CCL5 was also significantly lower in AZ(2)-infected animals. The lower inflammatory response induced by AZ(2) was associated with its decreased ability to activate NF-κB via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). In general, the inflammatory response in animals infected with both variants was greater than in infection with AZ(2) alone, resulting in lower numbers of AZ(2) than those of SP(6) in the mixed infection. Our results suggest that the ability to elicit an inflammatory response is an important factor in the dynamics of mixed infection with strains that display different pathological phenotypes.

  19. Behavior of immunocastrated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Kássia Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of immunocastrated male pigs compared with females and castrated males during the period before and after full immunization. A total of 30 animals were divided into three treatments, with ten animals in each (females, barrows, and immunocastrated males. The experiment was divided into three periods: 70 to 80 days of age (period 1, 81 to 110 days of age (period 2, and 111 to 140 days of age (period 3. The behavior of animals during these stages was evaluated. Immunocastrated males showed a higher rate of aggressive and sexual behavior during period 2, which decreased after the second vaccine dose. Both barrows and immunocastrated males presented high locomotion in period 1, reducing the frequency of this activity in period 3. All analyzed animals had a higher level of activities such as drinking, playing, and sexual behavior in period 1 than in the other periods, decreasing during the experiment. The remaining behavioral responses did not differ between the studied categories. Immunocastrated males had higher proportions of undesirable behaviors (aggressive and sexual related to the surgically castrated males and females, and these were reduced after the second vaccine dose. Immunocastration is effective in the reduction of behaviors such as agonistic and sexual at the same levels observed in females and surgically castrated males. However, immunocastrated pigs are more subject to these undesirable behaviors before full immunization.

  20. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    -human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs....... CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal...

  1. Effect of motilin on the contractility of gastric smooth muscle via NO pathway in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming WANG; Luo XU; Jiang LU

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the gastroprnkinetie effects of motilin and erythromycin A (EM-A) and its potential mechanism in guinea pigs Cavia porceUus in vitro. Guinea pig stomach strips were mounted under organ baths containing Krebs solution.Motilin,EM-A,N'-Nitrn-L-arginine (L-NNA),L-arginine (L-AA) were added to the bathing solution in a non-cumulative way.Then the effects of motilin and EM-A was studied during electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of L-NNA and L-AA in the gastric anturm and fundus of guinea pigs. In addition,we observed the co-expression of motilin receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the gastric myenteric plexus of guinea pigs by fluo-immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the circular muscle tissues of the gastric fundus generated on-relaxations and off-contractions with the frequency of 1 -16 Hz. The on-responses induced a relaxation,partially mediated by the release of nitric oxide (NO) because addition of L-NNA turned the relaxations into cholinergically mediated contractions. The off-contractions were also cholinergically mediated as they disappeared under non-adrenergic,non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions using atropine and guanethidine. In fundic strips,motilin and EM-A induced on-relaxation and off-contraction and beth motilin ( 1 μmol/L) and EM-A ( 100 μmol/L) may significandy increased on-response and reduced off-response ( P < 0.05 ). And the effects of motilin on strip responses were significantly enhanced compared with EM-A. The on-responses could be reversed into a cholinergically mediated contraction by addition of NOS inhibitors L-NNA. In contrast,administration of substrate of NOS,L-AA,significantly increased on-relaxations and reduced cholinergic motor responses which were induced by motilin or EM-A. However D-arginine (D-AA) did not change the above response induced by motilin or EM-A. In the antral strips,motilin and EM-A only increased off-contractions. The response to

  2. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  3. Pigs in Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    Animals are rare topics in public health science texts and speech despite the fact that animal bodies and lives are woven into the health of human populations, and vice versa. Years of ethnographic and documentary research – following pigs and their humans in and out of biomedical research – made...... me mindful and watchful of the porous passages between animal and human bodies and environments that do not confine themselves to ‘national health programs’ directed towards a specific (human) population. These unrecognized species encounters and relationships, which exceed the conventional framework...... of public health, made me re-evaluate both what ‘public’ and what ‘health’ means in public health. In this commentary I provide a short personal account of that intellectual journey. I argue that entanglements between species make it urgent that public health scholars investigate the moral, socio...

  4. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  5. Emergence of CTX-M-3, TEM-1 and a new plasmid-mediated MOX-4 AmpC in a multiresistant Aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ying; Xu, Xi-Hai; Li, Jia-Bin

    2010-07-01

    Aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. We report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by Aeromonas caviae. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. The beta-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a new ampC gene that was closely related to those encoding the MOX-1, MOX-2 and MOX-3 beta-lactamases. This new plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase from China was named MOX-4. This is believed to be the first report of MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1 beta-lactamases in a multiresistant A. caviae.

  6. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  7. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  8. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  9. Foa-Kurloff cellen. De invloed van enige hormonen, in het bijzonder geslachtshormonen, op het aantal Foa-Kurloff cellen in het bloed van de cavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerens, Bernardus

    1952-01-01

    In the blood of the guinea pig a ceII is found that can most easily be described as a big lymphocyte with one, sometimes two vacuoles. In the bloodsmear, stained according to May Grunwald-Giemsa, this vacuole appears to be filled with filaments or granules consisting of a substance which is stained

  10. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, M. S. U.; Hossain, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare...... with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infec-tion, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig’s role in zoonotic HEV transmission...

  11. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...... = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could...

  12. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  13. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  14. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  15. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  16. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  17. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  18. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  19. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins......), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use...... and increased availability of fibre rich ingredients from, for instance, the feed milling or starch extraction/fermentation industries have promoted an increased utilisation of fibre rich co-products in the pig feeds (Serena et al. 2007). Especially pregnant sows may be supplied with fibre rich diets without...

  20. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  1. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    -defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...

  2. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  3. The influence of Aloe vera and xenograft XCB toward of bone morpho protein 2 BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast of alveolar bone induced into tooth extraction sockets Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth extraction can cause inflammation leading to alveolar ridge resorption. In addition, prominent ridge has crucial role for making denture su-ccessfully. Thus, socket preservation is needed to prevent greater alveolar ridge resorption. An innovative material, a combination of Aloe vera and xe-nograft (XCB, is then considered as a biogenic stimulator that can reduce inflammation, as a result, the growth of alveolar bone is expected to be impro-ved. This research is aimed to prove whether the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can stimulate BMP2 and increase osteoblasts. Forty-eight Cavia co-baya animals were divided into eight groups each of which consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya animals were then extracted and filled with PEG as Group Control, XCB as Group XCB, Aloe vera as Group Aloe vera, and a combination of Aloe vera +XCB as Group Aloe vera +XCB. Next, the first four groups were sacrificed seven days after extraction, and the second four groups were sacrificed 30 days after extrac-tion. And then, immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to examine BMP2 expression and osteoblasts. Based on the re-sult known that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblasts. It can be concluded that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast cel . It can be used as an alternative material to increase the growth of alveolar bone after extraction.

  4. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  5. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  6. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  7. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important. The production of lean meat is shown to be improved significantly by adopting ... is interested in the biology of pig production, then biological efficiency and its .... scientific basis, I have calculated the economic effects of a number of ...

  8. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...

  9. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  10. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  11. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  12. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  13. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  14. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pairs (18 of microsatelite primers were used in this study to detect the genetic relationship within Black Slavonian Pig and between Turopolje Pig, Mangalitsa breed and Croatian Wild Pigs. The second goal of this study was to determine phylogenetic relationships among these breeds and some Asian and European pigs using the mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. The third goal was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Aiming to conduct microsatellite analysis each animal was genotyped for 18 microsatelite markers, chosen based on their quality, size, polymorphism and location on the porcine genome as proposed by the FAO. Two pairs of primers amplified a 511-bp fragment of control region between sites 15 390 and 15 900 (Mit1.F and Mit1.R and a 810-bp fragment between sites 15 825 and 16 634 (Mit2.F and Mi2.R were genotyped for mtDNA. Two primer pairs were used to amplify the majority of the single exon of MC1R gene aiming to determinate MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pig. The first pair of primers, MERL1 and EPIG2, was used to amplify a 428-bp product from the 5’ half of the exon, whereas EPIG1 and EPIG3 amplified a 405-bp product from the 3’ half. Our results showed that the 18 microsatellites used in this study were useful markers to study genetic diversity among Croatian autochthonous pig breeds. This set of microsatellites may be used for identifying individuals and for genetic diversity studies for selection and conservation of the Black Slavonian pig, Turopolje pig and Mangalitsa breed. Genetic distances between populations made with Principal Component Analysis (PCA method noticed that studied populations are mostly clearly geneticaly defined. mtDNA analysis suggested that Black Slavonian and Turopolje pig showed

  15. Comparative gastric morphometry of Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trang, Pham Hong; Ooi, Peck Toung; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    .... Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology...

  16. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  17. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans.

  18. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

    2014-04-01

    Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria.

  19. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using...... a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...

  20. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  1. Gut health in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pluske, J. R.; Hansen, Christian Fink; Payne, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disturbances can cause large economic losses in the pig industry. Diseases and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that can cause economic loss have generally been controlled by the use of dietary (and or in the water) antimicrobial compounds, such as antibiotic feed a...... gastrointestinal 'health' requires consideration....... additives and (or) minerals such as zinc and copper. However the implementation of legislation in some parts of the world, for example the European Union, and a growing sentiment worldwide to reduce the use of dietary antimicrobial compounds, has caused a reassessment of measures to influence GIT 'health......' and caused enormous interest in alternative means to control diseases and conditions of the GIT. There are now available a wide array of products and strategies available to the pig industry that influence 'gut health'. The products in the market place are characterised predominately not only...

  2. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  3. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  4. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...

  5. Energy use in pig farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This guide presents benchmark data on 'typical' and 'good practice' levels of energy consumption for pig farms in the UK. Benchmarks are valuable because they allow producers to compare their performance with other similar businesses. In addition, they also provide two other useful functions: They allow routine assessments to be made that show progress against a benchmark. Such appraisals are not restricted to year-on-year evaluations as they can be carried out quarterly, monthly or even weekly to track progress on a more frequent basis Opportunity assessments can be carried out. For example, if a facility is to be modified or upgraded, the effect of the change can be determined. Throughout this guide, the benchmarks and information are based on methods and techniques that minimise energy consumption whilst maintaining pig performance at an economically acceptable level. Pig farming in the UK is a complex and diverse business with a variety of facilities being used for each stage of production. Therefore, in order to give realistic guidelines, production has been broken down into several key areas to illustrate typical performance benchmarks. These production areas are: farrowing accommodation; weaning accommodation; finisher accommodation; feeding system; and waste handling. The guide has a detailed breakdown with graphs and data analysis.

  6. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  7. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  8. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  9. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  10. Synchronisation of the reproductive cycle in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Kirkwood, R.N.; Soede, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    An outline of procedures to synchronise oestrus and ovulation in pigs is described. The oestrus cycle of pigs can be synchronised depending on the stage of the reproductive cycle of these animals. Non-cyclic gilts shortly before puberty, can easily be synchronised by treatments with a mixture of 400

  11. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  12. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  13. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  14. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide.

  15. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  16. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  17. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    increased considerably in recent years. The pig brain, which is gyrencephalic, resembles the human brain more in anatomy, growth and development than do the brains of commonly used small laboratory animals. The size of the pig brain permits the identification of cortical and subcortical structures...... by imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pig is an increasingly popular laboratory animal for transgenic manipulations of neural genes. The present paper focuses on evaluating the potential for modeling symptoms, phenomena or constructs of human brain diseases in pigs, the neuropsychiatric disorders...... in particular. Important practical and ethical aspects of the use of pigs as an experimental animal as pertaining to relevant in vivo experimental brain techniques are reviewed. Finally, current knowledge of aspects of behavioral processes including learning and memory are reviewed so as to complete the summary...

  18. Stockperson attitudes toward pig euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, J-L; Holyoake, T; Coleman, G

    2017-02-01

    Euthanasia is a necessary act for any facility keeping live animals. Nevertheless, the crucial role and responsibility of the stockperson in deciding and conducting on-farm euthanasia has been overlooked. Stockperson characteristics and knowledge that lead to appropriate decision-making and the skills to competently perform the procedure remain to be identified. An important component of the stockperson's characteristics that predict behavior is the stockperson's attitudes. This preliminary study investigated the factors that influence stockperson attitudes toward the practice of on-farm euthanasia in the pork industry. A total of 120 stockpeople from 10 Australian pig farms (ranging in size from 50 to 4,754 sows and from 2 to 32 employees) completed a questionnaire based on focus group input to assess their attitudes toward euthanasia and decision processes. Factors identified included stockperson attitudes and attributes (empathy affect, empathy attribution, feeling bad about euthanizing, and negative attitudes to pigs), beliefs about the working environment (perceived time constraints and relying on others), and factors related to decision-making (comfortable with euthanasia, trouble deciding and avoid if possible, confidence, insufficient knowledge, seeking knowledge, and using sources to get advice). Numerous significant correlations were found between these variables. Furthermore, regression analyses showed confidence as the only significant predictor of being comfortable with euthanasia (12.5% of the variance; euthanasia ( euthanasia, which comprises both a decision-making process and the act itself, can adversely affect stockpeople. This preliminary study offers insights for implementation of successful practical and humane pig euthanasia protocols on farm. This will benefit stockperson well-being and animal well-being alike.

  19. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  20. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further...

  1. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  2. MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Duijkeren, van E.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Nes, van A.; Mevius, D.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herd

  3. La domestication animale en Amérique du Sud: le point des connaissances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    (?, guinea pig Cavia porcellus towards 2500 BP (?, alpaca Lama pacos towards 6000 BP and llama Lama glama between 5500 and 4000 BP, according to the most recent archaeological and zooarchaeological dates. For each of them are presented the main sites and the excavations, the zooarchaeological methods and their results (processes of domestication modalities and chronology. In conclusion, the possible causes of the camelid domestication are examined as well as some of their most important socio-economic consequences.

  4. Comparative analysis of lesions caused by histotoxic clostridia in experimentally induced myonecrosis Análise comparativa das lesões causadas por clostrídios histotóxicos em mionecrose induzida experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative anatomical and histopathological lesions caused by different histotoxic clostridia are considered an important step in the diagnosis of epidemiological mionecrosis. In the present study, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus were used to reproduce gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum, C. chauvoei, C. novyi type A, C. perfringens type A and C. sordellii. The clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions were compared between inoculated groups and an immunohistochemistry (IHC was standardized for detection of agents in tissues. On clinical evaluation, animals showed swelling at the injection point, discomfort and limited mobility. The intensity and extent of gross and microscopic lesions varied with the inoculated agent. IHC was able to identify each agents inoculated without cross reactions. All observed results demonstrate that the evaluation of lesions could be usefull in the presumptive etiologic diagnosis.O estudo comparativo das lesões anatomo-histopatológicas causadas pelos diferentes clostrídios histotóxicos é considerado uma etapa importante no diagnóstico epidemiológico das mionecroses. Para reproduzir experimentalmente a gangrena gasosa causada por Clostridium septicum, C. chauvoei, C. novyi tipo A, C. perfringens tipo A e C. Sordellii foram utilizados cobaios (Cavia porcellus. Os sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histopatológicas foram comparadas entre os grupos inoculados e uma imuno-istoquímica (IHQ foi padronizada para detecção dos agentes nos tecidos das cobaias experimentalmente infectadas. Na avaliação clínica os animais apresentaram aumento de volume no ponto de inoculação, desconforto e dificuldade de locomoção. A intensidade e extensão das lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas variaram com o agente inoculado. Na IHQ foi possível identificar cada um dos agentes inoculados, sem a detecção de reações cruzadas. Todos os resultados observados demonstram que este tipo de avalia

  5. Hallazgo de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en ambiente domiciliario en la Región Piura, Perú Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Marín

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus presenta una amplia distribución en América Central y del Sur con un comportamiento de especie silvestre. En el Perú ha sido registrado en Tumbes, Piura y Cuzco, siendo descrito en casas de localidades de este último departamento. En el presente trabajo se documenta evidencia de domiciliación de P. rufotuberculatus en la localidad de Chirinos-La Pareja, Distrito de Suyo, Provincia de Ayabaca, Región Piura, Perú (4º46'S, 79º93'W. Se capturaron 28 especímenes: 3 ninfas II, 4 ninfas III, 2 ninfas IV, 8 ninfas V, 3 machos y 8 hembras, lo que evidencia la existencia de una colonia intradomiciliar en "cuyeros" (criaderos de Cavia porcellus camas y paredes del dormitorio de la vivienda. Exámenes parasitológicos de heces evacuadas espontáneamente fueron negativos a infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi. A pesar de que se ha reportado la presencia de P. rufotuberculatus en localidades de Tumbes y Piura, es la primera vez que se documenta su tendencia sinantrópica en la Región. La importancia de esta especie y posteriores investigaciones permitirán evaluar su etología y potencial vectorial de trypanosomiasis americana. Se recomienda una cuidadosa actividad de vigilancia entomo-epidemiológica para esta especie y las otras que coexisten simpátricamente, actualmente en esta región del norte de Perú.Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally

  6. Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Rapid Detection of Aeromonas caviae%豚鼠气单胞菌快速检测间接ELISA法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌

    2006-01-01

    应用从患败血症的鳗鲡中分离、纯化出的豚鼠气单胞菌(Aeromonas caviae)菌株AB40511NA1,制备了兔抗血清,建立了快速检测豚鼠气单胞菌的间接ELISA方法.研究结果显示:AB40511NA1兔抗血清的效价为1:16000.该法对AB40511NA1最低检测量为6×104 cfu·mL-1;与水产养殖动物主要致病菌嗜水气单胞菌(A. hydrophila)、温和气单胞菌(A. sobria)、鳗弧菌(V. anguillarum)、溶藻弧菌(V.alginolyticus)、副溶血弧菌(V. parahaemolyticus)及非O1-群霍乱弧菌(Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae)均无交叉反应,特异性强;能快速、准确、方便地检测出豚鼠气单胞菌.

  7. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Trang; Peck Toung Ooi; Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki; Mustapha Mohamed Noordin

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastri...

  8. Pigging ends freezeups in caustic piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, R.; Gaines, A.

    1985-03-01

    Convent Chemical Corporation in Convent, LA produces and ships bulk quantities of chlorine and caustic soda (NaOH). The caustic soda is available in various grades, including a 50% aqueous solution that freezes at 56/sup 0/F. An extensive network of chemical-resistant polypropylene-lined steel pipe (without heat tracing) is used to transfer the caustic soda from the production area to storage tanks and to the loading facilities for tank trucks, rail tank cars and barges. A sudden drop in ambient temperature can cause freezeup of the caustic transfer pipes which may result in downtime of as much as a week. Convent plant engineers designed a pigging system for the outdoor caustic transfer lines in the tank farm and to the loading stations. The patented design pig, (internal pipeline cleaner) consists of a flexible, bullet-shaped cylinder of chemical-resistant polyurethane foam with strips of urethane rubber on the surface, or with a solid coating of the tough material. Fluid or gas pressure on the sealed concave base propels the flexible pig through the pipe, valves, elbows, and other fittings, and material ahead of the pig is discharged into an appropriate receiver. The pigging system has eliminated the caustic freezing and plugging problems since it was installed in the summer of 1981. The flexible pig, propelled by 80 psi air, is used to clear the pipelines whenever caustic is transferred during the winter months. The air-propelled pig is designed and sized to easily pass through restrictions in the piping system, such as reduced port plug valves, but was once stuck when it reached a section of pipe that had collapsed. A pig containing the Cobalt 60 nuclear element was inserted into the line to quickly locate the stuck pig with the Geiger counter. The faulty section of pipe was replaced with a new polypropylene lined spool piece.

  9. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Pskin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Phuman, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Phuman skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  10. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Nidhi Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All ...

  11. Le mini-élevage, son développement villageoiset l'action de BEDIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Hardouin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Minilivestock, village development and the role of BEDIM.Minilivestock encompasses all animals of small site, and little-known in terras of production but usable as food, feed or revenues if not eaten. Sustainable breeding becomes possible, and should progressively replace uncontrolled gathering in the wild. Amongst vertebrates, an important meat supply is based on edible rodents like Thryonomys, Cricetomys, Xerus, Atherurus, Tenrec; Hydrochoerus, Dasyprocta, Myocastor, Capromys, Dolichotis, Agouti, etc. The saine applies to the guinea-pig Cavia porcellus and to frogs. Invertebrates farming is also practised through breeding of maggots, termites, butterflies (pupae and adults for consumption or sale; giant snails are also highly appreciated in many African countries. Minilivestock development is usually a back-yard activity, hence its interest as it relies on local species, substrates and raw materials for infrastructure. The demand for minilivestock product is high but there is still reluctance often from the official authorities, unfortunately. However minilivestock is not an utopia, and a country like Papua-New-Guinea, which bas officially adopted minilivestock production as a tool to help to develop remote villages, is an excellent example of success

  12. EVALUATION in vitro OF THE ACTION OF Lactobacillus plantarum WITH PROBIOTIC CHARACTERISTICS ON Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jurado-Gámez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to check the potential probiotic of Lactobacillus plantarum on one of themost frequent diseases in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, tests were conducted of inhibition and comparisonin front of antibiotics, showing favorable results, the inhibitt othe pathogenic bacterium. It valued by HPLC the possible peptides produced by L. plantarum, characterizing an presence of two peptides. Tests were performed for the selection of lactic bacteria which showed the following profile: catalase-negative, not producer of gas, resistant to bile salts (0, 5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, pH (2,5, 3,5 and 7,6 and temperature of 38 at 45°C. Also determined the characteristics of the kinetics of fermentation, using two mediums, where it is evaluated CFU/ mL, pH, consumption of total sugars (mg/L and production of lactic acid (%; Lactobacillus plantarum reached the exponential phase of growth in the mediums MRS and Pro, at the 12 and 14:24 hours, with values of 7,0x1011 UFC/mL and 5,0x1013 UFC/mL, respectively. A design of blocks was applied at random with two treatments and eleven blocks, the result allowed to determine that it doesn’t exist significant statistical differences (P>0,05 between the proposed means, but if between the hours of evaluation (P <0,05.

  13. Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Machado Paçô

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig, 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti, and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1 wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2 in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3 despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4 in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.

  14. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate.

  15. Container with Pig Pattern Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Unearthed from Hemudu ruins of the New Stone Age in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province in 1977, this rectangular-mouthed container belongs to the Hemudu culture. It is carved with a pig pattern on both sides in realist style. A complete piece, the container has a flat bottom and slightly sloped belly, with a mouth 21.7 cm long and 17.5 cm wide. Most of the artifacts from Hemudu culture are charcoal black pottery. The stem and leaves of the pottery can be seen clearly. The walls of the artifacts are usually thick but porous. The carving lines are rough and the designs are simple and natural, reflecting the ancient people’s love of nature and life. The pig’s four strong feet and backward bristles carved on the container are vivid, with ears sticking out and mouth

  16. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers...

  17. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  18. HAEMATOLOGICAL EFFECT OF AZAPERONE SEDATION IN PIGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, University of Ibadan. Ibadan ... the solution to the handling problems inherent in this species (Callear & Van Gestel, 1971). Although .... analysis of the results of field experiemts in pigs in.

  19. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  20. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  1. Insulin and growth hormone in lean and obese pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, P J; Martin, R J; Gahagan, J H

    1977-08-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and growth hormone (GH) were determined in fasted lean and genetically obese pigs at 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Rate of glucose clearance and plasma IRI and GH response in provocative stimulation were also measured. Fasting glucose was similar in lean and obese pigs, whereas glucose clearance rate was more rapid in lean pigs. Obese pigs were not hyperinsulinemic but had lower plasma GH than lean pigs. At 1 mo of age, both lean and obese pigs had higher plasma IRI and GH as compared to 3 and 6 mo. Glucose infusion produced increases in plasma IRI at 1, 3, and 6 mo, respectively, with the greatest increases at 6 mo. Plasma IRI peaked at the same level in both pig types at a given age; but due to a more prolonged response in obese pigs, the overall IRI response to glucose infusion was greater in obese pigs. Arginine infusion caused much smaller IRI responses than glucose, but the response of obese pigs was significantly greater than that of lean pigs. Both provocative stimuli caused increases in plasma GH. The GH response to glucose infusion in obese pigs was considerably less than in lean pigs. These observations suggest mild insulin insensitivity and a reduced GH secretory potential in the obese as compared to lean pigs.

  2. Improved sustainability in organic pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John E.; Jakobsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    The local and global sale of organic pork produced in Denmark has increased markedly in recent years. Organic pig production is associated with several positive aspects from a societal point of view e.g. very low use of antibiotics and animals being able to express more of their natural behavior compared to conventional production. However, there are some challenges regarding sustainability that needs to be addressed. In Denmark, organic pig production is based on outdoor sow production all y...

  3. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496 were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217, and the least were found in Obrenovac (47. In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were tested 34929 blood serums of pigs from farms located at the territory of Belgrade. For the investigations there was used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT on seven varieties of L. interrogans: L. pomona, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, L. grippotyphosa, L. sejroe, L. canicola, L. bataviae and L. australis. Seropositivity in pigs was determined in 760 blood serums, or in 2.17%. Leptospirosis prevalence was not very high, but it was constant, which indicates that leptospirosis infection maintained at the territory of Belgrade for ten years throughout our continual investigation.

  4. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... performed the unloading of the pigs from the trucks in the available datasets, indicates that the drivers perform significantly differently. Driver 1 has 2.95 times higher odds to have pigs tripping and stepping on each other than the two others, and Driver 2 has 1.11 times higher odds than Driver 3. (C...

  5. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally

  6. Progress of farrowing and early postnatal pig behavior in relation to genetic merit for pig survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.L.; Almeida Junior, de C.A.; Knol, E.F.; Lende, van der T.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pigs with different genetic merit for survival differed in birth weight, progress of farrowing, early postnatal behavior, or rectal temperature within 24 h after birth. On a nucleus farm in Rio Verde, Brazil, information was collected on 280 pig

  7. Pseudorabies virus is transmitted among vaccinated conventional pigs, but not among vaccinated SPF pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Schoevers, E.J.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas the reproduction ratio (R) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) in vaccinated specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs without maternally derived antibodies under experimental conditions has repeatedly been shown to be significantly below 1, R in vaccinated conventional pigs in the field with maternally der

  8. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies......To investigate the extent to which the level of androstenone and skatole decreases with a decrease in live weight and/or age at slaughter of entire male pigs produced under organic standards, 1174 entire male pigs were raised in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches...... in summer and winter. The median androstenone level was high for organic entire male pigs (1.9 μg/g), but varied greatly both within and between herds. Median skatole level was 0.05 μg/g, also with a wide range both within and between herds. Decreasing live weight over the range of 110 ± 15.6 kg s...

  9. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  10. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  11. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn. to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nirwana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process. Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.

  12. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork ... Feed intake was measured daily, pig liveweight was measured weekly, and average daily gains ...

  14. Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163262.html Scientists Create Part-Human, Part-Pig Embryo One goal of this stem cell research is ... have successfully used human stem cells to create embryos that are part-human, part-pig. Scientists said ...

  15. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  16. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms.

  17. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jastroch

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1. While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species.

  18. Nitrogen transformations during pig manure composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is now suggested as one of the environmentallyand friendly alternative method for disposal of solid organic wastes, as it leads to minimization, stabilization, and utilization of organic waste. Transformations of nitrogen were investigated inco-composting of pig manure with different amendments, such as sawdust and leaves. Samples were analyzed for pH, total-N, soluble NH4-N, soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. The total-N increased after 63 days of composting, as well as the soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N. Soluble NH4-N increased significantly and showed peak values at day 7, thereafter decreased sharply and gradually to lower levels. Seed germination index (GI) showed that co-composting of pig manure with sawdust reached maturity after 49 days of composting, while co-composting of pig manure with sawdust and leaves required shorter time for 35 days. Soluble NH4-N was significantly negatively (P<0.05), while soluble NO3-N and soluble organic-N were significantly positively (P<0.05), correlated with seed germination index (GI). Addition of leaves in co-composting of pig manure with sawdust had no significant impacts on nitrogen transformations, but it was beneficial for maturity of pig manure compost.

  19. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastroch, Martin; Andersson, Leif

    2015-05-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species.

  20. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  1. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-04-30

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells.

  2. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them

  3. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with ...

  4. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  5. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Gils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative.

  6. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  7. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  8. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section 113.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section...

  9. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  10. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...

  11. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  12. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  13. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to

  14. Expert opinion regarding environmental enrichment materials for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report on the expert opinion regarding the provision of environmental enrichment for pigs. A questionnaire was sent to 53 pig welfare scientists who were asked to specify which enrichment materials they considered sufficient to ensure pig welfare; 68% responded. 89% sta

  15. PigSurfer – SURveillance, FEedback & Reporting within ProPIG for communication with 75 pig farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Leeb, Christine; Bochicchio, Davide; Butler, G; Edwards, S.; Früh, Barbara; Illmann, Gudrun; Rousing, T.; Prunier, Armelle; Rudolph, G.; Dippel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The CoreOrganic2 research project ProPIG is carried out in 75 organic pig farms in 8 European countries (AT; CH; CZ; DE; DK; FR; IT; UK) to improve animal health, welfare and nutrition using farm customised strategies. For future on-farm application (e.g. advisory/certification activities, which are mostly carried out during one day visits), a practical, automatic recording and feedback tool was developed. This should allow on-farm data collection, import of data into a database and the possi...

  16. Methods for Wild Pig Identifications from Moving Pictures and Discrimination of Female Wild Pigs based on Feature Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Indra Nugraha Abdullah; Kensuke Kubo; Katsumi Sugawa

    2015-01-01

    Methods for wild pig identifications and discrimination of female wild pigs based on feature matching methods with acquired Near Infrared: NIR moving pictures are proposed. Trials and errors are repeated for identifying wild pigs and for discrimination of female wild pigs through experiments. As a conclusion, feature matching methods with the target nipple features show a better performance. Feature matching method of FLANN shows the best performance in terms of feature extraction and trackin...

  17. Methods for Wild Pig Identifications from Moving Pictures and Discrimination of Female Wild Pigs based on Feature Matching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for wild pig identifications and discrimination of female wild pigs based on feature matching methods with acquired Near Infrared: NIR moving pictures are proposed. Trials and errors are repeated for identifying wild pigs and for discrimination of female wild pigs through experiments. As a conclusion, feature matching methods with the target nipple features show a better performance. Feature matching method of FLANN shows the best performance in terms of feature extraction and tracking capabilities.

  18. Biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona comparada ao implante de titânio para corações artificiais: estudo experimental em cobaias Biocompatibility of Ricinus comunnis polymer compared to titanium implant used in artificial hearts: experimental study in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Kubrusly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a reação tecidual do implante retroperitoneal do polímero de óleo de mamona (Pm é significativa ou não por meio de análise histopatológica, tendo como controle o implante de titânio (Ti. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental, intervencionista e randomizado com 32 cobaias. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos iguais e eutanasiados com 7, 20, 30 e 40 dias após o ato cirúrgico. Foram confeccionadas lâminas em hematoxilina-eosina e em tricrômio de Masson. Na comparação dos tipos de material em relação a variáveis quantitativas, foi considerado o teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon. Em relação a essas variáveis, os grupos definidos pelo dia do sacrifício foram comparados usando-se o teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados obtidos no estudo da fibrose foram expressos por frequ��ncias e percentuais. Para a comparação entre os grupos definidos pelo dia do sacrifício, em relação a variáveis qualitativas dicotômicas da fibrose, foi considerado o teste exato de Fisher. Para avaliar a diferença entre os materiais titânio e polímero em cada grupo, ainda em se tratando da fibrose, foi considerado o teste binomial. Valores de P0,05. A análise da variável qualitativa também não demonstrou diferença entre as reações teciduais dos materiais (P>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi encontrada significância estatística entre a reação tecidual do Pm e do Ti.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present investigation is to determine if the tissue reaction to the Riccinus communis (mamona polymer has significant statistical difference compared to the tissue reaction provoked by the titanium implant. METHODS: Thirty two Cavia porcellus were divided into four groups containing eight animals each one. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were sacrificed at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS

  19. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  20. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  1. Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of salmonella on pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanenburg, M.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating

  2. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  3. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  4. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with ......, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use....... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  5. An overview of the use of pigs in PET research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    . The dynamics of PET typically require a relatively large organ size and blood supply in order to properly evaluate radioligand binding kinetics. To fulfil these requirements, pigs have often been used in such studies. At least four factors have contributed to the ever-growing interest in using pigs for PET...... imaging. First, a wealth of information has become available concerning similarities of physiologic and pathologic processes in pigs and humans. Second, the size of most pig organs permits studies to be carried out in PET scanners otherwise designed for human use. Third, multiple blood samples can...... be drawn from pigs to carry out accurate metabolite analyses in studies of new PET radioligands. Fourth, pigs can easily be maintained in anaesthesia for long-term PET studies with multiple injections of radiotracers. Clearly, pigs have much to offer PET studies. In this presentation I will also give...

  6. Managing sulphur content of pig diet to control further sulphides production during pig slurry anaerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Peu, P.; Picard, S.; Dourmad, J.Y.; Dabert, P.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The mixing of different raw materials during formulation strategies of pig feeding influences sulphurs food intake and further sulphur excretion by the animals. Increased amount of sulphur in manure can result in toxicity and odour problems during storage as well as potential inhibition problems in case of anaerobic digestion treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of different sulphur feed contents on pig excretion via faeces and urine, t...

  7. A survey of straw use and tail biting in Swedish pig farms rearing undocked pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren, Torun; Westin, Rebecka; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Tail biting is a common problem in intensive pig farming, affecting both welfare and production. Although routine tail docking is banned within the EU, it remains a common practice to prevent tail biting. Straw as environmental enrichment has been proposed as an alternative to tail docking, but its effectiveness against tail biting and function in manure handling systems have to be considered. The aim of the study was to survey how pigs with intact tails are raised and how tail bit...

  8. The Pig Who Loved People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jo; Coudert; 吕春佳

    1998-01-01

    大千世界,无奇不有。猪,也能作为宠物,与之朝夕相伴,竟获得乐趣无限,甚至使女主人的病情也大为好转。读者朋友,不知你信否? 笔者首在电视上亲见此景:在美国的一个社区的宠物聚会上,有人牵来一头小猪!见此镜头者无不摇头,有的称奇,有的一笑,有的“口诛”。在国人的心目中,猪背沉重的“罪名”:“蠢”字成了猪的专用形容词——“蠢猪”;“猪狗不如”——一句不可轻易出口的骂人的话!然而,也许本文足以扭转你对猪的印象。 美国纽约的Johnstown的Bette患病休养在家。她得的病很怪:agoraphobia。词典对此词的解释是:【心】广场恐怖;旷野恐怖;恐旷症;陌生环境恐怖。而本文对此病的注解是:a fear of open spaces and crowds.此病的诱导因素是:apparentlytriggered by stress at work.而Bette的症状是:Even after she had quit her job,justgoing to the local mall could bring on an anxiety attack. 其病不可谓不重!一日,一友人送来一头宠物小猪:He heaved himself(指小猪)up on his hind legs, laid his head on her sboulder and kissed ber on the cheek withhis leathery snout. She looked at the pig and, for the first time in a long time, smiled. 国人学英语往往不注意其词序。上段末的动词smil

  9. Acclimation of growing pigs to climatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.M.F.

    1987-01-01

    In intensive pig production the climatic environment has an important impact on productivity and health of the animals. Since factors as draught and fluctuating temperatures are known to influence the incidence and severity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infections in

  10. MODELING REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF BREEDING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svinarev I. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the experience of the development of the methodology and the computer program for calculation of regional and local systems of pigs hybridization at the example of the Rostov region (Russia. Crossing the GP lines for F1 should be organized in multiplier farm, which may be separate farms and to be part of large commercial farms. For the production of F1 in a multiplier farm, we must breed a purebred specialized paternal and a maternal line, selected on the effect of combining ability. For the successful functioning of the system of hybridization, it is necessary to build a genetic pyramid, including breeding and genetic centers (nucleus farm, multiplier farm, reproducing the baseline. The article gives a detailed calculation of sow population of levels of P, GP, GGP for maternal and paternal breeds of pigs. The program uses user-defined parameters of pigs productivity, of the simulated population, and the parameters characterizing the intensity of selection of young animals. To ensure annual production of 1,822 million pigs in the Rostov region it is necessary to provide the availability of brood stock in the amount of 89 thousand heads, 6 800 heads in the structure of grandparent flocks (GP, 730 heads in the structure of the Grand-Grand-parent stock (GGP, excluding sows second maternal and paternal breeds

  11. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain margin

  12. Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archibald, A.L.; Bolund, L.; Churcher, C.; Fredholm, M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Harlizius, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The pig genome is being sequenced and characterised under the auspices of the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium. The sequencing strategy followed a hybrid approach combining hierarchical shotgun sequencing of BAC clones and whole genome shotgun sequencing. Results - Assemblies of the B

  13. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  14. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured on living animal

  15. Non-surgical embryo transfer in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Embryo transfer in pigs has been performed surgically for a long time. However, a less invasive, non-surgical, procedure of embryo transfer could be a valuable tool for research (to study embryo survival and embryo-uterus interactions) and practical applications (export, prevention of

  16. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured o

  17. A Genetic Analysis of Mortality in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of mortality is undertaken in two breeds of pigs: Danish Landrace and Yorkshire. Zero-inflated and standard versions of hierarchical Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial Bayesian models were fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The objectives of the study were to investig...

  18. Climate control of natural ventilated pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontsema, J.; Straten, van G.; Salomons, L.; Klooster, van 't C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Ventilation in pig houses is important for maintaining a good climate for the welfare of animals and humans and for an optimal production. Mechanical ventilation has a good performance, since the ventilation rate can easily be controlled, but it is energy demanding, whereas natural ventilation is ch

  19. Mesothelium of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo...

  20. New guinea pig model of Cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, William R; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie; Patterson, Thomas F; Graybill, John R

    2007-08-01

    We developed a guinea pig model of cryptococcal meningitis to evaluate antifungal agents. Immunosuppressed animals challenged intracranially with Cryptococcus neoformans responded to fluconazole and voriconazole. Disease was monitored by serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and quantitative organ cultures. Our model produces disseminating central nervous system disease and responds to antifungal therapy.

  1. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  2. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  3. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  4. SNP-finding in pig mitochondrial ESTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sino-Danish pig genome project produced 685 851 ESTs (Gorodkin et al. 2007), of which 41 499 originated from the mitochondrial genome. In this study, the mitochondrial ESTs were assembled, and 374 putative SNPs were found. Chromatograms for the ESTs containing SNPs were manually inspected...

  5. Polymorphism analysis of IGFBP-5 gene exon 1 in Tibet Mini-pig and Junmu No. 1 White pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A; Hao, L L; Fang, X B; Lu, K; Liu, S C; Zhang, Y L

    2014-03-12

    The genetic resources and the mechanism of miniaturization in the Tibet Mini-pig have not been comprehensively studied. Polymorphisms in genes related to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis have been investigated for years, but few on the polymorphism of IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) in the Tibetan pig. In this study, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) was used to analyze polymorphisms in exon 1 of the IGFBP-5 gene in two pig breeds, Tibet Mini-pigs and Junmu No. 1 White pigs. A BLAST analysis of the expressed sequence tags in the porcine IGFBP-5 gene revealed that exon 1 of this gene has two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), G188T and G503A. The AS-PCR results demonstrated that in both pig breeds examined, the TT, GT, and GG genotypes existed at the G188T locus, with GT as the most common genotype. At the G503A locus, GG, GA, and AA genotypes existed in Junmu No. 1 White pigs, with the GA genotype as the most frequently occurring. By contrast, at this locus, only the GA and AA genotypes were observed in the Tibetan pigs, and AA was more common than GA. There was a significant difference (P Tibet Mini-pigs than in Junmu No. 1 White pigs. The present study revealed SNPs in exon 1 of IGFBP-5 gene in the Tibet Mini-pig, possibly providing more understanding of the mechanism of miniaturization.

  6. Lean breed Landrace pigs harbor fecal methanogens at higher diversity and density than obese breed Erhualian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Su, Yong; Wright, André-Denis G; Zhang, Ling-li; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Wei-yun

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of fecal methanogens of Erhualian (obese type) and Landrace (lean type) pigs was examined using separate 16S rRNA gene libraries for each breed. A total of 763 clones were analyzed; 381 from the Erhualian library and 382 from the Landrace library were identified belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter. Others were identified belonging to the genus Methanosphaera. The two libraries showed significant differences in diversity (P Landrace library. Real-time PCR showed that the abundance of fecal methanogens in Landrace pigs was significantly higher than that in Erhualian pigs (P Landrace pig (lean) harbored a greater diversity and higher numbers of methanogen mcrA gene copies than the Erhualian pig (obese). These differences may be related to the fatness or leanness in these two pig breeds. The results provide new leads for further investigations on the fat storage of pigs or even humans.

  7. Structure, dynamics and movement patterns of the Australian pig industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, I J; Davis, J; Sergeant, E S G; Garner, M G

    2014-03-01

    To assess management practices and movement patterns that could influence the establishment and spread of exotic animal diseases (EAD) in pigs in Australia. A literature review of published information and a telephone survey of 370 pig producers owning >10 pigs who were registered with the PigPass national vendor declaration scheme. The movement and marketing patterns of Australian pig producers interviewed were divided into two groups based predominantly on the size of the herd. Major pig producers maintain closed herds, use artificial insemination and market direct to abattoirs. Smaller producers continue to purchase from saleyards and market to other farms, abattoirs and through saleyards in an apparently opportunistic fashion. The role of saleyards in the Australian pig industry continues to decline, with 92% of all pigs marketed directly from farm to abattoir. This survey described movement patterns that will assist in modelling the potential spread of EAD in the Australian pig industry. Continued movement towards vertical integration and closed herds in the Australian pig industry effectively divides the industry into a number of compartments that mitigate against the widespread dissemination of disease to farms adopting these practices. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M C; Wassenaar, T M; Gómez-Barrero, S; García, M; Bárcena, C; Alvarez, J; Sáez-Llorente, J L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2012-04-01

    Iberian pigs are bred in Spain for the production of high-value dry-cured products, whose export volumes are increasing. Animals are typically reared outdoors, although indoor farming is becoming popular. We compared carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Iberian pigs, raised indoors and outdoors, with intensively farmed Standard White pigs. From June 2007 to February 2008, 106 skin swabs were taken from Iberian pigs and 157 samples from SWP at slaughterhouses in Spain. We found that Iberian pigs carried MRSA, although with a significantly lower prevalence (30/106; 28%) than SWP (130/157; 83%). A higher prevalence of indoor Iberian pigs compared with animals reared under outdoor conditions was not significant; however, all but one positive indoor Iberian pig samples were detected from one slaughterhouse. Overall, 16 different spa types were identified, with t011 predominating in all three animal populations. A subset of isolates was characterized by MLST. Most of these belonged to ST398. MRSA isolates from Iberian pigs presented a higher susceptibility to antibiotics than those isolated from SWP. Despite limited contact with humans, pigs raised outdoors are colonized by an MRSA population that genetically overlaps with that of intensively farmed pigs, although antimicrobial resistance is lower. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of MRSA in food animals raised in free-range conditions. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  10. Genetic Variation ofEPAS1Gene in Tibetan Pigs and ThreeLow-Altitude Pig Breeds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Kun-zhe; KANG Ye; YAO Na; SHU Guo-tao; ZUO Qing-qing; ZHAO Qian-jun; MA Yue-hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), also called hypoxia-inducible factor-2, is a key regulatory factor of hypoxic responses and plays an essential role in high-altitude adaptation in mammalian species. In this study, polymorphisms of EPAS1 were detected in 217 individuals from 2 Tibetan pig populations and 3 low-altitude pig breeds by DNA pooling, PCR-SSCP, PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. A total of 14 synonymous polymorphisms were identiifed in the coding region. The analysis suggested that SNP1 (G963A), SNP7 (C1632T), SNP10 (G1929A) and SNP11 (G1947A) showed potential association with high-altitude environment because of their particular variation patterns in Tibetan pigs. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of these SNPs was analyzed. One common LD block including 5 SNPs clustering in exon 12 was identiifed in all studied pig populations. Haplotype H1 (AGGTC) in LD block was dominant in Tibetan pigs (76.6 and 74.2% in Linzhi (LZ) and Chayu (CY) pigs, respectively) and segregated at higher frequency than that in low-altitude pig breeds (52.3, 58.7 and 56.2% in Wuzhishan (WZS), Min (M) and Laiwu (LW) pigs, respectively), indicating that H1 may relate to adaptation to high altitude in Tibetan pigs. These ifndings raise hope thatEPAS1gene can be a candidate gene that involved in adaptation of high altitude in Tibetan pigs.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and pig workers in Tenerife, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo, Ana; Castro, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Christobalina; González, Juan Carlos; Sierra, Antonio; Montesinos, Maria Isabel; Abreu, Rossana; Arias, Ángeles

    2012-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains belonging to sequence type (ST) 398 are being reported with increasing frequency in Europe and other countries. This MRSA type has been isolated from colonized and infected animals and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in pigs and pig workers. A total of 300 pigs from 15 different farms were sampled in the slaughterhouse of Tenerife. A total of 54 pig workers were screened for MRSA: 20 belonged to farms whose pigs had been sampled and 34 to the slaughterhouse. The percentage of positive samples of MRSA in pigs was 85.7%. The overall prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in pig workers was 9.3%. All MRSA isolates from pigs and humans belonged to one clonal group showing multilocus sequence type (MLST) 398. Two types of Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCCmec) were found, IV and V. In conclusion, the prevalence of MRSA in nasal samples from pigs and pig workers in Tenerife was high. We therefore consider it essential to deepen epidemiological study of this strain of animal origin, as well as to increase surveillance and control measures at all stages of the food chain.

  12. Identification and characterization of pigs prone to producing 'RSE' (reddish-pink, soft and exudative) meat in normal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, K S; Cheah, A M; Just, A

    1998-03-01

    RSE (reddish-pink, soft and exudative) meat was investigated using pigs of three different halothane genotypes. A significantly lower pH(1h), value was observed in RSE compared with that of RFN (red, firm and non-exudative) -meat, both of which have values higher than 6.0 at 1 hr post-mortem. Drip loss (%) in RSE-meat was ≥7%, which was twice that of RFN-meat. Normal values for fibre optic probe and Minolta L and a were observed for RSE-meat. RSE-meat could be derived from NN and Nn pigs, and its formation could be induced from RFN-prone pigs by poor post-slaughter management. Pigs expected to produce RSE-meat were identified using small biopsy samples of M. longissimus dorsi (LD). Predicted RSE-meat in live pigs was confirmed by post-mortem assessments of meat quality using LD muscle. With NN Landrace-Yorkshire × Duroc pigs, 15.6% were identified to be RSE-prone in live pigs, and a further 6.7% RSE was induced after slaughter from RFN pigs. The rate of glycolysis determined from biopsy LD samples and at 1 hr post-mortem (pH(1h)) were significantly (p RSE than in RFN-prone pigs, but significantly slower than those of PSE-prone pigs. Good correlations (p RSE-meat.

  13. Tail Biting in Pigs: Blood Serotonin and Fearfulness as Pieces of the Puzzle?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursinus, W.W; Reenen, van, C.G; Reimert, I; Bolhuis, J.E

    2014-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs...

  14. Leak detector PIG for oil pipelines; PIG detector de vazamentos em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Daniel Almeida; Weid, Jean Pierre von der [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Maia, Carlos Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    The leakage detector pig was created with the purpose of detect and locate leakages in a preventive way. The fast detection of small leakages decreases the probability of larger leakages. By means of a differential pressure system based on pressure data acquired through the pig's running, using pressure sensors installed on the pig's vessel, small leakages are identified and its positions registered. This allows a quick intervention at the identified location. The working principle is based on the pressure difference caused by the leakage, which is read by the sensors. The polyurethane cups responsible by the pig's propulsion are of a special kind capable of sealing a constant volume of product among them. So, when the pig passes through a leakage, the pressure in the middle drops compared to those in front and hear, generating a characteristic signal thus permit identification. The first prototype was tested intensively at laboratory facilities, and in a test pipeline showing excellent results locating precisely all the simulated leakages. Defects from different sizes with different flow where simulated and measured. This work has the objective to present the tool, its potential, the test results, to discuss its efficiency in detect and locate leakages and the possibilities for the future. (author)

  15. Growth Development and Reproductive Performance of Congjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Yang; Xiujiang; Wei; Shengquan

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to determine whether the germplasm resources of Congjiang fragrance pig had changed over the past 30 years. [Method]The growth development and reproductive performance of 100 pigs from six towns in central fragrance pig producing area and Congjiang fragrance pig stock seed farm were measured,and further compared with the data in Guizhou Livestock and Poultry Breeds 1986. [Result]The growth and development status was basically consistent,and the average litter size was at a downward trend: the first litter decreased by 26. 2%; the second litter decreased by 7. 0%; the third litter decreased by8. 55%. [Conclusion] The study laid the foundation for vigorous promotion of Congjiang fragrance pig in industrial development process,acceleration of breeding pace,gradual updating of farming breeds by farmers and improvement of production efficiency of fragrance pig.

  16. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  17. Effect of increasing amounts of straw on pigs' explorative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Herskin, Mette S.; Forkman, Björn;

    2015-01-01

    According to European legislation, pigs must have permanent access to sufficient quantity of materialto enable manipulation activities. However, few studies have quantified how much straw is needed tofulfil the requirements of growing pigs. We investigated the effect of increasing amount of straw...... on pigs’manipulation of the straw, and hypothesised that after a certain point increasing straw amount will nolonger increase oral manipulation further. From 30 to 80 kg live weight, pigs were housed in 90 groups of18 pigs in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with partly slatted concrete floor and daily provided...... with fresh uncutstraw onto the solid part of the floor. Experimental treatments were 10, 80, 150, 220, 290, 360, 430 or500 g straw per pig and day. At 40 and 80 kg live weight, the time spent in oral manipulation of the strawby three focal pigs per pen (large, medium and small sized) were recorded along...

  18. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P; Ursinus, Winanda W; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2), and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3), tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08). Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (Psocial conflict.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Yorkshire pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Yang, Hu; Ma, Haiming

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial genome in the Yorkshire pig. Sequence analysis indicates that the genome structure is in accordance with other pig breeds, and it contains 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Yorkshire pig provides an important record set for further study on genetic mechanism.

  20. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  1. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Methane emissions from enteric fermentation of pigs are object of emission reporting. Hitherto they were treated as part of the energy balance of pigs, in accordance with IPCC guidance documents. They were calculated from the gross energy intake rate and a constant methane conversion ratio....... Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...

  2. The Bay of Pigs: Revisiting Two Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Museum of Playa Giron (the Bay of Pigs in the region of Cienega De Zapata, Cuba, celebrates the repulse of Brigade 2506 as the first reverse of US imperialism on the American continents. The equivalent Brigade 2506 Museum in Miami, dedicated to and maintained by the members of Brigade 2506, celebrates defeat at the Bay of Pigs as moral victory for the Cuban exiles. The forces were indeed implacable foes. Yet between the museums can be detected some curious similarities. Both present the common theme of the confrontation between forces of good and evil. Both celebrate the philosophy that dying for one’s country is the greatest good a citizen may achieve. Both museums fly the common Cuban flag. Both museums identify a common enemy: the United States of America. This article, by comparing the displays in the two museums, analyses some cultural elements of what, despite decades of separation, in some ways remains a common Cuban culture.

  3. Phylogenetic Analysis of PRRSV from Danish Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    in antigenicity of viruses. Antigenic differences between EU subtypes have been demonstrated (Stadejek et al. 2008). PRRSV is a very diverse virus with a high mutation rate. It is therefore extremely important to continuously monitor and sequence the virus. The present data suggests, that the PRRSV vaccines used......Introduction and Objectives Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of significant respiratory and reproductive disease in swine worldwide. The virus is a recently emerged pathogen...... also was recognized. According to serologic testing, both types are prevalent in the Danish pig population. However, the genetic drift of the virus during the past 10 years has not been determined. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and evolution of PRRSV in Danish pigs...

  4. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  5. Contextual Analysis of CT Scanned Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Lars Bager;

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the weight of tissue types in pig carcasses is generally only available after manual dissection. The use of computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated to be a promising approach to gain knowledge on the lean meat weight (Romvari, 2005), but less effort has been put into gaining...... knowledge about the weight of other tissue types from CT. Knowing the weight of individual tissue types will directly give access to other measures such as the weight of the carcass and the Lean Meat Percentage (LMP). Until now, most analyses of CT scans have been based on the Hounsfield spectra that does...... not consider the spatial context in CT scan. Applying contextual methods from the field of image analysis we hope to make a virtual dissection of pig carcasses....

  6. A panel of VNTR markers in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer, E N; Gu, F; Jeffreys, A J

    1996-06-01

    By cloning tandemly repeated sequences from the pig genome by use of non-porcine minisatellite probes for library screening, five novel polymorphic VNTR loci were isolated: three minisatellites and two satellite-like loci. Four of them could be mapped onto chromosomes by linkage analysis and/or in situ hybridization. They were assigned to Chromosomes (Chrs) 5, 6, 14, and 16. Physical mapping on both presumed satellites and on one of the minisatellites revealed that the former resided near or at the centromere and the latter towards the chromosome ends. The location of the minisatellite is of particular interest since, together with data on three other minisatellites previously isolated, it supports the idea that, as in humans, minisatellites may preferentially be subtelomeric also in pigs.

  7. [Can man live with a pig kidney?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, J F; Lebranchu, Y; Nivet, H

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs from one species to another introduces a question of compatibility not seen in allotransplantation, the ability of a kidney to perform its physiological function in the new host environment. It has been assumed that an allotransplanted organ will function normally if is not rejected; ample experience supports this assumption. This luxury will not exist in the field of xenotransplantation, where the issues of comparative physiology will assume great importance. From many standpoints, the pig kidney seems an ideal donor for xenotransplantation. They are of similar size and have remarkably similar internal anatomy. Even if the immunological problems could be overcome, there is almost no direct experimental evidence to answer the question of whether or not a pig kidney can function in a human body.

  8. Modeling the Biological Diversity of Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen

    This thesis applies methods from medical image analysis for modeling the biological diversity of pig carcasses. The Danish meat industry is very focused on improving product quality and productivity by optimizing the use of the carcasses and increasing productivity in the abattoirs. In order...... for extracting and modeling meaningful information from the vast amount of information available from non-invasive imaging data. The lean meat percentage (LMP) is a common standard for measuring the quality of pig carcasses. Measuring the LMP using CT and using this as a reference for calibration of online...... equipment is investigated, without the need for a calibration against a less accurate manual dissection. The rest of the contributions regard the construction and use of point distribution models (PDM). PDM’s are able to capture the shape variation of a population of shapes, in this case a 3D surface...

  9. Climate control in pig houses/farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.

    1988-11-01

    A lot of research is currently being performed to evaluate the best economically possible circumstances to stall animals like cows, pigs and chickens. At the Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Agricultural University in Wageningen, The Netherlands) a climate-respiration-unit has been built which enables studies on heat production of the animals, influence of temperature, temperature changes, draught etc. on meat production and well-being/health of the animals. 19 refs, 1 tab.

  10. Hermaphroditism in pig: a case related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josete Garcia Bersano

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of intersexuality in pig is presented. The animal shows a rudimentary penis and a skin plica, since the prepuce until the ani. The animal has two ovarium and only one testiclc in the abdominal cavity. The epididimus was short and flexioned. The uterus, vagina and vulva was absente and one of the Falopius tube exibit a hipoplasie size with esteril liquid colection inside it. No signs of cspermatogese was observed.

  11. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  12. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions.

  13. Decay of acquired colostral antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Sørensen, Vibeke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the decay of acquired colostral antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in pigs. Data were obtained from pigs in an isolated cohort of 47 pigs born to five sows seropositive to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. The pigs were examined...... serologically at 18 different times from birth until an age of about 22 weeks, using an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentration was expressed as an OD% derived from the optical density of the sample and the median from eight wells without serum...... on the initial level of acquired colostral antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2....

  14. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hong Trang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P<0.05 submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild.

  15. CARCASS QUALITY OF PIGS OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES ON FAMILY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petričević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the project titled “Optimal pig production models on family farms of eastern Croatia”, researches have been curried on in several family farms from three counties. Together with establishing the current state, researches on the possibilities of improvement of reproductive, production and other quality traits of pigs have been started. This improvement should be reached by getting the suitable sires and dams whose crosses (2- and 3-way crossbreeds would give fattening pigs with satisfying lean meat yield. Fattenng pigs as final products of pig productions were monitored in this study. Carcass quality of 1592 fattening pigs from 6 family farms were determined at the slaughter line during 1999 and 2000 year. The highest shares of lean meat determined by “two points” according to current national regulations method (1999 have been founded in Hypor hybrid pigs (55.49%, n=51 and 3-way crossbreeds (SLxLWxP (55.28%, n=692. Markedly lower results have been recorded in GLxSL and SLxGL crossbred pigs (50.37%, n=204; GLxP (50.34%, n=195; GL and GLxP (49.00%, n=96; SLxGL and GLxSL (47.51%, n=354. Poorer results achieved at those four farms could be explained by evidently inapropriate feeding of fattening pigs which should, regarding the genotype, yield in higher share of lean meat.

  16. Behavioural genetic differences between Chinese and European pigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QINGPO CHU; TINGTING LIANG; LINGLING FU; HUIZHI LI; BO ZHOU

    2017-09-01

    Aggression is a heritable trait and genetically related to neurotransmitter-related genes. Behavioural characteristics of some pig breeds are different. To compare the genetic differences between breeds, backtest and aggressive behaviour assessments, and genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX platform were performed in 50 Chinese indigenous Mi pigs and 100 landrace-large white (LLW) cross pigs with 32 SNPs localized in 11 neurotransmitter-related genes. The genetic polymorphisms of 26 SNPs had notable differences (P < 0.05) between Mi and LLW. The most frequent haplotypes were different in DBH, HTR2A, GAD1, HTR2B,MAOA and MAOB genes between Mi and LLW. The mean of backtest scores was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for Mi than LLW pigs. Skin lesion scores were greater (P < 0.01) in LLW pigs than Mi pigs. In this study, we have confirmed that Chinese Mi pigs are less active and less aggressive than European LLW pigs, and the genetic polymorphisms of neurotransmitter-related genes, which have been proved previously associated with aggressive behaviour, have considerable differences between Mi and LLW pigs.

  17. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  18. Pigs in sequence space: A 0.66X coverage pig genome survey based on shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Schierup, M.H.; Jorgensen, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    efficient in pig compared to human, but not as efficient as in mouse, and pig seems to have an isochore structure most similar to the structure in human. Conclusion: The addition of the pig to the set of species sequenced at low coverage adds to the understanding of selective pressures that have acted...... sequences (0.66X coverage) from the pig genome. The data are hereby released (NCBI Trace repository with center name "SDJVP", and project name "Sino-Danish Pig Genome Project") together with an initial evolutionary analysis. The non-repetitive fraction of the sequences was aligned to the UCSC human......-mouse alignment and the resulting three-species alignments were annotated using the human genome annotation. Ultra-conserved elements and miRNAs were identified. The results show that for each of these types of orthologous data, pig is much closer to human than mouse is. Purifying selection has been more...

  19. Instrumented PIG's field performance; Desenvolvimento de PIG MFL de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerini, Claudio Soligo; Oliveira, Carlos H.F. de; Nazario, Fabiana; Sant' Anna, Antonio Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Silva, Jos Augusto; Janvrot, Ivan Vicente [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Weid, Jean Pierre Van Der; Lima, Vinicius; Freitas, Miguel; Domingos, Luis Carlos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Telecomunicacoes; Silva, Guttemberg C. da [Chemtech Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    About ten years ago PETROBRAS and PUC-Rio started a cooperation agreement aiming the development of intelligent PIG technology for pipeline inspection. The PETROBRAS R and D center (CENPES) and PUC' Center for Telecommunications Studies (CETUC) were the research units involved in this technological partnership. Many different results were generated from this 10-year work, including a spin-off company for the commercialization of the results. Within this work, the development of a high resolution magnetic PIG - MFL PIG - which is the main pipeline inspection tool and central theme of the technological partnership. Technical features of the development are described, such as the evolution of the detected signal quality and resolution, test beds, etc. The cooperation between PETROBRAS and PUC-Rio, the financial support of the government agency FINEP, as well as the technology license, which allowed the commercial use of the technology, are also described. (author)

  20. A decade of pig genome sequencing: a window on pig domestication and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenen, Martien A M

    2016-03-29

    Insight into how genomes change and adapt due to selection addresses key questions in evolutionary biology and in domestication of animals and plants by humans. In that regard, the pig and its close relatives found in Africa and Eurasia represent an excellent group of species that enables studies of the effect of both natural and human-mediated selection on the genome. The recent completion of the draft genome sequence of a domestic pig and the development of next-generation sequencing technology during the past decade have created unprecedented possibilities to address these questions in great detail. In this paper, I review recent whole-genome sequencing studies in the pig and closely-related species that provide insight into the demography, admixture and selection of these species and, in particular, how domestication and subsequent selection of Sus scrofa have shaped the genomes of these animals.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  2. Ética da pesquisa em modelos animais Research ethics in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2012-04-01

    . Standards set by national and international organizations were followed. Recently, Law No. 11.794/08 established procedures for the scientific use of animals. Studies in otolaryngology have used the larynxes of rabbits, pigs, dogs, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, and mice. There were also studies comparing rabbits, rats, and dogs, rhinoplasty on rabbits, and inner ear studies on rats and guinea pigs (albino. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers involved in scientific work with animals should know the principles of Law 11.794/08 and investigate what animals are appropriate for each area of study in their models. Otolaryngologists, especially those dedicated to research, need to be mindful of the ethical rules regarding the use of animals in their studies.

  3. Comparative study on haematological traits of endangered Andaman wild pig and other indigenous pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar(University of Delhi, Delhi, India); Kundu, A.; M. S. Kundu; Jai Sunder,; Jeyakumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim:The present experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the haematological parameters of different pig breedsavailable at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India viz. Andaman wild pig, Nicobari pig, Andaman desi pig and Large WhiteYorkshire (LWY). Six erythrocyte traits, seven leukocyte traits and four platelet traits were assessed.Materials and Methods: 10 ml blood was collected from each adult pig via external jugular vein aseptically in a collectiontube containing anticoagulant EDTA...

  4. Evaluating the removal of pigs from a group and subsequent floor space allowance on the growth performance of heavy-weight finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S

    2016-10-01

    A total of 1,092 finishing pigs (initially 36.3 kg) were used in a 117-d study to evaluate the impact of initial floor space allowance and removal strategy on the growth of pigs up to 140 kg BW. There were 4 experimental treatments with 14 pens per treatment. The first treatment provided 0.91 m per pig (15 pigs/pen). The other 3 treatments initially provided 0.65 m per pig (21 pigs/pen) with 3 different removal strategies. The second treatment (2:2:2) removed the 2 heaviest pigs from pens on d 64, 76, and 95 when floor space allowance was predicted to be limiting. Treatment 3 (2:4) removed the 2 heaviest pigs on d 76 and the 4 heaviest pigs on d 105. Treatment 4 (6) removed the heaviest 6 pigs on d 105. All pigs remaining in pens after removals were fed to d 117. Overall (d 0 to 117), pigs initially provided 0.91 m of floor space had increased ( strategy, but ADG was not different compared with pigs on the 2:2:2 removal strategy. Total BW gain per pen was greater ( strategies; however, feed usage per pig was greater ( strategies. Feed usage, on a pig or pen basis, was less ( strategy compared to pigs on the 2:4 or the 6 removal strategy. Income over feed and facility cost (IOFFC) was less ( strategies. Also, IOFFC was less ( strategies. In conclusion, increasing the floor space allowance or the time points at which pigs are removed from the pen improved the growth of pigs remaining in the pen; however, IOFFC may be reduced because fewer pigs are marketed from each pen (pigs stocked at 0.91 m throughout the study) or from reducing total weight produced (2:2:2 removal strategy).

  5. Development of turbinate lesions and nasal colonization by Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida during long-term exposure of healthy pigs to pigs affected by atrophic rhinitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, L R; Brim, T A; Collins, M T

    1988-01-01

    Natural transmission of atrophic rhinitis from pigs from a herd with an endemic atrophic rhinitis problem to pigs from a herd free of atrophic rhinitis was demonstrated. Six replicates each with five pigs from the endemic atrophic rhinitis herd (Group A) and five pigs from the atrophic rhinitis-free herd (Group B) were housed together from 5 wk of age, with each replicate kept in isolation rooms maintained at optimal and controlled environmental conditions. Three replicates each with six pigs...

  6. Pig, F1 (wild boar x pig) and wild boar meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ragni, M.; S. Tarricone; Pinto, F.; Dimatteo, S; G. Marsico; Rasulo, A

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen carcasses of wild boars, pigs, hybrids F1 (wild boar x pig) and reared wild boar have been examined to study the meat quality and the fatty acid composition. Four carcasses came from hunted wild boars and twelve from animals reared in outdoor pens till nine months of age. The meat produced by the hunted wild animals, although not marketable, offers the best quality and nutritional characteristics. The use of hybrids reared in outdoor pens can approximate or equalize the hunted wild bo...

  7. Plaque morphology of Teschen disease viruses and certain pig enteroviruses in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H

    1968-04-01

    Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.

  8. Basic pulmonary function tests in pig farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Slaviša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Many epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated an increased risk for the symptoms of respiratory disorders consistent with chronic bronchitis and asthma and alterations of pulmonary function tests in pig farmers. AIM The aim of this study was to determine basic pulmonary function values in workers in swine confinement buildings and to compare them with the same values in the control group of unexposed persons. The next aim was to examine the association between these values with duration of professional exposure, cigarette smoking, age, and sex of the examined persons. METHODS We randomly selected for examination 145 workers of both sex who had worked for at least 2 previous years in pig farms and spent at least 3 hours per day, 6 days per week in a swine confinement building. The farmers worked at 6 different farms with 12,383 pigs on average on each farms. The subject was eligible for the study if he had had no history of atopic disease nor any serious chronic disease, and no acute respiratory infection within 3 previous months. As control group we examined 156 subjects who had lived and/or worked in the same areas and had had no history of exposure to farming environment or any other known occupational air pollutants. In both groups the study comprised cigarette smokers and persons who had never smoked. Pulmonary function data were collected according to the standard protocol with a Micro Spirometer, (Micro Medical Ltd, England, UK. The registered parameters were FEV1 and FVC At least three satisfactory forced maximal expirations were performed by each subject and the best value was accepted for analyses. The results were also expressed as a percentage of predicted values and FEV1/FVCxlOO was calculated. RESULTS There were no differences in the main demographic characteristics between two examined groups (Table1. Mean duration of work in pig farming was 11.6 years (SD=8.5; range 2-40. The average values of examined

  9. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  10. Investigation of Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity in Pig Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Long, Jason S.; Cauldwell, Anna V.; Zhou, Hongbo; Lycett, Samantha J.

    2013-01-01

    Reassortant influenza viruses with combinations of avian, human, and/or swine genomic segments have been detected frequently in pigs. As a consequence, pigs have been accused of being a “mixing vessel” for influenza viruses. This implies that pig cells support transcription and replication of avian influenza viruses, in contrast to human cells, in which most avian influenza virus polymerases display limited activity. Although influenza virus polymerase activity has been studied in human and avian cells for many years by use of a minigenome assay, similar investigations in pig cells have not been reported. We developed the first minigenome assay for pig cells and compared the activities of polymerases of avian or human influenza virus origin in pig, human, and avian cells. We also investigated in pig cells the consequences of some known mammalian host range determinants that enhance influenza virus polymerase activity in human cells, such as PB2 mutations E627K, D701N, G590S/Q591R, and T271A. The two typical avian influenza virus polymerases used in this study were poorly active in pig cells, similar to what is seen in human cells, and mutations that adapt the avian influenza virus polymerase for human cells also increased activity in pig cells. In contrast, a different pattern was observed in avian cells. Finally, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 polymerase activity was tested because this subtype has been reported to replicate only poorly in pigs. H5N1 polymerase was active in swine cells, suggesting that other barriers restrict these viruses from becoming endemic in pigs. PMID:23077313

  11. Social rank influences the distribution of blood leukocyte subsets in female growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Bodil Margrethe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl;

    2010-01-01

    reduced growth as compared to DOM pigs confirming their lower social status. Blood was sampled for immunological assessments immediately before grouping the pigs and again after the 5 weeks of social housing. White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, percentage of CD4 positive cells (CD4+), percentage of CD8......The effect of high (DOM) and low (SUB) social rank on blood immune variables was examined in female growing pigs. Pigs were mixed with unfamiliar pigs at 9 weeks of age and kept in stable groups of 4 pigs for 5 weeks. Social rank was determined using a feeding competition test. SUB pigs showed...... of social housing only. From the WBC counts it was found that the percentage of neutrophils was higher in SUB pigs and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was higher in DOM pigs. The percentage of CD4+ cells decreased with time in both DOM and SUB pigs, but only significantly in SUB pigs. The percentage...

  12. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis...

  13. Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caine, W.

    1997-01-01

    Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids is important for determining balanced homeostasis of protein metabolism in pigs and the true digestibility of dietary protein. In this context, the ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were determined in growing pigs fed guanidinated Nutrisoy protein

  14. Stress, endogenous opioids and stereotypies in tethered pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.

    2002-01-01

    Tether housing of female pigs in narrow, individual boxes represents a chronic stressor for the animals. Pigs that are housed tethered often develop behavioural disturbances, such as stereotypies, and changes in physiological regulation. The results of the studies described in the present thesis con

  15. Temperature and body weight affect fouling of pig pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Stefanowska, J.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fouling of the solid lying area in pig housing is undesirable for reasons of animal welfare, animal health, environmental pollution, and labor costs. In this study the influence of temperature on the excreting and lying behavior of growing-finishing pigs of different BW (25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 kg) w

  16. Determining the emissivity of pig skin for accurate infrared thermography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dennis D.; Clausen, Sønnik; Mercer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared thermography may be used for pig health screening and fever detection. In order to achieve the necessary accuracy for this purpose, it is necessary to know emissivity of the skin surface. Previous investigations attempting to find the emissivity of pig skin revealed numbers from 0.8 to 0...

  17. Same Pig, Different Conclusions: Stakeholders Differ in Qualitative Behaviour Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvesteijn, N.; Benard, M.; Reimert, I.; Camerlink, I.

    2014-01-01

    Animal welfare in pig production is frequently a topic of debate and is sensitive in nature. This debate is partly due to differences in values, forms, convictions, interests and knowledge among the stakeholders that constitute differences among their frames of reference with respect to pigs and the

  18. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lavik, Erin B;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs.......To investigate the survival, integration, and differentiation of mouse retinal progenitor cells after transplantation to the subretinal space of adult pigs....

  19. Evaluation of the optimum protein requirements for Vietnamese pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis were carried out in Central Vietnam where pig production plays an important role and pig farmers face a general dietary protein shortage for their animals. The objectives of the work presented were (1) to investigate the crude protein (CP) supply to local Mong Cai

  20. Pneumocystis carinii from pigs and humans are antigenically distinct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Settnes, Osvald Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1996-01-01

    The antigens of Pneumocystis carinii cysts isolated from pigs and humans were compared by the Western immunoblotting technique. Convalescent pig serum reacted with two antigens (approximately 78 kDa and 32.5 kDa) of porcine P. carinii cysts, whereas convalescent serum from humans did not react wi...

  1. Odor from pig production: its relation to diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinh Phung, Le P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords.Odor, Pigs, Diet, Manure, Protein, Amino Acids, Fermentable carbohydratesOdor from pig manure creates a serious nuisance for people li

  2. Perceived importance and responsibility for market-driven pig welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Lassen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    , but they focus especially on naturalness. Third, pig welfare is seen as an important indicator of meat quality. Fourth, consumers tend to think that responsibility for pig welfare lies with several actors: farmers, governments and themselves. The paper concludes that there is an opportunity for the market...... sort of responsibility for it....

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  4. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein quality was determined using a multi-point, slope ratio assay .... The pigs were fed ad libitum from ... source since the original batch of SFOC 46 was not large enough .... growth rates and feed conversion ratios between pigs fed the.

  5. haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZE J I

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. *EZE, J. I. ... SUMMARY. The haematological profile of pigs raised under intensive management system in South- ... Monogastric (both swine and poultry), has made a ... pig production has played a significant role in meat ... adversely affect the health or welfare of.

  6. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena;

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly documented however there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs with NCC. On the contrary, among the scientific community it is believed that pigs wit...

  7. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  8. PIG7 promotes leukemia cell chemosensitivity via lysosomal membrane permeabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiazhuo; Peng, Leiwen; Niu, Ting; Wu, Yu; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Fangfang; Zheng, Yuhuan; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-26

    PIG7 localizes to lysosomal membrane in leukemia cells. Our previous work has shown that transduction of pig7 into a series of leukemia cell lines did not result in either apoptosis or differentiation of most tested cell lines. Interestingly, it did significantly sensitize these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. Here, we further investigated the mechanism underlying pig7-induced improved sensitivity of acute leukemia cells to chemotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the sensitization effect driven by exogenous pig7 was more effective in drug-resistant leukemia cell lines which had lower endogenous pig7 expression. Overexpression of pig7 did not directly activate the caspase apoptotic pathway, but decreased the lysosomal stability. The expression of pig7 resulted in lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and lysosomal protease (e.g. cathepsin B, D, L) release. Moreover, we also observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by pig7. Some autophagy markers such as LC3I/II, ATG5 and Beclin-1, and necroptosis maker MLKL were also stimulated. However, intrinsic antagonism such as serine/cysteine protease inhibitors Spi2A and Cystatin C prevented downstream effectors from triggering leukemia cells, which were only on the "verge of apoptosis". When combined with chemotherapy, LMP increased and more proteases were released. Once this process was beyond the limit of intrinsic antagonism, it induced programmed cell death cooperatively via caspase-independent and caspase-dependent pathways.

  9. Personalities in pigs: Individual characteristics and coping with environmental challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    There are indications that pigs may have difficulty in adapting to the constraints of intensive housing conditions. Pigs show a wide variation in adaptive responses when exposed to the same stressful situation. Aim of this thesis was to investigate whether the behavioural coping responses of young p

  10. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.;

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected...

  11. Nutrition, key factor to reduce environmental load from pig production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    In different parts of Europe animal production is highly concentrated. Pig production generally is the main animal production activity in these areas. Main concerns of these large numbers of pigs are the amount of surplus nutrients in excreta and gaseous losses to the environment. Main nutrients of

  12. Evaluation of the optimum protein requirements for Vietnamese pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis were carried out in Central Vietnam where pig production plays an important role and pig farmers face a general dietary protein shortage for their animals. The objectives of the work presented were (1) to investigate the crude protein (CP) supply to local Mong Cai

  13. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, T.; Wingstrand, A.; Swanenburg, M.; Altrock, von A.; Thorberg, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected f

  14. Meta-analysis of phosphorus balance data from growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulin-Zeuthen, M.; Kebreab, E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Lopez, S.; Fan, M.Z.; Dias, R.S.; France, J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted concerns over current methods of determining endogenous P losses and P requirements in growing pigs. Therefore, a database containing observations on 350 pigs was assembled from various studies. Four functions for analyzing P balance data were considered: 1) a straight

  15. Genogroup I and II Picobirnaviruses in Respiratory Tracts of Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Leo L.M.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Lau, Pui-Ngan; Perera, Harsha K.K.; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik; Simon, James H.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence-independent amplification and specific reverse transcription PCRs identified genogroup I and II picobirnaviruses in respiratory tracts of pigs. These data expand knowledge of picobirnavirus diversity and tropism. Genetic relationships between porcine respiratory and human enteric picobirnaviruses suggest cross-species transmission of picobirnaviruses between pigs and humans. PMID:22172405

  16. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  17. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  18. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  19. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  20. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Pressure mat analysis of the longitudinal development of pig locomotion in growing pigs after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Bertholle, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363341595; Oosterlinck, M.; van der Staay, F.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653; Back, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023707; van Nes, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176956174

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait evaluation is difficult in pigs, especially when objective and quantitative data are needed, thus little research has been conducted in this species. There is considerable experience, however, with objective gait analysis in other species, such as horses and dogs. In this study, a pr

  2. Filial attachment and its disruption: insights from the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Guinea pigs are precocial rodents that show evidence of a selective attachment to the mother who, in turn, exhibits little active maternal care. Effects of separation in guinea pigs are, therefore, more likely to reflect the disruption of attachment than the removal of, or alterations in, patterns of maternal care. Here, effects in guinea pigs of the presence or absence of the mother on psychobiological endpoints and of maternal separation on depressive-like behavior are reviewed. It is argued that results with guinea pigs often align more closely with those of nonhuman primates than those of laboratory rats and mice, and that the guinea pig offers a valuable translational model for studies of the consequences of attachment and its disruption.

  3. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  4. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  5. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  6. SLAUGHTERING TRAITS OF PIGS REARED CONVENTIONALLY AND ON DEEP LITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare slaughtering traits of two pig genotypes when reared in two different ways, and to determine the influence of pig housing on carcass characteristics and muscle tissue quality. The research was carried out on 68 fattening pigs of both sex, divided into two groups: the first group was kept on deep litter, and the second one was housed in flat deck pens without deep litter. Each group consisted of pigs of two genotypes, i.e. three-way crossbreeds of Large White and German Landrace (LW x GL in the dam line and of German Landrace and Pietrain (P in the sire line. At the end of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and the following values were determined: the pH45 and pH24 values, electric conductivity values (EC45, EC24, the “a” and “b” carcass length, loin values and the values of backfat and muscle thickness, aiming to evaluate the share of muscular tissue in carcass by applying the two-points method. Pigs reared on deep litter had statistically significantly smaller live weights (P<0.05 and warm carcass weights in comparison to pigs reared on flat deck without deep litter. Pigs crossed with Pietrain, which were kept without deep litter had significantly thicker muscles than the ones crossed with German Landrace, kept on deep litter (P<0.05. Fattening pigs of both genotypes, reared without deep litter, had significantly smaller pH45 values in loins and in MLD, when compared to pigs crossed with Pietrain and kept on deep litter (P<0.05. The influence of genotype was statistically significant for the EC45 value in loin, as well as for the muscle thickness and percentage share of muscular tissue (P<0.05. Interaction between the way of fattening and genotype did not have any effect on carcass and meat quality.

  7. Carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in pig farmers is associated with occurrence in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Bos, M.E.H.; Marm, van S.; Scharringa, J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock may serve as a reservoir for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of carriage with ESBL-PE in pig farmers, family members and employees, and its association with carriage in pigs. Rectal swabs

  8. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation...... will be available over the coming years. However, in order to reach this goal further systematic research is needed. Such cell lines hold promises for developing adequate models for human ES cell therapy and they may open for new avenues for the production of genetically modified animals as the ES cells ahve...

  9. Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Alan L.; Bolund, Lars; Churcher, Carol;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pig genome is being sequenced and characterised under the auspices of the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium. The sequencing strategy followed a hybrid approach combining hierarchical shotgun sequencing of BAC clones and whole genome shotgun sequencing. RESULTS: Assemblies......) is under construction and will incorporate whole genome shotgun sequence (WGS) data providing > 30x genome coverage. The WGS sequence, most of which comprise short Illumina/Solexa reads, were generated from DNA from the same single Duroc sow as the source of the BAC library from which clones were...

  10. Current status of pig heart xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Muhammad M; Reichart, Bruno; Byrne, Guerard W; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2015-11-01

    Significant progress in understanding and overcoming cardiac xenograft rejection using a clinically relevant large animal pig-to-baboon model has accelerated in recent years. This advancement is based on improved immune suppression, which attained more effective regulation of B lymphocytes and possibly newer donor genetics. These improvements have enhanced heterotopic cardiac xenograft survival from a few weeks to over 2 years, achieved intrathoracic heterotopic cardiac xenograft survival of 50 days and orthotopic survival of 57 days. This encouraging progress has rekindled interest in xenotransplantation research and refocused efforts on preclinical orthotopic cardiac xenotransplantation.

  11. Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    disease models. In this report, we present transgenic pigs created by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition in primary porcine fibroblasts in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Göttingen minipigs expressing green fluorescent protein are produced by transgenesis with DNA...... plasmid DNA. Our findings illustrate critical issues related to DNA transposon-directed transgenesis, including coincidental plasmid insertion and relatively low Sleeping Beauty transposition activity in porcine fibroblasts, but also provide a platform for future development of porcine disease models...... using the Sleeping Beauty gene insertion technology....

  12. Analyses of body weight patterns in growing pigs: a new view on body weight in pigs for frequent monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, A H; Dolecheck, K A; Kristensen, A R

    2017-07-24

    Frequent BW monitoring of growing pigs can be useful for identifying production (e.g. feeding), health and welfare problems. However, in order to construct a tool which will properly recognize abnormalities in pigs' growth a precise description of the growth process should be used. In this study we proposed a new model of pig growth accounting for daily fluctuations in BW. Body weight measurements of 1710 pigs (865 gilts and 843 barrows) originating from five consecutive batches from a Danish commercial farm were collected. Pigs were inserted into a large pen (maximum capacity=400) between November 2014 and September 2015. On average, each pig was observed for 42 days and weighed 3.6 times a day when passing from the resting to feeding area. Altogether, 243,160 BW measurements were recorded. A multilevel model of pig growth was constructed and fitted to available data. The BW of pigs was modeled as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because only five batches were observed, it was not possible to obtain the random effect for batch. However, in order to account for the batch effect the model included interactions between batch and fixed parameters: intercept, time, square value of time and cosine wave. The gender effect was not significant and was removed from the final model. For all batches, morning and afternoon peaks in the frequency of visits to the feeding area could be distinguished. According to results, pigs were lighter in the morning and heavier in the evening (minimum BW was reached around 1000 h and maximum around 2200 h). However, the exact time of obtaining maximum and minimum BW during the day differed between batches. Pigs had access to natural light and, therefore, existing differences

  13. Induction of porcine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs from PMWS unaffected herds following mingling with pigs from PMWS-affected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Bækbo, Poul; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the results from two experimental studies (I and II) investigating whether post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) can be induced in pigs from PMWS unaffected herds by mingling with pigs from PMWS-affected herds and to observe whether transportation and...... compartments in both study I and study II. In addition, in study II, four groups of pigs from unaffected herds were included. Two groups with pigs transported and mingled from unaffected herds and two groups with pigs which were only transported. The PMWS diagnoses on the individual pigs were based on lymphoid...

  14. Review of automatic detection of pig behaviours by using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuqing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Mengshuai; Wu, Jianzhai; Kong, Fantao

    2017-06-01

    Automatic detection of lying, moving, feeding, drinking, and aggressive behaviours of pigs by means of image analysis can save observation input by staff. It would help staff make early detection of diseases or injuries of pigs during breeding and improve management efficiency of swine industry. This study describes the progress of pig behaviour detection based on image analysis and advancement in image segmentation of pig body, segmentation of pig adhesion and extraction of pig behaviour characteristic parameters. Challenges for achieving automatic detection of pig behaviours were summarized.

  15. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  16. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  17. Advances in QTL Mapping in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F. Rothschild, Zhi-liang Hu, Zhihua Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years advances in the porcine genetic linkage map and discovery of useful candidate genes have led to valuable gene and trait information being discovered. Early use of exotic breed crosses and now commercial breed crosses for quantitative trait loci (QTL scans and candidate gene analyses have led to 110 publications which have identified 1,675 QTL. Additionally, these studies continue to identify genes associated with economically important traits such as growth rate, leanness, feed intake, meat quality, litter size, and disease resistance. A well developed QTL database called PigQTLdb is now as a valuable tool for summarizing and pinpointing in silico regions of interest to researchers. The commercial pig industry is actively incorporating these markers in marker-assisted selection along with traditional performance information to improve traits of economic performance. The long awaited sequencing efforts are also now beginning to provide sequence available for both comparative genomics and large scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP association studies. While these advances are all positive, development of useful new trait families and measurement of new or underlying traits still limits future discoveries. A review of these developments is presented.

  18. Human brucellosis at a pig slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriela I; Jacob, Néstor R; López, Gustavo; Ayala, Sandra M; Whatmore, Adrian M; Lucero, Nidia E

    2013-12-01

    Seventeen workers in a pig slaughterhouse with signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis were clinically examined at the outpatient service of different health institutions and studied by serological tests during the period 2005-2011. Eleven blood cultures were taken and six Brucella suis strains were isolated, three biovar 1 and three with atypical characteristics. In order to confirm that these cases had no common source, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on 5 of the 6 strains whose results showed substantial heterogeneity in the genotypes, thereby demonstrating that the immediate origin was not the same. Two hundred adult pigs admitted for slaughter at the plant were sampled by convenience and tested by buffered antigen plate test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercapto-ethanol test (MET). Seven of 62 males (11%) and 25/138 (18%) females tested positive. The study results contribute information on risk scenarios for packing plant workers and underscore the need to improve plant workers' education on appropriate containment measures and to actively screen animals for swine brucellosis.

  19. Current status of pig lung xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Natalia; Laird, Christopher; Burdorf, Lars; Pierson, Richard N; Azimzadeh, Agnes M

    2015-11-01

    Human organ transplantation has improved duration and quality of life for many people, but its full potential is critically limited by short supply of available organs. One solution is xenotransplantation, although this comes with its own set of challenges. Lungs in particular are highly sensitive to injury, during the transplantation process generally, and to multiple immune rejection mechanisms. Using pig lung donors, our lab has been working on lung transplants into baboons as a surrogate for a human recipient. Several ex vivo human blood perfusion models have also proven useful. The combination of these experiments allows us to test large animal models as well as whole organ or isolated endothelial reactions to perfusion with human blood. We have found that a multi-modality therapeutic approach to prevent various pathogenic cascades - such as antibody-driven complement activation, other immune pathway activation, thrombosis, and tissue ischemia-reperfusion injury - has met with progressively greater success to protect the xeno lung from injury. Pig gene knockout and human gene transfer has been perhaps the greatest contributor. This review will discuss mechanisms of xeno lung injury, relevant experimental models, as well as recent results and future targets for research.

  20. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  1. BPEX Pig Health Scheme: a useful monitoring system for respiratory disease control in pig farms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Hannah R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory diseases account for significant economic losses to the UK pig industry. Lesions indicative of respiratory disease in pig lungs at slaughter e.g. pneumonia and pleuritis are frequently recorded to assess herd health or provide data for epidemiological studies. The BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS is a monitoring system, which informs producers of gross lesions in their pigs' carcasses at slaughter, enabling farm-level decisions to be made. The aim of the study was to assess whether information provided by the BPHS regarding respiratory lesions was associated with respiratory pathogens in the farm, farm management practices and each other. Results BPHS reports were obtained from a subset of 70 pig farms involved in a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-09 investigating the epidemiology of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome. The reports were combined with data regarding the presence/absence of several pathogens in the herd and potential farm-level risk factors for respiratory disease. Principal component analysis (PCA performed on BPHS reports generated three principal components, explaining 71% of the total variance. Enzootic pneumonia score, severe pleurisy and acute pleuropneumonia had the highest loadings for the principal component which explained the largest percentage of the total variance (35% (BPHS component 1, it was thought that this component identifies farms with acute disease. Using the factor loadings a score for each farm for BPHS component 1 was obtained. As farms' score for BPHS component 1 increased, average carcass weight at slaughter decreased. In addition, farms positive for H1N2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV were more likely to have higher levels of severe and mild pleurisy reported by the BPHS, respectively. Conclusions The study found statistical associations between levels of pleurisy recorded by BPHS at slaughter and the presence H1N2 and PRRSV in

  2. Effects of Environmental Factors on Death Rate of Pigs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Oh, Taek-Kuen; Kim, Suk; Min, Won-Gi; Gutierrez, Winson-Montanez; Chang, Hong-Hee; Chikushi, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the mortality rate among pigs for a swine industry is very important. In this study, environmental factors such as average air temperature, average daily temperature rage and average relative humidity were determined on its effects of on mortality rate of pigs and its optimum ranges to influence pigs health that were correlated with the pigs periodic growth. Data were collected from 10 pig farms in South Korea during the Summer, Fall and Winter seasons. Correlation and regression equ...

  3. Study on Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Breeds of Pigs by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    RAPD was used to study the genetic divergency and phylogenetic relationships of five breeds of domestic pigs,including Min pig,Duroc,Yorkshired,Landrace and Junmu I pig.We selected fourteen primers from eighty random primers,caculated genetic distance index matrix and constructed phylogenetic tree with UPGMA methods.Genetic distance index matrix indicated that the genetic relationship between Junmu I pig and Landrace was the closest and the farthest between Duroc and min pig.

  4. Study on the problems and development strategies of Chongqing city status, pig breeding industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    Chongqing is in the key period to create a resource-saving, pig as environmental friendly "Chongqing national modern animal husbandry demonstration zone", the development of pig health culture, science and technology supporting aquaculture benefits, promote the transformation, ensure the pig breeding industry as strategic industry development. This paper introduces the breeding of Chongqing city and current situation, existing problems and development trend of pig, the sustainable development suggestions were put forward for the pig breeding industry.

  5. Evaluation of chronic immune system stimulation models in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandeh, A; de Lange, C F M

    2012-02-01

    Two experiments (EXPs) were conducted to evaluate models of immune system stimulation (ISS) that can be used in nutrient metabolism studies in growing pigs. In EXP I, the pig's immune response to three non-pathogenic immunogens was evaluated, whereas in EXP II the pig's more general response to one of the immunogens was contrasted with observations on non-ISS pigs. In EXP I, nine growing barrows were fitted with a jugular catheter, and after recovery assigned to one of three treatments. Three immunogens were tested during a 10-day ISS period: (i) repeated injection of increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (ii) repeated subcutaneous injection of turpentine (TURP); and (iii) feeding grains naturally contaminated with mycotoxins (MYCO). In EXP II, 36 growing barrows were injected repeatedly with either saline (n = 12) or increasing amounts of LPS (n = 24) for 7 days (initial dose 60 μg/kg body weight). Treating pigs with TURP and LPS reduced feed intake (P < 0.02), whereas feed intake was not reduced in pigs on MYCO. Average daily gain (ADG; kg/day) of pigs on LPS (0.50) was higher than that of pigs on TURP (0.19), but lower than that of pigs on MYCO (0.61; P < 0.01). Body temperature was elevated in pigs on LPS and TURP, by 0.8°C and 0.7°C, respectively, relative to pre-ISS challenge values (39.3°C; P < 0.02), but remained unchanged in pigs on MYCO. Plasma concentrations of interleukin-1β were increased in pigs treated with LPS and TURP (56% and 55%, respectively, relative to 22.3 pg/ml for pre-ISS; P < 0.01), but not in MYCO-treated pigs. Plasma cortisol concentrations remained unchanged for pigs on MYCO and TURP, but were reduced in LPS-treated pigs (30% relative to 29.8 ng/ml for pre-ISS; P < 0.05). Red blood cell glutathione concentrations were lower in TURP-treated pigs (13% relative to 1.38 μM for pre-ISS; P < 0.05), but were unaffected in pigs on LPS and MYCO. In EXP I, TURP caused severe responses including skin ulceration and

  6. Functional analysis of guinea pig β1-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Sayuri; Namiki, Kana; Kimura, Sadao; Koike, Katsuo; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2011-12-01

    Although similarity of pharmacological responses to certain stimuli between guinea pigs and humans has been reported, this has been poorly defined by a molecular biological approach. In this study, we cloned the gene of guinea pig ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1). The deduced amino acid sequence of guinea pig ADRB1 (467-aa) showed 91% and 92% identity with the human and rat ADRB1 sequences, respectively. Using HEK293T cells expressing guinea pig, human and rat ADRB1s independently, we elucidated the functional characteristics of each ADRB1. The ligand-binding profiles and the concentration-response relationships for isoprenaline-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were similar among the three ADRB1s. Isoprenaline also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal related kinases (ERK) through ADRB1s in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of isoprenaline for phosphorylation of ERK, through guinea pig ADRB1 was the same as through human ADRB1, but markedly lower than that of through rat ADRB1. ERK phosphorylation through guinea pig ADRB1 was sensitive to pertussis toxin, a dominant-negative ras and PD98059, indicating that a G(i)-mediated pathway is involved in the ADRB1/ERK signaling loop. These results suggest that the G(i)-coupling efficacy of guinea pig and human ADRB1s may be higher than that of rat ADRB1.

  7. Factors Affecting Lipid Oxidation Due to Pig and Turkey Hemolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jianhao; Richards, Mark P

    2017-09-13

    Turkey hemolysate promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than pig hemolysate, which was partly attributed to the greater ability of H2O2 that formed during auto-oxidation to oxidize the avian hemoglobin (Hb). Turkey and pig hemolysate (2.5 μM Hb) exposed to 10 μM H2O2 oxidized to 48% and 4% metHb, respectively. Catalase activity, which converts H2O2 to water, was elevated in the pig hemolysate. The larger difference in Hb oxidation when comparing turkey and pig hemolysate in washed muscle (relative to their auto-oxidation rates) suggested that lipid oxidation products facilitated formation of metHb. Turkey metHb released hemin more readily than pig metHb, which coincided with turkey metHb promoting lipid oxidation more effectively than pig metHb. Ferryl Hb was not detected during storage of turkey or pig hemolysate in washed muscle, which suggested a minor role for hypervalent forms of Hb in the oxidation of the lipids.

  8. Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Sparklin, B.D.; Hanson, L.B.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Herpetofauna populations are decreasing worldwide, and the range of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is expanding. Depredation of threatened reptile and amphibian populations by wild pigs could be substantial. By understanding depredation characteristics and rates, more resources can be directed toward controlling populations of wild pigs coincident with threatened or endangered herpetofauna populations. From April 2005 to March 2006 we used firearms to collect wild pigs (n = 68) and examined stomach content for reptiles and amphibians. We found 64 individual reptiles and amphibians, composed of 5 different species, that were consumed by wild pigs during an estimated 254 hours of foraging. Primarily arboreal species (e.g., Anolis carolinensis) became more vulnerable to depredation when temperatures were low and they sought thermal shelter. Other species (e.g., Scaphiopus holbrookii) that exhibit mass terrestrial migrations during the breeding season also faced increased vulnerability to depredation by wild pigs. Results suggest that wild pigs are opportunistic consumers that can exploit and potentially have a negative impact on species with particular life-history characteristics. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Vaccination of influenza a virus decreases transmission rates in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romagosa Anna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited information is available on the transmission and spread of influenza virus in pig populations with differing immune statuses. In this study we assessed differences in transmission patterns and quantified the spread of a triple reassortant H1N1 influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pig populations by estimating the reproduction ratio (R of infection (i.e. the number of secondary infections caused by an infectious individual using a deterministic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR model, fitted on experimental data. One hundred and ten pigs were distributed in ten isolated rooms as follows: (i non-vaccinated (NV, (ii vaccinated with a heterologous vaccine (HE, and (iii vaccinated with a homologous inactivated vaccine (HO. The study was run with multiple replicates and for each replicate, an infected non-vaccinated pig was placed with 10 contact pigs for two weeks and transmission of influenza evaluated daily by analyzing individual nasal swabs by RT-PCR. A statistically significant difference between R estimates was observed between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs (p R (95%CI was 1 (0.39-2.09 and 0 for the HE and the HO groups respectively, compared to an Ro value of 10.66 (6.57-16.46 in NV pigs (p

  10. Gastrostomy insertion: comparing the options - PEG, RIG or PIG?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasch, H.-U. E-mail: hul@smtr.nhs.uk; Wilbraham, L.; Bullen, K.; Marriott, A.; Lawrance, J.A.L.; Johnson, R.J.; Lee, S.H.; England, R.E.; Gamble, G.E.; Martin, D.F

    2003-05-01

    AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Technical success was 98%, 100% and 100% for PEG, RIG and PIG, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced stoma infection for orally placed tubes (p=0.02). Ten out of 50 (20%) small-bore RIG tubes blocked. Replacement tubes were required in six out of 50 PEGs (12%), 10 out of 50 RIGs (20%), but no PIGs (p<0.001). No procedure-related complications occurred. The function of radiologically placed tubes was significantly improved with the larger PIG (p<0.001), with similar wound infection rates. PIG was successful in 24 patients where endoscopic insertion could not be performed. Significant endoscopic abnormalities were found in 42 out of 200 PEG patients (21%), all related to peptic disease. Insignificant pathology was found in 8.5%. CONCLUSION: PIG combines advantages of both traditional methods with a higher success and lower re-intervention rate. Endoscopy is unlikely to detect clinically relevant pathology other than peptic disease. PIG is a very effective gastrostomy method; it has better long-term results than RIG and is successful where conventional PEG has failed.

  11. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. ORGANIC NITROGEN IN A TYPIC HAPLUDOX FERTILIZED WITH PIG SLURRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Grohskopf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of pig slurry may have a different effect on nitrogen dynamics in soil compared to mineral fertilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the different forms of organic N in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (Typic Hapludox and their relationship to N uptake by crops in response to 10 years of annual application of pig slurry and mineral fertilizer. The treatments were application rates of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 m3 ha-1 of pig slurry, in addition to mineral fertilizer, organized in a randomized block design with four replications. The N contents were determined in the plant tissue and in the forms of total N and acid hydrolyzed fractions: ammonium-N, hexosamine-N, α-amino-N, amide-N, and unidentified-N. Annual application of pig slurry or mineral fertilizer increased the total-N content in the 0-10 cm depth layer. The main fractions of organic N in the soil were α-amino-N when pig slurry was applied and unidentified-N in the case of mineral fertilizers. Pig slurry increased the N fractions considered as labile: α-amino-N, ammonium-N, and amide-N. The increase in these labile organic N fractions in the soil through pig slurry application allows greater N uptake by the maize and oat crops in a no-tillage system.

  13. The sequence and analysis of a Chinese pig genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig is an economically important food source, amounting to approximately 40% of all meat consumed worldwide. Pigs also serve as an important model organism because of their similarity to humans at the anatomical, physiological and genetic level, making them very useful for studying a variety of human diseases. A pig strain of particular interest is the miniature pig, specifically the Wuzhishan pig (WZSP, as it has been extensively inbred. Its high level of homozygosity offers increased ease for selective breeding for specific traits and a more straightforward understanding of the genetic changes that underlie its biological characteristics. WZSP also serves as a promising means for applications in surgery, tissue engineering, and xenotransplantation. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of an inbreeding WZSP genome. Results Our results reveal some unique genomic features, including a relatively high level of homozygosity in the diploid genome, an unusual distribution of heterozygosity, an over-representation of tRNA-derived transposable elements, a small amount of porcine endogenous retrovirus, and a lack of type C retroviruses. In addition, we carried out systematic research on gene evolution, together with a detailed investigation of the counterparts of human drug target genes. Conclusion Our results provide the opportunity to more clearly define the genomic character of pig, which could enhance our ability to create more useful pig models.

  14. Inhibitory effects of sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine and their compounds on pathogenic Aeromonas caviae from cultured Andrias davidianus in vitro%十六种中草药及其复方对大鲵致病性豚鼠气单胞菌的体外抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌空; 王涵; 丁诗华; 吴兴镇

    2015-01-01

    To study the inhibitory effects of sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine and their compounds on pathogenic Aeromonas caviae from cultured Andrias davidianus in vitro, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the mini-mum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of single drug and the compounds on pathogenic A.caviae from A.davidianus were measured with agar double dilution method.Then sixteen kinds of chinese herbal medicine were mixed one by one based on chessboard experimental method to get one hundred and twenty kinds of compounds of Chinese herbal medicine .The results showed that sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine had antibacterial effect at certain extent on the pathogenic bacteri -a.Terminalia chebula Retz and Rhus chinensis Mil had the best antibacterial activity, followed by Pomegranate Rind, Rheum palmatum L, Sophora japonica L, Rubus idaeus, Scutellaria baicalensis, Rosa laevigata, Cistanche deserticola and Syringa Linn, Radix Cyathulae, Paeonia veitchii, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, DivaricateSaposhnikovia Root, Musk-root Semiaquilegia Root and Momordica grosvenori had the worst antibacterial activity.The study indicated that the rational use of Chinese herbal medicine could increase the inhibitory effects of the drug on A.caviae from A.davidianus in vitro drug Antibacterial activity.%应用二倍稀释法测定了诃子、五倍子、石榴皮等16种中草药及其复方对大鲵(Andrias davidianus)致病性豚鼠气单胞菌(Aeromonas caviae)的最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度,应用棋盘法设计16种中草药组合的120种双联复方和10种中草药组合的120种三联复方,评估了复方的体外抑菌作用。结果表明:16种中草药对大鲵致病性豚鼠气单胞菌均有一定程度的抑菌作用,抑菌作用强弱依次为诃子、五倍子、石榴皮、大黄、槐角、覆盆子、黄芩、金樱子、肉苁蓉、丁香、川牛膝、赤芍、知母、防风、天葵子及罗汉果;在120个中

  15. Knockdown of FOXO3 induces primordial oocyte activation in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Lee, Jibak; Zengyo, Mai; Miyano, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian ovaries are endowed with a large number of primordial follicles, each containing a nongrowing oocyte. Only a small population of primordial oocytes (oocytes in primordial follicles) is activated to enter the growth phase throughout a female's reproductive life. Little is known about the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes. Here, we found that the primordial oocytes from infant pigs (10- to 20-day-old) grew to full size at 2 months after xenografting to immunodeficient mice, whereas those from prepubertal pigs (6-month-old) survived without initiation of their growth even after 4 months; thereafter, they started to grow and reached full size after 6 months. These results suggest that the mechanism regulating the activation of primordial oocytes in prepubertal pigs is different from that in infant pigs. In this regard, the involvement of FOXO3, a forkhead transcription factor, was studied. In prepubertal pigs, FOXO3 was detected in almost all (94+/-2%) primordial oocyte nuclei, and in infant pigs, 42+/-7% primordial oocytes were FOXO3 positive. At 4 months after xenografting, the percentage of FOXO3-positive primordial oocytes from prepubertal pigs had decreased to the infant level. Further, siRNA was designed to knock down porcine FOXO3. FOXO3-knockdown primordial follicles from prepubertal pigs developed to the antral stage accompanied by oocyte growth at 2 months after xenografting. These results suggest that primordial oocytes are dormant in prepubertal pigs by a FOXO3-related mechanism to establish a nongrowing oocyte pool in the ovary, and that a transient knockdown of the FOXO3 activates the primordial oocytes to enter the growth phase.

  16. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  17. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  18. Sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Hyeon Tae; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Chi Nyon

    The objective of the study was to quantify the concentration and emission levels of sulfuric odorous compounds emitted from pig-feeding operations. Five types of pig-housing rooms were studied: gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and fattening rooms. The concentration range of sulfuric odorous compounds in these pig-housing rooms were 30-200 ppb for hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), 2.5-20 ppb for methyl mercaptan (CH 3SH), 1.5-12 ppb for dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH 3SCH 3) and 0.5-7 ppb for dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH 3S 2CH 3), respectively. The emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS were estimated by multiplying the average concentration (mg m -3) measured near the air outlet by the mean ventilation rate (m 3 h -1) and expressed either per area (mg m -2 h -1) or animal unit (AU; liveweight of the pig, 500 kg) (mg pig -1 h -1). As a result, the emission rates of H 2S, CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS in the pig-housing rooms were 14-64, 0.8-7.3, 0.4-3.4 and 0.2-1.9 mg m -2 h -1, respectively, based on pig's activity space and 310-723, 18-80, 9-39 and 5-22 mg AU -1 h -1, respectively, based on pig's liveweight, which indicates that their emission rates were similar, whether based upon the pig's activity space or liveweight. In conclusion, the concentrations and emission rates of H 2S were highest in the fattening room followed by the growing, nursery, farrowing and gestation rooms whereas those of CH 3SH, DMS and DMDS concentrations were largest in the growing room followed by the nursery, gestation and farrowing rooms.

  19. historical review of pig testing programs in Denmark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henning; STAUN

    2005-01-01

    Until1887pig breeding in Denmark wasbased upon the export to Germany of heavy pigs,weighing from120to150kg.To satisfy thismarket the old native Danish Landrace breed wascrossed with Middle White and Berkshire boarsimported from England in order to produce stillfatter pigs.In1887the importation of Danishpigs became prohibited by Germany and ourfarmers had to change over to the production ofbacon for the English market.This change over was not an easy one.Forthe production of bacon,a completely differenttype ...

  20. HACCP system in radiation-hygiene control of pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Radosav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents instructive methodology for introducing and realizing the HACCP system in pig production, as a typical representative of intensive breeding, with the objective of establishing radiation-hygiene supervision. Attention was focused on the type of pig diet as the key link in the production chain, in fact the selection of the raw material components necessary in the production of pig feed concentrates for intense breeding conditions, and on the establishment of a certain radiation-hygiene balance through prognostic-selective methodology, as a guarantee of radiation safety.

  1. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  2. Aggression and affiliation during social conflict in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Camerlink

    Full Text Available Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08 and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05. Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2, and that had a strong increase in haptoglobin (factor 3, tended to be relatively most far away from unfamiliar pigs (b = 0.03 times further; P = 0.08. Results on lying in body contact were coherent with results on distances. Pigs in enriched housing spaced further apart than pigs in barren housing (P<0.001. The combined analysis of measures revealed animals that may either promote or slow down group cohesion, which may not have become clear from single parameters. This emphasizes the importance of an integral approach to social conflict.

  3. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  4. Classification of pig farms regarding environmental risk and internal use of pig manure

    OpenAIRE

    Emonet-Denand, Virginie; Porphyre, Vincent; Thi Hoa Ly, Nguyen; Hoang Bien, Dang; Paillat, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    224p; This paper presents the practices of Vietnamese farmers in handling animal excreta, i.e., pig manure, and highlights the difference of farms in terms of their operation relative to waste management and utilization. The environmental risks associated with these practices, and the attempt to quantify the difference of pork production systems, are also explored. Finally, a typology constructed based on the difference of practices and the quantification of risks is also given.

  5. Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Cunha M. Álvares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M−1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  6. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata seeds enhances the action of bradykinin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Morales Álvares, Alice; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Amaral, Nathalia Oda; Trindade, Neidiane Rosa; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Silva, Luciano Paulino; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2014-10-30

    The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk) by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M-1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  7. Survey of Hymenolepis spp. in pet rodents in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, D; Noviello, Emilio; Pepe, P; Del Prete, L; Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L

    2015-12-01

    We carried out the first survey of Hymenolepis spp. infection in pet rodents in Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 172 pet rodents as follows: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n = 60), squirrels (Callosciurus finlaysonii, Callosciurus prevosti, Tamias striatus, Tamias sibiricus, Sciurus calorinensis; n = 52), hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Mesocricetus auratus; n = 30), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera; n = 13), rats (Rattus norvegicus; n = 10), and mice (Mus minutoides; n = 7). These animals were housed either in pet shops or in private houses. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to assess the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces. Eggs of Hymenolepis nana were found in 24 out of 172 (13.9 %; 95 % confidence interval = 9.3-20.2 %) pet rodents. Of those rodents, 41.6 % (10/24) were rats (mean EPG = 55.7; range = 2-200), 29.2 % (7/24) mice (mean EPG = 64.5; range = 32-120), 25.0 % (6/24) were chinchillas (mean EPG = 25.5; range = 10-50), and 4.2 % (1/24) hamsters (P. campbelli) (EPG = 86.0). In addition, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs were found in 2 out of 172 (1.2 %; 95 % confidence interval = 0.2-4.6 %) rodents examined, both of which (100 %; 2/2) were pet squirrels (C. prevosti) (mean EPG = 10; range = 4-16). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of H. diminuta in pet squirrels.

  8. Effect of Eliminated the Breeding Pigs with Unqualified CSFV Antibody on Sows' Reproductive Performance and Pigs' Growth Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Jin-sheng; WU Shun-yi; ZHOU Lun-jiang; YE Yao-hui; YU Dao-jin; CHEN Ru-jing; WANG Long-bai; ZHANG Xin-liang

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the effect of eliminated the breeding pigs with unqualified CSFV antibody on sow's reproductive performance and pig's growth performance so as to provide a scientific basis for the eliminating of the breeding pigs with unqualified CSFV antibody in large-scale pig farms. [Method] Serum samples from three scale pig farms were collected and tested with HerdChek CSFV-ELISA kit,then provided a certain scientific basis for scale pig farm to eliminate the unqualified( antibody blocking rate <50% ) breeders after booster immunization. [Result] After eliminating the breeding pigs with unqualified CSFV antibody, the average litter number of piglet in three pig farms ( A, B,C) were increased by 0.29 ( P<0.05), 0.40 ( P<0.01 ), 0.39 ( P<0.01 ) respectively; the average number of survival piglets were increased by 0.54 ( P < 0.01 ), 0.35 ( P < 0.01 ), 0.62 ( P < 0.01 ) respectively; the average litter number of weaned piglets were increased by 0.65 ( P <0.01 ), 0.71 ( P <0.01 ), 0.81 ( P < 0.01 ) respectively. The difference in weight gain of piglet at 30 - 60 d of age was extremely significant ( P <0.01 ), but inconspicuousness for the swine pregnancy rate, the survival rate of weaned piglet and piglet at 30 -60 d of age. [Conclusion] The eliminating the breeding pigs with unqualified CSFV antibody can significantly improve the performance of breeder and piglets.

  9. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  10. Effect of injected and dietary iron in young pigs on blood hematology and postnatal pig growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2011-12-01

    The relationship of injected Fe doses on blood hematology and pig growth performance during both preweaning and postweaning periods was studied. In Exp. 1, the effect of BW of 347 pigs injected with 200 mg of Fe (dextran) intramuscularly (i.m.) at birth on hemoglobin (Hb) and percent hematocrit (Hct) at weaning was assessed. As BW increased there was a decline (P pig growth were evaluated. Injections were as follows: 1) 200 mg of Fe at birth; 2) 300 mg of Fe at birth; or 3) 200 mg of Fe at birth + 100 mg of Fe at d 10. A total of 269 pigs were allotted within litter to 3 treatments. The 2 greater quantities of injected Fe (i.e., 300 or 200 + 100 mg of Fe) had similar but greater (P pigs receiving 200 mg of Fe, but growth rates were similar at weaning. The effects of injecting 200 mg of Fe at birth and either saline or 100 mg of Fe at 10 d of age were investigated in Exp. 3. Weaned pigs of each group were fed diets with 0, 80, or 160 mg/kg of added Fe for 35 d as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 replicates (n = 360 pigs) in a randomized complete block design (RCB). The innate Fe contents of diets averaged 200 mg/kg. The greater Fe injection group (200 + 100 mg) had greater (P dietary Fe increased, Hb was greater only at d 14 (P Dietary Fe resulted in linear increases (P dietary Fe (80, 160, and 240 mg/kg of diet), 2 injected Fe treatments (200 or 300 mg of Fe) at birth, and birth BW (pigs). The 300 mg of Fe injection group had lighter BW in both birth BW groups, with a birth BW × injected Fe interaction (P pigs receiving 200 mg of Fe having greater BW gains to 240 mg/kg of dietary Fe, whereas light birth BW pigs injected with 300 mg of Fe plateaued at 160 mg/kg of Fe. Pigs in the heavy birth BW group injected with 200 or 300 mg of Fe at birth responded similarly to dietary Fe postweaning. These results indicate that blood Hb and Hct were affected by pig BW at weaning, but the additional 100 mg of Fe i.m. at 10 d of age increased blood hematology and that Fe

  11. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    % pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri...

  12. Association of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic pigs - Effects of metformin at isoenergetic feeding in a type 2-like diabetic pig model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Mroz, Z.; Dekker, R.A.; Corbijn, H.; Ackermans, M.; Sauerwein, H.

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-mediated glucose metabolism was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)¿treated diabetic pigs to explore if the STZ-diabetic pig can be a suitable model for insulin-resistant, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pigs (40 kg) were meal-fed with a low-fat (5%) diet. Hyperinsulinemic (1, 2, and 8 mU kg¿1 mi

  13. Higher frequency of PEDV shedding and lesions in suckling pigs compared to nursery pigs and protective immunity after homologous re-challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes enteric disease in pigs and is known to spread rapidly after entering naïve pig populations. The objectives were to 1) compare the disease course following inoculation with PEDV isolate US/Colorado/2013 in naïve 10-day and 8-week-old pigs, and 2) contras...

  14. Signal transduction pathways in guinea pig sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明文; 焦日; 孙青原; 胡国俊; 段崇文; 刘辉; 宋祥芬; 陈大元

    1996-01-01

    Trifluoperazine (TFP), the antagonist of calmodulin (CaM). significantly stimulated the capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig spermatozoa at the concentration of 10-100μmol/L, independent of the external Ca2+. Forskolin, dbcAMP and caffeine evidently promoted the occurrence of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa at early capacitation stage (5 h) in nonsynchronous system but not in synchronous system. If the spermatozoa were capacitated for 15 h in synchronous system, the above three drugs significantly stimulated acrosome reaction in a Ca2+-independent manner. Protein kinase C activators, i.e. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) did not influence the occurrence of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa at early capacitation stage, but significantly increased the acrosome reaction rate in capacitated spermatozoa in a Ca2+-independent manner. In contrast. PKC inhibitor staurosporine significantly inhibited the occurrence of acrosome reaction.

  15. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs.

  16. Coupled Shape Model Segmentation in Pig Carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with multi-object segmentation. For each object we will train a level set function based shape prior from a sample set of outlines. The outlines are aligned in a multi-resolution scheme wrt. an Euclidean similarity transformation in order to maximize the overlap...... levels inside the outline as well as in a narrow band outside the outline. The maximum a posteriori estimate of the outline is found by gradient descent optimization. In order to segment a group of mutually dependent objects we propose 2 procedures, 1) the objects are found sequentially by conditioning...... the initialization of the next search from already found objects; 2) all objects are found simultaneously and a repelling force is introduced in order to avoid overlap between outlines in the solution. The methods are applied to segmentation of cross sections of muscles in slices of CT scans of pig backs for quality...

  17. Desulphurization of steel and pig iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kijac

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallurgical slag qualities must be defined by the whole complex of physico - chemical characteristics, such as an oxidative ability, optical basicity, sulphide capacity up to slag fluidity, its surface tension etc. The understanding of regulation of basic physico - chemical qualities of molten metals and slag depending on a chemical structure and a temperature has its importance at the level of the metallurgical process control. Presented paper deals with the possibilities how to exploit the sulphidic capacity for the desulphurisation evaluation in course of the metal reafining in the oxygen converter based on the set of the operational data. The integral part of the work is the process of the pig iron desulphurisation.

  18. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  19. Radiation-induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1992-11-01

    The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observed effect on brain weight.

  20. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  1. Expression studies of the obesity candidate gene FTO in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fredholm, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem worldwide and research on candidate genes in good animal models is highly needed. The pig is an excellent model as its metabolism, organ size, and eating habits resemble that of humans. The present study is focused on the characterization of the fat mass and obesity...... associated gene (FTO) in pig. This gene has recently been associated with increased body mass index in several human populations. To establish information on the expression profile of FTO in the pig we performed quantitative PCR in a panel of adult pig tissues and in tissues sampled at different...... and cerebellum). Additionally, in order to see the involvement of the FTO gene in obesity, the changes in expression level were investigated in a nutritional study in brain of Gottingen minipigs under a high cholesterol diet. Significantly higher (P

  2. Retinal progenitor cell xenografts to the pig retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Klassen, Henry;

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the host response to murine retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) following transplantation to the subretinal space (SRS) of the pig. RPCs from GFP mice were transplanted subretinally in 18 nonimmunosuppressed normal or laser-treated pigs. Evaluation of the SRS was performed on hematoxylin...... inflammatory cells in the choroid near the transplantation site. Large choroidal infiltrates were evident at 2-5 weeks. Serum from naive and RPC-xenografted pigs contained significant levels of preformed IgG and IgM antibodies against murine antigens. Xenogeneic RPCs transplanted to the porcine SRS induced...... mononuclear infiltration in the choroid with graft rejection occurring over 2-5 weeks. Serum analysis confirmed that mice and pigs are discordant species; however, a cell-mediated acute mechanism appears to be responsible, rather than an antibody-mediated rejection....

  3. Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorland, J; Brown, D; Gamble, H R; McAuley, J B

    1993-05-01

    Trichinella spiralis infection has been reported sporadically in several areas in Central and South America. However, several countries, including Bolivia, have not reported trichinellosis in animals or humans. A small survey of pigs slaughtered in an abattoir in Bolivia was undertaken during September 1991, to determine the presence of Trichinella spiralis. In a group of 100 pigs slaughtered consecutively on a single day and tested using the pooled digestion method, two of eight pools (25%) were positive. Twenty-one of 188 pigs (11.2%) from ten communities slaughtered consecutively on a second day tested positive for the presence of antibodies to Trichinella spiralis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was concluded that trichinellosis is present in pigs in Bolivia and the rate of infection may be quite high.

  4. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    2007 and 12 gilts inMay 2008. The offspring were slaughtered at 40 kg (male pigs) and 100 kg to 140 kg (female pigs andcastrates). The two breeds were compared regarding daily gain, feed conversion rate, animal behaviour,the thickness of the back fat and the meat, meat colour and sensory profile....... Preliminary results from thefirst year of study showed e.g. 37% lower daily gain from birth to slaughter, 30% higher back fat thicknessand 11% lower meat percentage in the Black-Spotted female pigs compared to the modern genotype. Incontrary, the Black-Spotted pig produced redder and darker meat compared......It is important that organic pork differs markedly from conventional pork regarding taste, appearance and production methods in order to overcome the heavy price competition. That is the hypothesis behind thecurrent project. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on a traditional and local breed...

  5. Developing implantable neuroprosthetics: a new model in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Agha, Naubahar; Minxha, Juri; Komar, Jacob; Patterson, William; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A new model has been established in the domestic pig for neural prosthetic device development and testing. To this end, we report on a complete neural prosthetic developmental system using a wireless sensor as the implant, a pig as the animal model, and a novel data acquisition paradigm for actuator control. A new type of stereotactic frame with clinically-inspired fixations pins that place the pig brain in standard surgical plane was developed and tested with success during the implantation of the microsystem. The microsystem implanted was an ultra-low power (12.5 mW) 16-channel intracortical/epicranial device transmitting broadband (40 kS/s) data over a wireless infrared telemetric link. Pigs were implanted and neural data was collected over a period of 5 weeks, clearly showing single unit spiking activity.

  6. Selection of invasive wild pig countermeasures using multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondum, Matthew C; Collier, Zachary A; Luke, Christopher S; Goatcher, Buddy L; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Wild pigs are a widespread invasive species that pose significant environmental and social risks. A number of wild pig eradication and control measures exist, but many eradication campaigns are ultimately unsuccessful. Decision making regarding how to design and execute an eradication plan is difficult because of multiple costs and benefits spanning various decision criteria that are associated with different eradication and control countermeasures. Moreover, multiple stakeholders are often involved with differing and sometimes competing objectives, and wild pigs are adaptive adversaries, meaning that the ideal countermeasure may change over time. In this paper, we propose the use of formal decision analytic tools which can structure decision problems into a set of relevant criteria, countermeasures, and stakeholder preferences to facilitate the evaluation of tradeoffs. We operationalize this method in a simple Excel-based decision tool and conclude with a path forward regarding how to successfully implement such tools for effective wild pig control.

  7. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  8. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... solution temperatures. The results show that the diffusive ceiling ventilation system can provide a relative low velocity in the pig pen and decrease ammonia emissions from the pig pen, but this ventilation system causes high ammonia concentration distribution in the animal occupied zone. Further, our...... reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  10. A consumer study of Danish entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... with high concentrations of the odour components as compared to the population. The uncastrated male pigs were selected in nine groups representin skatole contents in the interval 0.00 till 0.39 ppm, and androstenone contents in the interval 0.00 til 1.99 ppm. For comparison, evaluation was also done....... Skatole is a more effective parameter than androstenone for identification of the unpleasant odour of uncastrated male pigs. However, a small increase in consumer reactions was seen at extreme concentrations of androstenone 8>1.25 ppm) as the skatole content comes nearer to 0.25 ppm. situation appears...

  11. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    Objective Body temperature is a simple, but clinically important parameter in monitoring the health status of pigs, both at individual level and herd level. The standard procedure for obtaining such data is normally performed by recording of the core body temperature, using a rectal digital...... with CSFV, as determined by virus detection. So, the transponder system was tested in both clinically healthy and clinically ill pigs with physiologically normal body temperature or fever, respectively. The data obtained in this study, showed a correlation between the two methods for monitoring body...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...

  12. Multidirectional analysis of technical efficiency for pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labajavo, Katarina; Hansson, Helena; Asmild, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    Declining profitability and ongoing structural changes in the pig sector require thorough efficiency analysis of individual production factors. In this study we calculated technical efficiency indices for each input and output using multidirectional efficiency analysis and examined the relationsh...

  13. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations

  14. Animal models of toxicology testing: the role of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Swindle, Marvin Michael

    2013-02-01

    In regulatory toxicological testing, both a rodent and non-rodent species are required. Historically, dogs and non-human primates (NHP) have been the species of choice of the non-rodent portion of testing. The pig is an appropriate option for these tests based on metabolic pathways utilized in xenobiotic biotransformation. This review focuses on the Phase I and Phase II biotransformation pathways in humans and pigs and highlights the similarities and differences of these models. This is a growing field and references are sparse. Numerous breeds of pigs are discussed along with specific breed differences in these enzymes that are known. While much available data are presented, it is grossly incomplete and sometimes contradictory based on methods used. There is no ideal species to use in toxicology. The use of dogs and NHP in xenobiotic testing continues to be the norm. Pigs present a viable and perhaps more reliable model of non-rodent testing.

  15. Modifications in combined liver-small bowel transplantation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Jiang; Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; You-Sheng Li; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To introduce combined liver-small bowel transplantation in pigs.METHODS: Eighteen transplantations in 36 large white pigs were performed. Three modifications in combined liver-small bowel transplantation model were applied: Veno-venous bypass was not used. Preservation of the donor duodenum and head of pancreas in continuity with the combined graft to avoid biliary reconstruction. The splenic vein of donor was anastomosed end-to-end with the portal vein of recipients by the formation of a "cuff".RESULTS: Without immunosuppressive therapy, 72-hour survival rate of the transplanted animals was 72% (13/18).Five of 18 pigs operated died of respiratory failure (3 cases)and bleeding during hepatectomy (2 cases). The longest survival time of animals was 6 days.CONCLUSION: Our surgical modifications are feasible and reliable, which have made the transplantation in pigs simpler and less aggressive, and thus these can be used for preclinical study.

  16. Attitudes of European citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2009-01-01

    of this study. The results of the conjoint experiment at the sample level show that people assigned most importance to animal and environmental well-being as criteria to discriminate between "good" and "bad" pig production practices, despite the fact that their attitudes towards environmental protection, animal...... and the need for an environment-friendly food production were indeed related to citizens' specific attitudes towards pig farming at the cluster level. However, the relationship between citizenship and consumption behaviour was found to be weak. What people think in their role as citizens related to pig...... welfare and industrial food production were only moderately strong. Moreover, the results of the cluster analysis allowed small-sized, clear-cut clusters of citizens to appear, which pay attention to specific pig farming attributes. In conclusion, attitudes towards environment and nature, animal welfare...

  17. Xylanase supplementation to rye diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Pedersen, Trine Friis; Blaabjerg, Karoline;

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of xylanase to pig diets can hydrolyze arabinoxylan (AX) into lower molecular weight compounds and thereby decrease the viscosity and improve nutrient utilization. Xylanase supplementation has, however, shown variable effects in diets containing wheat, rye, and combinations thereof....... Differences in animal age, enzyme source and dose, target substrate, and diet processing may explain this. The objective was to study the effect of increasing doses of endo-1,4-β-xylanase from Trichoderma reesei on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of OM, starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), AX......, fat, N, and P of rye fed to growing pigs. Twenty-four 47-kg pigs were assigned to 4 diets containing 97.85% rye and 0, 4,000, 8,000, or 16,000 units xylanase/kg (as-fed basis). Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for 10 d: 5 d for adaption and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine...

  18. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  19. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... determination of homogeneity of observed characteristics. (Fulgosi, 1979). ..... factor explained 10.34% of total data dispersion and was mainly defined by traits ..... pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds in pig feed. Turk. J. Vet. Anim.

  20. Improved Pig Production and Performance in the Tropics | Enem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption of white rather than red meat is being advocated ... The constraints to pig production in Nigeria are mainly based on social and religious beliefs. ... housing, feeding, health, and product marketing were discussed to enable a ...