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Sample records for piezoelectric quartz crystal

  1. Detection of sulfur dioxide using a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, O.M. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    1997-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide was detected and determined in air by a piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor coated with 4-aminoantipyrine/1-hydroxyetil-2-heptadecenyl imidazol (amine 220) solution (1:1 v/v in chloroform). The analytical response curve is linear over the concentration range from 0.70 to 5.0 ppm of SO{sub 2}. Good linearities (r = 0.9990, 0.9995 and 0.9968) and sensitivities (18.0, 33.4 and 50.7 Hz/ppm) were found, respectively for exposure times of 30, 60 and 90 seconds. The sensor can be used for more than six months without loss in sensitivity and presented good reversibility and reproducibility. Among some possible interferents tested, only nitrogen dioxide and moisture caused major frequency changes.

  2. The new piezoelectric single crystal obtained by the Ge doping in the α-quartz structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclau, M.; Grozescu, A.; Bucur, R.; Poienar, M.; Vlazan, P.; Grozescu, I.; Miclau, N.; Muscutariu, I.

    2009-03-01

    The most interesting properties of the quartz-like crystals are its piezoelectric properties, which are strongly influenced by the intrinsic structural distortions of the material and the crystal growth conditions. Thus, physical properties such as coupling coefficient, the αβ transition can be directly related to structural distortions in terms of the bridging angle. We propose a new way to increase the structural distortion, using Ge to dope the SiO2 structure with respect to α-quartz structure type. Growth of α -SixGe1-xO2 crystal was realized hydrothermally using a temperature gradient method. Single crystals were investigated by electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results open the possibility to tune the piezoelectric properties of these materials by varying the chemical composition.

  3. Fluorinated Epoxy Resins-based Sorbent Coating Materials for Quartz Piezoelectric Crystal Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C Gupta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated epoxy resins were synthesised and evaluated as sorbent coating materials for the detection of organophosphorus compounds using quartz piezoelectric crystal detector. These resins were prepared by reacting excess of epichlorohydrin with each of or in combination of fluorinated diols, ie, a, a, a', a' tetrakis (trifluoromethyl 1,3 benzene dimethanol (TTFMBD, 4,4'bis-2-hydroxy hexafluoro isopropyl biphenyl (BHHFIBP, 4,4'dihydroxyocta fluorodiphenyl (DHOFDP and 2,2,3,3,4,4 hexafluoro 1,5 pentanediol (HFPD in the presence of sodium hydroxide at reflux temperature. These polymers were extracted in organic solvents and dried. Each of these fluoroepoxy resins were coated over quartz piezoelectric crystal by solution-casting method and tested using dimethylmethyl phosphonate (DMMP as model compound. Change in the  frequency (AF of quartz piezoelectric crystal oscillator was recorded. Sensitive and potential fluorinated epoxy resins, ie, diglycidylethers (DGE of HFPD-TTFMBD (in the molar ratio 6:4 and DGE (HFPD-BHHFIBP in the molar ratio 4:6 were characterised by viscosity, number average molecular weight (Mn, epoxy equivalent, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal stability.

  4. Simultaneous Impedance Analysis of Three Parallel Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals for Electrochemical Depletion Layer Effect Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yan liu; Qing Ji XIE

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous impedance analysis of three one-face sealed resonating piezoelectric quartz crystals (PQCs) in parallel is proposed through admittance measurements of the three PQCs on one impedance analyzer and then non-linear fitting according to the parallel combination of three Butterworth-Van Dyke circuits. Responses of each PQC obtained from the three-PQC mode agreed well with those measured separately in series sucrose aqueous solutions. This novel method has been used for the study of depletion-layer effect during ferri-/ferrocyanide electrochemical reactions.

  5. Note: Accurate determination of thickness of multiple layers of thin film deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Modern day piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalances for thin film deposition control are based on Z-match equation, which is mathematically valid for deposition of a single material on a given quartz crystal. When multiple layers are deposited, thickness and deposition rate errors accumulate due to mismatch of acoustic impedance of different materials. Here we present a novel method, based on the acoustic transfer matrix formalism, for accurate determination of thickness of an arbitrary number of layers of dissimilar materials deposited on a quartz crystal. Laboratory data show excellent accuracy of the method compared to conventional Z-match equation.

  6. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products.

  7. Enantioselective piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for d-methamphetamine based on a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Leveriza F; Ebarvia, Benilda S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2010-08-01

    A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed for enantioselective and quantitative analysis of d-(+)-methamphetamine (d(+)-MA). The sensor was produced by bulk polymerization and the resulting MIP was then coated on the gold electrode of an AT-cut quartz crystal. Conditions such as volume of polymer coating, curing time, type of PQC, baseline solvent, pH, and buffer type were found to affect the sensor response and were therefore optimized. The PQC-MIP gave a stable response to different concentrations of d(+)-MA standard solutions (response time = 10 to 100 s) with good repeatability (RSD = 0.03 to 3.09%; n = 3), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.55%; n = 5), and good reversibility (RSD = 0.36%; n = 3). The linear range of the sensor covered five orders of magnitude of analyte concentration, ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-1) microg mL(-1), and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.9 pg d(+)-MA mL(-1) . The sensor had a highly enantioselective response to d(+)-MA compared with its response to l(-)-MA, racemic MA, and phentermine. The developed sensor was validated by applying it to human urine samples from drug-free individuals spiked with standard d(+)-MA and from a confirmed MA user. Use of the standard addition method (SAM) and samples spiked with d(+)-MA at levels ranging from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-2) microg mL(-1) showed recovery was good (95.3 to 110.9%).

  8. Detection and analysis of Bacillus subtilis growth with piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance based on starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Xie, Q; Zhou, A; Zhang, Y; Nie, L; Yao, S; Mo, X

    2000-10-01

    A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) impedance method based on the alpha-amylase-catalyzed hydrolysis of starch present in a culture medium has been developed for in situ monitoring of the whole growth process of Bacillus subtilis and the variation in the activity of alpha-amylase during bacterial growth. An S-shaped response behavior was observed for Deltaf(0), and simultaneously inverse S-shaped responses were found for DeltaR(1) and DeltaL(1). The ratio of DeltaR(1) to Deltaf(0) or DeltaL(1) coincided well with that calculated from Martin's equations reflecting the solution density-viscosity effect, suggesting that the continuing change in liquid loading onto the PQC surface causes significant variation in Deltaf(0), DeltaR(1), and DeltaL(1). Bacterial growth equations were derived from the kinetics of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of starch, which fit well with the experimental responses of Deltaf(0), DeltaR(1), and DeltaL(1). Kinetic parameters of bacterial growth, including the asymptote (A), the maximum specific growth rate (microm), and the lag time (lambda), were obtained and were in good agreement with those obtained from the pour plate count method. The variation in the activity of alpha-amylase exhibited peak-type behavior with its maximum value at the later stage of the log phase. In addition, the influence of initial bacterial concentration was also investigated.

  9. Polyethylene Maleate Copolyesters as Coating Materials for Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal-based Chemical Sensors

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    D. C. Gupta

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene maleate (PEM was synthesised by direct polycondensation of maleic anhydride and ethylene glycol in toluene under reflux usingp-toluene sulphonic acid as a catalyst. Structure of PEM was further modified by varying nature of diols and acid components, chain length of glycols, incorporation of aromatic and fluorine groups in the chain. Formation of PEM was monitored by gas chromatography. The parameters like degree of polymerisation, number average molecular weight (Mn, and weight average molecular weight (Mw were calculated from the extent of reaction and stoichiometric ratio of the reactants. The number average molecular weight was also determined using Knauer vapour pressure osmometer. Cohesive energy, volume, and solubility parameters of PEM-based copolyesters were calculated by group contribution method. These PEM-based copolyesters’ have been evaluated as sorbent-coating materials for the detection of organ0 phosphorus(OPcompo using dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP as model compound and piezoelectric crystal detector. PEMbisphenol A is found to be the most sensitive and potential coating material for the detection of OP compounds using piezoelectric crystal detector. Potential PEM-based copolyesters have been characterised by viscosity, infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, Mn and thermal stability.

  10. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Nanobalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzelt, György

    The method of piezoelectric microgravimetry (nanogravimetry) using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) or nanobalance (EQCN) can be considered as a novel and much more sensitive version of electrogravimetry. The EQCN technique has become a widely used technique in several areas of electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, bioelectrochemistry, etc. [1-10]. Obviously, mass changes occurring during adsorption, sorption, electrosorption, electrodeposition, or spontaneous deposition can be followed, which is very helpful for the elucidation of reaction mechanism via identification of the species accumulated on the surface. These investigations include metal and alloy deposition, underpotential deposition, electroplating, synthesis of conducting polymers by electropolymerization, adsorption of biologically active materials, and analytical determination of small ions and biomolecules. Of course, the opposite processes, i.e., spontaneous dissolution, electrodissolution, corrosion, can also be studied. Electrochemical oscillations, in which the formation and oxidation of chemisorbed molecular fragments play a determining role, have been studied, too. The majority of the investigations have been devoted to ion and solvent transport associated with the redox transformations of electrochemically active polymers. Similar studies have been carried out regarding polynuclear surface layers such as metal hexacyanometalates as well as inorganic and organic microcrystals of different compositions.

  11. Preparation and characterization of ethylenediamine and cysteamine plasma polymerized films on piezoelectric quartz crystal surfaces for a biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutlu, Selma [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: smselma@hacettepe.edu.tr; Coekeliler, Dilek [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Group(PABB), Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Shard, Alex [Department of Engineering Materials, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Goktas, Hilal [Physics Department, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Ozansoy, Berna [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mutlu, Mehmet [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Group(PABB), Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe Campus, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-30

    This paper describes a method for the modification of quartz crystal surfaces to be used as a transducer in biosensors that allow recognition and quantification of certain biomolecules (antibodies, enzymes, proteins, etc). Quartz crystal sensors were modified by a plasma based electron beam generator in order to detect the level of the toxin histamine within biological liquids (blood, serum) and food (wine, cheese, fish etc.). Cysteamine and ethylenediamine were used as precursors in the plasma. After each modification step, the layers on the quartz crystal were characterized by frequency measurements. Modified surfaces were also characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the surfaces after each modification. Finally, the performance of the sensors were tested by the response to histamine via frequency shifts. The frequency shifts of the sensors prepared by plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine and cysteamine were approximately 3230 Hz and 5630 Hz, respectively, whereas the frequency change of the unmodified crystal surface was around 575 Hz.

  12. Quartz crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  13. Binding studies of L-tryptophan to human serum albumin with nanogold-structured sensor by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yumei; Yao, Shouzhuo; Chen, Jinhua

    2011-12-01

    Nanogold-modified sensor was constructed and applied to study the binding of L-tryptophan to human serum albumin (HSA) in situ by piezoelectric quartz crystal impedance (PQCI) analysis. It was interesting that the as-prepared nanogold modified sensor was more sensitive and biocompatible than bare gold electrode. The frequency changes due to protein adsorption on the nanogold-modified sensor might be described as a sum of two exponential functions and detailed explanation was given. Additionally, the kinetics of the binding process was also investigated. The binding constant (K) and the number of binding site (n) for the binding process without competitor are fitted to be 1.07 x 10(4) (mol l(-1))(-1) s(-1) and 1.13, respectively, and 2.24 x 10(3) (mol l-(1))(-1) s(-1) and 1.18, respectively for the binding process with competitor.

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxamusa, S H

    2011-11-16

    We are using a Qpod quartz crystal microbalance (manufactured by Inficon) for use as a low-volume non-volatile residue analysis tool. Inficon has agreed to help troubleshoot some of our measurements and are requesting to view some sample data, which are attached. The basic principle of an NVR analysis is to evaporate a known volume of solvent, and weigh the remaining residue to determine the purity of the solvent. A typical NVR analysis uses 60 g of solvent and can measure residue with an accuracy of +/- 0.01 mg. The detection limit is thus (0.01 mg)/(60 g) = 0.17 ppm. We are attempting to use a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to make a similar measurement. The attached data show the response of the QCM as a 5-20 mg drop of solvent evaporates on its surface. The change in mass registered by the QCM after the drop evaporates is the residue that deposits on the crystal. On some measurements, the change in mass in less than zero, which is aphysical since the drop will leave behind {>=}0 mass of residue. The vendor, Inficon, has agreed to look at these data as a means to help troubleshoot the cause.

  15. Mechanical twinning in small quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughner, J. W.; Newnham, R. E.; Cross, L. E.

    1982-02-01

    Quartz is known to be ferrobielastic; that is, quartz crystals have domain states (Dauphiné twins) which differ in their elastic compliance values and which can be switched by an appropriately oriented stress. Polycrystalline quartz has also been reported (Tullis 1970) to show preferential orientation of these domains following application of large uniaxial stresses. These experiments were designed to study twinning of synthetic quartz “grains” (minimum size 0.07×0.07×0.02 cm) in specially-constructed composites and of grains in three natural quartz aggregates — a quartzite, a novaculite, and a jasper. Backreflection X-ray techniques were used to verify twinning in the composite grains, while special electroding and electrical detection allowed the twinning processes to be examined in “real time.” Small synthetic quartz crystals were found to behave identically to the massive samples previously studied. Electrical pulses due to the reversal of piezoelectric coefficient d 11 in twinned quartz were detected from quartzite and from the man-made composites. Novaculite also gave electrical pulses which were probably from twinning (evidenced by the correlation of expected and observed pulse sizes and shapes), while no pulses from the jaspers indicative of twinning were detected. Grain size distribution differences are considered the main structural reason for the different behaviors.

  16. In Situ Monitoring of the Generation of Monodisperse Silica Particles during the Hydrolysis of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate with Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Impedance Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚守拙; 张友玉; 谢青季

    2003-01-01

    The piezoelectric quartz crystal(PQC)impedance analyzer was used to monitor in situ the generation of monodisperse silica particles during the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and their adsorption onto and Au electrode in alcohol solutions containing water(6-15mol/L)and ammonia(0.2-2.0 mol/L).The equivalent circuit parameters,the resonance frequencies and the half-peak width values of the conductance spectra of the PQC resonance were obtained.The resonant frequency decreased notably while the motional resistance changed very slightly(within 1Ω during the hydrolysis reaction,suggesting that the mass effect dominated the adsorption of generated monodisperse silica particles on the gold electrode in this system.Changes in f0 indicated that the ammonia concentration affected the hydrolytic reaction obviously,and the influence of water concentration on the reaction was small while the water was significantly excessive.Kinetics of monodisperse silica particle adsorption occurring at the electrode i solution interface was analyzed using a first-order reaction scheme.In addition,the electrolyte-induced precipitation of the monodisperse silica of adsorbed particles per area and the converge of monodisperse silica particles were obtained from scanning electron nicroscope(SEM)observations.

  17. Modeling piezoelectric crystals on the Intel delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, T.; Jones, M.; Plassmann, P.; Tang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Piezoelectric crystals are an important component in electronic appliances such as cellular phones and pagers and a critical component of almost all resonant circuits. We are particularly interested in quartz strip resonators mounted onto a surface. These crystals must resonate in a particular vibrational manding design goal, engineers would like to be able to accurately model the behavior of the crystals in a timely fashion from their disktop workstation.

  18. The Characteristics of the Shear-Vibrating Quartz Crystal Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Tian; Lingling Liu; Junling Lu; Fuxue Zhang

    2006-01-01

    According to the piezoelectric equation and the vibration theory of the quartz crystal, the relations between the vibrating frequency and structural parameters under the thickness-shear-vibration of AT-cut quartz crystal have been studied.The frequency conditions under which quartz crystal resonator formed stationary wave inside the electrode district and the transmission characteristics of wave outside the electrode district have also been discussed. A quartz crystal resonator was developed based on this analysis. The experiment showed that the force-sensing characteristics were independent of the fixation of the crystal edge. The detecting distinguish ability was up to 0.001 °, and the short-term frequency stability was up to 1.38x 10-10/min.

  19. Flux-Grown Piezoelectric Materials: Application to α-Quartz Analogues

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    Pascale Armand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the slow-cooling method in selected MoO3-based fluxes, single-crystals of GeO2 and GaPO4 materials with an α-quartz-like structure were grown at high temperatures (T ≥ 950 °C. These piezoelectric materials were obtained in millimeter-size as well-faceted, visually colorless and transparent crystals. Compared to crystals grown by hydrothermal methods, infrared and Raman measurements revealed flux-grown samples without significant hydroxyl group contamination and thermal analyses demonstrated a total reversibility of the α-quartz ↔ β-cristobalite phase transition for GaPO4 and an absence of phase transition before melting for α-GeO2. The elastic constants CIJ (with I, J indices from 1 to 6 of these flux-grown piezoelectric crystals were experimentally determined at room and high temperatures. The ambient results for as-grown α-GaPO4 were in good agreement with those obtained from hydrothermally-grown samples and the two longitudinal elastic constants measured versus temperature up to 850 °C showed a monotonous evolution. The extraction of the ambient piezoelectric stress contribution e11 from the CD11 to CE11 difference gave for the piezoelectric strain coefficient d11 of flux-grown α-GeO2 crystal a value of 5.7(2 pC/N, which is more than twice that of α-quartz. As the α-quartz structure of GeO2 remained stable up to melting, a piezoelectric activity was observed up to 1000 °C.

  20. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoning Jiang; Jinwook Kim; Kyugrim Kim

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and futu...

  1. Activating piezoelectric crystal surface by silanization for microgravimetric immunobiosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, C R; Mishra, G C

    1996-01-01

    The development of a microgravimetric immunobiosensor using a piezoelectric quartz crystal as a detector requires a stable and reproducible immobilization method for ligand binding. The method of silanization using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) has been widely used for activating the carrier surface. In the present study, APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface was studied under various solvent conditions. A fluorescence method, using fluorescence isothiocyanate as a dye, was demonstrated for the quantification of amino groups on the silanized piezoelectric crystal surface. The optimum binding conditions of APTES deposition on a piezoelectric crystal surface were incorporated for the covalent immobilization of protein on the crystal surface in developing a stable and sensitive microgravimetric immunobiosensor. Determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration was performed using APTES modified piezoelectric crystals coated with protein G. The resonant frequency shift, resulting from the formation of protein G-IgG complex on the crystal surface, correlated with the concentration of IgG in the range 10 ng/ml to 0.1 mg/ml. The APTES modified, protein G coated crystal were found to be quite stable and did not show a significant loss of sensitivity even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C in a desiccator.

  2. Reduction of the impedance of a contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis: compensation of the electrode impedance by addition of a series inductance from a piezoelectric quartz crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Qingling; Hu, Qiang; Dong, Jianfeng; Du, Junguo; Tang, Bo

    2008-10-15

    A low-impedance capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (LIC (4)D) for microchip capillary electrophoresis was reported. The LIC (4)D was the series combination of a piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) resonator with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C (4)D) outside on the microchip lid. The electrode impedance in the LIC (4)D was reduced because the capacitive impedance from the wall capacitance was compensated by the inductive impedance from the PQC. The operation frequency of the LIC (4)D was set at the resonant frequency of the series combination of a PQC with a C (4)D, wherein a minimum in the total impedance was obtained. It was shown that the sensitivity of LIC (4)D was much higher than that of C (4)D itself, especially in the microchip with a thick lid. Under the experimental conditions, the signal-to-noise ratios of the LIC (4)D were improved by approximately 20-50 times over those of the C (4)D. Reproducible separations of a mixture of inorganic cations (K (+), Na (+), Li (+)) were demonstrated. After a digital filter treatment by the fast Fourier transform algorithm, the detection limits were 0.38, 0.49, and 1.6 microM for K (+) in the LI C (4)D with the microchip lid thickness of 0.20, 0.40, and 1.0 mm, respectively.

  3. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  4. Data Acquisition System for Quartz Crystal Microbalances

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    Kleber Romero Felizardo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a data acquisition system used in a mass sensor: quartz crystal microbalance. This system reads the frequency of this sensor along the time and sends the collected data to the computer through a serial interface.

  5. A Study on a Partially Immersed Gold Electrode Using an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Impedance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal impedance system (EQCIS) has been used for the study of a partially immersed Au electrode in 0.2 mol/L NaClO4 aqueous solution.The influences of the immersed area and height of the electrode on the EQCIS responses were evaluated,showing the highest response sensitivity to liquid loading at the center of the piezoelectric quartz crystal electrode.The increase in the immersed height of the Au electrode at oxygen reduction potentials during potential cycling was measured by this technique.

  6. A Novel Strategy to Eliminate the Influence of Water Adsorption on Quartz Surfaces on Piezoelectric Dynamometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei; Ren, Zongjin

    2016-07-08

    Piezoelectric dynamometers are out of use in high humidity. Experimental results showed that piezoelectric coefficients measured by the force-induced charges method initially fluctuated in a small range and then was unstable, and they could not be measured at high relative humidity (RH). The traditional shielding method-insulation paste was not quiet convenient, and it even added the weight of piezoelectric dynamometers. In this paper, a novel strategy that eliminates the influence of water adsorption with quartz surfaces on piezoelectric dynamometers was proposed. First, a water-quartz model was developed to analyze the origin of the RH effect. In the model, water vapor, which was adsorbed by the quartz sheet side surface, was considered. Second, equivalent sheet resistor of the side surface was researched, while the relationship of the three R's (Roughness, RH, and Resistor) was respectively discussed based on the adsorption mechanism. Finally, fluorination technology was skillfully adapted to each surface of quartz sheets to shield the water vapor. The experiment verified the fluorination strategy and made piezoelectric dynamometers work in high humidity up to 90%RH successfully. The results showed that the presented model above was reasonable. In addition, these observations also drew some useful insights to change the structure of piezoelectric dynamometers and improve the properties.

  7. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO...

  8. Calibration of piezoelectric positioning actuators using a reference voltage-to-displacement transducer based on quartz tuning forks

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; 10.1017/S1431927611012839

    2012-01-01

    We use a piezoelectric quartz tuning fork to calibrate the displacement of ceramic piezoelectric scanners which are widely employed in scanning probe microscopy. We measure the static piezoelectric response of a quartz tuning fork and find it to be highly linear, non-hysteretic and with negligible creep. These performance characteristics, close to those of an ideal transducer, make quartz transducers superior to ceramic piezoelectric actuators. Furthermore, quartz actuators in the form of a tuning fork have the advantage of yielding static displacements comparable to those of local probe microscope scanners. We use the static displacement of a quartz tuning fork as a reference to calibrate the three axis displacement of a ceramic piezoelectric scanner. Although this calibration technique is a non-traceable method, it can be more versatile than using calibration grids because it enables to characterize the linear and non-linear response of a piezoelectric scanner in a broad range of displacements, spanning fro...

  9. Frequency Behavior of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (Qcm in Contact with Selected Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Talib

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A device was constructed to monitor viscosity of solutions using fundamental frequency of 9 MHz and 10 MHz quartz crystal. Piezoelectric quartz crystals with gold electrodes were mounted by O-ring in between liquid flow cell. Only one side of the crystal was exposed to the solutions which were pumped through silicon tube by a peristaltic pump. The measured frequency shift was observed in order to investigate the interfacial behavior of some selected solution in contact with one surface of Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM. An analysis of the interaction between an AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance and various liquid system of analytical interest is presented. The analysis which includes piezoelectric effects and other influences; liquid properties, experimental conditions and the characteristic of the solution are reported. Oscillation in distilled water is taken as a reference. The frequency change caused by the density (ρ, gcm-3 and viscosity (η gcm-1s-1 were found to be proportional to the square root of the product, (ρ η. The result suggested that analysis of small frequency shifts during EQCM studies needs to account for changes in ρ and η of the solution. Generally, all the liquid tested showed an increment of the frequency shift with increasing content of solutes. For each solution, the frequency was recorded as the concentration increases from distilled water to a very concentrated solution. The frequency measurements carried out for saccharide solution produces the maximum changes of frequency shift compared with other solutions.

  10. Radiation piezoelectric effect in germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiation with ionizing particles of a germanium single crystal and uniaxial deformation at right-angles to the particle beam produced an electric field and a corresponding emf due to the radiation piezoelectric effect. Measurements were carried out when such a single crystal was irradiated with ..cap alpha.. particles and protons. The piezoelectric emf increased linearly with the compressive stress and the ..cap alpha..-particle flux intensity. The emf depended weakly on the particle energy. The observed effect was due to the anisotropy resulting from uniaxial deformation.

  11. Modeling by regression for laser cutting of quartz crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the theoretical models built by analysis of the mechanism of laser cutting of quartz crystal and re gression of test results for the laser cutting of quartz crystal, and comparative analysis of calculation errors for these models, and concludes with test results that these models comprehensively reflect the physical features of laser cutting of quartz crystal and satisfy the industrial production requirements, and they can be used to select right parameters for improvement of productivity and quality and saving of energy.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: cultured quartz crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article presents information on cultured quartz crystals, a mineral used in mobile phones, computers, clocks and other devices controlled by digital circuits. Cultured quartz, which is synthetically produced in large pressurized vessels known as autoclaves, is useful in electronic circuits for precise filtration, frequency control and timing for consumer and military use. Several ingredients are used in producing cultured quartz, including seed crystals, lascas, a solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, lithium salts and deionized water.

  13. Piezoelectric crystals generate NMR-like signals for rapid spectrometer troubleshooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Samuel B; Conradi, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    Use of frequency-control quartz crystals for the generation of NMR-like signals via the piezoelectric effect is discussed. Such crystals are inexpensive and cover a wide range of RF frequencies. The crystal is connected to the spectrometer through a 30dB attenuator. Excitation by single, short RF pulses results in time domain signals similar to NMR FIDs. We show that the crystal should be shunted by a low resistance for largest Q (longest T2). By using odd higher overtones, the crystals were made to resonate at the high operating frequencies typical of modern spectrometers, here up to 630MHz. The performance of precision manufactured crystals is particularly better at high frequencies, compared to mass production crystals. The abundant and stable signal provided by the piezoelectric crystals yields a simple method for troubleshooting and testing NMR spectrometers.

  14. Growth of piezoelectric crystals by Czochralski method

    OpenAIRE

    Cochet-Muchy, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Czochralski method is one of the most widely used industrial technique to grow single-crystals, since it applies to a very large range of compounds, such as semiconductors, oxides, fluorides, etc... Many exhibit piezoelectric properties and some of them find applications in Surface-Acoustic-Waves or Bulk-Acoustic-Waves devices. That explains the large amount of work made on the development of the corresponding growth processes and the high levels of production achieved in the world today....

  15. Piezoelectricity in Single Crystal of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raha

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric constants perpendicular to (110 and (001 of single crystal f pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN are determined to be (3.2+-0.30x10/sup-13/and (1.5+-0.30x10/sub-13/CN/sub-1/. The charge development on these faces under static loading has been confirmed to be true piezoelectric in origin. The crystal seems to experience a quasi permanent deformation under repeated and successive compression with a very long relaxation time. This gives rise to a unique behaviour of individual crystal of PETN under identical stress condition. Mechanical stress relaxation measurements have also been carried out to provide additional evidence on the uniqueness of the crystal. Dielectric constant of the crystal along the directions perpendicular to (110 and (001 are 3.50+-0.12 and 4.57+-0.17; Young's modulus along the directions are (1.24+- 0.30x10/sub6/g cm/sup-2/ respectively. Single crystals of one cm/sub3/ of PETN develops about 10 V cm/sup-1/ field under a force of 1 kg across (110face.

  16. Linear combinations of the third-order elastic and piezoelectric constants of quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, C K

    1990-01-01

    The DC-field-induced change in the resonant frequency of the extentional mode of quartz rods is related to the third-order elastic and the third-order piezoelectric constants. Five linear combinations of these constants are determined by least-squares fit to data obtained from 50 different rods. The results are notable for their small standard errors of about two percent on average. They also agree very well with the values obtained independently by the transit-time method.

  17. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  18. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer Components Using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic fluid transfer components using single crystal piezoelectric actuators are proposed to enable low thermal mass, minimal heat leak, low power consumption...

  19. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  20. Basic characteristics of quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Muramatsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes basic characteristics of the quartz crystal sensor with interdigitated electrodes (IDE quartz crystal sensor which is for simultaneous monitoring of mass, viscosity, conductivity and dielectric changes of liquids or thin films. As the IDE quartz crystal sensor has three terminals for a pair of IDEs on the one side and a counter electrode on the other side, the resonance properties have been analyzed using the electrical equivalent circuit models and measured experimentally for all connecting types of electrode pairs. The IDE quartz crystal has shown clear resonance curves for calculating the resonance frequency and resonance resistance values as well as normal quartz crystal in the air and in contact with liquid. Small shifts in the resonance frequency and resonance resistance depending on the connecting types have been obtained and analyzed using the equivalent circuit models. We have found the integrated quartz crystal and IDE sensors could be monitored simultaneously by only one impedance analyzer. Finally, two types of measuring systems have been demonstrated for continuous measuring methods.

  1. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  2. The development of piezoelectric crystal gyroscopes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Yu; Qing, Rong-Kang

    The operation principles and basic characteristics of a newly-developed vibrating-beam piezoelectric crystal angular rate gyroscope are discussed along with the gyroscope applications. Several applications of piezoelectric gyroscopes are described, including its use as a telemetering sensor, attidude measuring device in automobiles, in geological exploraton drilling, and as a sensing element in ship and aircraft control systems. Specifications are presented for several gyroscopes, including those for two piezoelectric angular rate gyros with different applications (telemetering and control), a typical piezoelectric angular displacement gyro, and a piezoelectric inclinometer.

  3. Coating Characterization with the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Lauren F.

    The quartz crystal microbalance is a sensitive tool that can be used to measure the mass, modulus and phase angle of films of appropriate thicknesses. It is can be applied to systems with very varied properties, from liquid to solid, and under many different conditions. In this thesis its capabilities have been used to study the properties of several different systems of relevance to the coatings, art conservation, and rubber communities, in the process of which new techniques and tools were developed to analyze data and improve QCM data collection and experimental design. Alkyd resins, which have been used in artists' paints since the twentieth century, are the subject of the first studies. Alkyds are oil-modified polyesters. These resins are of interest because of their relatively recent use in art and how little is known of the mechanical properties in the early stages of cure. The QCM was shown to be sensitive to the curing process, changes in temperature, and mass change due to exposure to water. Kinetic studies during the first days of curing showed that the curing process can be divided into three regions. The first is dominated by solvent evaporation. In the second, oxygen absorption dominates and the mechanical properties change rapidly. The final stage extends from when the film is touch dry after about a day to years and is characterized by mass loss and continued increases in the modulus. Studying the curing at different temperatures revealed that the reactions do proceed much more rapidly at higher temperatures and an overall energy of activation was calculated for the curing process. The mechanical properties of alkyd resins containing zinc oxide, a white pigment, were studied with the QCM, nanoindentation and dynamic mechanical analysis. These measurements showed increases in the modulus with the inclusion of zinc oxide, and the QCM data showed that the second region started at earlier times as the pigment concentration was increased. Linseed oil is

  4. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  5. Water weakening in experimentally deformed milky quartz single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunitz, H.; Thust, A.; Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Behrens, H.; Tarantola, A.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of recycling of H2O between FI´s, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FI´s during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  6. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials. Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite. Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks. The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  7. Application of quartz crystal microbalance technology in tribological investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last fifteen years have seen considerable growth in the application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to explore the tribological characteristics of materials. This article reviews some of the advances made in characterizing frictional properties of materials using the QCM, especially with di...

  8. WAVE PROPAGATION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED PIEZOELECTRIC PHONONIC CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqiang Li; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto

    2008-01-01

    The wave propagation is studied in two-dimensional disordered piezoelectric phononie crystals using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For different eases of disorder,the transmission coefficients are calculated. The influences of disorders on band gaps are investigated. The results show that the disorder in the piezoelectric phononic crystals has more significant influences on the band gap in the low frequency regions than in the high frequency ones. The relation between the width of band gap and the direction of position disorder is also discussed. When the position disorder is along the direction perpendicular to the wave transmission, the piezoelectric phononic crystals have wider band gaps at low frequency regions than the case of position disorder being along the wave transmission direction. It can also be found that the effect of. size disorder on band gaps is analogous to that of location disorder. When the perturbation coefficient is big, it has more pronounced effects on the pass bands in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with both size and location disorders than in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with single disorder.In higher frequency regions the piezoelectric effect reduces the transmission coefficients. But for larger disorder degree, the effects of the piezoelectricity will be reduced.

  9. α-β Transition in Quartz: Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Thermodynamic Quantities for β-Quartz and β-Cristobalite as Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lider, M. C.; Yurtseven, H.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature and pressure dependencies of the thermal expansivity (αp), isothermal compressibility (κT) and the specific heat (Cp - Cv) are studied for piezoelectric materials, in particular, for β-quartz. By analyzing the temperature (at 1 atm) and pressure (at 848 K) dependence of the observed volume V from the literature, the thermodynamic functions (αp, κT and Cp - Cv) are obtained and the Pippard relations (Cp - Cv vs. Vαp and αp vs. κT) close to the transition from the β-quartz to the β-cristobalite are examined.

  10. Annealing Effect on Photovoltages of Quartz Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lu; ZHAO Song-Qing; ZHAO Kun

    2010-01-01

    @@ We investigate the photovoltaic effects of quartz single crystals annealed at high temperatures in ambient atmosphere.The open-circuit photovoltages and surface morphologies strongly depend on the heating treatments.When the annealing temperature increases from room temperature to 900℃,the rms roughness of quartz single crystal wafers increases from 0.207 to 1.011 nm.In addition,the photovoltages decrease from 1.994#V at room temperature to 1.551 μ V after treated at 500℃,and then increase up to 9.8μV after annealed at 900℃.The inner mechanism of the present photovoltaic response and surface morphologies is discussed.

  11. Using a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer for crystallization temperature estimation of the Palaeoproterozoic Suursaari quartz porphyry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Ehrlich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Suursaari volcanic sequence represents volcanic activity related to Wiborg Batholith rapakivi intrusions in the southern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The estimated pressure conditions for batholith granitic rocks are 1–5 kbar and crystallization temperatures range from 670 to 890 °C. To describe the temperature regime of the Suursaari volcanic system, a rock sample was taken from the Mäkiinpäällys Mountain outcrop and analysed with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sample spots were selected from quartz phenocrysts and groundmass. Quartz crystallization temperatures were calculated by the Ti-in-quartz method that takes into account rutile equilibrium and Ti activity in each phase. The calculated crystallization temperatures of the Suursaari quartz porphyry are in the range of 647–738 °C. The results show that the Suursaari quartz porphyry contains two generations of quartz which can be distinguished on the basis of crystallization temperatures: phenocrysts crystallized at higher and groundmass quartz at lower temperature.

  12. Rare-Earth Calcium Oxyborate Piezoelectric Crystals ReCa4O(BO33: Growth and Piezoelectric Characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fapeng Yu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth calcium oxyborate crystals, ReCa4O(BO33 (ReCOB, Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La , are potential piezoelectric materials for ultrahigh temperature sensor applications, due to their high electrical resistivity at elevated temperature, high piezoelectric sensitivity and temperature stability. In this paper, different techniques for ReCOB single-crystal growth are introduced, including the Bridgman and Czochralski pulling methods. Crystal orientations and the relationships between the crystallographic and physical axes of the monoclinic ReCOB crystals are discussed. The procedures for dielectric, elastic, electromechanical and piezoelectric property characterization, taking advantage of the impedance method, are presented. In addition, the maximum piezoelectric coefficients for different piezoelectric vibration modes are explored, and the optimized crystal cuts free of piezoelectric cross-talk are obtained by rotation calculations.

  13. Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) for Public Health: An Overview of Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Amicizia, Daniela; Panatto, Donatella; Tramalloni, Daniela; Valle, Ivana; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnologies, from the convergence of nanotechnology and molecular biology and postgenomics medicine, play a major role in the field of public health. This overview summarizes the potentiality of piezoelectric sensors, and in particular, of quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM), a physical nanogram-sensitive device. QCM enables the rapid, real time, on-site detection of pathogens with an enormous burden in public health, such as influenza and other respiratory viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and drug-resistant bacteria, among others. Further, it allows to detect food allergens, food-borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, and food chemical contaminants, as well as water-borne microorganisms and environmental contaminants. Moreover, QCM holds promises in early cancer detection and screening of new antiblastic drugs. Applications for monitoring biohazards, for assuring homeland security, and preventing bioterrorism are also discussed.

  14. PARALLEL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HIGH FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL RESONATORS ON LINUX CLUSTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Yu Wang; Wenke Hu; Wenhua Zhao; Jianke Du; Dejin Huang

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal resonators are typical piezoelectric acoustic wave devices for frequency control applications with mechanical vibration frequency at the radio-frequency (RF) range. Precise analyses of the vibration and deformation are generally required in the resonator design and improvement process. The considerations include the presence of electrodes, mountings, bias fields such as temperature, initial stresses, and acceleration. Naturally, the finite element method is the only effective tool for such a coupled problem with multi-physics nature. The main challenge is the extremely large size of resulted linear equations. For this reason, we have been employing the Mindlin plate equations to reduce the computational difficulty. In addition, we have to utilize the parallel computing techniques on Linux clusters, which are widely available for academic and industrial applications nowadays, to improve the computing efficiency. The general principle of our research is to use open source software components and public domain technology to reduce cost for developers and users on a Linux cluster. We start with a mesh generator specifically for quartz crystal resonators of rectangular and circular types, and the Mindlin plate equations are implemented for the finite element analysis. Computing techniques like parallel processing, sparse matrix handling, and the latest eigenvalue extraction package are integrated into the program. It is clear from our computation that the combination of these algorithms and methods on a cluster can meet the memory requirement and reduce computing time significantly.

  15. A Review of Interface Electronic Systems for AT-cut Quartz Crystal Microbalance Applications in Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arnau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From the first applications of AT-cut quartz crystals as sensors in solutionsmore than 20 years ago, the so-called quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor isbecoming into a good alternative analytical method in a great deal of applications such asbiosensors, analysis of biomolecular interactions, study of bacterial adhesion at specificinterfaces, pathogen and microorganism detection, study of polymer film-biomolecule orcell-substrate interactions, immunosensors and an extensive use in fluids and polymercharacterization and electrochemical applications among others. The appropriateevaluation of this analytical method requires recognizing the different steps involved andto be conscious of their importance and limitations. The first step involved in a QCMsystem is the accurate and appropriate characterization of the sensor in relation to thespecific application. The use of the piezoelectric sensor in contact with solutions stronglyaffects its behavior and appropriate electronic interfaces must be used for an adequatesensor characterization. Systems based on different principles and techniques have beenimplemented during the last 25 years. The interface selection for the specific application isimportant and its limitations must be known to be conscious of its suitability, and foravoiding the possible error propagation in the interpretation of results. This article presentsa comprehensive overview of the different techniques used for AT-cut quartz crystalmicrobalance in in-solution applications, which are based on the following principles:network or impedance analyzers, decay methods, oscillators and lock-in techniques. Theelectronic interfaces based on oscillators and phase-locked techniques are treated in detail,with the description of different configurations, since these techniques are the most used inapplications for detection of analytes in solutions, and in those where a fast sensorresponse is necessary.

  16. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Operation and In Situ Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, K. C.

    2004-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) are commonly used to measure the rate of deposition of molecular species on a surface. The measurement is often used to select materials with a low outgassing rate for applications where the material has a line of sight to a contamination-sensitive surface. A quantitative, in situ calibration of the balance, or balances, using a pure material for which the enthalpy of sublimation is known, is described in this Technical Memorandum. Supporting calculations for surface dwell times of deposited materials and the effusion cell Clausing factor are presented along with examples of multiple QCM measurements of outgassing from a common source.

  17. Voltage-controlled narrowband and wide, variable-range four-segment quartz crystal oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Ruzaini; Satoh, Tomio; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-03-01

    In this work, our goal is to develop a voltage-controlled variable-frequency quartz crystal oscillator with narrowband response, wide, variable frequency range and the capacity to oscillate across the series resonance frequency using a four-segment configuration of a quartz crystal oscillator. In conventional quartz oscillators, the quartz resonator is inserted in the feedback loop between the input and the output of the active circuit, providing sufficient gain and the phase relation. In the oscillator developed here, the quartz crystal resonator is inserted between the loop circuit and the ground potential. The performance of the voltage-controlled variable-frequency oscillator is demonstrated across the series resonance frequency.

  18. A combined nanoplasmonic and electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Elin M.; Langhammer, Christoph; Zoric, Igor; Kasemo, Bengt [Department of Applied Physics, Chemical Physics Group, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Edvardsson, Malin E. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Biological Physics Group, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    We have developed an instrument combining localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing with electrodeless quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The two techniques can be run simultaneously, on the same sensor surface, and with the same time resolution and sensitivity as for the individual techniques. The electrodeless QCM eliminates the need to fabricate electrodes on the quartz crystal and gives a large flexibility in choosing the surface structure and coating for both QCM-D and LSPR. The performance is demonstrated for liquid phase measurements of lipid bilayer formation and biorecognition events, and for gas phase measurements of hydrogen uptake/release by palladium nanoparticles. Advantages of using the combined equipment for biomolecular adsorption studies include synchronized information about structural transformations and extraction of molecular (dry) mass and degree of hydration of the adlayer, which cannot be obtained with the individual techniques. In hydrogen storage studies the combined equipment, allows for synchronized measurements of uptake/release kinetics and quantification of stored hydrogen amounts in nanoparticles and films at practically interesting hydrogen pressures and temperatures.

  19. Focusing of Surface Acoustic Wave on a Piezoelectric Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Dong-Hai; WANG Cheng-Hao; WANG Zuo-Qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the focusing phenomena of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field generated by a circular-arc interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric crystal. A rigorous vector field theory of surface excitation on the crystal we developed previously is used to evaluate the convergent SAW field instead of the prevalent scalar angular spectrum used in optics. The theoretical results show that the anisotropy of a medium has great impact on the focusing properties of the acoustic beams, such as focal length and symmetrical distributions near the focus. A dark field method is used in experiment to observe the focusing of the SAW field optically. Although the convergent phenomena of SAW field on the anisotropic media or piezoelectric crystals are very complicated,the experimental data are in agreement with those from the rigorous theory.

  20. Fluid inclusions and microstructures in experimentally deformed quartz single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thust, A.; Tarantola, A.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    The "H2O-weakening" effect that reduces the strength of quartz dramatically (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965) is still not understood. For example, Kronenberg & Tullis (1984) conclude that the weakening effect is pressure dependent while Paterson (1989) infers a glide and recovery control of water. Obviously, the spatial distribution and transport of H2O are important factors (Kronenberg et al. 1986, FitzGerald et al. 1991). We have carried out experiments on milky quartz in a Griggs deformation apparatus. Cylinders (6.5 mm in diameter, 12-13 mm in length) from a milky zone of a natural quartz single crystal have been cored in orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes and (2) 45˚ to and 45˚ to (O+orientation). At 1 GPa confining pressure, 900˚ C and 10-6s-1, the flow strength is 150 MPa for samples with orientation (1). Further experiments are needed to establish the flow strength for orientation (2). FTIR measurements on double-polished thick sections (200-500 μm) in the undeformed quartz material yield an average H2O content of approximately 100 H/106Si. The water is heterogeneously distributed in the sample. Direct measurements on fluid inclusions yield a H2O content of more than 25 000 H/106Si. Thus, the H2O in the undeformed material is predominantly present in fluid inclusions of size from tens to hundred microns. Micro-thermometric measurements at low temperature indicate the presence of different salts in the fluid inclusions. The ice melting temperature, between -6.9 and -7.4˚ C, indicate an average salinity of 10.5 wt% NaCl. After deformation the distribution of H2O is more homogeneous throughout the sample. The majority of the big inclusions have disappeared and very small inclusions of several microns to sub-micron size have formed. FTIR measurements in zones of undulatory extinction and shear bands show an average H2O content of approximately 3000 H/106Si. Moreover, the larger fluid inclusions are characterized by a higher salinity (12 wt%) due

  1. Respiratory Monitoring by Porphyrin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A respiratory monitoring system based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor with a functional film was designed and investigated. Porphyrins 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H,23H-porphine (TSPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfophenyl-21H, 23H-porphine manganese (III chloride (MnTSPP used as sensitive elements were assembled with a poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride (PDDA. Films were deposited on the QCM resonators using layer-by-layer method in order to develop the sensor. The developed system, in which the sensor response reflects lung movements, was able to track human respiration providing respiratory rate (RR and respiratory pattern (RP. The sensor system was tested on healthy volunteers to compare RPs and calculate RRs. The operation principle of the proposed system is based on the fast adsorption/desorption behavior of water originated from human breath into the sensor films deposited on the QCM electrode.

  2. Quartz crystal microbalance and photoacoustic measurements in dental photocuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcenilda A.; Bastos, Ivan N.; Cella, Norberto

    2016-09-01

    Photocured dental resins are used extensively in restorative procedures in dentistry. Inadequate curing reduces the lifetime of the dental restoration, and consequently it is essential to precisely measure the polymerisation kinetics. In this study, two techniques, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS), were used to monitor the real-time cure and to obtain the optical absorption spectra of resins, respectively. From the PAS measurements, the precise peaks of absorption were identified, and were used as the appropriate wavelength of the photocuring light in the QCM monitoring. The combined use of these techniques allows reliable determination of the duration of the phases of physical and chemical changes that occur during photocuring. Two commercial dental resins were tested, and the results confirmed the advantages of using PAS and QCM to study polymerisation kinetics.

  3. Exact thickness-shear resonance frequency of electroded piezoelectric crystal plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji; SHEN Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    The determination of the precise thickness-shear frequency of electroded crystal plates has practical importance in quartz crystal resonator design and fabrication, especially when the high fundamental thickness-shear frequency has reduced the crystal plate thickness to such a degree that proper consideration of the effect of electrodes is very important. The electrodes effect as mass loading in the estimation of the resonance frequency has to be modified to consider the stiffness of electrodes, as the relative strength is increasingly noticeable. By following a known procedure in the determination of the thickness-shear frequency of an infinite AT-cut crystal plate, frequency equations of crystal plate without and with piezoelectric effect are obtained in terms of elastic constants and the electrode material density. After solving these equations for the usual design parameters of crystal resonators, the design process can be optimized to pinpoint the precise configuration to avoid time-consuming trial and reduction steps. Since these equations and solutions are presented for widely used materials and parameters, they can be easily integrated into the existing crystal resonator design and manufacturing processes.

  4. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based transducers for naval sonar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Kevin A.; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J., Jr.; Markley, Douglas

    2006-03-01

    Transducers incorporating single crystal piezoelectric Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3) x-1Ti xO 3 (PMN-PT) exhibit significant advantages over ceramic piezoelectrics such as PZT, including both high electromechanical coupling (k 33 > 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 > 2000 pC/N). Conventional orientation gives inherently larger bandwidth and output power than PZT ceramics, however, the anisotropy of the crystal also allows for tailoring of the performance by orienting the crystal along different crystallographic axes. This attribute combined with composition refinements can be used to improve thermal or mechanical stability, which is important in high power, high duty cycle sonar applications. By utilizing the "31" resonance mode, the high power performance of PMN-PT can be improved over traditional "33" mode single crystal transducers, due to an improved aspect ratio. Utilizing novel geometries, effective piezoelectric constants of -600 pC/N to -1200 pC/N have been measured. The phase transition point induced by temperature, pre-stress or field is close to that in the "33" mode, and since the prestress is applied perpendicular to the poling direction in "31" mode elements, they exhibit lower loss and can therefore be driven harder. The high power characteristics of tonpilz transducers can also be affected by the composition of the PMN-PT crystal. TRS modified the composition of PMN-PT to improve the thermal stability of the material, while keeping the loss as low as possible. Three dimensional modeling shows that the useable bandwidth of these novel compositions nearly equals that of conventional PMN-PT. A decrease in the source level of up to 6 dB was calculated, which can be compensated for by the higher drive voltages possible.

  5. A quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Hui; Tang, Shui-Fen; Yao, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fa-Rong; Yang, Huang-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we describe a simple, inexpensive and fast method for the generation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals using mussel-inspired polymer. Commonly known as a neurotransmitter, dopamine is also a small-molecule mimic of the adhesive proteins of mussels. Polymerization of dopamine in the presence of template molecule (1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid, an analogue of domoic acid, in this case) could produce an adherent molecularly imprinted polydopamine film coating on QCM crystals. Advantages, such as high hydrophilicity, high biocompatibility and controllable thickness, make this molecularly imprinted polydopamine film an attractive recognition element for sensors. Selective rebinding of domoic acid on mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted polymer (m-MIP) coated crystal was observed as a frequency shift quantified by piezoelectric microgravimetry with the QCM system. The decreasing frequency shows a good linear relationship with the concentration of domoic acid. The quantitation limit of domoic acid was 5 ppb with the linear range of 0-100 ppb. The QCM sensor has high selectivity and was able to distinguish domoic acid from its analogous p-phthalic acid and o-phthalic acid owing to the molecular imprinting effect. In addition, the practical analytical performance of the sensor was examined by evaluating the detection of domoic acid in mussel extracts with satisfactory results. It is envisaged that m-MIP could be suitable as recognition element for sensors and the proposed m-MIP QCM sensor could be employed to detect analyte of interest in complex matrices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryogenic Clamp-on Ultrasonic Flowmeters using Single Crystal Piezoelectric Transducers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clamp-on ultrasound cryogenic flowmeters using single crystal piezoelectric transducers are proposed to enable reliable, accurate cryogenic instrumentation needs in...

  7. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) affinity biosensor for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Ilaria; Minunni, Maria; Tombelli, Sara; Mascini, Marco

    2003-03-01

    A DNA piezoelectric sensor has been developed for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Single stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes were immobilised on the sensor surface of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device and the hybridisation between the immobilised probe and the target complementary sequence in solution was monitored. The probe sequences were internal to the sequence of the 35S promoter (P) and Nos terminator (T), which are inserted sequences in the genome of GMOs regulating the transgene expression. Two different probe immobilisation procedures were applied: (a) a thiol-dextran procedure and (b) a thiol-derivatised probe and blocking thiol procedure. The system has been optimised using synthetic oligonucleotides, which were then applied to samples of plasmidic and genomic DNA isolated from the pBI121 plasmid, certified reference materials (CRM), and real samples amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The analytical parameters of the sensor have been investigated (sensitivity, reproducibility, lifetime etc.). The results obtained showed that both immobilisation procedures enabled sensitive and specific detection of GMOs, providing a useful tool for screening analysis in food samples.

  8. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emir Diltemiz, Sibel; Keçili, Rüstem; Ersöz, Arzu; Say, Rıdvan

    2017-02-24

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (bio)sensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.). On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (bio)sensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  9. Molecular Imprinting Technology in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Emir Diltemiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs as artificial antibodies have received considerable scientific attention in the past years in the field of (biosensors since they have unique features that distinguish them from natural antibodies such as robustness, multiple binding sites, low cost, facile preparation and high stability under extreme operation conditions (higher pH and temperature values, etc.. On the other hand, the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM is an analytical tool based on the measurement of small mass changes on the sensor surface. QCM sensors are practical and convenient monitoring tools because of their specificity, sensitivity, high accuracy, stability and reproducibility. QCM devices are highly suitable for converting the recognition process achieved using MIP-based memories into a sensor signal. Therefore, the combination of a QCM and MIPs as synthetic receptors enhances the sensitivity through MIP process-based multiplexed binding sites using size, 3D-shape and chemical function having molecular memories of the prepared sensor system toward the target compound to be detected. This review aims to highlight and summarize the recent progress and studies in the field of (biosensor systems based on QCMs combined with molecular imprinting technology.

  10. Magneto-optic sensor based on electrogyration compensation and single-quartz crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Cui, He; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    Magnetooptic sensor based on electrogyration compensation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using single quartz crystal. The sensing unit is composed of single quartz crystal and two polarizers. Quartz crystal exhibits magneto-optic, electro-optic and electrogyration effects, thus magneto-optic Faraday rotation angle can be compensated by the electrogyration angle induced by the compensating voltage applied to the crystal. The compensating voltage is sensitive to both the deviation angle between light beam and principal crystalline axis, and the azimuth angle of polarizer. The 50Hz ac magnetic flux density within 267Gs has been measured, the compensating voltage is 0.72V/Gs for a single quartz crystal with a length of 23mm. The proposed sensor has potential application to closed-loop measurement of magnetic field.

  11. Piezoelectric Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 crystal: crystal growth, piezoelectric and acoustic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Plotitcyna, Olga; Erko, Alexei; Zizak, Ivo; Vadilonga, Simone; Irzhak, Dmitry; Emelin, Evgenii; Buzanov, Oleg; Leitenberger, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS), a five-component crystal of lanthanum-gallium silicate group, was grown by the Czochralski method. The parameters of the elementary unit cell of the crystal were measured by powder diffraction. The independent piezoelectric strain coefficients d{}_{11} and d_{14} were determined by the triple-axis X-ray diffraction in the Bragg and Laue geometries. Excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The velocity of SAW propagation and power flow angles in the Y-, X- and yxl/{+}36°-cuts of the CNGS crystal were determined from the analysis of the diffraction spectra. The CNGS crystal was found practically isotropic by its acoustic properties.

  12. Timescales of Quartz Crystallization and the Longevity of the Bishop Giant Magma Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualda, Guilherme A.R.; Pamukcu, Ayla S.; Ghiorso, Mark S.; Anderson, Jr. , Alfred T.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Rivers, Mark L. (OFM Res.); (Vanderbilt); (UC)

    2013-04-08

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km{sup 3}) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted {approx}760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  13. Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A R; Pamukcu, Ayla S; Ghiorso, Mark S; Anderson, Alfred T; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Supereruptions violently transfer huge amounts (100 s-1000 s km(3)) of magma to the surface in a matter of days and testify to the existence of giant pools of magma at depth. The longevity of these giant magma bodies is of significant scientific and societal interest. Radiometric data on whole rocks, glasses, feldspar and zircon crystals have been used to suggest that the Bishop Tuff giant magma body, which erupted ~760,000 years ago and created the Long Valley caldera (California), was long-lived (>100,000 years) and evolved rather slowly. In this work, we present four lines of evidence to constrain the timescales of crystallization of the Bishop magma body: (1) quartz residence times based on diffusional relaxation of Ti profiles, (2) quartz residence times based on the kinetics of faceting of melt inclusions, (3) quartz and feldspar crystallization times derived using quartz+feldspar crystal size distributions, and (4) timescales of cooling and crystallization based on thermodynamic and heat flow modeling. All of our estimates suggest quartz crystallization on timescales of <10,000 years, more typically within 500-3,000 years before eruption. We conclude that large-volume, crystal-poor magma bodies are ephemeral features that, once established, evolve on millennial timescales. We also suggest that zircon crystals, rather than recording the timescales of crystallization of a large pool of crystal-poor magma, record the extended periods of time necessary for maturation of the crust and establishment of these giant magma bodies.

  14. Ultrasensitive quartz crystal microbalance integrated with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhijat

    In this thesis, an ultrasensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) which can be configured as a versatile (bio)chemical sensor is presented. The high sensitivity of the QCM was achieved via miniaturization using micromachining techniques. The absolute mass sensitivity of sensor was increased by decreasing the thickness and the area of the electrodes of the resonators. Through optimal design, microfabrication, and miniaturization the mass sensitivity of the sensors was increased by more than four orders of magnitude to less than 1 pg/Hz; as compared to 17 ng/Hz for commercially available 5 MHz bulk resonators. Miniaturization of the resonators enables their fabrication in an array format with each pixel of the array being individually addressed. This enables true spatial and temporal mass sensing capabilities. The fabricated resonators were tested for operation in air and water and high quality factors of 7500 and ˜2000 were obtained respectively. A dielectric etch process was developed to achieve the miniaturization of the sensors. The optimization of the dielectric etch process was achieved using statistical techniques such as Design of Experiment (DOE). An etch rate of 0.5 microm/min at rms surface roughness of less than 2 nm was achieved after the optimization process. The process parameters, namely the ICP power, the substrate power, the flow rate of gases, the operating pressure of the etch tool, distance of substrate holder from the source, and the temperature of substrate holder, were quantitatively related to the etch rate and rms surface roughness using least square fit to the etch data. The QCMs were integrated with carbon nanotubes using a simple spray-on technique. It was found that the addition of carbon nanotubes onto the electroded surface of the resonator increased its Q-factor by as much as 100%. It was proposed that the carbon nanotubes due to their high stiffness suppress the out-of-plane flexural vibrations in the QCMs thereby suppressing an

  15. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  16. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  17. An experimental study on the ultra-precision polishing of quartz crystal using MR fluids and micro abrasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. W.; Lee, J. W.; Cho, M. W.; Choi, S. B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents ultra-precision MR polishing results of quartz crystal, which has been widely used in many applications, such as piezo-electric transducer, surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters and SAW resonators, etc. It is known that smooth surface with sub-nanometer roughness is needed for higher-frequency application. The MR fluids, used for the polishing, consist of DI water based carbonyl iron (CI), nonmagnetic polishing micro abrasives, and required amount of stabilizers. In the process, mixed fluids were supplied into the gap between a rotating wheel (with electromagnetic field) and the workpiece. Then, the micro abrasives contained in the fluids perform material removal action from the workpiece. Such material removal mechanism in the MR polishing is considered as a process governed by the Bingham flow in the contact zone. In this study, material removal characteristics and generated surface roughness of the quartz crystal specimens using the MR polishing process were investigated through a series of experiments. The surface roughness variations of the polished specimens were investigated by changing imposed polishing conditions, such as wheel speed, magnetic field intensity. As a result, very fine surface roughness of Ra=0.770nm was obtained.

  18. Can enantiomorphic crystals like quartz play a role in the origin of homochirality on earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunovskii, E I

    2001-01-01

    This communication reviews the possible actions of enantiomorphic crystals on the surface of Earth as sources of homochirality of organic compounds. The discovery of asymmetric adsorption and asymmetric catalysis involving optically active quartz crystals has led some authors to conclude that this source of asymmetry played an important role as a source of homochirality in nature, a concept that later proved erroneous. Moreover, data regarding the preponderance in nature of l-quartz crystals have been used to confirm calculations of the parity violation energy difference (PVED) for l-quartz and, hence, to explain the prevalence of L-amino acids and D-sugars in living matter. As discussed here, quartz and other enantiomorphs such as sodium chlorate can produce chiral intermediates active in autocatalytical processes. Our most recent compilation of the literature, however, reveals that the distribution of d- and l-quartz crystals at the surface of the Earth when all possible locations are included is quite random. Although quartz can serve as an effective asymmetric inductor in autocatalytic processes, it cannot be the source of homochirality of living matter because of the random occurrence of the two types of enantiomorphs. The calculations of PVED values for quartz therefore lack a sound physical basis.

  19. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Technique for in Situ Analysis of Supersaturation in Cooling Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Shang; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2016-06-07

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is used as a novel in situ strategy for analyzing the supersaturation profile during cooling crystallization. The main concept is based on preventing any solid mass loading on the QCM sensor by modifying the sensor surface. As a result, the QCM responses only depend on the solution concentration changes during the crystallization. The proposed strategy is confirmed on the basis of an analysis of sulfamerazine (SMZ) crystallization. When the QCM sensor is modified using 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), crystal formation on the sensor is completely prevented due to a repulsive interaction between the -NH2 functional groups of the AUT and SMZ crystals. Thus, the QCM responses reflect only the property changes in the solution phase during the crystallization. The supersaturation in the solution is then estimated on the basis of the difference in the frequency shifts between the SMZ solution and a blank solution. The accuracy of the in situ QCM analysis of supersaturation is confirmed using an off-line gravimetric method.

  20. Greatly improved small inductance measurement using quartz crystal parasitic capacitance compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko; Jezernik, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Generally, quartz crystal inductance frequency pulling in oscillators is very low and therefore is not often used in practice. The new method of improving frequency pullability uses inductance to compensate for quartz stray capacitances. To this end, a special AT fundamental quartz crystal working near the antiresonance frequency is selected. By modifying its equivalent circuit with load inductance and series tuning capacitance, the magnetic sensing of the circuit can be highly improved. The experimental results show that the new approach using the quartz crystal stray capacitance compensation method increases the frequency pulling range (from ≅2 kHz/μH to ≅600 kHz/μH) by ×300 depending on the type of oscillator, making possible the measurement of nano-magnetic changes.

  1. Piezoelectric properties of Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anhua Wu; Jiayue Xu; Juan Zhou; Hui Shen

    2007-04-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal, Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 (SGG), has been grown successfully by the vertical Bridgman method with crucible-sealing technique. SGG crystal up to 2″ in diameter has been obtained. The relative dielectric constants, the piezoelectric strain constants, elastic compliance constants and electromechanical coupling factors have been determined with resonance and anti-resonance frequencies method by using the impedance analyzer (Agilent 4294A). The results show that the piezoelectric strain constants and electromechanical coupling factors of SGG single crystal are higher than those of LGS single crystals making it a potential substrate material for surface-acoustic wave applications.

  2. Piezoelectric responses of brittle rock mass containing quartz to static stress and exploding stress wave respectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Guo-xiang; LI Xi-bing; HONG Liang

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic emission (EME) induced from the rock containing piezoelectric materials was investigated under both static stress and exploding stress wave in the view of piezoelectric effect. The results show that the intensity of the EME induced from the rock under static stress increases with increasing stress level and loading rate; the relationship between the amplitude of theme from the rock under different modes of stress wave and elastic parameters and propagation distance was presented. The intensity of the EME relates not only to the strength and elastic moduli of rock masses, but also to the initial damage of the rock. The intensity of EME induced by stress wave reaches the highest at the explosion-center and attenuates with the propagation distance. The intensity of EME increases with increasing the elastic modulus and decreases with increasing initial damage. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. A dibutyl phthalate sensor based on a nanofiber polyaniline coated quartz crystal monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Ding, Pengfei; Hu, Ruifen; Zhang, Jianming; Ma, Xingfa; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2013-03-18

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes. Because it has been found to be a powerful reproductive and developmental toxicant, a sensor to monitor DBP in some working spaces and the environment is required. In this work polyaniline nanofibers were deposited on the electrode of a quartz crystal oscillator to form a Quartz Crystal Microbalance gas sensor. The coated quartz crystal and a non-coated quartz crystal were mounted in a sealed chamber, and their frequency difference was monitored. When DBP vapor was injected into the chamber, gas adsorption decreased the frequency of the coated quartz crystal oscillator and thereby caused an increase in the frequency difference between the two crystals. The change of the frequency difference was recorded as the sensor response. The sensor was extremely sensitive to DBP and could be easily recovered by N2 purging. A low measurement limit of 20 ppb was achieved. The morphologies of the polyaniline films prepared by different approaches have been studied by SEM and BET. How the nanofiber-structure can improve the sensitivity and stability is discussed, while its selectivity and long-term stability were investigated.

  4. High-Precision Hysteresis Sensing of the Quartz Crystal Inductance-to-Frequency Converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro

    2016-06-28

    A new method for the automated measurement of the hysteresis of the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal is proposed. The new idea behind this method is a converter with two programmable analog switches enabling the automated measurement of the converter hysteresis, as well as the temperature compensation of the quartz crystal and any other circuit element. Also used is the programmable timing control device that allows the selection of different oscillating frequencies. In the proposed programmable method two different inductances connected in series to the quartz crystal are switched in a short time sequence, compensating the crystal's natural temperature characteristics (in the temperature range between 0 and 50 °C). The procedure allows for the measurement of the converter hysteresis at various values of capacitance connected in parallel with the quartz crystal for the converter sensitivity setting at selected inductance. It, furthermore, enables the measurement of hysteresis at various values of inductance at selected parallel capacitance (sensitivity) connected to the quartz crystal. The article shows that the proposed hysteresis measurement of the converter, which converts the inductance in the range between 95 and 100 μH to a frequency in the range between 1 and 200 kHz, has only 7 × 10(-13) frequency instability (during the temperature change between 0 and 50 °C) with a maximum 1 × 10(-11) hysteresis frequency difference.

  5. Development of 170 MHz Electrodeless Quartz-Crystal Microbalance Immunosensor with Nonspecifically Immobilized Receptor Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Hironao; Fukunishi, Yuji; Yanagida, Taiji; Hirao, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA) shows high nonspecific binding affinity on a naked quartz surface, and it can be used as the receptor protein for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), the most important immunoglobulin. The immunosensor ability, however, significantly depends on the immobilization procedure. In this work, the effect of the nonspecific immobilization procedure on the sensor sensitivity is studied using a home-built electrodeless quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor. The pure-shear vibration of a 9.7-µm-thick AT-cut quartz plate is excited and detected in liquids by the line antenna located outside the flow channel. SPA molecules are immobilized on the quartz surfaces, and human IgG is injected to monitor the binding reaction between SPA and IgG. This study reveals that a long (nearly 24 h) immersion procedure is required for immobilizing SPA to achieve the tight biding with the quartz surfaces.

  6. The Use of Phononic Crystals to Design Piezoelectric Power Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ronda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was recently proposed that the lateral resonances around the working resonance band of ultrasonic piezoelectric sandwich transducers can be stopped by a periodic array of circular holes drilled along the main propagation direction (a phononic crystal. In this work, the performance of different transducer designs made with this procedure is tested using laser vibrometry, electric impedance tests and finite element models (FEM. It is shown that in terms of mechanical vibration amplitude and acoustic efficiency, the best design for physiotherapy applications is when both, the piezoceramic and an aluminum capsule are phononic structures. The procedure described here can be applied to the design of power ultrasonic devices, physiotherapy transducers and other external medical power ultrasound applications where piston-like vibration in a narrow band is required.

  7. High-Precision Hysteresis Sensing of the Quartz Crystal Inductance-to-Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Matko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the automated measurement of the hysteresis of the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal is proposed. The new idea behind this method is a converter with two programmable analog switches enabling the automated measurement of the converter hysteresis, as well as the temperature compensation of the quartz crystal and any other circuit element. Also used is the programmable timing control device that allows the selection of different oscillating frequencies. In the proposed programmable method two different inductances connected in series to the quartz crystal are switched in a short time sequence, compensating the crystal’s natural temperature characteristics (in the temperature range between 0 and 50 °C. The procedure allows for the measurement of the converter hysteresis at various values of capacitance connected in parallel with the quartz crystal for the converter sensitivity setting at selected inductance. It, furthermore, enables the measurement of hysteresis at various values of inductance at selected parallel capacitance (sensitivity connected to the quartz crystal. The article shows that the proposed hysteresis measurement of the converter, which converts the inductance in the range between 95 and 100 μH to a frequency in the range between 1 and 200 kHz, has only 7 × 10−13 frequency instability (during the temperature change between 0 and 50 °C with a maximum 1 × 10−11 hysteresis frequency difference.

  8. High-Precision Hysteresis Sensing of the Quartz Crystal Inductance-to-Frequency Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the automated measurement of the hysteresis of the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal is proposed. The new idea behind this method is a converter with two programmable analog switches enabling the automated measurement of the converter hysteresis, as well as the temperature compensation of the quartz crystal and any other circuit element. Also used is the programmable timing control device that allows the selection of different oscillating frequencies. In the proposed programmable method two different inductances connected in series to the quartz crystal are switched in a short time sequence, compensating the crystal’s natural temperature characteristics (in the temperature range between 0 and 50 °C). The procedure allows for the measurement of the converter hysteresis at various values of capacitance connected in parallel with the quartz crystal for the converter sensitivity setting at selected inductance. It, furthermore, enables the measurement of hysteresis at various values of inductance at selected parallel capacitance (sensitivity) connected to the quartz crystal. The article shows that the proposed hysteresis measurement of the converter, which converts the inductance in the range between 95 and 100 μH to a frequency in the range between 1 and 200 kHz, has only 7 × 10−13 frequency instability (during the temperature change between 0 and 50 °C) with a maximum 1 × 10−11 hysteresis frequency difference. PMID:27367688

  9. Growth and Characterization of Lead-free Piezoelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Veber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free piezoelectric materials attract more and more attention owing to the environmental toxicity of lead-containing materials. In this work, we review our first attempts of single crystal grown by the top-seeded solution growth method of BaTiO3 substituted with zirconium and calcium (BCTZ and (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 substituted with lithium, tantalum, and antimony (KNLSTN. The growth methodology is optimized in order to reach the best compositions where enhanced properties are expected. Chemical analysis and electrical characterizations are presented for both kinds of crystals. The compositionally-dependent electrical performance is investigated for a better understanding of the relationship between the composition and electrical properties. A cross-over from relaxor to ferroelectric state in BCTZ solid solution is evidenced similar to the one reported in ceramics. In KNLSTN single crystals, we observed a substantial evolution of the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition under minute composition changes.

  10. The effect of crystal-plastic deformation on Ti concentration in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlas, W. O.; Hirth, G.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Quartz is a dominant phase controlling crustal rheology and strain localization, and the sensitivity of its recrystallization mechanisms to variations in temperature, pressure, and fluid activity make evaluation of these parameters crucial to reconstructing the deformation history of quartz-bearing rocks in the lithosphere. The advent of Ti in quartz thermobarometry provides a technique with potentially powerful applications for understanding the conditions at which rocks deform plastically in the crust. However, it is unclear how ductile deformation, specifically dislocation creep, affects Ti substitution in quartz and whether the Ti concentration in quartz accurately records the conditions at which quartz recrystallized. This study addresses these questions through a series of high P-T rock deformation experiments on precisely synthesized Ti-doped quartz aggregates to investigate the influence of strain and dynamic recrystallization on the concentration of Ti in quartz. Laboratory rock deformation experiments provide an ideal opportunity to study Ti solubility in deformed quartz because they allow for recrystallization to occur in a controlled environment; deformation experiments are conducted under isothermal and isobaric conditions at constant strain rate for increasing intervals of time to isolate the effect of strain on Ti chemistry of quartz. This study employs a novel doping synthesis method to produce a quartz aggregate consisting of a large population of quartz crystals doped with a precise Ti concentration where each individual crystal has a uniform dopant distribution. Deformation of a homogeneous starting material enables simulation of a retrograde solubility path, in which a sample with an initially high, uniform concentration is modified during deformation at conditions where the solubility is substantially lower. This enables observations to be made of the mechanisms responsible for mobilizing Ti through diffusion and exsolution to adjust to the

  11. Direct monitoring of paraquat induced cell death using quartz crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yun [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyen-Wook, E-mail: nanokang@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kaneko, Seiichi [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kwon, Young-Soo, E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Muramatsu, Hiroshi, E-mail: muramatu@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide and pesticide, has been implicated as an environmental toxicity which caused cell death. In order to investigate the influence of paraquat, we used a quartz crystal sensor with a micro CCD camera that measured morphology and resonance characteristics simultaneously. Human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified on a collagen film. After the growth of the cells, paraquat was injected to the chamber and the resonance responses of the quartz crystal were directly monitored with morphology. We analyzed changes of the cells by the resonance frequency (F) and the resonance resistance (R) responses (F-R diagram). With this analysis, we also observed the morphologies during cell culturing. From the data, we could know that paraquat caused the weakening and death of the cells. Namely, paraquat plays an important role in the free radicals production that led to apoptosis and cell death.

  12. Experimentally determining the relative efficiency of spherically bent germanium and quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Magee, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have used the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a duplicate Orion High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer (OHREX) to measure the relative efficiency of a spherically bent quartz (10 1 ¯ 1) crystal (2d = 6.687 Å) and a spherically bent germanium (111) crystal (2d = 6.532 Å). L-shell X-ray photons from highly charged molybdenum ions generated in EBIT-I were simultaneously focussed and Bragg reflected by each crystal, both housed in a single spectrometer, onto a single CCD X-ray detector. The flux from each crystal was then directly compared. Our results show that the germanium crystal has a reflection efficiency significantly better than the quartz crystal, however, the energy resolution is significantly worse. Moreover, we find that the spatial focussing properties of the germanium crystal are worse than those of the quartz crystal. Details of the experiment are presented, and we discuss the advantages of using either crystal on a streak-camera equipped OHREX spectrometer.

  13. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors with High Actuator Density and Large Stroke Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors with high actuator density, fine pitch, large stroke and no floating wires will be developed for future NASA science...

  14. The quartz crystal microbalance in soft matter research fundamentals and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the physics of the second-generation quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a fundamental method of analysis for soft matter at interfaces.From a device for measuring film thickness in vacuum, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has in the past two decades evolved into a versatile instrument for analyzing soft matter at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces that found applications in diverse fields including the life sciences, material science, polymer research and electrochemistry. As a consequence of this success, the QCM is now being used by scientists with a wide variety

  15. δ-BIBO:Nd crystals as promising laser operated piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majchrowski, A.; Jaroszewicz, L.R. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: iwank74@gmail.com [Electrical Engineering Faculty, Czestochowa University Technology, 42-201, Armii Krajowej 17 (Poland)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Novel laser stimulated effects were discovered in δ-BiB{sub 3}O{sub 6} crystals. • Effect is caused by localized levels of the Nd{sup +3} ions. • The photoinduced piezoelectricity is maximal for the simultaneous treatment by 1064 nm and 532 nm laser beams. - Abstract: A possibility to operate piezoelectric efficiency of δ-BIBO:Nd crystals using external nanosecond laser light at 1064 nm and 532 nm was shown. Depending on the kind of the photoexciting light the behavior of the output piezoelectricity was quite different. The measurements of temperature and temporary features for the photoinduced piezoelectricity confirmed the main role of the incorporation of Nd ions in the δ-BiB{sub 3}O{sub 6} structure with respect to piezoelectricity. The DFT simulations of the local charge density re-distribution were done using the norm-conserving pseudopotential method to confirm principal role of the space charge density redistribution.

  16. Robert Boyle's chiral crystal chemistry: computational re-evaluation of enantioselective adsorption on quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Chittenden, Brianne; Rohl, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    While searching for early examples of interactions of organic chromophores with minerals in the context of a systematic study of the process of dyeing crystals, we came across Robert Boyle's description of an experiment that may have been evidence of the enantioselective adsorption of a natural product, carminic acid (7-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-9,10-dihydro-3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid), to the chiral surfaces of alpha-quartz, three centuries before such interactions became the subject of active chemical investigations. In order to determine whether Boyle did indeed observe enantioselective adsorption--albeit unbeknownst to him--we attempted to dye quartz with carminic acid according to his recipe. Quartz adsorbs carminic acid only because on heating it develops a network of microfissures that adsorb dye. This process depends on capillarity, not on specific non-covalent interactions; there is no evidence of enantioselectivity adsorption to heated crystals or enantioselective epitaxy to unheated crystals. These failures changed the focus of our inquiry: Why have almost all attempts to demonstrate the enantioselective adsorption of additives to quartz crystal surfaces been generally confounding and equivocal? In order to answer this question, we complement our experimental historical re-investigation with contemporary computational techniques for modeling crystal surface structure and the adsorption of additives. Minimizations of the energies associated with the adsorption of carminic acid to relaxed, hydrated d- and l-quartz {10(-)0} surfaces are analyzed in light of quartz's abysmal record as an enantioselective stationary phase.

  17. Temperature dependences of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric constants of L-alanine crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylczyński, Z.; Sterczyńska, A.; Wiesner, M.

    2011-09-01

    Temperature changes in the components of piezoelectric, elastic and dielectric tensors were studied in L-alanine crystals in the range 100-300 K. A jumpwise increase in the c55 component of the elastic stiffness accompanied by maxima in damping of all face-shear modes observed at 199 K in L-alanine crystal were interpreted as a result of changes in the NH3+ vibrations occurring through electron-phonon coupling. All components of the piezoelectric tensor show small anomalies in this temperature range. The components of the electromechanical coupling coefficient determined indicate that L-alanine is a weak piezoelectric.

  18. Double modulation of X radiation diffracted in a quartz single crystal by high and low frequency acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kocharyan, L A; Bornazyan, H S

    1986-01-01

    The time dependence of X radiation diffracted in a quartz single crystal is experimentally investigated when surface acoustic waves modulated by low frequency oscillations of different frequencies and forms are excited in the crystal.

  19. Evaluation of sagittal focusing for a spherical quartz crystal x-ray analyzer with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Nino R.; Macrander, Albert T.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Baronova, Elena O.; George, Kevin M.; Kotick, Jordan T.

    2015-10-01

    To attain optimum performance in applications such as x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, a spherically bent crystal must diffract well across its entire surface. X-ray topography of sample crystals shows isolated regions where diffraction is problematic, even for a crystal where inspection with visible light does not suggest problems. Covering problem spots may improve the crystal’s focus and decrease the background. We explore the special properties of synchrotron radiation to examine typical spherical crystals from alpha-quartz, in a perpendicular geometry that is especially convenient to examine sagittal focusing.

  20. Determination of Mass Sensitivity of Crystal Quartz Resonators at Students' Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which students determine the mass sensitivity of three crystal quartz resonators, designed to be carried out in "Physics Laboratory II" at the Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw. The authors discuss the process of setting up the experiment and the results of the measurements. They clearly…

  1. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  2. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  3. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment II: Measuring Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Various water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol based experiments are used to demonstrate how the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is used for measuring the viscosity of a system. The technique is very advantageous, as it is inexpensive and provides digital output.

  4. Determination of Mass Sensitivity of Crystal Quartz Resonators at Students' Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in which students determine the mass sensitivity of three crystal quartz resonators, designed to be carried out in "Physics Laboratory II" at the Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wroclaw. The authors discuss the process of setting up the experiment and the results of the measurements.…

  5. Dielectric relaxation processes in smoky quartz crystals at very low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, W.J. de; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    The relaxation time governing the dielectric loss of smoky quartz crystals appears to level off as a function of temperature below 12°K, approaching a value of about 1 msec. The relaxational behaviour of the colour centres is discussed in terms of tunneling processes.

  6. Dielectric relaxation processes in smoky quartz crystals at very low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, W.J. de; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    The relaxation time governing the dielectric loss of smoky quartz crystals appears to level off as a function of temperature below 12°K, approaching a value of about 1 msec. The relaxational behaviour of the colour centres is discussed in terms of tunneling processes.

  7. Ion effects in the adsorption of carboxylate on oxide surfaces, studied with quartz crystal microbalance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Siretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel H.G.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    We chose water-soluble sodium hexanoate as a model organic molecule to study the role of salt ions (Ca2+, Na+, Cl−) in the adsorption of carboxylates to mineral surfaces (silica, alumina, gibbsite) of variable surface charge and chemistry. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) measurements reveal a qu

  8. Rapid identification of spinal ventral and dorsal roots using a quartz crystal microbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sui; Jun Que; Dechao Kong; Hao Xie; Daode Wang; Kun Shi; Xiaojian Cao; Xiang Li

    2013-01-01

    The fast and accurate identification of nerve tracts is critical for successful nerve anastomosis. Taking advantage of differences in acetylcholinesterase content between the spinal ventral and dorsal roots, we developed a novel quartz crystal microbalance method to distinguish between these nerves based on acetylcholinesterase antibody reactivity. The acetylcholinesterase antibody was immobilized on the electrode surface of a quartz crystal microbalance and reacted with the acetylcholinesterase in sample solution. The formed antigen and antibody complexes added to the mass of the electrode inducing a change in frequency of the electrode. The spinal ventral and dorsal roots were distinguished by the change in frequency. The ventral and dorsal roots were cut into 1 to 2-mm long segments and then soaked in 250 μL PBS. Acetylcholinesterase antibody was immobilized on the quartz crystal microbalance gold electrode surface. The results revealed that in 10 minutes, both spinal ventral and dorsal roots induced a frequency change; however, the frequency change induced by the ventral roots was notably higher than that induced by the dorsal roots. No change was induced by bovine serum albumin or PBS. These results clearly demonstrate that a quartz crystal microbalance sensor can be used as a rapid, highly sensitive and accurate detection tool for the quick identification of spinal nerve roots intraoperatively.

  9. A new investigation of dielectric relaxation processes in smoky quartz crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, W.J. de; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    Dielectric loss measurements on smoky quartz crystals over a wide frequency and temperature range (200 Hz-2.5 MHz and 20.4–160°K) showed, besides the well-known relaxation process at low temperatures, also a new relaxation mechanism, which becomes dominant above 100°K. There are strong arguments tha

  10. Shaped crystal growth of langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals and their physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Futami, Yoshisuke; Sato, Masato; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have grown shape-controlled langasite-type crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Columnar shaped La(3)Ta(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LTG), Ca(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CNGS), Ca(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CTGS), Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS), and Sr(3)Ta- Ga(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die at the bottom. All grown crystals showed high transparency except for the peripheral area and diameter of approximately 3 mm. The chemical phases at the central parts of the grown crystals were identified as a single phase of langasite-type structure and their lattice parameters were almost the same as those of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method; however, some impurity phases were observed in the peripheral area. In X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals indicated equivalent crystallinity to the crystal grown by the Cz method. The piezoelectric constant d(11) of the CNGS crystal was 3.98 pC/N; this value is well correlated with those of previous reports.

  11. Characterization of a high-power piezoelectric energy-scavenging device based on PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. E.; Lee, S. K.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, K. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Yang, W. S.; Kim, J. [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, we present the calculations and the results for vibration-energy-scavenging performances based on a piezoelectric single-crystal beam. Using the measured mechanical damping ratio and electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of a novel cantilever structure device, we calculated the output performances and compared them with the measured results. A device based on a bimorph cantilever structure with a proof mass was designed to have a natural resonance frequency of about 60 Hz, and the energy-scavenging capability of piezoelectric single crystal was measured. The results showed that several tens of AC volts and a few milliwatts power were achieved under a 0.1 g{sub rms} vibration condition. Also using this device and a commercial power management circuit, we performed Li-ion battery charging experiment.

  12. Hydrothermal crystal growth, piezoelectricity, and triboluminescence of KNaNbOF{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kelvin B. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Edwards, Bryce W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Frazer, Laszlo; Lenferink, Erik J.; Stanev, Teodor K.; Stern, Nathaniel P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Nino, Juan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R., E-mail: krp@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Single crystals of the noncentrosymmetric KNaNbOF{sub 5} polymorph were grown for piezoelectric and triboluminescent measurements. Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±6.3 pCN{sup −1} and an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 0.1565 in the frequency range 1960–2080 kHz. Crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were found to exhibit a strong triboluminscence effect visible to the naked eye as blue sparks when crystals are crushed. This triboluminescence effect is uncommon in that it is likely independent from both the piezoelectric effect and atmospheric electrical discharge. Instead, triboluminescence may originate from crystal defects or be related to an electroluminescence effect. - Graphical abstract: An optical emission visible to the naked eye as blue sparks is observed when KNaNbOF{sub 5} single crystals are fractured. - Highlights: • Single crystals of KNaNbOF{sub 5} were grown under hydrothermal conditions. • Piezoelectric and triboluminescent properties were characterized. • Piezoelectric measurements yielded a d{sub 33} value of ±pCN{sup −1}. • KNaNbOF{sub 5} exhibits strong triboluminscence visible to the naked eye as blue sparks.

  13. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  14. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  15. Quartz dissolution. I - Negative crystal experiments and a rate law. II - Theory of rough and smooth surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The range of the measured quartz dissolution rates, as a function of temperature and pOH, extent of saturation, and ionic strength, is extended to cover a wider range of solution chemistries, using the negative crystal methodology of Gratz et al. (1990) to measure the dissolution rate. A simple rate law describing the quartz dissolution kinetics above the point of zero charge of quartz is derived for ionic strengths above 0.003 m. Measurements were performed on some defective crystals, and the mathematics of step motion was developed for quartz dissolution and was compared with rough-face behavior using two different models.

  16. Design, construction and testing of a system for detection of toxic gases based on piezoelectric crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, J A; de Cisneros, J L; de Barreda, D G; Becerra, A J

    1994-01-01

    A system for static operation of toxic gas sensors based on piezoelectric crystals was constructed as a preliminary step in the development of this type of sensor. The sensing part of the setup consists of a twin oscillating circuit assembled from commercially available electronic parts mounted on a motherboard. The oscillating circuits can accommodate two piezoelectric crystals, of which one or both can be coated with different materials, or a single one, as required. The sensing assembly (crystals plus oscillating circuits) is placed in a customized test chamber that allows one to control and reproduce its internal environment. Once assembled and fine-tuned, the proposed setup was used to test a commercially available piezoelectric crystal for sensing formaldehyde in order to expand available information on this type of sensor.

  17. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Song, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Ducharme, Stephen; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-04-13

    Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a p-i-n structure.

  18. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in piezoelectric wurtzite slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of phonon dispersion in piezoelectric slabs of hexagonal crystal symmetry (wurtzite). Specifically we solve the fully coupled dispersion relations in a GaN free standing quantum well by varying the crystal growth direction from the [001] axis...

  19. Electrical Conductivity of Synthetic Quartz Crystals at High Temperature and Pressure from Complex Impedance Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王多君; 李和平; 刘丛强; 易丽; 丁东业; 苏根利; 张卫刚

    2002-01-01

    An electrical conductivity measurement system under high-pressure conditions with a multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus by an ac complex impedance method was set up. With this system, we have successfully measured the electrical conductivity of synthetic quartz under pressure up to approximately 1.0 GPa in the temperature range 661-987K. The values of electrical conductivity decrease with the increasing pressure and increase with the increasing temperature. The activation enthalpies for the α-quartz crystals are 1.10-1.28eV. The electrical conductivity of α-quartz is ionic, with Na ions moving in channels parallel to the c-axis being the predominant current carrier.

  20. Piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Lubitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials play a key role in an innovative market. Advances in applications derive from new materials and their development, as well as to new market requirements. This report elucidates these developments by a broad spectrum of examples, comprising ultrasound in medicine and defence industry, and frequency control.

  1. KTN thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on transparent single crystal quartz (100)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiaodong; PENG; Xiaofeng; ZHANG; Duanming

    2005-01-01

    Using the Sol-Gel method to produce the KTN ultrafine powder and the sintering technique with K2O atmosphere to prepare KTN ceramics as the targets instead of the KTN single crystal, highly oriented KTN thin films were produced on the transparent single crystal quartz (100) by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Since the thermal stress sustained by the quartz is relatively small, the limit temperature of the quartz substrates(300℃) is much lower than that of the P-Si substrates (560℃); the prepared thin film is at amorphous state. Increasing the pulsed laser energy density in the process incorporated with annealing the film after deposition at different temperatures converts the amorphous films into crystal. The optimal pulsed laser energy density and annealing temperature were 2.0 J/cm2 and 600℃, respectively. A discussion was made to understand the mechanism of film production at relatively low substrate temperature by PLD and effects of the annealing temperatures on the forming of the perovskite phase, and optimal conditions for the orientation of the crystal grain.

  2. Density-viscosity product of small-volume ionic liquid samples using quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Glen; Hardacre, Chris; Ge, Rile; Doy, Nicola; Allen, Ray W K; MacInnes, Jordan M; Bown, Mark R; Newton, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Quartz crystal impedance analysis has been developed as a technique to assess whether room-temperature ionic liquids are Newtonian fluids and as a small-volume method for determining the values of their viscosity-density product, rho eta. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a 5-MHz fundamental frequency quartz crystal induced by a water-miscible room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimiclazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), were measured. From coupled frequency shift and bandwidth changes as the concentration was varied from 0 to 100% ionic liquid, it was determined that this liquid provided a Newtonian response. A second water-immiscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][NTf2], with concentration varied using methanol, was tested and also found to provide a Newtonian response. In both cases, the values of the square root of the viscosity-density product deduced from the small-volume quartz crystal technique were consistent with those measured using a viscometer and density meter. The third harmonic of the crystal was found to provide the closest agreement between the two measurement methods; the pure ionic liquids had the largest difference of approximately 10%. In addition, 18 pure ionic liquids were tested, and for 11 of these, good-quality frequency shift and bandwidth data were obtained; these 12 all had a Newtonian response. The frequency shift of the third harmonic was found to vary linearly with square root of viscosity-density product of the pure ionic liquids up to a value of square root(rho eta) approximately 18 kg m(-2) s(-1/2), but with a slope 10% smaller than that predicted by the Kanazawa and Gordon equation. It is envisaged that the quartz crystal technique could be used in a high-throughput microfluidic system for characterizing ionic liquids.

  3. Detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Nucleic Acid Biosensor Array Using Au Nanoparticle Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Fu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a critical pathogen of nosocomial blood infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM nucleic acid biosensor array using Au nanoparticle signal amplification was developed to rapidly detect S. epidermidis in clinical samples. The synthesized thiolated probes specific targeting S. epidermidis 16S rRNA gene were immobilized on the surface of QCM nucleic acid biosensor arrays. Hybridization was induced by exposing the immobilized probes to the PCR amplified fragments of S. epidermidis, resulting in a mass change and a consequent frequency shift of the QCM biosensor. To further enhance frequency shift results from above described hybridizations, streptavidin coated Au nanoparticles were conjugated to the PCR amplified fragments. The results showed that the lowest detection limit of current QCM system was 1.3×103 CFU/mL. A linear correlation was found when the concentration of S. epidermidis varied from 1.3×103 to 1.3×107 CFU/mL. In addition, 55 clinical samples were detected with both current QCM biosensor system and conventional clinical microbiological method, and the sensitivity and specificity of current QCM biosensor system were 97.14% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, the current QCM system is a rapid, low-cost and sensitive method that can be used to identify infection of S. epidermidis in clinical samples.

  4. Monitoring the effects of fibrinogen concentration on blood coagulation using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and its comparison with thromboelastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Efremov, Vitaly; Cullen, Sinéad; Byrne, Barry; Killard, Anthony J.

    2013-05-01

    Fibrinogen has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. Fibrinogen (340 kDa) is a soluble dimeric glycoprotein found in plasma and is a major component of the coagulation cascade. It has been identified as a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. The time taken for its conversion to fibrin is usually used as an "endpoint" in most clot-based assays, without any information on dynamic changes in physical properties or kinetics of a forming clot. A global coagulation profile as measured by Thromboelastography® (TEG®) provides information on both the time and kinetics of changes in physical property of the forming clot. In this work, Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), which is a piezoelectric resonator has been used to study coagulation of plasma and compared with TEG. The changes in resonant frequency (Δf) and half width at half maximum (HWHM or ΔΓ) were used to evaluate effect of fibrinogen concentration. It has been shown that TEG is less sensitive to low concentrations of fibrinogen and dilution while QCM is able to monitor clot formation in both the circumstances.

  5. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads.

  6. Low Temperature Quartz Crystal Oscillator Fast Warm-Up Saw Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    and given at I Hz from the carrier. From these experimental data the dependance between 1/F noise and Q-fact : is determined by using a regression...for the thermal phonons. The anharmonicities are introduced by means of a strain dependance of the phono frequencies. A detailed description of the...study shown for the first time a correlation between 1/F noise and Q-factor in quartz crystal resonators. This dependance was confirmed on the one

  7. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  8. Photorefractive grating formation in piezoelectric La3Ga5SiO14:Pr3+ crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Johansen, P.M.; Fridkin, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Photorefractive grating formation and erasure in piezoelectric crystals of La3Ga5SiO14:Pr3+ are presented. The specific photoconductivity and the photorefractive sensitivity are determined. The polarization dependence of the grating formation due to the bulk photovoltaic effect is shown and compa......Photorefractive grating formation and erasure in piezoelectric crystals of La3Ga5SiO14:Pr3+ are presented. The specific photoconductivity and the photorefractive sensitivity are determined. The polarization dependence of the grating formation due to the bulk photovoltaic effect is shown...

  9. Tuning of band gaps for a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal with a rectangular lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yize Wang; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto; Wenhu Huang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the elastic wave propagation in a two-dimensional piezoelectric phononic crystal is studied by considering the mechanic-electric coupling. The gener-alized eigenvalue equation is obtained by the relation of the mechanic and electric fields as well as the Bloch-Floquet the-orem. The band structures of both the in-plane and anti-plane modes are calculated for a rectangular lattice by the plane-wave expansion method. The effects of the lattice constant ratio and the piezoelectricity with different filling fractions are analyzed. The results show that the largest gap width is not always obtained for a square lattice. In some situations, a rectangular lattice may generate larger gaps. The band gap characteristics are influenced obviously by the piezoelectric-ity with the larger lattice constant ratios and the filling frac-tions.

  10. Optically Defined Modal Sensors Incorporating Spiropyran-Doped Liquid Crystals with Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lung Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrated a piezoelectric sensing layer lamina containing liquid crystals (LC and spiropyran (SP in a LC/SP mixture to create an optically reconfigurable modal sensor for a cantilever beam. The impedance of this LC/SP lamina was decreased by UV irradiation which constituted the underlying mechanism to modulate the voltage externally applied to the piezoelectric actuating layer. Illuminating a specific pattern onto the LC/SP lamina provided us with a way to spatially modulate the piezoelectric vibration signal. We showed that if an UV illuminated pattern matches the strain distribution of a specific mode, a piezoelectric modal sensor can be created. Since UV illumination can be changed in situ in real-time, our results confirm for the first time since the inception of smart sensors, that an optically tailored modal sensor can be created. Some potential applications of this type of sensor include energy harvesting devices, bio-chips, vibration sensing and actuating devices.

  11. Neutron diffraction in a quartz single crystal under the action of acoustic oscillations or a temperature gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Hunanyan, H A; Beglaryan, A G

    1986-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of neutron diffraction in a quartz single crystal under the action of acoustic oscillations or a temperature gradient in the Laue geometry. Theoretical conclusions were compared with experimental results.

  12. Bulk Crystal Growth of Piezoelectric PMN-PT Crystals Using Gradient Freeze Technique for Improved SHM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mohan D.; Kochary, F.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Miller, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in recent years in lead based perovskite ferroelectric and relaxor ferroelectric solid solutions because of their excellent dielectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties that make them very attractive for various sensing, actuating and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We are interested in the development of highly sensitive and efficient PMN-PT sensors based on large single crystals for the structural health monitoring of composite materials that may be used in future spacecrafts. Highly sensitive sensors are needed for detection of defects in these materials because they often tend to fail by distributed and interacting damage modes and much of the damage occurs beneath the top surface of the laminate and not detectable by visual inspection. Research is being carried out for various combinations of solid solutions for PMN-PT piezoelectric materials and bigger size crystals are being sought for improved sensor applications. Single crystals of this material are of interest for sensor applications because of their high piezoelectric coefficient (d33 greater than 1700 pC/N) and electromechanical coefficients (k33 greater than 0.90). For comparison, the commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has a d33 of about 600 pC/N and electromechanical coefficients k33 of about 0.75. At the present time, these piezoelectric relaxor crystals are grown by high temperature flux growth method and the size of these crystals are rather small (3x4x5 mm(exp 3). In the present paper, we have attempted to grow bulk single crystals of PMN-PT in a 2 inch diameter platinum crucible and successfully grown a large size crystal of 67%PMN-33%PT using the vertical gradient freeze technique with no flux. Piezoelectric properties of the grown crystals are investigated. PMN-PT plates show excellent piezoelectric properties. Samples were poled under an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm. Dielectric properties at a

  13. Tunable hard X-ray spectrometer utilizing asymmetric planes of a quartz transmission crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F; Henins, Albert; Feldman, Uri

    2016-05-01

    A Cauchois type hard x-ray spectrometer was developed that utilizes the (301) diffraction planes at an asymmetric angle of 23.51° to the normal to the surface of a cylindrically curved quartz transmission crystal. The energy coverage is tunable by rotating the crystal and the detector arm, and spectra were recorded in the 8 keV to 20 keV range with greater than 2000 resolving power. The high resolution results from low aberrations enabled by the nearly perpendicular angle of the diffracted rays with the back surface of the crystal. By using other asymmetric planes of the same crystal and rotating to selected angles, the spectrometer can operate with high resolution up to 50 keV.

  14. Differing effects of water fugacity deformation of quartzites and milky quartz single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoke, C. W.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies of quartzite deformation by dislocation creep have documented a strong dependence of mechanical properties on pressure, which has been interpreted as a relationship between strain rate and water fugacity (Kronenberg and Tullis, 1984; Kohlstedt et al., 1995; Chernak et al. 2009). However, natural milky quartz single crystals deformed by basal slip can be water-weakened over a wide range of pressure (and water fugacities), with strengths that appear to depend on total water content at a fixed water fugacity. The difference of behavior between these two is perplexing since infrared spectra collected from quartzites and milky quartz single crystals indicate that they have the same forms of intragranular water and microstructures indicate the same slip system is activated. The only difference between these materials is that quartzites include populations of grains of all orientations, separated by grain boundaries. In order to resolve this discrepancy we have performed deformation experiments on a natural quartzite (Black Hills quartzite) and natural milky quartz single crystals oriented for easy slip on the basal slip system at identical conditions (800°C, strain rate = 10-6/s) with no added water. During each experiment cores of each material, which have a fixed water content, were subjected to pressure stepping; an initial deformation step was performed at 1.5 GPa, then the sample was unloaded and one or more deformation steps were performed at lower pressures (as low as 0.6 GPa) prior to returning to 1.5 GPa for a final deformation step. The strength of quartzite increases dramatically at lower pressure and lower water fugacity, but strength decreases again returning to high pressure during the final deformation step. The strength of milky quartz single crystals increases as well, but by far less than observed for quartzites. The water fugacity exponents (m) of the quartzite and single crystals are 1.9 and 0.8, respectively, (assuming power law

  15. Interfacial effects in electromagnetic coupling within piezoelectric phononic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. J. Sabina; A. B. Movchan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss waves in piezoelectric periodic composite, with the emphasis on the connection between the electromechanical coupling and the effects of dispersion of Bloch-Floquet waves. A particular attention is given to structures containing interfaces between dissimi-lar media and localization of the electrical fields near such interfaces.

  16. Application of PMN-32PT Piezoelectric Crystals for Novel Air-coupled Ultrasonic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas Jonas; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    Due to very high piezoelectric properties of PMN-PT crystals they may significantly improve performance of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. For these purpose vibrations of PMN-PT rectangular plates and strips were investigated. An air-coupled ultrasonic transducer and array consisting of 8 single piezoelectric strips were designed. Operation of the transducer was simulated by the finite element method using ANSYS Mechanical APDL Product Launcher software. Spatial distributions of displacements inside piezoelectric elements and matching strip were obtained. Experimental investigations were carried out by the laser Doppler vibrometer Polytec OFV-5000 and the Bruel&Kjaer microphone 4138 with the measurement amplifier NEXUS WH 3219. It was found that performance of the ultrasonic transducer with PMN-32PT crystals was a few times better than of a PZT based ultrasonic transducer.

  17. The First-Principle Calculation of La-doping Effect on Piezoelectricity in Tetragonal KNN Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoli; Zhu, Jiliang; Yuan, Daqing; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Mingsong; Zhu, Xiaohong; Fan, Ping; Zuo, Yi; Zheng, Yongnan; Zhu, Shengyun

    2012-05-01

    The La-dopping effect on the piezoelectricity in the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) crystal with a tetragonal phase is investigated for the first time using the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. The full potentiallinearized augumented plane wave plus local orbitals (APW-LO) method and the supercell method are used in the calculation for the KNN crystal with and without the La doping. The results show that the piezoelectricity originates from the strong hybridization between the Nb atom and the O atom, and the substitution of the K or Na atom by the La impurity atom introduces the anisotropic relaxation and enhances the piezoelectricity at first and then restrains the hybridization of the Nb-O atoms when the La doping content further increases.

  18. The First-Principle Calculation of La-doping Effect on Piezoelectricity in Tetragonal KNN Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乔丽; 朱基亮; 袁大庆; 朱波; 王明松; 朱小红; 范平; 左翼; 郑永男; 朱升云

    2012-01-01

    The La-dopping effect on the piezoelectricity in the K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) crystal with a tetragonal phase is investigated for the first time using the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. The full potentiallinearized augumented plane wave plus local orbitals (APW-LO) method and the supercell method are used in the calculation for the KNN crystal with and without the La doping. The results show that the piezoelectricity originates from the strong hybridization between the Nb atom and the O atom, and the substitution of the K or Na atom by the La impurity atom introduces the anisotropic relaxation and enhances the piezoelectricity at first and then restrains the hybridization of the Nb-O atoms when the La doping content further increases.

  19. Measuring water adsorption on mineral surfaces in air, CO2, and supercritical CO2 with a quartz-crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, C. R.; Wells, R. K.; Burton, P. D.; Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon sequestration via underground storage in geologic formations is a proposed approach for reducing industrial CO2 emissions. However, current models for carbon injection and long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) do not consider the development and stability of adsorbed water films at the scCO2-hydrophilic mineral interface. The thickness and properties of the water films control the surface tension and wettability of the mineral surface, and on the core scale, affect rock permeability, saturation, and capillary properties. The film thickness is strongly dependent upon the activity of water in the supercritical fluid, which will change as initially anhydrous scCO2 absorbs water from formation brine. As described in a companion paper by the coauthors, the thickness of the adsorbed water layer is controlled by the disjoining pressure; structural and van der Waals components dominate at low water activity, while electrostatic forces become more important with increasing film thickness (higher water activities). As scCO2 water activity and water layer thickness increase, concomitant changes in mineral surface properties and reservoir/caprock hydrologic properties will affect the mobility of the aqueous phase and of scCO2. Moreover, the development of a water layer may be critical to mineral dissolution reactions in scCO2. Here, we describe the use of a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) to monitor adsorption of water by mineral surfaces. QCMs utilize a piezoelectrically-stimulated quartz wafer to measure adsorbed or deposited mass via changes in vibrational frequency. When used to measure the mass of adsorbed liquid films, the frequency response of the crystal must be corrected for the viscoelastic, rather than elastic, response of the adsorbed layer. Results are presented for adsorption to silica in N2 and CO2 at one bar, and in scCO2. Additional data are presented for water uptake by clays deposited on a QCM wafer. In this case, water uptake occurs by the

  20. Crystal orientation effects on the piezoelectric field of strained zinc-blende quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny

    2008-01-01

    A three-layered zinc-blende quantum-well structure is analyzed subject to both static and dynamic conditions for different crystal growth directions taking into account piezoelectric effects and lattice mismatch. It is found that the strain component Szz in the quantum-well region strongly depend...

  1. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in cubic piezoelectric slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate theoretically the influence of piezoelectric coupling on phonon dispersion relations. Specifically we solve dispersion relations for a fully coupled zinc-blende freestanding quantum well for different orientations of the crystal unit cell. It is shown that the phonon ...

  2. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials. PMID:27991504

  3. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing (Penn); (Xian Jiaotong); (CIW); (Simon); (TRS Techn); (Wollongong)

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  4. Amplification and absorption of acousto-electric waves in the system of piezoelectric rhombic crystal of 222 class and semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danoyan Z.N.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The reflection, amplification and absorption of plane electro-elastic shear wave from the boundary of piezoelectric rhombic crystal of 222 class and semiconductor in the absence of acoustic contact is considered. The wave fields' in the piezoelectric crystal and semiconductor are found. The amplitude ratios of arising waves are determined. It is shown, that in the crystal the attendant surface waves are occurred, in consequence of which, the amplification is took place.

  5. Piezoelectric Ca{sub 3}NbGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} crystal: crystal growth, piezoelectric and acoustic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Emelin, Evgenii [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay Cedex (France); Plotitcyna, Olga; Irzhak, Dmitry [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Erko, Alexei; Zizak, Ivo; Vadilonga, Simone [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Berlin (Germany); Buzanov, Oleg [FOMOS Materials Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Leitenberger, Wolfram [Universitaet Potsdam Institut fuer Physik, Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Ca{sub 3}NbGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CNGS), a five-component crystal of lanthanum-gallium silicate group, was grown by the Czochralski method. The parameters of the elementary unit cell of the crystal were measured by powder diffraction. The independent piezoelectric strain coefficients d{sub 11} and d{sub 14} were determined by the triple-axis X-ray diffraction in the Bragg and Laue geometries. Excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) were studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction at BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The velocity of SAW propagation and power flow angles in the Y-, X- and yxl/+36 {sup circle} -cuts of the CNGS crystal were determined from the analysis of the diffraction spectra. The CNGS crystal was found practically isotropic by its acoustic properties. (orig.)

  6. Development of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensor with Aptamers as Bio-recognition Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal in any biosensor development project is its use for actual sample detection. Recently, there has been an interest in biosensors with aptamers as bio-recognition elements, but reported examples all deal with standards, not human serum. In order to verify the differences of aptamer-based biosensor and antibody-based biosensor in clinical detection, a comparison of the performance of aptamer-based and antibody-based quartz crystal microbalance (QCM biosensors for the detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE in human serum was carried out. Aptamers (or antibodies specific to IgE were immobilized on the gold surface of a quartz crystal. The frequency shifts of the QCM were measured. The linear range with the antibody (10–240 μg/L compared to that of the aptamer (2.5–200 μg/L, but a lower detection limit could be observed in the aptamer-based biosensor. The reproducibility of the two biosensors was comparable. The aptamers were equivalent or superior to antibodies in terms of specificity and sensitivity. In addition, the aptamer receptors could tolerate repeated affine layer regeneration after ligand binding and recycling of the biosensor with little loss of sensitivity. When stored for three weeks, the frequency shifts of the aptamer-coated crystals were all greater than 90% of those on the response at the first day.

  7. Quantitative determination of hydrogen absorption by Pd cluster-assembled films using a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Far, R.; Diaz-Droguett, D.E.; Rojas, S.; Avila, J.I. [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Romero, C.P.; Lievens, P. [Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D-bus 2414 B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cabrera, A.L., E-mail: acabrera@fis.puc.cl [Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-01

    We have measured hydrogen absorption capacity for a series of Pd films grown by two deposition techniques: a) flat films made with e-beam evaporation of Pd and b) films made of assembled Pd clusters. The films range in thickness from 9.5 to 45 nm. The technique implemented for measuring the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the films was a quartz crystal microbalance. The Pd films were grown on the quartz crystals and the change of mass due to the hydrogen absorption was determined from the shifting of the resonance frequency. Minute amounts of hydrogen absorbed of the order of nanograms per square centimeter can be detected by this technique. Plots of H/Pd atom ratio for each Pd film as a function of hydrogen pressure were obtained. The Pd e-beam grown films displayed a saturation H/Pd atomic ratio around 0.6 which is similar to bulk Pd. The Pd cluster film with a thickness of 14 nm displayed a remarkable absorption capacity with a ratio H/(Pd) Almost-Equal-To 0.84. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pd cluster assembled films with different thicknesses are made and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz crystal microbalance is used to quantification the hydrogen amount absorbed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen absorption/adsorption by Pd film is explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption expressed in H/Pd mass ratio is given for all Pd films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This complements H{sub 2} absorption on metal cluster films using optical techniques.

  8. Longitudinal relaxation of mechanically free KH2PO4 type crystals. Piezoelectric resonance and sound attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.Levitskii

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of proton model with taking into account the piezoelectric interaction with the shear strain ε6, a dynamic dielectric response of KD2PO4 type ferroelectrics is considered. Experimentally observed phenomena of crystal clamping by high frequency electric field, piezoelectric resonance and microwave dispersion are described. Ultrasound velocity and attenuation are calculated, peculiarities of their temperature dependence at the Curie points are described. Existence of a cut-off frequency in the frequency dependence of attenuation is predicted.

  9. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  10. A quartz-crystal-microbalance technique to investigate ion-induced erosion of fusion relevant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golczewski, A. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: golczewski@iap.tuwien.ac.at; Dobes, K.; Wachter, G.; Schmid, M. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Aumayr, F. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/E134, Association EURATOM-OAW, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at

    2009-02-15

    We describe a highly sensitive quartz-crystal-microbalance technique capable of determining erosion as well as implantation and retention rates for fusion relevant surfaces under ion bombardment. Total sputtering yields obtained with this technique for Ar ion impact on polycrystalline gold and tungsten surfaces are presented. The results compare well with existing experimental data as well as theoretical predictions and thus demonstrate the feasibility of the developed technique. Our setup is capable of detecting mass-changes as small as 10{sup -5} {mu}g/s, which corresponds to a removal of only 10{sup -4} W monolayers/s.

  11. Quartz crystal microbalance for the cardiac markers/antibodies binding kinetic measurements in the plasma samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, L. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Archakov, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was exploited for cardiac markers detection and kinetic studies of immunochemical reaction of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and human heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) with the corresponding monoclonal antibodies in undiluted plasma (serum) and standard solutions. The QCM technique allowed to dynamically monitor the kinetic differences in specific interactions and nonspecific sorption, without multiple labeling procedures and separation steps. The affinity binding process was characterized by the association (ka) and the dissociation (kd) kinetic constants and the equilibrium association (K) constant, all of which were obtained from experimental data.

  12. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence using a quartz substrate to reduce limits of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Schulz, Stephen; Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-11-22

    A Photonic Crystal (PC) surface fabricated upon a quartz substrate using nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated to enhance light emission from fluorescent molecules in close proximity to the PC surface. Quartz was selected for its low autofluorescence characteristics compared to polymer-based PCs, improving the detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of PC Enhanced Fluorescence (PCEF). Nanoimprint lithography enables economical fabrication of the subwavelength PCEF surface structure over entire 1x3 in2 quartz slides. The demonstrated PCEF surface supports a transverse magnetic (TM) resonant mode at a wavelength of λ = 632.8 nm and an incident angle of θ = 11°, which amplifies the electric field magnitude experienced by surface-bound fluorophores. Meanwhile, another TM mode at a wavelength of λ = 690 nm and incident angle of θ = 0° efficiently directs the fluorescent emission toward the detection optics. An enhancement factor as high as 7500 × was achieved for the detection of LD-700 dye spin-coated upon the PC, compared to detecting the same material on an unpatterned glass surface. The detection of spotted Alexa-647 labeled polypeptide on the PC exhibits a 330 × SNR improvement. Using dose-response characterization of deposited fluorophore-tagged protein spots, the PCEF surface demonstrated a 140 × lower limit of detection compared to a conventional glass substrate.

  13. Effect of a Non-Newtonian Load on Signature S2 for Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is increasingly used for monitoring the interfacial interaction between surfaces and macromolecules such as biomaterials, polymers, and metals. Recent QCM applications deal with several types of liquids with various viscous macromolecule compounds, which behave differently from Newtonian liquids. To properly monitor such interactions, it is crucial to understand the influence of the non-Newtonian fluid on the QCM measurement response. As a quantitative indicator of non-Newtonian behavior, we used the quartz resonator signature, S2, of the QCM measurement response, which has a consistent value for Newtonian fluids. We then modified De Kee’s non-Newtonian three-parameter model to apply it to our prediction of S2 values for non-Newtonian liquids. As a model, we chose polyethylene glycol (PEG400 with the titration of its volume concentration in deionized water. As the volume concentration of PEG400 increased, the S2 value decreased, confirming that the modified De Kee’s three-parameter model can predict the change in S2 value. Collectively, the findings presented herein enable the application of the quartz resonator signature, S2, to verify QCM measurement analysis in relation to a wide range of experimental subjects that may exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, including polymers and biomaterials.

  14. Measurements along the growth direction of PMN-PT crystals: dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Payne, David A

    2007-09-01

    Property measurements are reported for Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)03-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals grown along (001) by a seeded-melt method. Chemical segregation occurs during crystal growth, leading to property changes along the growth direction. Variations in dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties were evaluated for specimens selected from the crystals. Room-temperature data are correlated with Tc and composition that ranged from 27 to 32% PT, i.e., in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). While there was little change in the high electromechanical coupling factor k33 (0.87-0.92), both the piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 (1100-1800 pC/N) and the free dielectric constant K3 (4400-7000) were found to vary significantly with position. Increases in d33 and KT33 were relatively offsetting in that the ratio yielded a relatively stable piezoelectric voltage coefficient g33 (27-31 x 10(-3) Vm/N). Values are also reported for the elastic compliance (3.3-6.3 x 10(-11) m2/N) determined from resonance measurements. Enhancements in d33 and K(T)33 were associated with lattice softening (increasing sE33) as the composition approached the MPB. Details are reported for the piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic properties as a function of growth direction, Tc, and composition. The results are useful for an understanding of properties in PMN-PT crystals and for the design of piezoelectric devices.

  15. The influence of vibrations on time reference signals generated using quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumea, Andrei; Marcu, Alina; Plotog, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    32.768 kHz low frequency crystals are found in a large part of today's embedded systems that use microcontrollers especially in battery supplied applications which need low power consumption1]. Their main role is to offer a stable time reference. There are situations in which time measurement is needed when the system works in a mechanically unstable environment (cars, industrial equipment). The paper presents the studies done on the behavior of 32.768 kHz quartz crystals that are part of embedded systems which operate in a vibrating environment, in terms of period and long-time jitter of the generated time reference signal. The investigations of this effect were done using a test bench especially designed for this purpose which can measure the presented parameters determined by controlled mechanical stimulus (waveform, amplitude and frequency of the vibrations).

  16. Finishing of AT-cut quartz crystal wafer with nanometric thickness uniformity by pulse-modulated atmospheric pressure plasma etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Masaki; Shibahara, Masafumi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Quartz resonator is a very important device to generate a clock frequency for information and telecommunication system. Improvement of the productivity of the quartz resonator is always required because a huge amount of the resonator is demanded for installing to various electronic devices. Resonance frequency of the quartz resonator is decided by the thickness of the quartz crystal wafer. Therefore, it is necessary to uniform the thickness distribution of the wafer with nanometric level. We have proposed the improvement technique of the thickness distribution of the quartz crystal wafer by numerically controlled correction using atmospheric pressure plasma which is non-contact and chemical removal technique. Heating effects of the quartz wafer in the removal rate and the correction accuracy were investigated. The heating of the substrate and compensate of the scanning speed of the worktable according to the variation of the surface temperature enabled an increase of 50% in the etching rate and 10-nanometric-level accuracy in the correction of the thickness distribution of the quartz wafer, respectively.

  17. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  18. Lectin typing of Campylobacter jejuni using a novel quartz crystal microbalance technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Maria E., E-mail: maria.yakovleva@gmail.com [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Moran, Anthony P. [Department of Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Safina, Gulnara R. [Department of Analytical and Marine Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Wadstroem, Torkel [Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Danielsson, Bengt [Acromed Invest AB, Magistratsvaegen 10, 226 43 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-23

    Seven Campylobacter jejuni strains were characterised by a lectin typing assay. The typing system was based on a quartz crystal microbalance technique (QCM) with four commercially available lectins (wheat germ agglutinin, Maackia amurensis lectin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, and Concanavalin A), which were chosen for their differing carbohydrate specificities. Initially, the gold surfaces of the quartz crystals were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid followed by lectin immobilisation using a conventional amine-coupling technique. Bacterial cells were applied for lectin typing without preliminary treatment, and resonant frequency and dissipation responses were recorded. The adhesion of microorganisms on lectin surfaces was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Scanning was performed in the tapping mode and the presence of bacteria on lectin-coated surfaces was successfully demonstrated. A significant difference in the dissipation response was observed for different C. jejuni strains which made it possible to use this parameter for discriminating between bacterial strains. In summary, the QCM technique proved a powerful tool for the recognition and discrimination of C. jejuni strains. The approach may also prove applicable to strain discrimination of other bacterial species, particularly pathogens.

  19. Detection of label-free cancer biomarkers using nickel nanoislands and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rivas, Adrián; Chinestra, Patrick; Favre, Gilles; Pinaud, Sébastien; Séverac, Childérick; Faye, Jean-Charles; Vieu, Christophe

    2010-09-07

    We present a technique for the label-free detection and recognition of cancer biomarkers using metal nanoislands intended to be integrated in a novel type of nanobiosensor. His-tagged (scFv)-F7N1N2 is the antibody fragment which is directly immobilized, by coordinative bonds, onto ~5 nm nickel islands, then deposited on the surface of a quartz crystal of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to validate the technique. Biomarker GTPase RhoA was investigated because it has been found to be overexpressed in various tumors and because we have recently isolated and characterized a new conformational scFv which selectively recognizes the active form of RhoA. We implemented a surface chemistry involving an antibiofouling coating of polyethylene glycol silane (PEG-silane) (<2 nm thick) and Ni nanoislands to reach a label-free detection of the active antigen conformation of RhoA, at various concentrations. The methodology proposed here proves the viability of the concept by using Ni nanoislands as an anchoring surface layer enabling the detection of a specific conformation of a protein, identified as a potential cancer biomarker. Hence, this novel methodology can be transferred to a nanobiosensor to detect, at lower time consumption and with high sensitivity, specific biomolecules.

  20. Electroacoustic polymer microchip as an alternative to quartz crystal microbalance for biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Jean; Lazerges, Mathieu; Girault, Hubert H; Deslouis, Claude; Gabrielli, Claude; Perrot, Hubert; Tribollet, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Laser photoablation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a flexible dielectric organic polymer, was used to design an acoustic miniaturized DNA biosensor. The microchip device includes a 100-microm-thick PET layer, with two microband electrodes patterned in photoablated microchannels on one side and a depressed photoablated disk decorated by gold sputtered layer on the other side. Upon application of an electric signal between the two electrodes, an electroacoustic resonance phenomenon at approximately 30 MHz was established through the microelectrodes/PET/ gold layer interface. The electroacoustic resonance response was fitted with a series RLC motional arm in parallel with a static Co arm of a Buttlerworth-Van Dyke equivalent circuit: admittance spectra recorded after successive cycles of DNA hybridization on the gold surface showed reproducible changes on R, L, and C parameters. The same hybridizations runs were performed concomitantly on a 27-MHz (9 MHz, third overtone) quartz crystal microbalance in order to validate the PET device developed for bioanalysis applications. The electroacoustic PET device, approximately 100 times smaller than a microbalance quartz crystal, is interesting for the large-scale integration of acoustic sensors in biochips.

  1. Acousto-optical phonon excitation in cubic piezoelectric slabs and crystal growth orientation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    mode density in GaAs can change by a factor of approximately 2–3 at qx a = 1 for different crystal-growth directions relative to the slab thickness direction. In particular, it is found that optical and acoustic phonon modes are always piezoelectrically coupled, independent of the crystal......-growth direction, and will be jointly excited by electrical stimulus. We demonstrate this for an electrically excited freestanding slab for two cases of high-symmetry crystal-growth directions and finally show the impact of the Drude model for permittivity on the phonon dispersion. In particular, it is verified...

  2. Radiation stimulated effects in crystals of quartz and berlinit with different type and degree of perfection structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ibragimov, Z D

    2001-01-01

    of structure. The effectiveness of creation of additional defects near defects of one type is increased with growth of concentration of other types of structure violations. It was established that in crystals of quartz and berlinit alpha-beta-transition during neutron irradiation occurs through formation of seeds of beta-phase. It was shown that the grown layer with beta-phase inherited also neutron induced defects of alpha-phase as well as defects related to beta-phase of quartz. The structure of amorphous phase formed around seeds of beta-phase differs from quartz glass structure. The formation of regions with structure closed to quartz glass structure occurs after definite neutron fluence values. In quartz crystals there are several defect centers emitting in red spectral range. The processes of impact and non-impact production of point defects, mechanisms of structure transformations in quartz and berlinit crystals irradiated by various types of radiation with over- and sub- threshold energy were studied....

  3. Large piezoelectricity in electric-field modified single crystals of SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaee, B.; Mehner, E.; Richter, C.; Hanzig, J.; Zschornak, M.; Pietsch, U.; Stöcker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Meyer, D. C.; Gorfman, S.

    2016-11-01

    Defect engineering is an effective and powerful tool to control the existing material properties and produce completely new ones, which are symmetry-forbidden in a defect-free crystal. For example, the application of a static electric field to a single crystal of SrTiO3 forms a strained near-surface layer through the migration of oxygen vacancies out of the area beneath the positively charged electrode. While it was previously shown that this near-surface phase holds pyroelectric properties, which are symmetry-forbidden in centrosymmetric bulk SrTiO3, this paper reports that the same phase is strongly piezoelectric. We demonstrate the piezoelectricity of this phase through stroboscopic time-resolved X-ray diffraction under alternating electric field and show that the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 ranges between 60 and 100 pC/N. The possible atomistic origins of the piezoelectric activity are discussed as a coupling between the electrostrictive effect and spontaneous polarization of this near-surface phase.

  4. Surface charge induced enhanced crystallization on the piezoelectric sodium potassium niobate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Yamada, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-11-01

    The present work demonstrates the influence of negatively charged surface on piezoelectric Li-modified sodium potassium niobate substrate in inducing the crystallization of KCl, NaCl and Na2SO4 ionic crystals from their respective aqueous solutions. The crystallization ability and morphology of the grown crystal were examined on unpoled, poled and poled as well heat-treated substrate surfaces. It has been observed that the crystallization process can be controlled by varying the surface charge density through the heat treatment of polarized substrate at different temperatures. Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurement suggested that the charge affecting the crystal growth and morphology is likely to be generated in the space charge region.

  5. Microstructures and Crystallographic Misorientation in Experimentally Deformed Natural Quartz Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thust, Anja; Heilbronner, Renée.; Stünitz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    Samples of natural milky quartz were deformed in a Griggs deformation apparatus at different confining pressures (700 MPa, 1000 MPa, 1500 MPa), with constant displacement rates of 1 * 10-6s-1, axial strains of 3 - 19%, and at a temperature of 900° C. The single crystal starting material contains a large number of H2O-rich fluid inclusions. Directly adjacent to the fluid inclusions the crystal is essentially dry (50-150H/106Si, determined by FTIR). The samples were cored from a narrow zone of constant 'milkyness' (i.e. same density of fluid inclusions) in a large single crystal in two different orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes (⊥{m} orientation) and (2) 45° to and to (O+ orientation).During attaining of the experimental P and T conditions, numerous fluid inclusions decrepitate by cracking. Rapid crack healing produces regions of very small fluid inclusions ('wet' quartz domains). Only these regions are subsequently deformed by dislocation glide, dry quartz domains without cracking and decrepitation of fluid inclusions remain undeformed. Sample strain is not sufficient to cause recrystallization, so that deformation is restricted to dislocation glide. In experiments at lower temperatures (800, 700° C) or at lower strain rate (10-5s-1) there is abundant cracking and semi-brittle deformation, indicating that 900° C, (10-6s-1) represents the lower temperature end of crystal plastic deformation in these single crystals. Peak strengths (at 900° C) range between 150 and 250 MPa for most samples of both orientations. There is a trend of decreasing strength with increasing confining pressure, as described by Kronenberg and Tullis (1984) for quartzites, but the large variation in strength due to inhomogeneous sample strain precludes a definite analysis of the strength/pressure dependence in our single crystals. In the deformed samples, we can distinguish a number of microstructures and inferred different slip systems. In both orientations, deformation

  6. Influence of temperature and humidity on the detection of benzene vapor by piezoelectric crystal sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Chan-Hyon; Yun, Jong-Ho; Sin, Kye-Ryong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature and humidity on the estimation of air pollution by benzene by using the piezoelectric crystal gas sensor were studied. Polyvinylchloride films were used as substrate for the immobilization of polymethylphenylsiloxane onto the electrode surface of the piezoelectric crystal. The sensing layer consisting of polymethylphenylsiloxane and polyvinylchloride was used for real-time monitoring of benzene, one of the atmospheric pollutants. According to the humidity from 35% to 75%, the upper limit of detection by this sensor was decreased and the response time and frequency recovery time for detecting benzene were long. On the other hand, as increasing the temperature, the response time and the frequency recovery time of the sensor were short, but its sensitivity got worse. The models for the correlation between the benzene concentration and temperature (or humidity) were presented.

  7. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Harsh [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Department of Physics & Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].

  8. Combined optical second harmonic generation/quartz crystal microbalance study of underpotential deposition processes: copper electrodeposition on polycrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, S; Bennahmias, M J; Borges, G L; Gordon Ii, J G; Lazaga, M; Stone, B M; Ashley, K

    1990-11-20

    Optical second harmonic generation and quartz crystal microbalance techniques are used as in situ probes of copper underpotential deposition on polycrystalline gold surfaces in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The second harmonic signal from a polished bulk gold substrate is observed to decrease by >60% as a result of copper underpotential deposition on gold. Also, the mass of an underpotentially deposited copper adlayer is monitored in situ by an oscillating quartz crystal microbalance, yielding an estimated coverage of ~8.0 x 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and an electrosorption valency of 1.5 for a copper adlayer on the surface of vapor-deposited polycrystalline gold.

  9. The effect of the carbon dissolution on the crystal structure of a-quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, S.; Kyono, A.

    2015-12-01

    Silicon is one of the major and important element that constitutes the Earth's crust and mantle. An enormous amount of carbon is also contained in the Earth's interior, which suggests that silicate could be closely interacted with carbon under high-pressure and high-temperature (Sen et al. 2013, PNAS). It is suggested that carbon dioxide is dissolved in cristobalite and the average composition of CO2-SiO2 solid solution is C0.6(1)Si0.4(1)O2 High-pressure experiment (Santoro et al. 2014, Nat. Commun.). Furthermore, the first-principles calculations suggested the possibility of successive CO2 dissolution in cristobalite at ambient pressure (Aravindh et al. 2007, Solid State Commun.). However, CO2-SiO2 solid solution at ambient pressure has not confirmed in laboratory experiment. In this study, we mixed amorphous silica and amorphous carbon and synthesized CO2-SiO2 solid solution at high-temperature under ambient pressure. Powder amorphous silica and graphite was mixed together in the agate mill in order to be homogenized mixture. They were heated for 1300 ˚C, 3 days under ambient pressure. Then, the samples were quenched at room temperature. The samples of CO2-SiO2 solid solution were carefully examined by powder XRD, EPMA measurement, and so on. From the result of the powder XRD, the products were a-quartz. In this lecture, we report the quantity of carbon dissolved in a-quartz and its effect for the crystal structure of a-quartz in detail.

  10. Detection of label-free cancer biomarkers using nickel nanoislands and quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Martínez-Rivas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adrián Martínez-Rivas1,2, Patrick Chinestra3,4, Gilles Favre3,4, Sébastien Pinaud1, Childérick Séverac1,2, Jean-Charles Faye3,4, Christophe Vieu1,21LAAS-CNRS; Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France; 2Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE; LAAS; Toulouse, France; 3INSERM U563, Université de Toulouse, CPTP, “Signalisation Cellulaire, GTPase Rho et cancers”, Toulouse, France; 4Institut Claudius Regaud, Biology Department, Toulouse, FranceAbstract: We present a technique for the label-free detection and recognition of cancer biomarkers using metal nanoislands intended to be integrated in a novel type of nanobiosensor. His-tagged (scFv-F7N1N2 is the antibody fragment which is directly immobilized, by coordinative bonds, onto ~5 nm nickel islands, then deposited on the surface of a quartz crystal of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM to validate the technique. Biomarker GTPase RhoA was investigated because it has been found to be overexpressed in various tumors and because we have recently isolated and characterized a new conformational scFv which selectively recognizes the active form of RhoA. We implemented a surface chemistry involving an antibiofouling coating of polyethylene glycol silane (PEG-silane (<2 nm thick and Ni nanoislands to reach a label-free detection of the active antigen conformation of RhoA, at various concentrations. The methodology proposed here proves the viability of the concept by using Ni nanoislands as an anchoring surface layer enabling the detection of a specific conformation of a protein, identified as a potential cancer biomarker. Hence, this novel methodology can be transferred to a nanobiosensor to detect, at lower time consumption and with high sensitivity, specific biomolecules.Keywords: nickel nanoislands, cancer biomarkers, quartz crystal microbalance, PEG-silane, RhoA protein, nanobiosensor

  11. Tl10Hg3Cl16: Single crystal growth, electronic structure and piezoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyzhun, O. Y.; Piasecki, M.; Kityk, I. V.; Luzhnyi, I.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Fochuk, P. M.; Levkovets, S. I.; Karpets, M. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystal of the ternary halide Tl10Hg3Cl16 was grown using Bridgman-Stockbarger method. For the Tl10Hg3Cl16 crystal, we have measured X-ray photoelectron spectra for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces and additionally investigated photoinduced piezoelectricity. Our data indicate that the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface is very sensitive with respect to Ar+ ion-bombardment. In particular, Ar+ ion-bombardment with energy of 3.0 keV over 5 min at an ion current density of 14 μA/cm2 causes significant changes of the elemental stoichiometry of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 surface resulting in an abrupt decrease of the mercury content in the top surface layers of the studied single crystal. As a result of the treatment, the mercury content becomes nil in the top surface layers. In addition, the present XPS measurements allow for concluding about very low hygroscopicity of the Tl10Hg3Cl16 single crystal surface. The property is extremely important for the crystal handling in optoelectronic or nano-electronic devices working at ambient conditions. The photoinduced piezoelectricity has been explored for Tl10Hg3Cl16 depending on nitrogen (λ=371 nm) laser power density and temperature.

  12. Minimization of pyroelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO{sub 3} crystals for piezoelectric sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanxue, E-mail: yanxuetang@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Material and Device, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shen, Zongyang [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333403 (China); Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Luo, Jun [TRS Technologies Inc., 2820 E. College Ave., State College, PA 16801 (United States); Shrout, Thomas R. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To minimize pyroelectric effects while keeping high piezoelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals, the crystallographic orientation dependence of the pyroelectric and piezoelectric coefficients were investigated for binary (1 − x)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} (PMN–PT), ternary (1 − x − y)Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–yPb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–xPbTiO{sub 3} (PIN–PMN–PT) and Mn-doped PIN–PMN–PT single crystals with the “4R” multidomain state. The secondary pyroelectric coefficients were calculated from the thermodynamic inter-relationship between the piezoelectric, elastic, and thermal expansion coefficients, being on the order of (1.16–1.23) × 10{sup −4} C m{sup −2} K{sup −1} for binary crystals and (0.97–2.03) × 10{sup −4} C m{sup −2} K{sup −1} for ternary ones. The primary pyroelectric coefficients were –(6.73–6.84) × 10{sup −4} C m{sup −2} K{sup −1} and −(5.44–6.43) × 10{sup −4} C m{sup −2} K{sup −1} for binary and ternary crystals, respectively. The pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by matrix rotation, but at the cost of decreasing longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33}. Of particular interest is that the maximum piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 24}{sup ∗} at θ = ±55{sup o} and d{sub 34}{sup ∗} at θ = ±35{sup o} by a counterclockwise rotation of θ about the X axis (θ is the rotation angle about the coordinate axes), or d{sub 15}{sup ∗} at θ = ±55{sup o}, and d{sub 35}{sup ∗} at θ = ±35{sup o} by a counterclockwise rotation the Y axis, were found on the order of 3000 pC N{sup −1}. The corresponding pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by ∼20%. The reduced pyroelectric coefficients that can contribute to decrease undesirable output signals, together with the high piezoelectric coefficients, enable relaxor-PT crystals as favorable candidates for high

  13. A novel assay for detecting canine parvovirus using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Sarah; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to reduce both the shedding and clinical signs of canine parvovirus (CPV). The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a new tool for measuring frequency changes associated with antigen-antibody interactions. In this study, the QCM biosensor and ProLinker™ B were used to rapidly diagnosis CPV infection. ProLinker™ B enables antibodies to be attached to a gold-coated quartz surface in a regular pattern and in the correct orientation for antigen binding. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to set a cut-off value using reference CPVs (two groups: one CPV-positive and one CPV-negative). The ROC curves overlapped and the point of intersection was used as the cut-off value. A QCM biosensor with a cut-off value of -205 Hz showed 95.4% (104/109) sensitivity and 98.0% (149/152) specificity when used to test 261 field fecal samples compared to PCR. In conclusion, the QCM biosensor described herein is eminently suitable for the rapid diagnosis of CPV infection with high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, it is a promising analytical tool that will be useful for clinical diagnosis, which requires rapid and reliable analyses.

  14. Exploiting Solvate Ionic Liquids for Amine Gas Analysis on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Yi; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2017-05-16

    We demonstrated in this work the usefulness of solvate ionic liquids SIL 3 and SIL 4 for chemoselective detection of amine gases on a quartz crystal microbalance. This detection of gaseous amines was achieved by nucleophilic aromatic addition reactions with super electrophilic SIL 3 or SIL 4 thin-coated on quartz chips. Starting with inexpensive reagents, functional SIL 3 and SIL 4 could be readily synthesized in two short steps with high isolated yield (81 and 77%, respectively). The QCM platform developed in this work is readily applicable and highly sensitive to low molecular weight amine gases: for propylamine gas at 10 Hz decrease in resonance frequency, the sensitivity of detection using SIL 4 was 5.4 ppb. This simple and convenient assembly of neutral ligands (e.g., 1a and 1b) with Li(+) ion to afford room temperature ionic liquids should be of great importance for a myriad of applications. To the best of our knowledge, no example to date of reports based on nucleophilic aromatic addition reactions demonstrating sensitive amine gas detection in solvate ionic liquids on a QCM has been reported. Furthermore, because of the high color intensity of the Meisenheimer complexes formed, our preliminary result showed that SIL 4 loaded on copier paper can be used not only as a portable amine gas sensor but also as a potential invisible ink that is only revealed by amine vapor.

  15. An erosion sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance for quantitative determination of the cleaning efficiency in an ultrasonic vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüschke, M; Koch, C; Dreyer, T

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning vessels cannot be measured directly in an easy way. In the presented work, a sensor is developed which quantitatively measures the ablation of a test layer. The sensor element is a quartz crystal which is coated with a sacrificial layer. Small changes in mass of this layer can be measured by a frequency shift of the crystal oscillation. For measurements, a 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal was used in a cleaning vessel working at 44.9 kHz. To determine the frequency shift by the ablation of the test layer, the quartz crystal was driven by a frequency generator sweeping the frequency in the range of the resonance frequency and a characteristic frequency was determined. The test layer which was applied to the quartz crystal consisted of silica microparticles suspended in varnish. In a preliminary experiment using a commercial cleaner it could be shown that significant changes in resonance frequency by cavitation effect could be detected. The initial frequency shift of the sacrificial layer is reproducible within 10%. The test layer can be adapted to the conditions of the cleaning vessel. By changing the electrical input power of the vessel, a threshold in the cavitation erosion was found.

  16. Performances and limits of a parallel oscillator for electrochemical quartz crystal microbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehahoun, Hervé; Gabrielli, Claude; Keddam, Michel; Perrot, Hubert; Rousseau, Philippe

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes a driving circuit for an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) adapted to a wide range of applications. The oscillator is a Miller-type parallel oscillator using an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). A theoretical study of the oscillating circuit led to the analytical expression of the microbalance frequency as well as to an overestimation of the error on the mass measurement. The reliability of the EQCM was then experimentally verified through electrochemical copper deposition and dissolution. The limit of operation of the EQCM was also investigated, both analytically and experimentally. This work shows that parallel oscillators using few electronic components allow a very reliable EQCM to be obtained for mass measurements on metallic films, even if they are highly damped.

  17. Characterization of Self-assembled Monolayers on Gold Electrode Using Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonggui Dong

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbatance (EQCM) is used to investigate the characteristics of the thiolated self-assembled monolayer(SAM) on gold surface. A 5MHz QCM element serves as both the mass-sensitive sensor and the working electrode of the electrochemical system. The 6-mecapto-1-hexanol and and the 16-mer oligonucleotide with a mercaptohexyl group at the 5'-phosphate end are utilized to form the SAM on the gold electrode. The frequency response of the QCM during cyclic voltammetry (CV) scanning and chronoamperometry are recorded together with the electrochemical current. The experimental results indicates that the frequency response is more sensitive to the surface coverage. Therefore, the response of the EQCM reveals more details of the SAM on gold electrode. It is especially useful for analysing the immobilization quality, such as probe orientation and coverage, of the SAM.

  18. Optimization of the hybrid bilayer membrane method for immobilization of avidin on quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Saem; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2009-04-15

    Hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM), comprising a lipid monolayer fused to a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM), has a potential capability to provide a convenient tool for the preparation of functionalized sensor surfaces. In this work, the HBM approach was optimized for the preparation of avidin-containing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor chip which would be available for immobilization of biotinylated molecules. Lipid layer of HBM was composed of background lipid such as egg phosphatidyl choline and biotinylated lipid to which avidin was attached. Highest performance was obtained at 1:1 ratio of the biotinylated lipid and the background lipid, and sensitivity and stability of the resulting sensor chip was comparable to a sensor chip prepared by the conventional carbodiimide reaction. By utilizing the HBM method, construction of a stable avidin sensor chip was achieved within 40 min without any chemical steps. Thus the HBM method was proven to be a convenient and efficient way to immobilize avidin on sensor surfaces.

  19. Quartz Crystal Microbalances for quantitative picosecond laser-material-interaction investigations - Part I: Technical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierse, N.; Schildt, T.; Esser, H. G.; Sergienko, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Freisinger, M.; Zhao, D.; Ding, H.; Terra, A.; Samm, U.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the technical suitability of Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QMBs) for in situ, pulse resolved mass removal measurements is demonstrated for picosecond laser ablation of magnetron sputtered coatings. The QMBs show a linear characteristic of the sensitivity for layer thickness of different metals up to several microns. Laser pulse resolved measurements of the mass ablated from the metal layer were performed. About 400 ng of chromium was ablated during the first laser pulse while in subsequent pulses ablation of the QMBs is found to be larger than for deposition, which is explained by the radial sensitivity of the QMBs. Future refinements of the setup and the benefits of the pulse resolved mass loss measurements for laser based methods like LIBS and LIAS are discussed and will be presented in part II currently in preparation.

  20. Separate density and viscosity measurements of unknown liquid using quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous liquids have a wide range of applications in many fields. Basic physical properties like the density and the viscosity have great impacts on the functionalities of a given ionic liquid. For the millions kinds of existing liquids, only a few have been systematically measured with the density and the viscosity using traditional methods. However, these methods are limited to measure the density and the viscosity of an ionic liquid simultaneously especially in processing micro sample volumes. To meet this challenge, we present a new theoretical model and a novel method to separate density and viscosity measurements with single quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in this work. The agreement of experimental results and theocratical calculations shows that the QCM is capable to measure the density and the viscosity of ionic liquids.

  1. New Approach to a Practical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Utilizing an Inkjet Printing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fuchiwaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a valuable approach to developing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor units inexpensively for reliable determination of analytes. This QCM sensor unit is constructed by inkjet printing equipment utilizing background noise removal techniques. Inkjet printing equipment was chosen as an alternative to an injection pump in conventional flow-mode systems to facilitate the commercial applicability of these practical devices. The results demonstrate minimization of fluctuations from external influences, determination of antigen-antibody interactions in an inkjet deposition, and quantification of C-reactive protein in the range of 50–1000 ng∙mL−1. We thus demonstrate a marketable application of an inexpensive and easily available QCM sensor system.

  2. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xianfeng; Ding Bin [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Jianyong [Nanomaterials Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pan Fukui, E-mail: binding@dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Fashion, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-02-05

    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log({Delta}f) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  3. A highly sensitive humidity sensor based on a nanofibrous membrane coated quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Yu, Jianyong; Wang, Moran; Pan, Fukui

    2010-02-01

    A novel humidity sensor was fabricated by electrospinning deposition of nanofibrous polyelectrolyte membranes as sensitive coatings on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results of sensing experiments indicated that the response of the sensors increased by more than two orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) from 6 to 95% at room temperature, exhibiting high sensitivity, and that, in the range of 20-95% RH, the Log(Δf) showed good linearity. The sensitivity of fibrous composite polyacrylic acid (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes was two times higher than that of the corresponding flat films at 95% RH. Compared with fibrous PAA/PVA membranes, the nanofibrous PAA membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced humidity sensitivity due to their high PAA content and large specific surface area caused by the formation of ultrathin nanowebs among electrospun fibers. Additionally, the resultant sensors exhibited a good reversible behavior and good long term stability.

  4. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) study of ion dynamics in nanoporous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Yu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice

    2014-06-18

    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were used to characterize ion adsorption in carbide-derived carbon (CDC) with two different average pore sizes (1 and 0.65 nm), from neat and solvated 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) electrolytes. From the electrode mass change in neat EMI-TFSI, it was shown that one net charge stored corresponds almost to one single ion at high polarization; in that case, no ion-pairing or charge screening by co-ions were observed. In 2 M EMI-TFSI in acetonitrile electrolyte, experimental solvation numbers were estimated for EMI(+) cation, showing a partial desolvation when cations were adsorbed in confined carbon pores. The extent of desolvation increased when decreasing the carbon pore size (from 1 down to 0.65 nm). The results also suggest that EMI(+) cation owns higher mobility than TFSI(-) anion in these electrolytes.

  5. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anazagasty, Cristain [University of Puerto Rico; Hianik, Tibor [Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution (~1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  6. Low-cost scalable quartz crystal microbalance array for environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckley, Eric S.; Anazagasty, Cristain; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Hianik, Tibor; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Proliferation of environmental sensors for internet of things (IoT) applications has increased the need for low-cost platforms capable of accommodating multiple sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals coated with nanometer-thin sensor films are suitable for use in high-resolution ( 1 ng) selective gas sensor applications. We demonstrate a scalable array for measuring frequency response of six QCM sensors controlled by low-cost Arduino microcontrollers and a USB multiplexer. Gas pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a LabVIEW user interface. We test the sensor array by measuring the frequency shift of crystals coated with different compositions of polymer composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) while films are exposed to water vapor and oxygen inside a controlled environmental chamber. Our sensor array exhibits comparable performance to that of a commercial QCM system, while enabling high-throughput 6 QCM testing for under $1,000. We use deep neural network structures to process sensor response and demonstrate that the QCM array is suitable for gas sensing, environmental monitoring, and electronic-nose applications.

  7. Forecast of Piezoelectric Properties of Crystalline Materials from First Principle Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Piezo crystals including quartz, quartz-like crystals, known and novel crystals of langasite-type structure were treated with density-functional perturb theory (DFPT) using plane-wave pseudopotentials method, within the local density approximation (LDA) to the exchange-correlation functional. Compared with experimental results, the ab initio calculation results have quantitative or semi-quantitative accuracy. It is shown that first principle calculation opens a door to the search and design of new piezoelectric material. Further application of first principle calculation to forecast the whole piezoelectric properties was also discussed.

  8. Polyethylene Maleate Copolyesters as Coating Materials for Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal-based Chemical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Gupta; C. Saxena; V. Dubey; P. K. Gutch; R. Asrey; K. D. Vyas

    2005-01-01

    Polyethylene maleate (PEM) was synthesised by direct polycondensation of maleic anhydride and ethylene glycol in toluene under reflux usingp-toluene sulphonic acid as a catalyst. Structure of PEM was further modified by varying nature of diols and acid components, chain length of glycols, incorporation of aromatic and fluorine groups in the chain. Formation of PEM was monitored by gas chromatography. The parameters like degree of polymerisation, number average molecular weight (Mn), and weigh...

  9. High-performance tonpilz transducers utilizing d32-cut piezoelectric single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Jiang, Xiaoning; Meyer, Richard J.; Geng, Xuecang

    2003-08-01

    High frequency sonar is becoming ever more important to the Navy through expanded use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV). Proposed missions for many UUV's involve shallow water operation where broad bandwidth is required making these applications ideal candidates to use single crystal piezoelectrics. In addition, many UUV sonar systems have commercial uses including oceanographic research, oil and mineral prospecting, salvage, and undersea equipment inspection and maintenance. The properties of single crystal piezoelectrics were exploited for broad bandwidth, high frequency sonar. Crystal sonar investigations based on Tonpilz transducers utilizing the '33' resonance mode have shown limitations on bandwidth due to less than ideal resonator aspect ratio. This is a result of the crystals' low elastic stiffness, which leads to short resonators with large lateral dimensions. To address this issue an alternative design was proposed utilizing the '32' resonance mode with the resonating length oriented along a special crystallographic cut. 'Crystals with this orientation are known to have high properties; d32 values as high as 1600 pC/N have been observed. Since prestress for such a design is applied perpendicular to the poling direction, '32' mode Tonpilz elements exhibit lower loss and higher reliability than '33' mode designs. The feasibility of such '32' mode Tonpilz resonators will be presented as determined through property measurements and finite element analysis. The targeted application for this work is broadband (>100%), high frequency (45 kHz) synthetic aperture arrays for unmanned underwater vehicles.

  10. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of rare earth calcium oxyborate piezoelectric crystals at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fapeng; Zhang, Shujun; Zhao, Xian; Yuan, Duorong; Qin, Lifeng; Wang, Qing-Ming; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-04-01

    The electrical resistivity, dielectric, and electromechanical properties of ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (ReCOB; Re = Er, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, and La) piezoelectric crystals were investigated as a function of temperature up to 1000 °C. Of the studied crystals, ErCOB and YCOB were found to possess extremely high resistivity (p): p > 3 × 10(7) ω.cm at 1000 °C. The property variation in ReCOB crystals is discussed with respect to their disordered structure. The highest electromechanical coupling factor κ(26) and piezoelectric coefficient d(26) at 1000°C, were achieved in PrCOB crystals, with values being on the order of 24.7% and 13.1 pC/N, respectively. The high thermal stability of the electromechanical properties, with variation less than 25%, together with the low dielectric loss (factor (>1500) at elevated temperatures of 1000 °C, make ErCOB, YCOB, and GdCOB crystals promising for ultrahigh temperature electromechanical applications.

  11. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-11-15

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 {mu}m. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 {mu}m thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 {mu}m thick

  12. Science Letters: New solutions of shear waves in piezoelectric cubic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAKHARENKO A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in piezoelectric crystals of classes 43m and 23 is studied. The crystals Tl3VS4 and Tl3TaSe4 (-43m) of the Chalcogenide family and the crystal Bi12TiO20 (23) possess strong piezoelectric effect. Because the surface Bleustein-Gulyaev waves cannot exist in piezoelectric cubic crystals, it was concluded that new solutions for shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAWs) are found in the monocrystals using different electrical boundary conditions such as electrically "short" and "open" free-surfaces for the unique [ 101] direction of wave propagation. For the crystal Tl3TaSe4 with coefficient of electromechanical coupling (CEMC) Ke2=e2/(C×g)~1/3, the phase velocity Vph for the new SH-SAWs can be calculated with the following formula: Vph=(Va+Vt)/2, where Vt is the speed of bulk SH-wave, Vt=Vt4(1+Ke2)1/2, Va=aKVt4, aK=2[Ke(1+Ke2)1/2-Ke2]1/2,and Vt4=(C44/ρ)1/2. It was found that the CEMC K2 evaluation for Tl3TaSe4 gave the value of K2=2(Vf-Vm)/Vf~O.047 (~4.7%),where Vf~848 m/s and Vm~828 m/s are the new-SAW velocities for the free and metallized surfaces, respectively. This high value of K2(Tl3TaSe4) is significantly greater than K2(Tl3VS4)~3% and about five times that of K2(Bi12TiO20).

  13. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) studies of the viscoelastic response from a continuously growing grafted polyelectrolyte layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunér, Gunnar; Thormann, Esben; Dedinaite, Andra

    2013-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) was grown from substrates by photopolymerization, and the grafting process was monitored in situ by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) measurements in a 1:1 v/v mixture of water/ethanol. The polymerization process was monitored into the thick film region, where...

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Investigation of the Structure of Adsorbed Soybean Oil and Methyl Oleate onto Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption of soybean oil (SBO) and methyl oleate (MO) onto steel was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Adsorption of both SBO and MO increased with increasing concentrations. At full surface coverage, SBO and MO formed rigid thin films and ach...

  15. In-situ monitoring of potential enhanced DNA related processes using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Xueling; Heiskanen, Arto; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The effect of applied potential pulses on DNA functionalization (thiolated single stranded DNA) and hybridization processes has been monitored in-situ on gold surfaces using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (EQCM-D). The applied potentials were chosen with respect to t...

  16. Field stability of piezoelectric shear properties in PIN-PMN-PT crystals under large drive field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Luo, Jun; Xia, Ru; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The coercive fields (E(C)) of Pb(In₀.₅Nb₀.₅)O₃-Pb(Mg(¹/₃)Nb(²/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals were found to be 5 kV/cm, double the value of binary Pb(Mg(¹/₃)Nb(²/₃)O₃-PbTiO₃ (PMNT) crystals, further increased to 6 to 9 kV/cm using Mn modifications. In addition to an increased EC, the acceptor modification resulted in the developed internal bias (E(int)), on the order of ~1 kV/cm. The piezoelectric shear properties of unmodified and Mn-modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals with various domain configurations were investigated. The shear piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors for different domain configurations were found to be >2000 pC/N and >0.85, respectively, with slightly reduced properties observed in Mn-modified tetragonal crystals. Fatigue/cycling tests performed on shearmode samples as a function of ac drive field level demonstrated that the allowable ac field levels (the maximum applied ac field before the occurrence of depolarization) were only ~2 kV/cm for unmodified crystals, less than half of their coercive field. Allowable ac drive levels were on the order of 4 to 6 kV/cm for Mn-modified crystals with rhombohedral/orthorhombic phase, further increased to 5 to 8 kV/cm in tetragonal crystals, because of their higher coercive fields. It is of particular interest that the allowable ac drive field level for Mn-modified crystals was found to be ≥ 60% of their coercive fields, because of the developed E(int), induced by the acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles.

  17. Flexo- and piezo-electric polarization of smectic layers in ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczyński, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Dardas, D.; Nowicka, K.; Bielejewska, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we report on how flexoelectric and piezoelectric polarization components can be determined by a method based on simultaneous studies of dielectric and electrooptic properties of the chiral smectic liquid crystal in the regime of weak electric fields. As a rule, the measurements of spontaneous polarization are performed using switching experiments. The polarization measured in this way is not complete—it contains the piezoelectric component only. However, the knowledge of the entire local polarization of a single smectic layer is of great importance—it is necessary for correct determination of some material parameters, for instance elastic constants. Our experiments performed in a helical smectic mixture demonstrated that flexoelectric contribution to the local spontaneous polarization is significant in both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phases. In the antiferroelectric phase, the flexoelectric polarization is less due to higher helical pitch.

  18. Note: Direct piezoelectric effect microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T J A; Stamenov, P; Dorneles, L S

    2015-07-01

    An alternative method for investigating piezoelectric surfaces is suggested, exploiting the direct piezoeffect. The technique relies on acoustic (ultrasonic) excitation of the imaged surface and mapping of the resulting oscillatory electric potential. The main advantages arise from the spatial resolution of the conductive scanning probe microscopy in combination with the relatively large magnitude of the forward piezo signal Upf, which can be of the order of tens of mV even for non-ferroelectric piezoelectric materials. The potency of this experimental strategy is illustrated with measurements on well-crystallized quartz surfaces, where Upf ∼ 50 mV, for a piezoelectric coefficient of d33 = - 2.27  ×  10(-12) m/V, and applied stress of about T3 ∼ 5.7 kPa.

  19. Single crystal piezoelectric composites for advanced NDT ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Snook, Kevin; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Geng, Xuecang

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the design, fabrication and characterization of PMN-PT single crystal/epoxy composites are reported for NDT ultrasound transducers. Specifically, 1-3 PMN-PT/epoxy composites with center frequencies of 5 MHz - 40 MHz were designed and fabricated using either the dice-and-fill method or a photolithography based micromachining process. The measured electromechanical coefficients for composites with frequency of 5 MHz - 15 MHz were about 0.78-0.83, and the coupling coefficients for composites with frequencies of 25 MHz- 40 MHz were about 0.71-0.72. The dielectric loss remains low (advanced NDT ultrasound applications.

  20. Detection of Glypican-3 Proteins for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Marker Using Wireless-Electrodeless Quartz-Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Omori, Toshinobu; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Hirao, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Pure shear-wave resonances were excited and detected in 18- and 30-µm-thick electrodeless AT-cut quartz plates in liquids using line antennas contactlessly, achieving high-frequency quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs). Their fundamental resonance frequencies (85 and 54 MHz) were monitored to study interactions in real time between human glypican-3 and an anti-glypican-3 antibody: glypican-3 is a prospective protein marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Their affinity was determined by the Langmuir kinetics. This study demonstrates the high ability of the wireless-electrodeless QCM for detection of the protein markers and development of drugs for disorders.

  1. An approach for phosphate removal with quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag as seed crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Shoubin; Yang, Zhongxi; Li, Yanbo

    2012-01-01

    The phosphate removal abilities and crystallization performance of quartz sand, ceramsite, blast furnace slag and steel slag were investigated. The residual phosphate concentrations in the reaction solutions were not changed by addition of the ceramsite, quartz sand and blast furnace slag. The steel slag could provide alkalinity and Ca(2+) to the reaction solution due to its hydration activity, and performed a better phosphate removal performance than the other three. Under the conditions of Ca/P 2.0, pH 8.5 and 10 mg P/L, the phosphate crystallization occurred during 12 h. The quartz sand and ceramsite did not improve the phosphate crystallization, but steel slag was an effective seed crystal. The phosphate concentration decreased drastically after 12 h after addition of steel slag, and near complete removal was achieved after 48 h. The XRD analysis showed that the main crystallization products were hydroxyapatite (HAP) and the crystallinity increased with the reaction time. Phosphate was successfully recovered from low phosphate concentration wastewater using steel slag as seed material.

  2. Weak antibody-cyclodextrin interactions determined by quartz crystal microbalance and dynamic/static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Elisabeth; Dixit, Nitin; Besheer, Ahmed; Kalonia, Devendra; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    In a quest to elucidate the mechanism by which hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) stabilizes antibodies against shaking stress, two heavily debated hypotheses exist, namely that stabilization is due to HPβCD's surface activity, or due to specific interactions with proteins. In a previous study by Serno et al. (Pharm. Res. 30 (2013) 117), we could refute the first hypothesis by proving that, although HPβCD is slightly surface active, it does not displace the antibody at the air-water interface, and accordingly, its surface activity is not the underlying stabilizing mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of interactions between HPβCD and monoclonal antibodies as the potential stabilization mechanism using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and static as well as dynamic light scattering. In the presence of HPβCD, the adsorption of IgG antibodies in the native state (IgG A) and the unfolded state (IgG A and IgG B) on gold-coated quartz crystals was studied by QCM. Results show that HPβCD causes a reduction in protein adsorption in both the folded and the unfolded states, probably due to an interaction between the protein and the cyclodextrin, leading to a reduced hydrophobicity of the protein and consequently a lower extent of adsorption. These results were supported by investigation of the interaction between the native protein and HPβCD using static and dynamic light scattering experiments, which provide the protein-protein interaction parameters, B22 and kD, respectively. Both B22 and kD showed an increase in magnitude with increasing HPβCD-concentrations, indicating a rise in net repulsive forces between the protein molecules. This is further evidence for the presence of interactions between HPβCD and the studied antibodies, since an association of HPβCD on the protein surface leads to a change in the intermolecular forces between the protein molecules. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the previously observed

  3. Decoupling mass adsorption from fluid viscosity and density in quartz crystal microbalance measurements using normalized conductance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Z.; Biet, C.; Zauscher, S.

    2013-08-01

    We describe the physical understanding of a method which differentiates between the frequency shift caused by fluid viscosity and density from that caused by mass adsorption in the resonance of a quartz crystal resonator. This method uses the normalized conductance of the crystal to determine a critical frequency at which the fluid mass and fluid loss compensate each other. Tracking the shift in this critical frequency allows us to determine purely mass adsorption on the crystal. We extended this method to Maxwellian fluids for understanding the mass adsorption in non-Newtonian fluids. We validate our approach by real-time mass adsorption measurements using glycerol and albumin solutions.

  4. Analysis of Longitudinal Waves in Rod-Type Piezoelectric Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals can be used to control elastic waves due to their frequency bands. This paper analyzes the passive and active control as well as the dispersion properties of longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals over large frequency ranges. Based on the Love rod theory for modeling the longitudinal wave motions in the constituent rods and the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM for deriving the member transfer matrices of the constituent rods, a modified transfer matrix method (MTMM is proposed for the analysis of dispersion curves by combining with the Floquet–Bloch principle and for the calculation of transmission spectra. Numerical examples are provided to validate the proposed MTMM for analyzing the band structures in both low and high frequency ranges. The passive control of longitudinal-wave band structures is studied by discussing the influences of the electrode’s thickness, the Poisson’s effect and the elastic rod inserts in the unit cell. The influences of electrical boundaries (including electric-open, applied electric capacity, electric-short and applied feedback control conditions on the band structures are investigated to illustrate the active control scheme. From the calculated comprehensive frequency spectra over a large frequency range, the dispersion properties of the characteristic longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals are summarized.

  5. Determination of mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluch, Waldemar; Brzozowski, Ernest; Lysakowska, Magdalena; Sadura, Jolanta

    2011-11-01

    Mass density, dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric constants of bulk GaN crystal were determined. Mass density was obtained from the measured ratio of mass to volume of a cuboid. The dielectric constants were determined from the measured capacitances of an interdigital transducer (IDT) deposited on a Z-cut plate and from a parallel plate capacitor fabricated from this plate. The elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined by comparing the measured and calculated SAW velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients on the Z- and X-cut plates. The following new constants were obtained: mass density p = 5986 kg/m(3); relative dielectric constants (at constant strain S) ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 8.6 and ε(S)(11)/ε(0) = 10.5, where ε(0) is a dielectric constant of free space; elastic constants (at constant electric field E) C(E)(11) = 349.7, C(E)(12) = 128.1, C(E)(13) = 129.4, C(E)(33) = 430.3, and C(E)(44) = 96.5 GPa; and piezoelectric constants e(33) = 0.84, e(31) = -0.47, and e(15) = -0.41 C/m(2).

  6. Facile synthesis of tin phosphite nanosheets via exfoliated bulk crystals: Electronic structure and piezoelectric property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Xi-Rui; Lu, Rui-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Tin phosphite nanosheets were synthesized by a facile exfoliation method. SnHPO3 nanosheets with a thickness of ∼2.6nm readily form a stable colloidal suspension in ethanol using ultrasonic method. Structures and optical properties of the obtained nanosheets were investigated. The prepared SnHPO3 nanosheets exhibit an obvious blue-shift in UV absorbance compared with bulk SnHPO3 crystal materials. Moreover, the piezoelectric coefficients of SnHPO3 monolayer were calculated based on density functional theory, which are larger than that of h-BN monolayer, indicating this material could be a good candidate for designing electro-optical nano-devices.

  7. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pencacah Frekuensi Untuk Sensor Gas Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilianda Adi Wicaksono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam suatu sistem identifikasi gas menggunakan sensor Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM diperlukan sebuah pencacah frekuensi yang digunakan untuk menghitung perubahan frekuensi dari sensor. Sistem ini digunakan untuk menghasilkan output berupa perubahan frekuensi yang akan diproses untuk identifikasi gas. Metode ini menggunakan selisih antara frekuensi sensor QCM dan frekuensi referensi. Hasil dari selisih tersebut dibagi dan digunakan untuk mengaktifkan pencacah frekuensi. Semakin besar bilangan pembagi, maka sistem pencacah frekuensi ini semakin stabil dan akurat. Penelitian ini menggunakan kristal referensi 20MHz dengan pencacah frekuensi 24 bit. Data hasil pencacahan diakuisisi oleh mikrokontroler dan dikirim ke komputer untuk proses identifikasi menggunakan neural network. Output dari neural network ini merupakan hasil dari proses identifikasi gas. Dengan metode yang digunakan, perubahan frekuensi yang dapat dideteksi mencapai 0,068 Hz. Dalam pengujian keseluruhan sistem digunakan 3 bahan uji, yaitu alkohol, amoniak, dan asam asetat (cuka.Untuk sistem identifikasi gas telah dapat mengenali gas uji dengan keberhasilan 90%. Secara keseluruhan, metode ini diharapkan menjadi metode yang baik untuk sistem identifikasi gas.

  8. Development of a Flow Injection Based High Frequency Dual Channel Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinxing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Wenxiang; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2017-05-16

    When the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is used in liquid for adsorption or desorption monitoring based bio- or chemical sensing applications, the frequency shift is not only determined by the surface mass change, but also by the change of liquid characteristics, such as density and viscosity, which are greatly affected by the liquid environmental temperature. A monolithic dual-channel QCM is designed and fabricated by arranging two QCM resonators on one single chip for cancelling the fluctuation induced by environmental factors. In actual applications, one QCM works as a specific sensor by modifying with functional membranes and the other acts as a reference, only measuring the liquid property. The dual-channel QCM is designed with an inverted-mesa structure, aiming to realize a high frequency miniaturized chip and suppress the frequency interference between the neighbored QCM resonators. The key problem of dual-channel QCMs is the interference between two channels, which is influenced by the distance of adjacent resonators. The diameter of the reference electrode has been designed into several values in order to find the optimal parameter. Experimental results demonstrated that the two QCMs could vibrate individually and the output frequency stability and drift can be greatly improved with the aid of the reference QCM.

  9. Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Latif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene and cross-linker (phloroglucinol levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors.

  10. Multiplexed cancer biomarker detection using quartz-based photonic crystal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Sheng; Chaudhery, Vikram; Pokhriyal, Anusha; George, Sherine; Polans, James; Lu, Meng; Tan, Ruimin; Zangar, Richard C; Cunningham, Brian T

    2012-01-17

    A photonic crystal (PC) surface is demonstrated as a high-sensitivity platform for detection of a panel of 21 cancer biomarker antigens using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray format. A quartz-based PC structure fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, selected for its low autofluorescence, supports two independent optical resonances that simultaneously enable enhancement of fluorescence detection of biomarkers and label-free quantification of the density of antibody capture spots. A detection instrument is demonstrated that supports fluorescence and label-free imaging modalities, with the ability to optimize the fluorescence enhancement factor on a pixel-by-pixel basis throughout the microarray using an angle-scanning approach for the excitation laser that automatically compensates for variability in surface chemistry density and capture spot density. Measurements show that the angle-scanning illumination approach reduces the coefficient of variation of replicate assays by 20-99% compared to ordinary fluorescence microscopy, thus supporting reduction in limits of detectable biomarker concentration. Using the PC resonance, biomarkers in mixed samples were detectable at the lowest concentrations tested (2.1-41 pg/mL), resulting in a three-log range of quantitative detection.

  11. Hydrolysis of model cellulose films by cellulosomes: Extension of quartz crystal microbalance technique to multienzymatic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Hsin-Fen; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Nokes, Sue E; Flythe, Michael; Rankin, Stephen E; Knutson, Barbara L

    2017-01-10

    Bacterial cellulosomes contain highly efficient complexed cellulases and have been studied extensively for the production of lignocellulosic biofuels and bioproducts. A surface measurement technique, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), was extended for the investigation of real-time binding and hydrolysis of model cellulose surfaces from free fungal cellulases to the cellulosomes of Clostridium thermocellum (Ruminiclostridium thermocellum). In differentiating the activities of cell-free and cell-bound cellulosomes, greater than 68% of the cellulosomes in the crude cell broth were found to exist unattached to the cell across multiple growth stages. The initial hydrolysis rate of crude cell broth measured by QCM was greater than that of cell-free cellulosomes, but the corresponding frequency drop (a direct measure of the mass of enzyme adsorbed to the film) of crude cell broth was less than that of the cell-free cellulosomes, consistent with the underestimation of the cell mass adsorbed using QCM. Inhibition of hydrolysis by cellobiose (0-10g/L), which is similar for crude cell broth and cell-free cellulosomes, demonstrates the sensitivity of the QCM to environmental perturbations of multienzymatic complexes. QCM measurements using multienzymatic complexes may be used to screen and optimize hydrolysis conditions and to develop mechanistic, surface-based models of enzymatic cellulose deconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Kusakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti or zirconia (ZrO2 was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. As proteins, fibronectin (Fn, a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb, a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2.

  13. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakawa, You

    2017-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrO2) was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). As proteins, fibronectin (Fn), a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb), a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2. PMID:28246591

  14. Effect of fluid motion on the impact erosion by a micro-particle on quartz crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, D. H.; Qi, H.; Wen, D. H.; Zhang, L.; Yuan, Q. L.; Chen, Z. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Abrasive slurry jet (ASJ) is a promising technology to process a variety of materials with advantages of high flexibility, no heat affected zone and high cutting efficiency. In this paper, the impressions generated on a quartz crystal specimen by the impacts of micro-particles laden in a water flow and the associated impact erosion mechanisms are presented and discussed in order to effectively and efficiently control the machining quality. Both brittle and ductile mode erosions coexist in the machining process due to the influence of the fluid motion on the trajectories of particles near the target surface. Large-scale craters produced by brittle conchoidal fractures associated with crashed zone, radial and lateral cracks, dominate the erosion process at large jet impact angles while small-scale craters involving micro-ploughing and micro-cutting are produced by the ductile mode erosion at small jet impact angles. The relation between the process parameters and the overall average volume of craters has also been quantitatively analyzed. A combination of small jet impact angle and abrasive particles and low water pressure is preferred for improving the surface quality after the ASJ machining process caused by the more formation of ductile mode induced craters on the target material, but it is at the sacrifice of the material removal rate as well.

  15. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies of Multilayer Glucagon Fibrillation at the Solid-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, Mads Bruun; Dong, Mingdong; Otzen, Daniel Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    We have used a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) to monitor the changes in layer thickness and viscoelastic properties accompanying multilayer amyloid deposition in situ for the first time. By means of atomic force microscope imaging, an unequivocal correlation is established between the interfacial nucleation and growth of glucagon fibrils and the QCM-D response. The combination of the two techniques allows us to study the temporal evolution of the interfacial fibrillation process. We have modeled the QCM-D data using an extension to the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model. Three phases were observed in the fibrillation process: 1), a rigid multilayer of glucagon monomers forms and slowly rearranges; 2), this multilayer subsequently evolves into a dramatically more viscoelastic layer, containing a polymorphic network of micrometer-long fibrils growing from multiple nucleation sites; and 3), the fibrillar formation effectively stops as a result of the depletion of bulk-phase monomers, although the process can be continued without a lag phase by subsequent addition of fresh monomers. The robustness of the QCM-D technique, consolidated by complementary atomic force microscope studies, should make it possible to combine different components thought to be involved in the plaque formation process and thus build up realistic models of amyloid plaque formation in vitro. PMID:17513349

  16. Quartz crystal microbalance studies of multilayer glucagon fibrillation at the solid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, Mads Bruun; Dong, Mingdong; Otzen, Daniel Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2007-09-15

    We have used a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) to monitor the changes in layer thickness and viscoelastic properties accompanying multilayer amyloid deposition in situ for the first time. By means of atomic force microscope imaging, an unequivocal correlation is established between the interfacial nucleation and growth of glucagon fibrils and the QCM-D response. The combination of the two techniques allows us to study the temporal evolution of the interfacial fibrillation process. We have modeled the QCM-D data using an extension to the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model. Three phases were observed in the fibrillation process: 1), a rigid multilayer of glucagon monomers forms and slowly rearranges; 2), this multilayer subsequently evolves into a dramatically more viscoelastic layer, containing a polymorphic network of micrometer-long fibrils growing from multiple nucleation sites; and 3), the fibrillar formation effectively stops as a result of the depletion of bulk-phase monomers, although the process can be continued without a lag phase by subsequent addition of fresh monomers. The robustness of the QCM-D technique, consolidated by complementary atomic force microscope studies, should make it possible to combine different components thought to be involved in the plaque formation process and thus build up realistic models of amyloid plaque formation in vitro.

  17. A Label-Free Immunosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Ketamine Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a label-free immunosensor with the variation of resonance frequency (Δf of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM as readout signal for ultrasensitive detection of Ketamine (KT. An optimized strategy for immobilization of KT antibody on the surface of the QCM chip was implemented via the self-assembly modification of 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and then activated with 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminoprophl carbodiimide and n-hydroxysuccinimide. The specific affinity between the antibody and the antigen ensured a selective response toward KT. The Δf linearly related to the concentration of KT in the range of 1 to 40 pg/mL, with a detection limit of 0.86 pg/mL (S/N = 3. The obtained immunosensor was applied to detect the KT in spiked human urine without any pretreatment but dilution with recoveries from 91.8% to 108%. The developed sensor is promising to perform the portable or on-spot KT detection in clinic or forensic cases.

  18. Protein Adsorption to Titanium and Zirconia Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakawa, You; Yoshida, Eiji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrO2) was evaluated using a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). As proteins, fibronectin (Fn), a cell adhesive protein, and albumin (Alb), a cell adhesion-inhibiting protein, were evaluated. The Ti and ZrO2 sensors for QCM were characterized by atomic force microscopy and electron probe microanalysis observation, measurement of contact angle against water, and surface roughness. The amounts of Fn and Alb adsorbed onto the Ti and ZrO2 sensors and apparent reaction rate were obtained using QCM measurements. Ti sensor showed greater adsorption of Fn and Alb than the ZrO2 sensor. In addition, amount of Fn adsorbed onto the Ti or ZrO2 sensors was higher than that of Alb. The surface roughness and hydrophilicity of Ti or ZrO2 may influence the adsorption of Fn or Alb. With regard to the adsorption rate, Alb adsorbed more rapidly than Fn onto Ti. Comparing Ti and ZrO2, Alb adsorption rate to Ti was faster than that to ZrO2. Fn adsorption will be effective for cell activities, but Alb adsorption will not. QCM method could simulate in vivo Fn and Alb adsorption to Ti or ZrO2.

  19. LixV2O5 - Analysis of surface reactions by spectroscopic quartz crystal mircogravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwort, Jeroen; Berkemeier, Frank; Schmitz, Guido

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the electrochemical side reactions that occur during the cyclic lithiation/delithiation of sputter-deposited LixV2O5 films. For this purpose, the mass change of LixV2O5 films during lithiation/delithiation is measured by quartz crystal microgravimetry, while the electrical charge that is flowing during this reaction is measured by cyclic voltammetry. A time-resolved evaluation of the measurement data, in combination with an advanced type of data processing, finally allows us to calculate time-resolved quantitative mass spectra. These spectra provide information about the chemical species that take part during the electrochemical reactions. Based on this technique, we study the electrochemical side reactions between the LixV2O5 and the corresponding liquid electrolyte, i.e. we investigate the time-resolved formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer during long term cycling. We are able to identify several chemical species that are formed during cycling and moreover, we identify three different stages of SEI formation.

  20. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of the electrodeposition of Co, Pt and Pt-Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.J.; Chaparro, A.M. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie 2, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    The electrochemical deposition of Co, Pt and Pt-Co alloy are studied with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) on a gold substrate. Co is deposited from acidic sulphate bath containing boric acid. Different processes are identified in this bath. Electrodeposition of Co on Au substrate is observed at potentials above redox potential, underpotential deposition, most probably due to formation of a Co-Au alloy. At more cathodic potentials, below -0.5 V, metallic Co is formed. The film is completely dissolved at positive potentials during the anodic scan, probably mediated by Co(OH){sub 2}. The electrodeposition of platinum from acidic PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} bath occurs below the thermodynamic potential (0.74 V) with almost 100% efficiency. At potentials negative from 0.0 V the efficiency decreases due to parallel water reduction. The codeposition of Co and Pt is also studied in acidic bath. Here, the decrease of pH due to water reduction on Pt deposits gives rise to precipitation of Co(OH){sub 2}, together with the deposition of metallic Pt and Co. The films contain as major component the Pt{sub 3}Co alloy. (author)

  1. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of the electrodeposition of Co, Pt and Pt-Co alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A. J.; Chaparro, A. M.; Daza, L.

    The electrochemical deposition of Co, Pt and Pt-Co alloy are studied with the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) on a gold substrate. Co is deposited from acidic sulphate bath containing boric acid. Different processes are identified in this bath. Electrodeposition of Co on Au substrate is observed at potentials above redox potential, underpotential deposition, most probably due to formation of a Co-Au alloy. At more cathodic potentials, below -0.5 V, metallic Co is formed. The film is completely dissolved at positive potentials during the anodic scan, probably mediated by Co(OH) 2. The electrodeposition of platinum from acidic PtCl 6 2- bath occurs below the thermodynamic potential (0.74 V) with almost 100% efficiency. At potentials negative from 0.0 V the efficiency decreases due to parallel water reduction. The codeposition of Co and Pt is also studied in acidic bath. Here, the decrease of pH due to water reduction on Pt deposits gives rise to precipitation of Co(OH) 2, together with the deposition of metallic Pt and Co. The films contain as major component the Pt 3Co alloy.

  2. Probing the interaction between nanoparticles and lipid membranes by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nariman; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to investigate the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with model surfaces. The high sensitivity, ease of use and the ability to monitor interactions in real-time has made it a popular technique for colloid chemists, biologists, bioengineers and biophysicists. QCM-D has been recently used to probe the interaction of NPs with supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) as model cell membranes. The interaction of NPs with SLBs is highly influenced by the quality of the lipid bilayers. Unlike many surface sensitive techniques, using QCM-D, the quality of SLBs can be assessed in real-time, hence QCM-D studies on SLB-NP interactions are less prone to the artefacts arising from bilayers that are not well formed. The ease of use and commercial availability of a wide range of sensor surfaces also have made QCM-D a versatile tool for studying NP interactions with lipid bilayers. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art on QCM-D based techniques for probing the interactions of NPs with lipid bilayers.

  3. A Study of Drop-Microstructured Surface Interactions during Dropwise Condensation with Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junwei; Charmchi, Majid; Sun, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Dropwise condensation (DWC) on hydrophobic surfaces is attracting attention for its great potential in many industrial applications, such as steam power plants, water desalination, and de-icing of aerodynamic surfaces, to list a few. The direct dynamic characterization of liquid/solid interaction can significantly accelerate the progress toward a full understanding of the thermal and mass transport mechanisms during DWC processes. This work reports a novel Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based method that can quantitatively analyze the interaction between water droplets and micropillar surfaces during different condensation states such as filmwise, Wenzel, and partial Cassie states. A combined nanoimprinting lithography and chemical surface treatment approach was utilized to fabricate the micropillar based superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces on the QCM substrates. The normalized frequency shift of the QCM device together with the microscopic observation of the corresponding drop motion revealed the droplets growth and their coalescence processes and clearly demonstrated the differences between the three aforementioned condensation states. In addition, the transition between Cassie and Wenzel states was successfully captured by this method. The newly developed QCM system provides a valuable tool for the dynamic characterization of different condensation processes.

  4. A hybrid humidity sensor using optical waveguides on a quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbo, Kazunari, E-mail: kshinbo@eng.niigata-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Otuki, Shunya; Kanbayashi, Yuichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ohdaira, Yasuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Baba, Akira [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyadera, Nobuo [Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48 Wadai, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, slab and ridge optical waveguides (OWGs) made of fluorinated polyimides were deposited on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and hybrid sensors using OWG spectroscopy and the QCM technique were prepared. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film with CoCl{sub 2} was deposited on the OWGs, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated. A prism coupler was used to enter a He-Ne laser beam ({lambda} = 632.8 nm) to the slab OWG. The output light intensity markedly changed due to chromism of the CoCl{sub 2} as a result of humidity sorption, and this change was dependent on the incident angle of the laser beam to the slab OWG. During the measurement of output light, the QCM frequency was simultaneously monitored. The humidity dependence of the sensor with the slab OWG was also investigated in the range from 15 to 85%. For the sensor with the ridge OWG, white light was entered by butt-coupling, and the characteristics of humidity sensing were investigated by observing the output light spectrum and the QCM frequency.

  5. Effect of fluid motion on the impact erosion by a micro-particle on quartz crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive slurry jet (ASJ is a promising technology to process a variety of materials with advantages of high flexibility, no heat affected zone and high cutting efficiency. In this paper, the impressions generated on a quartz crystal specimen by the impacts of micro-particles laden in a water flow and the associated impact erosion mechanisms are presented and discussed in order to effectively and efficiently control the machining quality. Both brittle and ductile mode erosions coexist in the machining process due to the influence of the fluid motion on the trajectories of particles near the target surface. Large-scale craters produced by brittle conchoidal fractures associated with crashed zone, radial and lateral cracks, dominate the erosion process at large jet impact angles while small-scale craters involving micro-ploughing and micro-cutting are produced by the ductile mode erosion at small jet impact angles. The relation between the process parameters and the overall average volume of craters has also been quantitatively analyzed. A combination of small jet impact angle and abrasive particles and low water pressure is preferred for improving the surface quality after the ASJ machining process caused by the more formation of ductile mode induced craters on the target material, but it is at the sacrifice of the material removal rate as well.

  6. Long Memory from Sauerbrey Equation: A Case in Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance in terms of Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sauerbrey equation is a useful empirical model in material science to represent the dynamics of frequency change denoted by Δf in an area, denoted by A, of the electrode in terms of the increment of the mass, which is denoted by Δm, loaded on the surface of the crystal under a certain resonant frequency f0. For the purpose of studying Δf from the point of view of time series, we first propose two types of the modified representations of the Sauerbrey equation by taking time as an argument to represent Δf as a function expressed by x(t,f0,A,Δm, where t is time. Usually, Δf is studied experimentally for the performance evaluation of the tested quartz used in ammonia sensors. Its properties in time series, however, are rarely reported. This paper presents the fractal properties of Δf. We will show that Δf is long range dependent (LRD. Consequently, it is heavy tailed according to the Taqqu's theorem. The Hurst parameter (H of Δf approaches one, implying its strong long memory, providing a new explanation of the repeatability of the experiments and novel point of view of the dynamics of Δf relating to the Sauerbrey equation in material science.

  7. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A. [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); March, C.; Montoya, A. [Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigacion en Bioingenieria y Tecnologia Orientada al Ser Humano, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  8. Effects of interface slip and viscoelasticity on the dynamic response of droplet quartz crystal microbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Han; Lu, Pin; Lim, Siak Piang; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2008-10-01

    In the present paper we first present a derivation based on the time-dependent perturbation theory to develop the dynamical equations which can be applied to model the response of a droplet quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in contact with a single viscoelastic media. Moreover, the no-slip boundary condition across the device-viscoelastic media interface has been relaxed in the present model by using the Ellis-Hayward slip length approach. The model is then used to illustrate the characteristic changes in the frequency and attenuation of the QCM with and without the boundary slippage due to the changes in viscoelasticity as the coated media varies from Newtonian liquid to solid. To complement the theory, experiments have been conducted with microliter droplets of aqueous glycerol solutions and silicone oils with a viscosity in the range of 50 approximately 10,000 cS. The results have confirmed the Newtonian characteristics of the glycerol solutions. In contrast, the acoustic properties of the silicones oils as reflected in the impedance analysis are different from the glycerol solutions. More importantly, it was found that for the silicone oils the frequency steadily increased for several hours and even exceeded the initial value of the unloaded crystal as reflected in the positive frequency shift. Collaborative effects of interfacial slippage and viscoelasticity have been introduced to qualitatively interpret the measured frequency up-shifts for the silicone oils. The present work shows the potential importance of the combined effects of viscoelasticity and interfacial slippage when using the droplet QCM to investigate the rheological behavior of more complex fluids.

  9. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, Shashank [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Viehland, Dwight [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  10. Use of quartz crystal nanobalance to study the binding and stabilization of albumin and doxycycline on a thin layer of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, Sunita Prem [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Sharma, Chandra P., E-mail: sharmacp@sctmist.ac.in [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Sreenivasan, K. [Biosurface Technology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India); Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695012, Kerala (India)

    2011-12-15

    This study reports the use of quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) to study the adsorption of two model molecules namely albumin and doxycycline by hydroxyapatite (HA). The work focuses on the deposition of a stable coating of HA on the quartz crystal, modification of the coating using doxycycline and its subsequent effects on albumin adsorption. The uniformity and thickness of the HA coating has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functional groups to ascertain the presence of the selected moieties have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the mass of albumin deposited on the surface of the HA coated quartz crystal functionalized with doxycycline shows a substantial increase when compared to the standard HA coated quartz crystal. The adsorbed albumin has also been found to be retained for an enhanced period of time. This surface immobilization of doxycycline and subsequent albumin adsorption seem to be a promising approach to confer biomaterials with antithrombogenic and antibacterial surfaces.

  11. Use of quartz crystal nanobalance to study the binding and stabilization of albumin and doxycycline on a thin layer of hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the use of quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) to study the adsorption of two model molecules namely albumin and doxycycline by hydroxyapatite (HA). The work focuses on the deposition of a stable coating of HA on the quartz crystal, modification of the coating using doxycycline and its subsequent effects on albumin adsorption. The uniformity and thickness of the HA coating has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functional groups to ascertain the presence of the selected moieties have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the mass of albumin deposited on the surface of the HA coated quartz crystal functionalized with doxycycline shows a substantial increase when compared to the standard HA coated quartz crystal. The adsorbed albumin has also been found to be retained for an enhanced period of time. This surface immobilization of doxycycline and subsequent albumin adsorption seem to be a promising approach to confer biomaterials with antithrombogenic and antibacterial surfaces.

  12. Towards vibrational spectroscopy on surface-attached colloids performed with a quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diethelm Johannsmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal spheres attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM produce the so-called “coupled resonances”. They are resonators of their own, characterized by a particle resonance frequency, a resonance bandwidth, and a modal mass. When the frequency of the main resonator comes close to the frequency of the coupled resonance, the bandwidth goes through a maximum. A coupled resonance can be viewed as an absorption line in acoustic shear-wave spectroscopy. The known concepts from spectroscopy apply. This includes the mode assignment problem, selection rules, and the oscillator strength. In this work, the mode assignment problem was addressed with Finite Element calculations. These reveal that a rigid sphere in contact with a QCM displays two modes of vibration, termed “slipping” and “rocking”. In the slipping mode, the sphere rotates about its center; it exerts a tangential force onto the resonator surface at the point of contact. In the rocking mode, the sphere rotates about the point of contact; it exerts a torque onto the substrate. In liquids, both axes of rotation are slightly displaced from their ideal positions. Characteristic for spectroscopy, the two modes do not couple to the mechanical excitation equally well. The degree of coupling is quantified by an oscillator strength. Because the rocking mode mostly exerts a torque (rather than a tangential force, its coupling to the resonator's tangential motion is weak; the oscillator strength consequently is small. Recent experiments on surface-adsorbed colloidal spheres can be explained by the mode of vibration being of the rocking type.

  13. Quartz crystal microbalance and spectroscopy measurements for acid doping in polyaniline films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad M Ayad and Eman A Zaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the doping of thin polyaniline (PANI films, prepared by the chemical oxidation of aniline, with different acids. The initial step in the investigation is the preparation of PANI films from aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. This is followed by dedoping with ammonia to obtain a PANI base, which is subsequently doped with strong acids (e.g. hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric and trichloroacetic acids and with a weak acid (acetic acid. The dopant weight fraction (w, which is connected with the gain of mass during the doping of PANI, was determined in situ using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The behavior of PANI upon doping with different anions derived from strong acids indicates that both proton and the anion uptake into the polymer chains occur sharply, rapidly, completely, and reversibly. However the uptake in the case in acetic acid is characterized by slow diffusion. The doping was studied at different concentrations of acetic acid. A second cycle of dedoping–redoping was also performed. The kinetics of the doping reaction is dominated by Fickian diffusion kinetics. The diffusion coefficients (D of the dopant ions into the PANI chains were determined using the QCM and by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy in the range of (0.076–1.64× 10−15 cm2 s−1. It was found that D in the second cycle of doping is larger than that evaluated from the first cycle of doping for high concentrations of acetic acid. D for the diffusion and for the dopant ion expulsion from the PANI chains was also determined during the redoping process. It was found that D for acetic acid ions in the doping process is larger than that calculated for the dedoping process.

  14. Quartz crystal microbalance study of the kinetics of surface initiated polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Surface initiated polymerization (SIP) is a valuable tool in synthesizing functional polymer brushes,yet the kinetic understanding of SIP lags behind the development of its application. We apply quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to address two issues that are not fully addressed yet play a central role in the rational design of functional polymer brushes,namely quantitative determination of the kinetics and the initiator efficiency (IE) of SIP. SIP are monitored online using QCM. Two quantitative frequencythickness (f-T) relations make the direct determination and comparison of the rate of polymerization possible even for different monomers. Based on the bi-termination model,the kinetics of SIP is simply described by two variables,which are related to two polymerization constants,namely a = 1/(kp,s,app-[M][R·]0) and b = kt,s,app/(kp,s,app[M]). Factors that could alter the kinetics of SIP are studied,including (i) the molecular weight of monomers,(ii) the solvent used,(iii) the initial density of the initiator,(iv) the concentration of monomer,[M],and (v) the catalyst system (ratio among the ingredients,metal,ligands,and additives). The dynamic nature of IE is also described by these two variables,IE = a/(a + bt). Instead of the molecular weight and the polydispersity,we suggest that film thickness,the two kinetic parameters (a and b),and the initial density of the initiator and IE be the parameters that characterize ultrathin polymer brushes. Besides the kinetics study of SIP,the reported method has many other applications,for example,in the fast screening of catalyst system for SIP and other polymerization systems.

  15. Arsenic species interactions with a porous carbon electrode as determined with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morallón, Emilia; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Calo, J.M.; Cazorla-Amorós, D.

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of arsenic species with platinum and porous carbon electrodes were investigated with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry in alkaline solutions. It is shown that the redox reactions in arsenic-containing solutions, due to arsenic reduction/deposition, oxidation/desorption, and electrocatalyzed oxidation by Pt can be readily distinguished with the EQCM. This approach was used to show that the arsenic redox reactions on the carbon electrode are mechanistically similar to that on the bare Pt electrode. This could not be concluded with just classical cyclic voltammetry alone due to the obfuscation of the faradaic features by the large capacitative effects of the carbon double layer. For the porous carbon electrode, a continual mass loss was always observed during potential cycling, with or without arsenic in the solution. This was attributed to electrogasification of the carbon. The apparent mass loss per cycle was observed to decrease with increasing arsenic concentration due to a net mass increase in adsorbed arsenic per cycle that increased with arsenic concentration, offsetting the carbon mass loss. Additional carbon adsorption sites involved in arsenic species interactions are created during electrogasification, thereby augmenting the net uptake of arsenic per cycle. It is demonstrated that EQCM, and in particular the information given by the behavior of the time derivative of the mass vs. potential, or massogram, is very useful for distinguishing arsenic species interactions with carbon electrodes. It may also prove to be effective for investigating redox/adsorption/desorption behavior of other species in solution with carbon materials as well. PMID:20161369

  16. Arsenic species interactions with a porous carbon electrode as determined with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morallón, Emilia; Arias-Pardilla, Joaquín; Calo, J M; Cazorla-Amorós, D

    2009-06-30

    The interactions of arsenic species with platinum and porous carbon electrodes were investigated with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry in alkaline solutions. It is shown that the redox reactions in arsenic-containing solutions, due to arsenic reduction/deposition, oxidation/desorption, and electrocatalyzed oxidation by Pt can be readily distinguished with the EQCM. This approach was used to show that the arsenic redox reactions on the carbon electrode are mechanistically similar to that on the bare Pt electrode. This could not be concluded with just classical cyclic voltammetry alone due to the obfuscation of the faradaic features by the large capacitative effects of the carbon double layer.For the porous carbon electrode, a continual mass loss was always observed during potential cycling, with or without arsenic in the solution. This was attributed to electrogasification of the carbon. The apparent mass loss per cycle was observed to decrease with increasing arsenic concentration due to a net mass increase in adsorbed arsenic per cycle that increased with arsenic concentration, offsetting the carbon mass loss. Additional carbon adsorption sites involved in arsenic species interactions are created during electrogasification, thereby augmenting the net uptake of arsenic per cycle.It is demonstrated that EQCM, and in particular the information given by the behavior of the time derivative of the mass vs. potential, or massogram, is very useful for distinguishing arsenic species interactions with carbon electrodes. It may also prove to be effective for investigating redox/adsorption/desorption behavior of other species in solution with carbon materials as well.

  17. Inductive detection of piezoelectric resonance by using a pulse NMR/NQR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Yu, I.

    1989-10-01

    An inductive excitation and detection scheme of piezoelectric resonance is shown using a conventional pulse NMR/NQR spectrometer and its associated experimental techniques. This new method has advantages over the previous capacitive scheme since the measurement does not require any electrode to be attached to the sample. For a test we investigated the piezoelectric resonance observed inductively from a 3.5-MHz AT-cut quartz crystal.

  18. Quartz crystal microbalance: a useful tool for studying thin polymer films and complex biomolecular systems at the solution-surface interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Kenneth A

    2003-01-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a simple, cost effective, high-resolution mass sensing technique, based upon the piezoelectric effect. As a methodology, the QCM evolved a solution measurement capability in largely analytical chemistry and electrochemistry applications due to its sensitive solution-surface interface measurement capability. The technique possesses a wide detection range. At the low mass end, it can detect monolayer surface coverage by small molecules or polymer films. At the upper end, it is capable of detecting much larger masses bound to the surface. These can be complex arrays of biopolymers and biomacromolecules, even whole cells. In addition, the QCM can provide information about the energy dissipating properties of the bound surface mass. Another important and unique feature of the technique is the ability to measure mass and energy dissipation properties of films while simultaneously carrying out electrochemistry on solution species or upon film systems bound to the upper electrode on the oscillating quartz crystal surface. These measurements can describe the course of electropolymerization of a film or can reveal ion or solute transport within a film during changes in the film environment or state, including the oxidation state for an electroactive film driven by the underlying surface potential. The past decade has witnessed an explosive growth in the application of the QCM technique to the study of a wide range of molecular systems at the solution-surface interface, in particular, biopolymer and biochemical systems. In this report, we start with a brief historical and technical overview. Then we discuss the application of the QCM technique to measurements involving micellar systems, self-assembling monolayers and their phase transition behavior, molecularly imprinted polymers, chemical sensors, films formed using the layer-by-layer assembly technique, and biopolymer films and point out the utility of the electrochemical

  19. Calcium aluminate silicate Ca2Al2SiO7 single crystal applicable to piezoelectric sensors at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Hagiwara, Manabu; Noguchi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Material constants of the crystal were determined over the driving temperature range of a typical combustion pressure sensor. The electrical resistivity at 800 °C was found to be of the order of 108 Ωcm. We constructed a measurement system for the direct piezoelectric effect at high temperature, and characterized the crystals in a simulated engine cylinder combustion environment. Output charge signal against applied stress was detected at 700 °C. These observations suggest that CAS crystals are superior candidate materials for high temperature for stress sensing.

  20. Direct Growth of Graphene-like Films on Single Crystal Quartz Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonau, Siarhei

    Direct growth of graphene-like (GL) films (nano-crystalline graphite films) on single crystal quartz substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from methane and molecular beam growth (MBG) is reported. The GL films have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrical measurements. Raman spectroscopy reveals nanocrystalline structure of the films grown at different conditions. The thinnest CVD grown GL films obtained so far have a thickness of 1.5 nm, a relatively rough surface structure and electrical conductivity in the range of 20 kO/square. Low temperature Hall-effect measurements performed on these films have revealed that the major charge carriers are holes with mobility of 40 cm2/Vs at room temperature. While inferior to graphene in terms of electronic properties, the graphene-like films possess very high chemical sensitivity. Study of MBG grown films revealed formation of a non-conductive carbon layer of low crystallinity on the initial stage of the growth process. In order to study the influence of the quartz substrate on the film formation process we performed ab initio simulation of the MBG process. For this simulation we used an atom-by-atom approach, which, we believe, is a closer approximation to the real molecular beam deposition process reported so far. The simulation showed that the initial formation of the film follows the atomic structure of the substrate. This leads to a high content of sp3 hybridized atoms at the initial stage of growth and explains formation of a non-conductive film. Additionally, we demonstrated how a non-conductive film becomes conductive with the increase of the film thickness. These results agree fairly well with the data obtained by AFM, electrical, and Raman measurements conducted on the films grown by MBG. High chemical sensitivity of GL films has been demonstrated by measuring the change in their conductance during exposure to a NO2-containing atmosphere. Sensitivity of CVD

  1. Piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode of lead-free BZT-BCT single crystals for torsion actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berik, P.; Chang, W.-Y.; Jiang, X.

    2017-01-01

    We report the study of piezoelectric direct torsion actuation mechanism using lead-free piezoelectric d36 in-plane shear-mode BZT-BCT single crystals. The generated angle of twist of the piezoelectric torsion actuator was obtained from the transverse deflection measurement using a laser vibrometer. The bi-morph torsional actuator, consisting of two lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT in-plane shear-mode single crystals with a giant piezoelectric d36 shear strain coefficient of 1590 pC/N, provided a rate of twist of 34.12 mm/m under a quasi-static 15 V drive. The experimental benchmark was further modelled and verified by the ANSYS software using three dimensional (3D) piezoelectric finite elements. The experimental results revealed that lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode single crystal is a superior candidate for piezoelectric torsion actuation. This lead-free piezoelectric BZT-BCT d36-mode torsion actuator can be effectively applied in torsional deformation control by taking into account the environmental considerations.

  2. Al4SiC4 wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pedesseau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al4SiC4. A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al4SiC4 material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al4SiC4 material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.

  3. Vibration energy harvester with sustainable power based on a single-crystal piezoelectric cantilever array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Kwon, Jong-Kee; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2012-08-01

    We designed and fabricated a bimorph cantilever array for sustainable power with an integrated Cu proof mass to obtain additional power and current. We fabricated a cantilever system using single-crystal piezoelectric material and compared the calculations for single and arrayed cantilevers to those obtained experimentally. The vibration energy harvester had resonant frequencies of 60.4 and 63.2 Hz for short and open circuits, respectively. The damping ratio and quality factor of the cantilever device were 0.012 and 41.66, respectively. The resonant frequency at maximum average power was 60.8 Hz. The current and highest average power of the harvester array were found to be 0.728 mA and 1.61 mW, respectively. The sustainable maximum power was obtained after slightly shifting the short-circuit frequency. In order to improve the current and power using an array of cantilevers, we also performed energy conversion experiments.

  4. Elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric characterization of single domain PIN-PMN-PT: Mn crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Shujun; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Jun; Sahul, Raffi; Cao, Wenwu; Shrout, Thomas R

    2012-12-15

    Mn modified 0.26Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-0.42Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.32PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT:Mn) single crystals with orthorhombic perovskite crystal structure were polarized along [011] direction, resulting in the single domain state "1O." The complete set of material constants was determined using the combined resonance and ultrasonic methods. The thickness shear piezoelectric coefficient d(15) and electromechanical coupling factor k(15) were found to be on the order of 3100 pC/N and 94%, respectively, much higher than longitudinal d(33) ∼ 270 pC/N and k(33) ∼ 70%. Using the single domain data, the rotated value of d(33)* along [001] direction was found to be 1230 pC/N, in agreement with the experimentally determined d(33) value of 1370 pC/N, conferring extrinsic contributions being about 10%, which was also confirmed using the Rayleigh analysis. In addition, the mechanical quality factors Q(m) were evaluated for different "1O" vibration modes, where the longitudinal Q(m) was found to be ∼1200, much higher than the value for "4O" crystals, ∼300.

  5. ESEEM of industrial quartz powders: insights into crystal chemistry of Al defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Bartali, Laura; Innocenti, Massimo; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    A set of raw industrial materials, that is, pure quartz and quartz-rich mixtures, were investigated through electron paramagnetic resonance and electron spin echo-envelope modulation spectroscopies, with the aim of evaluating the effective role played by defect centres and of assessing whether they can be used to monitor changes in the physical properties of quartz powders with reference to their health effects. The obtained results point to two interactions of the Al defect centres with H+, hosted in sites within the channels parallel and perpendicular to the c axis of quartz, respectively. These two Al/H+ (hAl) centres exhibit a weak chemical bond, and their relative amounts appear to be modified/controlled by the thermo-mechanical processes underwent by powders. Indeed, a mechanically promoted inter-conversion between the two kinds of site is suggested. As a consequence, the hAl centres are effective in monitoring even modest activations of powders, through thermal or mechanical processes, and they are also supposed to play a specific, relevant role in quartz reactivity during the considered industrial processes.

  6. Spontaneous piezoelectric effect as order parameter in (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylczyński, Z.; Wiesner, M.; Trzaskowska, A.

    2016-11-01

    Temperature change of piezoelectric properties of (NH4)2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the low-temperature ferroelastoelectric phase is studied. The macroscopic order parameter is proved to be the h36 component of the spontaneous piezoelectric tensor. The critical exponent related with the phase transition is α=0.60±0.05.

  7. Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulation of electroacoustic wave propagation in piezoelectric crystals with different symmetry class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Omar; Peña, Néstor; Ney, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Perfectly matched layer stability in 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulations is demonstrated for two piezoelectric crystals: barium sodium niobate and bismuth germanate. Stability is achieved by adapting the discretization grid to meet a central-difference scheme. Stability is demonstrated by showing that the total energy of the piezoelectric system remains constant in the steady state.

  8. Inductive effect of crystalline nucleus on the structure of its local environment in the process of quartz glass crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, V. M.; Pan'kin, D. V.; Shimko, A. A.; Kasatkin, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    The morphology and the structural and chemical properties of crystalline formations appearing on the surface of commercial quartz glasses at the beginning of the induction stage upon heating at temperatures of 1000-1300°C are studied by optical polarization microscopy, μ-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that crystalline island nuclei induce crystallization not only in the local environment of the surface layer, but also in the glass bulk at a depth of up to ≈200 μm. Crystalline nuclei in the center of islands often have an imperfect crystal structure formed by intermediate mesophases based on individual low-symmetry SiO4 tetrahedra. However, the induced phase at the periphery of these nuclei has a well-ordered crystal structure consisting mainly of α-SiO2 (quartz) and/or α-cristobalite. The proportion of these two phases depends on the glass heating temperature, namely, at 1000°C, the induced structure for the most part contains α-SiO2, while α-cristobalite dominates at 1300°C.

  9. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...... molding process was simulated in order to optimize the mold geometry and minimize the shrinkage and the warpage of the parts. MDCK-II cells were cultivated in the biosensor array. Parallel cultivation of cells on the gold surface of the QCRs led to first observations of the impact of the cell distribution...

  10. Bulk crystal growth, optical, mechanical and ferroelectric properties of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric Lithium nitrate monohydrate oxalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-01

    New semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals of Lithium nitrate oxalate monohydrate (LNO) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicated that LNO crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. Various functional groups present in the material were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-vis study showed the high transparency of crystals with a wide band gap 5.01 eV. Various Optical constants i.e. Urbach energy (Eu), extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity, electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. A sharp emission peak was found at 438 nm in photoluminescence measurement, which revealed suitability of crystal for fabricating violet lasers. In dielectric studies, a peak has been observed at 33 °C which is due to ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Piezoelectric charge coefficients (d33 = 9.2 pC/N and g33) have been calculated, which make it a suitable for piezoelectric devices applications. In ferroelectric studies, a saturated loop was found in which the values of coercive field and remnant polarization were found to be 2.18 kV/cm and 0.39 μC/cm2, respectively. Thermal behavior was studied by TGA and DSC studies. The relative SHG efficiency of LNO was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP crystal. In microhardness study, Meyer's index value was found to be 1.78 which revealed its soft nature. These optical, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, mechanical and non-linear optical properties of grown crystal establish the usefulness of this material for optoelectronics, non-volatile memory and piezoelectric devices applications.

  11. Detection of NH{sub 3} by quartz crystal microbalance coated with TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, V; Spassov, L; Gadjanova, V [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Donkov, N; Petkov, P [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chausee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: nikolaidd@abv.bg

    2008-05-01

    A quartz resonator with a thin TiO{sub 2} film is investigated in view of possible applications as a sensor for detecting the presence of ammonia in the ambient. A study of the sorption properties of thin TiO{sub 2} films to NH{sub 3} vapors is also presented. The films are deposited using electron beam evaporation. In order to determine the sorption ability of TiO{sub 2} to NH{sub 3}, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with a thin TiO{sub 2} film is used, the latter serving as a receptor for the NH{sub 3} gas. The AT-cut 16-MHz quartz resonator allows conversion of the additional mass load that occurs as a result of sorption into a frequency shift. The experiments are carried out by measuring the QCM resonant frequency shift due to the absorption of vapors from an aqueous solution of NH{sub 3} with different concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 ppm. The experimental results obtained indicate that the variation of the resonant frequency is a function of the ammonia concentration. This demonstrates that a QCM covered with a thin TiO{sub 2} layer is sensitive to ammonia vapors at room temperature and is capable of detecting NH{sub 3} concentrations in the range investigated (100-1000 ppm)

  12. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björklund, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastianbjorklund@gmail.com; Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Biofilms—Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  13. Using phonon resonances as a route to all-angle negative refraction in the far-infrared region: the case of crystal quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, R; Macêdo da Silva, R; Dumelow, T; da Costa, J A P; Honorato, S B; Ayala, A P

    2010-10-15

    We consider how all-angle negative refraction may be induced in anisotropic crystals by making use of the phonon response. We investigate the example of crystal quartz at far-infrared wavelengths. Reflection and transmission measurements confirm the expected behavior, and show relatively high transmission efficiency at frequencies at which negative refraction occurs.

  14. Optimal cuts to extract the third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostictive constants of langasite single crystals through the electroelastic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng

    2013-07-01

    Optimal cuts to determine the third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostrictive constants of langasite single crystals by the resonator method are proposed. By selecting several langasite resonators with optimal cut angles and measuring their electroelastic effects, third-order piezoelectric constants and electrostrictive constants of langasite single crystals may be extracted. The numerical method to search these optimal cut angles is presented. The methodology has been validated by finite element analysis. This method will simplify traditional methods used to determine the third-order piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants for langasite single crystals and could potentially produce more accurate results. The method could also be used to determine the third-order piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants for other crystals with trigonal 32 symmetry.

  15. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymantas J. Kazys

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer −11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space.

  16. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas J.; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz) wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer −11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space. PMID:28067807

  17. Air-Coupled Low Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Arrays with PMN-32%PT Piezoelectric Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazys, Rymantas J; Sliteris, Reimondas; Sestoke, Justina

    2017-01-06

    Air-coupled ultrasonic techniques are being increasingly used for material characterization, non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using guided waves as well as for distance measurements. Application of those techniques is mainly limited by the big losses of ultrasonic signals due to attenuation and mismatch of the acoustic impedances of ultrasonic transducers and air. One of the ways to solve this problem is by application of novel more efficient piezoelectric materials like lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) type crystals. The objective of this research was the development and investigation of low frequency (<50 kHz) wide band air-coupled ultrasonic transducers and arrays with an improved performance using PMN-32%PT crystals. Results of finite element modelling and experimental investigations of the developed transducers and arrays are presented. For improvement of the performance strip-like matching elements made of low acoustic impedance, materials such as polystyrene foams were applied. It allowed to achieve transduction losses for one single element transducer -11.4 dB, what is better than of commercially available air-coupled ultrasonic transducers. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the acoustic fields radiated by the eight element ultrasonic array demonstrated not only a good performance of the array in a pulse mode, but also very good possibilities to electronically focus and steer the ultrasonic beam in space.

  18. New method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion of inorganic crystals applied to some samples of Carpathian Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-10-15

    A new method to determine the optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) in the visible range, based on a channeled spectrum obtained with a uniax inorganic crystal introduced between two crossed polarizers with its optical axis parallel to the light propagation direction is detailed in this paper. When the studied inorganic crystals are transparent, this method permits the estimation of the optical rotatory dispersion in the visible range, for which the cheap polarizers are available. The speed of the measurements is very high, because the estimations are made from the channeled spectrum obtained for a single arrangement of the optical components. By using a computer, ORD is quickly determined for the visible range. The results obtained by this method for some Carpathian Quartz samples are consistent with those from literature. The proposed method can be also applied in UV and IR spectral ranges, when the anisotropic layers are transparent and the linearly polarized radiations can be obtained.

  19. Improved electronic interfaces for AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance sensors under variable damping and parallel capacitance conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; García, J V; Jimenez, Y; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M

    2008-07-01

    A new configuration of automatic capacitance compensation (ACC) technique based on an oscillatorlike working interface, which permits the tracking of the series resonant frequency and the monitoring of the motional resistance and the parallel capacitance of a thickness-shear mode quartz crystal microbalance sensor, is introduced. The new configuration permits an easier calibration of the system which, in principle, improves the accuracy. Experimental results are reported with 9 and 10 MHz crystals in liquids with different parallel capacitances which demonstrate the effectiveness of the capacitance compensation. Some frequency deviations from the exact series resonant frequency, measured by an impedance analyzer, are explained by the specific nonideal behavior of the circuit components. A tentative approach is proposed to solve this problem that is also common to previous ACC systems.

  20. Fully automatic spray-LBL machine with monitoring the real time growth of multilayer films using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiratori S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A fully automatic spray-LBL machine with monitoring the real time growth of multilayer films using Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM techniques was newly developed. We established fully automatic spray layer-by-layer method by precisely controlling air pressure, solution flow, and spray pattern. The movement pattern towards the substrate during solution spraying allowed fabrication of a nano-scale, flat, thin film over a wide area. Optimization of spray conditions permitted fabrication of the flat film with high and low refractive indexes, and they were piled up alternatively to constitute a one-dimensional photonic crystal with near-infrared reflection characteristics. The heat shield effect of the near-infrared reflective film was also confirmed under natural sunlight. It was demonstrated that the fabrication using the automatic spray-LBL machine and real-time QCM monitoring allows the fabrication of optical quality thin films with precise thickness.

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of streptomycin using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Bhand, Sunil

    2015-05-15

    This work presents the development of an ultrasensitive biosensor for detection of streptomycin residues in milk samples using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) technique. Monoclonal antibody specific to streptomycin was immobilized on to the thiol modified gold quartz crystal surface. A broad dynamic range (0.3-300 ng/mL) was obtained for streptomycin with a good linearity in the range 0.3-10 ng/mL for PBS and 0.3-50 ng/mL for milk. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) of the biosensor was found to be 0.994 and 0.997 for PBS and milk respectively. Excellent recoveries were obtained from the streptomycin spiked milk samples in the range 98-99.33%, which shows the applicability of the developed biosensor in milk. The reproducibility of the developed biosensor was found satisfactory with % RSD (n=5) 0.351. A good co-relation was observed between the streptomycin recoveries measured through the developed biosensor and the commercial ELISA kit. The analytical figures of merit of the developed biosensor confirm that the developed FIA-EQCN biosensor could be very effective for low-level detection of streptomycin in milk samples.

  2. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. In-line measurement of water content in ethanol using a PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-16

    An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy.

  4. α-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin John; Biela, Anna; Krause, Steffi

    2015-05-15

    α-Amylase hydrolyses starch molecules to produce smaller oligosaccharides and sugars. Amylases are of great importance in biotechnology and find application in fermentation, detergents, food and the paper industry. The measurement of α-amylase activity in serum and urine has been used in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Salivary amylase has also been shown to be a stress indicator. Sensor coatings suitable for the detection of α-amylase activity have been developed. Oligosaccharides such as glycogen and amylopectin were spin-coated onto gold coated quartz crystals with a base frequency of 10 MHz. The films were subsequently cross-linked with hexamethylene diisocyanate. Film degradation was monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance measurements. The films were shown to be stable in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Addition of α-amylase to the solution resulted in the rapid degradation of the films. The maximum rate of degradation was found to be strongly dependent on the amylase activity in the range typically found in serum when diagnosing pancreatitis (0.08-8 U/ml). Sensor responses in serum were found to be very similar to those obtained in buffer indicating the absence of non-specific binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals: photolithography and selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea); Lee, J.Y.; Park, T.S. [Research and Development Center, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was used to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM)-3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU) chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. It was found superior to positive photoresist photolithography. Quartz tuning fork blanks with optimum shock-resistant characteristics were designed using finite element method (FEM) and processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. Tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. Surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used primarily affected the quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators photolithographically. (orig.)

  6. Vacuum electrolysis of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James Claude

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure is directed to a method for processing quartz used in fabricating crystal resonators such that transient frequency change of resonators exposed to pulse irradiation is virtually eliminated. The method involves heating the crystal quartz in a hydrogen-free atmosphere while simultaneously applying an electric field in the Z-axis direction of the crystal. The electric field is maintained during the cool-down phase of the process.

  7. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun, E-mail: lijuna@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Yang [Department of chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Zhongxiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Multifunctional Electronic Materials and Device Research Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  8. New piezoelectric materials for SAW filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Adrian; Nedelcu, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Scientific research of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices had an early start by the end of 1960s and led to the development of high frequency and small size piezo devices. A sustained effort was dedicated for these components to be transformed into many more interesting applications for telecom market. Recently the employment of new piezo materials and crystallographic orientations open new opportunities for SAW filters. New piezoelectric crystals of gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) provide higher electromechanical coupling than quartz, while maintaining temperature compensated characteristics similar to quartz. Based on this material phase transition of 970°C, development of new piezo devices to operate at higher temperatures up to 800°C can be done. SAW velocities about 30% lower than ST-X quartz, favors smaller and more compact devices. Other advantages of GaPO4 are: stability with high resistance to stress induced twinning, 3~4 times higher electromechanical coupling than quartz and existence of SAW temperature compensated orientations. Another family of new materials of the trigonal 32 class has received much attention recently because of their temperature behavior similar to quartz and the promise of higher electromechanical coupling coefficients. It is the family of langasite (LGS, La3Ga5SiO14), langatate (LGT, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) and langanite (La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14). Langasite crystals, easier to obtain and with the value of electromechanical coupling coefficient intermediate between quartz and lithium tantalate (k2=0.32% for 0°, 140°, 22.5° orientation and k2=0.38% for 0°, 140°, 25° orientation), enable us to design SAW filters with a relative pass band of 0.3% to 0.85%. Other piezoelectric materials are reviewed for comparison.

  9. Application of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance to the study of electrocatalytic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.S. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    The EQCM was used to study the deposition and composition of electrodeposited pure PbO{sub 2} and Bi-doped PbO{sub 2} active toward anodic oxygen-transfer reactions. Within the doped films, Bi is incorporated as Bi{sup +5} in the form of BiO{sub 2}A, where A is ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} or NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. For deposition of these 2 materials, changes in hydration between the Au oxide and the depositing film resulted in higher mass-to-charge ratios. XRD and XPS were used to study the films; the rutile structure of PbO{sub 2} is retained even with the Bi doping. The EQCM was also used to study the formation and dissolution of Au oxide and preoxide structures formed on the Au substrate electrodes in acidic media. The preoxide structures were AuOH and increased the surface mass. For the formation of stable Au films on quartz wafers, Ti interlayers between Au and quartz was found to be very effective.

  10. Melt-inclusion-hosted excess 40Ar in quartz crystals of the Bishop and Bandelier magma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, J.A.; McIntosh, W.C.; Dunbar, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar experiments on melt-inclusion-bearing quartz (MIBQ) from the Bishop and Bandelier Tuff Plinian deposits indicate high concentrations of excess 40Ar in melt inclusions. Two rhyolite glass melt inclusion populations are present in quartz; exposed melt inclusions and trapped melt inclusions. Air-abrasion mill grinding and hydrofluoric acid treatments progressively remove exposed melt inclusions while leaving trapped melt inclusions unaffected. Laser step-heating of MIBQ yields increasing apparent ages as a function of exposed melt inclusion removal, reflecting the higher nonatmospheric 40Ar concentrations hosted in trapped melt inclusions. Exposed melt inclusion-free MIBQ from the Bishop, Upper Bandelier, and Lower Bandelier Tufts yield total-gas ages of 3.70 ?? 1.00 Ma, 11.54 ?? 0.87 Ma, and 14.60 ?? 1.50 Ma, respectively. We interpret these old apparent ages as compelling evidence for the presence of excess 40Ar in MIBQ. Trapped melt inclusions in sanidine phenocrysts may contain excess 40Ar concentrations similar to those in MIBQ. This excess 40Ar has the potential to increase single-crystal laser-fusion ages of sanidine by tens of thousands of years, relative to the actual eruption age.

  11. Lipid phase behavior studied with a quartz crystal microbalance: A technique for biophysical studies with applications in screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Astrid; Langhoff, Arne; Uhl, Eva; Dathathreyan, Aruna; Haindl, Susanne; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is emerging as a versatile tool for studying lipid phase behavior. The technique is attractive for fundamental biophysical studies as well applications because of its simplicity, flexibility, and ability to work with very small amounts of material crucial for biomedical studies. Further progress hinges on the understanding of the mechanism, by which a surface-acoustic technique such as QCM, senses lipid phase changes. Here, we use a custom-built instrument with improved sensitivity to investigate phase behavior in solid-supported lipid systems of different geometries (adsorbed liposomes and bilayers). We show that we can detect a model anesthetic (ethanol) through its effect on the lipid phase behavior. Further, through the analysis of the overtone dependence of the phase transition parameters, we show that hydrodynamic effects are important in the case of adsorbed liposomes, and viscoelasticity is significant in supported bilayers, while layer thickness changes make up the strongest contribution in both systems.

  12. Detecting cells on the surface of a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance using plasma treatment and graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Che; Yan, Tsong-Rong; Chen, Ko-Shao

    2009-10-15

    This paper utilizes a silver electrode quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) mass sensor to detect the physiology of cells. This study also investigates the plasma surface modification of silver electrode QCMs through deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSZ) films as a protection film. To improve the cell growth, this paper also performs post-treatments by surface-grafting acrylic acid (AAc), acrylamide (AAm), and oxygen plasma treatment onto the QCM electrodes. Experimental results indicate that plasma deposition is a useful technique to protect the surface of silver electrodes. This technique extends the unpeeling time of silver electrodes from 1 to 7 days. The hydrophilic silver electrode QCM surface modified by AAm exhibited a better storage time effect than other post-treatments.

  13. Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor using a 50 MHz electronic oscillator circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm(2) in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected.

  14. Development of a Mass Sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-Based DNA Biosensor Using a 50 MHz Electronic Oscillator Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Gabrielli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm2 in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid. Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected.

  15. Determination of isoelectric points and the role of pH for common quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Michael F; Poda, Aimee R; Brantley, Lauren N

    2013-05-01

    Isoelectric points (IEPs) were determined by the method of contact angle titration for five common quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors. The isoelectric points range from mildly basic in the case of Al2O3 sensors (IEP = 8.7) to moderately acidic for Au (5.2) and SiO2 (3.9), to acidic for Ag (3.2) and Ti (2.9). In general, the values reported here are indicative of inherent surface oxides. A demonstration of the effect of the surface isoelectric point on the packing efficiency of thin mucin films is provided for gold and silica QCM sensors. It is determined that mucin layers on both substrates achieve a maximum and equal layer density of ∼3500 kg/m(3) at the corresponding IEP of either QCM sensor. This implies that mucin film packing is dependent upon short-range electrostatic interactions at the sensor surface.

  16. Determination of thermodynamic parameters for enolization reaction of malonic and metylmalonic acids by using quartz crystal microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yoshimoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the process of a bromination reaction of malonic acid and methylmalonic acid in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction by using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM. The process involves an enolization reaction as a rate-determining step. We found that, in the step, the variation of Br2 concentration induced an exactly quantitative shift of a resonant frequency of the QCM, based on the change of the surface mass on the QCM and the solution viscosity and density. This new finding enabled us to estimate the reaction rate constants and the thermodynamic parameters of the enolization reaction due to a QCM measurement. The values measured by the QCM were in good agreement with those measured by a UV-spectrophotometer. As a result, we succeeded to develop a new measurement method of a nonlinear chemical reaction.

  17. Sugar nanowires based on cyclodextrin on quartz crystal microbalance for gas sensing with ultra-high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Atsushi; Maeyoshi, Yuta; Watanabe, Shogo; Saeki, Akinori; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Nanto, Hidehito; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro; Seki, Shu

    2013-03-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs), hosting selectively a wide range of guest molecules in their hydrophobic cavity, were directly fabricated into 1-dimensional nanostructures with extremely wide surface area by single particle nanofabrication technique in the present paper. The copolymers of acrylamide and mono(6-allyl)-β-CD were synthesized, and the crosslinking reaction of the polymer alloys with poly(4-bromostyrene) (PBrS) in SPNT gave nanowires on the quarts substrate with high number density of 5×109 cm-2. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement suggested 320 fold high sensitivity for formic acid vapor adsorption in the nanowire fabricated surfaces compared with that in the thin solid film of PBrS, due to the incorporation of CD units and extremely wide surface area of the nanowires.

  18. Equilibrium Water Contents of Cellulose Films Determined via Solvent Exchange and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittle, Joshua D; Du, Xiaosong; Jiang, Feng; Qian, Chen; Heinze, Thomas; Roman, Maren; Esker, Alan R

    2011-08-08

    Model cellulose surfaces have attracted increasing attention for studying interactions with cell wall matrix polymers and as substrates for enzymatic degradation studies. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) solvent exchange studies showed that the water content of regenerated cellulose (RC) films was proportional to the film thickness (d) and was consistent with about five water molecules per anhydroglucose unit. Sulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (SNC) and desulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (DNC) films had comparable water contents and contained about five times more water than RC films. A cellulase mixture served as a probe for studies of substrate accessibility and degradation. Cellulase adsorption onto RC films was independent of d, whereas degradation times increased with d. However, adsorption onto SNC and DNC films increased with d, whereas cellulase degradation times for DNC films were independent of studied d. Enhanced access to guest molecules for SNC and DNC films revealed they are more porous than RC films.

  19. Equilibrium water contents of cellulose films determined via solvent exchange and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Joshua D; Du, Xiaosong; Jiang, Feng; Qian, Chen; Heinze, Thomas; Roman, Maren; Esker, Alan R

    2011-08-08

    Model cellulose surfaces have attracted increasing attention for studying interactions with cell wall matrix polymers and as substrates for enzymatic degradation studies. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) solvent exchange studies showed that the water content of regenerated cellulose (RC) films was proportional to the film thickness (d) and was consistent with about five water molecules per anhydroglucose unit. Sulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (SNC) and desulfated nanocrystalline cellulose (DNC) films had comparable water contents and contained about five times more water than RC films. A cellulase mixture served as a probe for studies of substrate accessibility and degradation. Cellulase adsorption onto RC films was independent of d, whereas degradation times increased with d. However, adsorption onto SNC and DNC films increased with d, whereas cellulase degradation times for DNC films were independent of studied d. Enhanced access to guest molecules for SNC and DNC films revealed they are more porous than RC films.

  20. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  1. Tool wear of a single-crystal diamond tool in nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Terano, Motoki

    2015-12-01

    Tool wear characteristics of a diamond tool in ductile mode machining are presented in this paper. Nano-groove machining of a quartz glass plate was conducted to examine the tool wear rate of a single-crystal diamond tool. Effects of lubrication on the tool wear rate were also evaluated. A numerical simulation technique was developed to evaluate the tool temperature and normal stress acting on the wear surface. From the simulation results it was found that the tool temperature does not increase during the machining experiment. It is also demonstrated that tool wear is attributed to the abrasive wear mechanism, but the effect of the adhesion wear mechanism is minor in nano-groove machining. It is found that the tool wear rate is reduced by using water or kerosene as a lubricant.

  2. Small organic molecules detection based on aptamer-modified gold nanoparticles-enhanced quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Cheng, Sheng; Liu, Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Liang, Haojun

    2013-07-15

    Small molecules are difficult to detect by the conventional quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique directly because the changes in frequency resulting from the binding processes of small biomolecules are often small. In the current study, an aptamer-based gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-enhanced sensing strategy for detection of small molecules was developed. The QCM crystal was first modified with a layer of thiolated linker DNA, which can be partly base-paired with the detection part containing the adenosine aptamer sequence. In the presence of adenosine, the aptamer bound with adenosine and folded to the complex structure, which precluded the reporter part carrying AuNPs to combine with the random coiled detection part. Therefore, the lower the concentration of adenosine, the more AuNPs combined to the crystal. The resulting aptasensor showed a linear response to the increase of the adenosine concentration in the range of 0-2 μM with a linear correlation of r=0.99148 and a detection limit of 65 nM. Moreover, the aptasensor exhibited several excellent characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity, good stability, and reproducibility.

  3. Pathogen detection in complex samples by quartz crystal microbalance sensor coupled to aptamer functionalized core-shell type magnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, Veli C; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Erdem, Zehra; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance sensor (QCM) was developed for sensitive and specific detection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cells in food samples by integrating a magnetic bead purification system. Although many sensor formats based on bioaffinity agents have been developed for sensitive and specific detection of bacterial cells, the development of robust sensor applications for food samples remained a challenging issue. A viable strategy would be to integrate QCM to a pre-purification system. Here, we report a novel and sensitive high throughput strategy which combines an aptamer-based magnetic separation system for rapid enrichment of target pathogens and a QCM analysis for specific and real-time monitoring. As a proof-of-concept study, the integration of Salmonella binding aptamer immobilized magnetic beads to the aptamer-based QCM system was reported in order to develop a method for selective detection of Salmonella. Since our magnetic separation system can efficiently capture cells in a relatively short processing time (less than 10 min), feeding captured bacteria to a QCM flow cell system showed specific detection of Salmonella cells at 100 CFU mL(-1) from model food sample (i.e., milk). Subsequent treatment of the QCM crystal surface with NaOH solution regenerated the aptamer-sensor allowing each crystal to be used several times.

  4. The growth and thermal, electrical properties characterization of Ba2TiSi2O8 piezoelectric crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuoliang; Jiang, Bohan; Zheng, Yanqing; Tu, Xiaoniu; Xiong, Kainan; Gao, Pan; Shi, Erwei

    2016-10-01

    Ba2TiSi2O8 (BTS) crystals were successfully grown by the Czochralski method. The raw material ratio was optimized according to the effective segregation coefficient keff of different components in the BTS crystal. The thermal properties of the BTS crystal were systematically studied at elevated temperature, including thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. The variations of the thermal expansion coefficients α 33 and α 11 in the temperature range of 25-185 °C were small, whereas those in the temperature range of 185-1000 °C were 17.14×10-6/°C and 4.73×10-6/°C, respectively. A strong anisotropic characteristic in the thermal expansion ratio is associated with the lamellar structure of the BTS crystal. The thermal conductivity increased slowly as the temperature rises. The piezoelectric strain constant d33 of the BTS crystal was determined to be 4.5 pC/N at room temperature using a quasi-static d33 meter. The electrical resistivity of the BTS crystal was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C, the resistivity ρr of the BTS Z-cut sample was 2.06×109 Ω cm at 800 °C, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (langasite-type crystal) X-cut sample (7.15×106 Ω cm) at the same temperature. Thermal and electrical properties have shown that BTS crystal is a potential alternative material for the high temperature piezoelectric sensors.

  5. Effective antibodies immobilization and functionalized nanoparticles in a quartz-crystal microbalance-based immunosensor for the detection of parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Iannaccone, Marco; Funari, Riccardo; Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Altucci, Carlo; Capparelli, Rosanna; Roperto, Sante; Velotta, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Background Biosensor-based detection provides a rapid and low-cost alternative to conventional analytical methods for revealing the presence of the contaminants in water as well as solid matrices. Although important to be detected, small analytes (few hundreds of Daltons) are an issue in biosensing since the signal they induce in the transducer, and specifically in a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance, is undetectable. A pesticide like parathion (M = 292 Da) is a typical example of contaminant for which a signal amplification procedure is desirable. Methods/Findings The ballasting of the analyte by gold nanoparticles has been already applied to heavy target as proteins or bacteria to improve the limit of detection. In this paper, we extend the application of such a method to small analytes by showing that once the working surface of a Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been properly functionalized, a limit of detection lower than 1 ppb is reached for parathion. The effective surface functionalization is achieved by immobilizing antibodies upright oriented on the QCM gold surface by a simple photochemical technique (Photonic Immobilization Technique, PIT) based on the UV irradiation of the antibodies, whereas a simple protocol provided by the manufacturer is applied to functionalize the gold nanoparticles. Thus, in a non-competitive approach, the small analyte is made detectable by weighing it down through a “sandwich protocol” with a second antibody tethered to heavy gold nanoparticles. The immunosensor has been proved to be effective against the parathion while showing no cross reaction when a mixture of compounds very similar to parathion is analyzed. Conclusion/Significance The immunosensor described in this paper can be easily applied to any small molecule for which polyclonal antibodies are available since both the functionalization procedure of the QCM probe surface and gold nanoparticle can be applied to any IgG, thereby making our device of general

  6. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Martinez MJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Jose Santos-Martinez1–3, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak1,4, Carlos Medina1, Kamil Rahme5,6, Deirdre M D'Arcy1, Daniel Fox3, Justin D Holmes3,5, Hongzhou Zhang3, Marek Witold Radomski3,51School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, 3Center for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 5Materials and Supercritical Fluids Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 6Department of Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Applied Science, Notre Dame University, Zouk Mosbeh, LebanonAbstract: Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by

  7. Pharmacological characterization of nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation: comparison with light aggregometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Martinez, Maria J; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Medina, Carlos; Bazou, Despina; Gilmer, John F; Radomski, Marek W

    2015-01-01

    Background Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can induce platelet activation and aggregation, but the mechanisms underlying these interactions are not well understood. This could be due in part to use of devices that study platelet function under quasi-static conditions with low sensitivity to measure platelet microaggregation. Therefore, in this study we investigated the pharmacological pathways and regulators of NP-induced platelet microaggregation under flow conditions at nanoscale using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and compared the data thus obtained with those generated by light aggregometry. Methods Blood was collected from healthy volunteers, and platelet-rich plasma was obtained. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide, a potent stimulator of platelet function, and pharmacological inhibitors were used to modulate platelet microaggregation in the presence/absence of silica (10 nm and 50 nm) and polystyrene (23 nm) NPs. Light aggregometry was used to study platelet aggregation in macroscale. Optical, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to visualize platelet aggregates. Results Platelet microaggregation was enhanced by thrombin receptor-activating peptide, whereas prostacyclin, nitric oxide donors, acetylsalicylic acid, and phenanthroline, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP) blockers, were able to inhibit platelet microaggregation. NPs caused platelet microaggregation, an effect not detectable by light aggregometry. NP-induced microaggregation was attenuated by platelet inhibitors. Conclusion NP-induced platelet microaggregation appears to involve classical proaggregatory pathways (thromboxane A2-mediated and matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated) and can be regulated by endogenous (prostacyclin) and pharmacological (acetylsalicylic acid, phenanthroline, and nitric oxide donors) inhibitors of platelet function. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, but not light aggregometry, is an appropriate method for

  8. Preparation of new molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance hybride sensor system for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Ridvan; Gültekin, Aytaç; Ozcan, Ayça Atilir; Denizli, Adil; Ersöz, Arzu

    2009-04-27

    The routine measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in biological samples is a difficult analytical problem due to the low levels of the analyte and complex matrix. A new 8-OHdG imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor has been developed for selective determination of 8-OHdG in serum samples. To fulfil the desired results, we have used methacryloyl aminoantipyrine-Fe(III) [MAAP-Fe(III)] and methacryloyl histidine-Pt(II) [MAH-Pt(II)] as metal-chelating monomers via double metal coordination-chelation interactions for the preparation of additional selective molecular imprinted polymers (MIP). The study includes the measurement of binding interaction of 8-OHdG imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor, selectivity experiments and analytical performance of QCM chip. The obtained results have showed that the application of double metal-chelate monomer systems has been more effective than single metal-chelate monomer systems. In this study, the detection limit and the linear working range were found to be 0.0075 and 0.0100-3.5 microM, respectively. The affinity constant (K(affinity)) was found to be 1.54x10(5) M(-1) for 8-OHdG using MAH-Pt-8-OHdG-MAAP-Fe based thin film. Also, selectivity of prepared QCM sensor was found as being very high in the presence of competitive species. At the last step of this procedure, 8-OHdG level in blood serum which belongs to a intestinal cancer patient was determined by the prepared QCM sensor.

  9. Lubricity of gold nanocrystals on graphene measured using quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, M. S.; Tang, C.; Blue, B. T.; Hubbard, W. A.; Martini, A.; Dawson, B. D.; Ishigami, M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to test recently predicted ballistic nanofriction (ultra-low drag and enhanced lubricity) of gold nanocrystals on graphite at high surface speeds, we use the quartz microbalance technique to measure the impact of deposition of gold nanocrystals on graphene. We analyze our measurements of changes in frequency and dissipation induced by nanocrystals using a framework developed for friction of adatoms on various surfaces. We find the lubricity of gold nanocrystals on graphene to be even higher than that predicted for the ballistic nanofriction, confirming the enhanced lubricity predicted at high surface speeds. Our complementary molecular dynamics simulations indicate that such high lubricity is due to the interaction strength between gold nanocrystals and graphene being lower than previously assumed for gold nanocrystals and graphite.

  10. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of island nuclei formed at the initial stage of quartz glass crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, D. V.; Zolotarev, V. M.; Colas, M.; Cornette, J.; Evdokimova, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Island nuclei formed on a polished quartz-glass surface upon heating to 1100°C have been investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. The structural and chemical composition of islands is shown to be a central nucleus, a shell around the nucleus, and a thin peripheral ring closing this shell. The formation and growth of individual regions of an island nucleus are found to occur in several stages. The shell around the nucleus is mainly formed by α-SiO2 and α-cristobalite nanoparticles with a size ≥40 nm, whereas the α-SiO2 nanoparticles in the nucleus and peripheral ring are 2-15 nm in size.

  11. Soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto a steel surface investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and atomic force microscopy**1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States’ 2010 annual production of soybean oil exceeded 8 million metric tons, making a significant vegetable oil surplus available for new uses, particularly as a lubricant. Investigation of soybean oil and methyl oleate adsorption onto steel using a quartz crystal microbalance with diss...

  12. Measuring Enthalpy of Sublimation of Volatiles by Means of Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Zampetti, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Piezoelectric Crystal Microbalances (PCM's) are widely used to study the chemical processes involving volatile compounds in any environment, such as condensation process. Since PCM's are miniaturized sensor, they are very suitable for planetary in situ missions, where can be used to detect and to measure the mass amount of astrobiologically significant compounds, such as water and organics. This work focuses on the realization and testing of a new experimental setup, able to characterize volatiles which can be found in a planetary environment. In particular the enthalpy of sublimation of some dicarboxylic acids has been measured. The importance of dicarboxylic acids in planetology and astrobiology is due to the fact that they have been detected in carbonaceous chondritic material (e.g. Murchinson), among the most pristine material present in our Solar System. In this work, a sample of acid was heated in an effusion cell up to its sublimation. For a set of temperatures (from 30 °C to 75 °C), the deposition rate on the PCM surface has been measured. From these measurements, it has been possible to infer the enthalpy of sublimation of Adipic acid, i.e. ΔH = 141.6 ± 0.8 kJ/mol and Succinic acid, i.e. ΔH = 113.3 ± 1.3 kJ/mol. This technique has so demonstrated to be a good choice to recognise a single compound or a mixture (with an analysis upstream) even if some improvements concerning the thermal stabilization of the system will be implemented in order to enhance the results' accuracy. The experiment has been performed in support of the VISTA (Volatile In Situ Thermogravimetry Analyzer) project, which is included in the scientific payload of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission study.

  13. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcic, Bobby, E-mail: Bobby.Pejcic@csiro.au [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Crooke, Emma [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Doherty, Cara M.; Hill, Anita J. [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Locked Bag 33, Clayton Sth MDC, Vic 3169 (Australia); Myers, Matthew [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew [CSIRO, Earth Science and Resource Engineering, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} The response of a polymer coated QCM sensor is affected by water soaking time. {yields} Polymer-water interfacial processes influence the QCM sensitivity for hydrocarbons. {yields} The QCM sensitivity of high Tg polymer films is affected by plasticization processes. - Abstract: Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably

  14. Determination of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of an R: BaTiO3 single crystal by Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiao-Kang; Zeng Li-Bo; Wu Qiong-Shui; Zhang Li-Yan; Zhu Ke; Liu Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    From the sound velocity measured using the Brillouin scattering technique,the elastic,piezoelectric,and dielectric constants of a high-quality monodomain tetragonal Rh:BaTiO3 single crystal are determined at room temperature.The elastic constants are in fairly good agreement with those of the BaTiO3 single crystal,measured previously by Brillouin scattering and the low-frequency equivalent circuit methods.However,their electromechanical properties are significantly different.Based on the sound propagation equations and these results,the directional dependence of the compressional modulus and the shear modulus of Rh:BaTiO3 in the (010) plane is investigated.Some properties of sound propagation and electromechanical coupling in the crystal are discussed.

  15. High-temperature piezoelectric single crystal ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) for sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Fei, Yiting; Frantz, Eric; Snyder, David W; Chai, Bruce H T; Shrout, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Large-size and high-quality ReCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (ReCOB, Re = rare earth) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski pulling method. In this work, the electrical properties were investigated at room temperature and elevated temperature for YCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (YCOB). The dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric strain coefficient, and electromechanical coupling were found to be on the order of 11, 6.5 pC/N, and 12.5%, respectively, with a high piezoelectric voltage coefficient around 0.067 Vm/N. The electrical resistivity of YCOB was found to be 2 x 10(8) Ohm.m at 800 degrees C, with Q values of 4,500 at 950 degrees C. The frequency/temperature coefficient of YCOB was found to be -75 to -85ppm/K in the temperature range of 30 to 950 degrees C, depending on the crystal orientations. Together with their temperature-independent properties, ReCOB crystals are promising candidates for sensing applications at elevated temperatures.

  16. Investigations on nucleation, HRXRD, optical, piezoelectric, polarizability and Z-scan analysis of L-arginine maleate dihydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthy Priya, S.; Alexandar, A.; Surendran, P.; Lakshmanan, A.; Rameshkumar, P.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2017-04-01

    An efficient organic nonlinear optical single crystal of L-arginine maleate dihydrate (LAMD) has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and slow cooling technique (SCT). The crystalline perfection of the crystal was examined using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) analysis. Photoluminescence study confirmed the optical properties and defects level in the crystal lattice. Electromechanical behaviour was observed using piezoelectric co-efficient (d33) analysis. The photoconductivity analysis confirmed the negative photoconducting nature of the material. The dielectric constant and loss were measured as a function of frequency with varying temperature and vice-versa. The laser damage threshold (LDT) measurement was carried out using Nd:YAG Laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm (Focal length is 35 cm) and the obtained results showed that LDT value of the crystal is high compared to KDP crystal. The high laser damage threshold of the grown crystal makes it a potential candidate for second and higher order nonlinear optical device application. The third order nonlinear optical parameters of LAMD crystal is determined by open-aperture and closed-aperture studies using Z-scan technique. The third order linear and nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index (n2), two photon absorption coefficient (β), Real part (Reχ3) and imaginary part (Imχ3) of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility are calculated.

  17. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with functionally graded interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li

    2016-08-01

    The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps.

  18. Mercury Sorption and Desorption on Gold: A Comparative Analysis of Surface Acoustic Wave and Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, K M Mohibul; Sabri, Ylias M; Esmaielzadeh Kandjani, Ahmad; Matthews, Glenn I; Field, Matthew; Jones, Lathe A; Nafady, Ayman; Ippolito, Samuel J; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-08-04

    Microelectromechanical sensors based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers possess substantial potential as online elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor detectors in industrial stack effluents. In this study, a comparison of SAW- and QCM-based sensors is performed for the detection of low concentrations of Hg(0) vapor (ranging from 24 to 365 ppbv). Experimental measurements and finite element method (FEM) simulations allow the comparison of these sensors with regard to their sensitivity, sorption and desorption characteristics, and response time following Hg(0) vapor exposure at various operating temperatures ranging from 35 to 75 °C. Both of the sensors were fabricated on quartz substrates (ST and AT cut quartz for SAW and QCM devices, respectively) and employed thin gold (Au) layers as the electrodes. The SAW-based sensor exhibited up to ∼111 and ∼39 times higher response magnitudes than did the QCM-based sensor at 35 and 55 °C, respectively, when exposed to Hg(0) vapor concentrations ranging from 24 to 365 ppbv. The Hg(0) sorption and desorption calibration curves of both sensors were found to fit well with the Langmuir extension isotherm at different operating temperatures. Furthermore, the Hg(0) sorption and desorption rate demonstrated by the SAW-based sensor was found to decrease as the operating temperature increased, while the opposite trend was observed for the QCM-based sensor. However, the SAW-based sensor reached the maximum Hg(0) sorption rate faster than the QCM-based sensor regardless of operating temperature, whereas both sensors showed similar response times (t90) at various temperatures. Additionally, the sorption rate data was utilized in this study in order to obtain a faster response time from the sensor upon exposure to Hg(0) vapor. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the developed sensors' selectivity showed that the SAW-based sensor had a higher overall selectivity (90%) than did the QCM

  19. The anisotropy of the basic characteristics of Lamb waves in a (001)-Bi12SiO20 piezoelectric crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimkin, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    The orientation dependences of the phase velocity, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, and the angle between the wave normal and the energy flux vector are numerically calculated for zeroand first-order Lamb waves propagating in the (001) basal plane of a Bi12SiO20 cubic piezoelectric crystal. It is shown that the anisotropies of these modes are different and depend on the plate thickness h and the wavelength λ. For h/λ 1, it approximately coincides with the SAW anisotropy for all the characteristics.

  20. Piezoelectric La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5.3}Ta{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 14} crystal: growth, crystal structure perfection, piezoelectric, and acoustic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Irzhak, Dmitry; Emelin, Evgenii; Fahrtdinov, Rashid [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay Cedex (France); Alenkov, Vladimir; Buzanov, Oleg [FOMOS Materials Co., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    A five-component crystal of lanthanum-gallium silicate group La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5.3}Ta{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 14} (LGTA) was grown by the Czochralski method. The LGTA crystal possesses unique thermal properties and substitution of Al for Ga in the unit cell leads to a substantial increase of electrical resistance at high temperatures. The unit cell parameters of LGTA were determined by powder diffraction. X-ray topography was used to study the crystal structure perfection: the growth banding normal to the growth axis were visualized. The independent piezoelectric constants d{sub 11} and d{sub 14} were measured by X-ray diffraction in the Bragg and Laue geometries. Excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves were studied by the double-crystal X-ray diffraction at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The analysis of the diffraction spectra of acoustically modulated crystals permitted the determination of the velocity of acoustic wave propagation and the power flow angles in different acoustic cuts of the LGTA crystal. (orig.)

  1. Preparation of piezoelectric quartz film material by plasma spraying and its performance analysis%等离子喷涂制备压电石英膜材料及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 陈文革; 王艳丽; 赵姗姗; 卓磊

    2012-01-01

    SiO2 films were successfully prepared by plasma spraying technique. The microstructure and properties of thick films were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the phase structure of SiO2 piezoelectric thick film are mainly composed of α-quartz and α-cristobalite. But the prepared SiO2 piezoelectric thick film is characterized by larger pores, the larger defect density and low density. Piezoelectric constant d33 and dielectric constant ε, increases with SiO2 film thickness, dielectric loss tanδ decreases with SiO2 film thickness. Dielectric constant ε,and dielectric loss lanδ and mechanical quaility factor Q increases with the increase of frequency. When the thickness of SiO2 film is S mm, the maximum piezoelectric constant d33 reaches 2.3 pC/N.%采用大气等离子喷涂技术制备SiO2膜压电材料,利用XRD和SEM研究其组织结构,同时对其介电常数ε、介电损耗tanδ、压电常数d33、机械品质因数Q等性能进行测试.结果表明:采用大气等离子喷涂工艺可制备出相结构主要由α-石英和α-方石英共同组成组织较为致密、缺陷较多的SiO2压电膜,压电常数d33和介电常数E,随膜厚度的增加而增加,介电损耗tanδ随膜厚度的增加而减小;介电常数ε1、介电损耗tanδ、机械品质因数Q随频率的增加而减小,当SiO2膜厚为5mm,压电常数d33最大值为2.3pC/N.

  2. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Wei, E-mail: weiqiang.tju@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Yu, Bai [Beijing Institute of Spacecrafts Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO{sub 2} by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film the anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO{sub 2} via sol–gel methods. Results

  3. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study on the two-electrode-system cyclic voltammetric behavior of Prussian blue films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A two-channel electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) was used to investigate the cyclic voltammetric behavior of two Prussian blue (PB) film-modified Au electrodes in a two-electrode con-figuration in aqueous solution. The redox peaks observed in the two-electrode cyclic voltammogram (CV) are assigned to the intrinsic redox transitions among the Everitt’s salt, PB, and Prussian yellow for the film itself, the redox process of the Au substrate and the redox process of small-quantity ferri-/ferrocyanide impurities entrapped in the PB film, as also supported by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroelectrochemical data. The profile of the two-electrode solid-state CV for the PB powder sand-wiched between two gold-coated indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes is similar to that for two PB-modified Au electrodes in aqueous solution, implying similar origins for the corresponding redox peaks. The two-channel EQCM method is expected to become a highly effective technique for the studies of the two-electrode electrochemical behaviors of many other species/materials.

  4. A novel dendritic surfactant for enhanced microcystin-LR detection by double amplification in a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuetong; Zhang, Jianping; Jiang, Long

    2011-08-01

    Enhanced sensitivity for the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was achieved in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) system via double amplification. For primary amplification, an innovative interface on the QCM was obtained as a matrix by the vesicle layer formed by our synthetic dendritic surfactant, bis (amidoethyl-carbamoylethyl) octadecylamine (C18N3). The vesicle matrix was then functionalised by an optimised concentration of monoclonal antibodies against MC-LR (anti-MC-LR) to detect the analyte. The results showed that a detection limit of 100 ng/mL was achieved by primary amplification. To achieve higher sensitivity, secondary amplification was implemented with anti-MC-LR gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) conjugates as probes, which lowered the detection limit for MC-LR to 1 ng/mL (the maximum concentration recommended by the World Health Organization [WHO] in drinking water for humans). The QCM immunosensor reported here has advantages such as high sensitivity, portability, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness for MC-LR detection. It would be uniquely superior compared with current MC-LR detection techniques for on-the-spot water detection. Furthermore, the methodology described here is also potentially significant in many fields for the routine monitoring of environmental and food safety.

  5. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti, stainless steel (SUS, zirconia (ZrO2 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  6. Biomolecular interactions and tools for their recognition: focus on the quartz crystal microbalance and its diverse surface chemistries and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cathy I; Chang, Yi-Pin; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2012-03-07

    Interactions between molecules are ubiquitous and occur in our bodies, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and myriad additional contexts. Although numerous tools are available for the recognition of biomolecular interactions, such tools are often limited in their sensitivity, expensive, and difficult to modify for various uses. In contrast, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has sub-nanogram detection capabilities, is label-free, is inexpensive to create, and can be readily modified with a number of diverse surface chemistries to detect and characterize diverse interactions. To maximize the versatility of the QCM, scientists need to know available methods by which QCM surfaces can be modified. Therefore, in addition to summarizing the various tools currently used for biomolecular recognition, explicating the fundamental principles of the QCM as a tool for biomolecular recognition, and comparing the QCM with other acoustic sensors, we systematically review the numerous types of surface chemistries-including hydrophobic bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, self-assembled monolayers, plasma-polymerized films, photochemistry, and sensing ionic liquids-used to functionalize QCMs for various purposes. We also review the QCM's diverse applications, which include the detection of gaseous species, detection of carbohydrates, detection of nucleic acids, detection of non-enzymatic proteins, characterization of enzymatic activity, detection of antigens and antibodies, detection of cells, and detection of drugs. Finally, we discuss the ultimate goals of and potential barriers to the development of future QCMs.

  7. Colloidal Stability and Magnetic Field-Induced Ordering of Magnetorheological Fluids Studied with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rodriguez-López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the use of quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs as a method to analyze and characterize magnetorheological (MR fluids. QCM devices are sensitive to changes in mass, surface interactions, and viscoelastic properties of the medium contacting its surface. These features make the QCM suitable to study MR fluids and their response to variable environmental conditions. MR fluids change their structure and viscoelastic properties under the action of an external magnetic field, this change being determined by the particle volume fraction, the magnetic field strength, and the presence of thixotropic agents among other factors. In this work, the measurement of the resonance parameters (resonance frequency and dissipation factor of a QCM are used to analyze the behavior of MR fluids in static conditions (that is, in the absence of external mechanical stresses. The influence of sedimentation under gravity and the application of magnetic fields on the shifts of resonance frequency and dissipation factor were measured and discussed in the frame of the coupled resonance produced by particles touching the QCM surface. Furthermore, the MR-fluid/QCM system has a great potential for the study of high-frequency contact mechanics because the translational and rotational stiffness of the link between the surface and the particles can be tuned by the magnetic field.

  8. Real-time monitoring of peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein using quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenerbein, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)]. E-mail: andreas.huenerbein@pharmazie.uni-halle.de; Schmelzer, Christian E.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Neubert, Reinhard H.H. [Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2007-02-12

    In this study peptic and tryptic digestions of bovine {beta}-casein were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). {beta}-Casein, which was used as a model protein, was immobilized on the surface of the QCM sensor where its degradation caused shifts in the resonant frequency. Atomic force microscopy was applied for the characterization of the protein layer. Different pH-values for peptic or tryptic digestions were chosen to visualize their effect on enzyme activity. Lower frequency shifts were observed at pH-values deviating from those at the maximum enzyme activity. In the case of the peptic digestion the frequency shift at pH 4 was more than 10 times smaller than those at pH 2. The frequency shifts for tryptic digestions at pH 5.4 and pH 6.4 were about two thirds compared to that obtained for the digestion at pH 7.4. The identification of peptides using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry was used for verification of the proteolyses of the immobilized protein. Furthermore, it was shown that the QCM technique allows close observation of the effect of different pH-values on the immobilized casein layer. All in all, QCM facilitates the monitoring of the progress of enzymatic reactions in real-time.

  9. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Hanna A; Kunze, Angelika; Carlsson, Nils; Altgärde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Nordén, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  10. Determination of functionalized gold nanoparticles incorporated in hydrophilic and hydrophobic microenvironments by surface modification of quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tsui-Hsun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Shu-Chuan [Center of Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ying-Fang [Department of Dentistry, Yun-Lin Branch, National Taiwan University Hospital, Dou-Liu, Yun-Lin, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-You [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Yi-Syuan [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju, E-mail: sjt@cgu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa, 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 133, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Ko-Shao, E-mail: kschen@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan North Road, 3rd Section, Taipei 104, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this study, plasma deposition methods were used to immobilize Au electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to create different microenvironments for mass measurement of various modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs were modified by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and 1-decanethiol (DCT) for potential applications to drug release, protective coatings, and immunosensors. We aimed to develop a highly sensitive and reliable method to quantify the mass of various modified AuNPs. The surface of AuNPs and Au electrode was coated with polymer films, as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Measurements obtained for various AuNPs and the plasma-treated surface of the Au electrode were compared with those obtained for an untreated Au electrode. According to the resonant frequency shift of QCM, a linear relationship was observed that significantly differed for AuNPs, MUA-AuNPs, and DCT-AuNPs (R{sup 2} range, 0.94–0.965, 0.934–0.972, and 0.874–0.9514, respectively). Compared to inductively coupled plasma and micro-computerized tomography, the QCM method with plasma treatment has advantages of real-time monitoring, greater sensitivity, and lower cost. Our results demonstrate that surface modifications measured by a QCM system for various modified AuNPs were reliable.

  11. Functionalized biocompatible polyelectrolyte multilayers for drug delivery: In situ investigation of mechanical properties by dissipative quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibi, Neda [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pastorino, Laura, E-mail: laura.pastorino@unige.it [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Ruggiero, Carmelina [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genova, Genova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured polymeric capsules have been applied in different fields, and specifically are regarded as promising for smart drug delivery applications. The physical–chemical and mechanical properties, and thus the permeability of the polyelectrolyte multilayer shell, play an important role in efficient delivery. Quartz crystal microbalance working in liquid has been used for the characterization of the buildup process and of the viscoelastic properties of biocompatible multilayers and of their functionalization by S-layer proteins. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have been used for the morphological characterization of nanostructured capsules obtained at physiological conditions by the assembly of the characterized multilayers onto spherical cores and by their subsequent removal. The proposed functionalized biocompatible capsules can be regarded as promising candidates for smart drug delivery applications. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of nanostructured polymeric capsules made by 4 bilayers of collagen/alginate at pH 7.4. - Highlights: • Build-up of biocompatible multilayers and functionalization by S-layer proteins • Characterization of multilayer growth and mechanical properties by QCM • Fabrication of S-layer functionalized biocompatible capsules.

  12. Interaction between Heparin and Fibronectin:Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation, Immunochemistry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guicai; WANG Caiping; YANG Ping; ZHOU Jie; ZHU Pingchuan

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of heparin and ifbronectin was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and the interaction between heparin and fibronectin was evaluated using immunochemistry and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurement. The results showed that there was competitive adsorption between heparin and fibronectin, and the preadsorption of fibronectin could prevent subsequent heparin adsorption to some extent, and the adsorbed Hep/Fn complex on the surface was in a rigid form. The bioactivity of heparin and ifbronectin could be affected by the bulk concentration of each, and both heparin and ifbronectin in Hep/Fn complex formed under pH 4 condition displayed larger bioactivity than that formed under pH 7 condition. Moreover, the ifbronectin showed more exposed cell-binding sites at the pH value lower than physiological condition. The results of ITC further suggested that the interaction between heparin and ifbronectin under pH 4 was stronger than under pH 7, and the complex was also more stable. The study brings forth the detailed interaction between heparin and ifbronectin, which will be helpful for better understanding the interaction mechanism of the two biomolecules. The results may be potentially useful for the development of new generation of cardiovascular biomaterials.

  13. The use of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) for studying nanoparticle-induced platelet aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona; Medina, Carlos; Rahme, Kamil; D’Arcy, Deirdre M; Fox, Daniel; Holmes, Justin D; Zhang, Hongzhou; Radomski, Marek Witold

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between blood platelets and nanoparticles have both pharmacological and toxicological significance and may lead to platelet activation and aggregation. Platelet aggregation is usually studied using light aggregometer that neither mimics the conditions found in human microvasculature nor detects microaggregates. A new method for the measurement of platelet microaggregation under flow conditions using a commercially available quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) has recently been developed. The aim of the current study was to investigate if QCM-D could be used for the measurement of nanoparticle-platelet interactions. Silica, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticles were tested. The interactions were also studied using light aggregometry and flow cytometry, which measured surface abundance of platelet receptors. Platelet activation was imaged using phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. QCM-D was able to measure nanoparticle-induced platelet microaggregation for all nanoparticles tested at concentrations that were undetectable by light aggregometry and flow cytometry. Microaggregates were measured by changes in frequency and dissipation, and the presence of platelets on the sensor surface was confirmed and imaged by phase contrast and scanning helium ion microscopy. PMID:22275839

  14. Study of the Interaction of Trastuzumab and SKOV3 Epithelial Cancer Cells Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Elmlund

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods founded upon whole cell-based assays are of importance in early stage drug development and in fundamental studies of biomolecular recognition. Here we have studied the binding of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 on human ovary adenocarcinoma epithelial cancer cells (SKOV3 using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technology. An optimized procedure for immobilizing the cells on the chip surface was established with respect to fixation procedure and seeding density. Trastuzumab binding to the cell decorated sensor surface was studied, revealing a mean dissociation constant, KD, value of 7 ± 1 nM (standard error of the mean. This study provides a new perspective on the affinity of the antibody-receptor complex presented a more natural context compared to purified receptors. These results demonstrate the potential for using whole cell-based QCM assay in drug development, the screening of HER2 selective antibody-based drug candidates, and for the study of biomolecular recognition. This real time, label free approach for studying interactions with target receptors present in their natural environment afforded sensitive and detailed kinetic information about the binding of the analyte to the target.

  15. Plasma proteins adsorption mechanism on polyethylene-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) surface by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Ji, Xiangling; Stagnaro, Paola

    2013-06-04

    Protein adsorption has a vital role in biomaterial surface science because it is directly related to the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting materials. In this study, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) with two different molecular weights was grafted on polyethylene as a model to elucidate the adsorption mechanisms of plasma protein through quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Combined with data from platelet adhesion, whole blood clotting time, and hemolysis rate, the blood compatibility of PE-g-mPEG film was found to have significantly improved. Two adsorption schemes were developed for real-time monitoring of protein adsorption. Results showed that the preadsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces of PE-g-mPEG films could effectively inhibit subsequent adsorption of fibrinogen (Fib). Nonspecific protein adsorption of BSA was determined by surface coverage, not by the chain length of PEG. Dense PEG brush could release more trapped water molecules to resist BSA adsorption. Moreover, the preadsorbed Fib could be gradually displaced by high-concentration BSA. However, the adsorption and displacement of Fib was determined by surface hydrophilicity.

  16. Microscopic insight into role of protein flexibility during ion exchange chromatography by nuclear magnetic resonance and quartz crystal microbalance approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dongxia; Ge, Jia; Huang, Yongdong; Zhao, Lan; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-03-18

    Driven by the prevalent use of ion exchange chromatography (IEC) for polishing therapeutic proteins, many rules have been formulated to summarize the different dependencies between chromatographic data and various operational parameters of interest based on statically determined interactions. However, the effects of the unfolding of protein structures and conformational stability are not as well understood. This study focuses on how the flexibility of proteins perturbs retention behavior at the molecular scale using microscopic characterization approaches, including hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange detected by NMR and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The results showed that a series of chromatographic retention parameters depended significantly on the adiabatic compressibility and structural flexibility of the protein. That is, softer proteins with higher flexibility tended to have longer retention times and stronger affinities on SP Sepharose adsorbents. Tracing the underlying molecular mechanism using NMR and QCM indicated that an easily unfolded flexible protein with a more compact adsorption layer might contribute to the longer retention time on adsorbents. The use of NMR and QCM provided a previously unreported approach for elucidating the effect of protein structural flexibility on binding in IEC systems.

  17. A combined experimental and theoretical study on the immunoassay of human immunoglobulin using a quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Po-Jen; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Chao, Sheng D; Chang, Hung-Chi; Huang, Kuan-Rong; Wu, Kuang-Chong; Wung, Tzong-Shyan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a immunoassay biosensor that employs a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to detect the specific binding reaction of the (Human IgG1)-(Anti-Human IgG1) protein pair under physiological conditions. In addition to experiments, a three dimensional time domain finite element method (FEM) was used to perform simulations for the biomolecular binding reaction in microfluidic channels. In particular, we discuss the unsteady convective diffusion in the transportation tube, which conveys the buffer solution containing the analyte molecules into the micro-channel where the QCM sensor lies. It is found that the distribution of the analyte concentration in the tube is strongly affected by the flow field, yielding large discrepancies between the simulations and experimental results. Our analysis shows that the conventional assumption of the analyte concentration in the inlet of the micro-channel being uniform and constant in time is inadequate. In addition, we also show that the commonly used procedure in kinetic analysis for estimating binding rate constants from the experimental data would underestimate these rate constants due to neglected diffusion processes from the inlet to the reaction surface. A calibration procedure is proposed to supplement the basic kinetic analysis, thus yielding better consistency with experiments.

  18. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Immunoassay of Human Immunoglobulin Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Shian Chang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a immunoassay biosensor that employs a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM to detect the specific binding reaction of the (Human IgG1-(Anti-Human IgG1 protein pair under physiological conditions. In addition to experiments, a three dimensional time domain finite element method (FEM was used to perform simulations for the biomolecular binding reaction in microfluidic channels. In particular, we discuss the unsteady convective diffusion in the transportation tube, which conveys the buffer solution containing the analyte molecules into the micro-channel where the QCM sensor lies. It is found that the distribution of the analyte concentration in the tube is strongly affected by the flow field, yielding large discrepancies between the simulations and experimental results. Our analysis shows that the conventional assumption of the analyte concentration in the inlet of the micro-channel being uniform and constant in time is inadequate. In addition, we also show that the commonly used procedure in kinetic analysis for estimating binding rate constants from the experimental data would underestimate these rate constants due to neglected diffusion processes from the inlet to the reaction surface. A calibration procedure is proposed to supplement the basic kinetic analysis, thus yielding better consistency with experiments.

  19. Ultra-sensitive detection of zinc oxide nanowires using a quartz crystal microbalance and phosphoric acid DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kuewhan; You, Juneseok; Park, Chanhoo; Park, Hyunjun; Choi, Jaeyeong; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Park, Jinsung; Lee, Howon; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-09-01

    Recent advancements of nanomaterials have inspired numerous scientific and industrial applications. Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) is one of the most important nanomaterials due to their extraordinary properties. However, studies performed over the past decade have reported toxicity of ZnO NWs. Therefore, there has been increasing demand for effective detection of ZnO NWs. In this study, we propose a method for the detection of ZnO NW using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and DNA probes. The detection method is based on the covalent interaction between ZnO NWs and the phosphoric acid group of single-stranded DNA (i.e., linker DNA), and DNA hybridization between the linker DNA and the probe DNA strand on the QCM electrode. Rapid, high sensitivity, in situ detection of ZnO NWs was demonstrated for the first time. The limit of detection was 10-4 μg ml-1 in deionized water, which represents a sensitivity that is 100000 times higher than the toxic ZnO NW concentration level. Moreover, the selectivity of the ZnO NW detection method was demonstrated by comparison with other types of nanowires and the method was able to detect ZnO NWs in tap water sensitively even after stored for 14 d in a refrigerator. The performance of our proposed method was sufficient to achieve detection of ZnO NW in the ‘real-world’ environment.

  20. Combined Bacteria Microarray and Quartz Crystal Microbalance Approach for Exploring Glycosignatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Recognition by Host Lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalograiaki, Ioanna; Euba, Begoña; Proverbio, Davide; Campanero-Rhodes, María A; Aastrup, Teodor; Garmendia, Junkal; Solís, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    Recognition of bacterial surface epitopes by host receptors plays an important role in the infectious process and is intimately associated with bacterial virulence. Delineation of bacteria-host interactions commonly relies on the detection of binding events between purified bacteria- and host-target molecules. In this work, we describe a combined microarray and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) approach for the analysis of carbohydrate-mediated interactions directly on the bacterial surface, thus preserving the native environment of the bacterial targets. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was selected as a model pathogenic species not displaying a polysaccharide capsule or O-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide, a trait commonly found in several important respiratory pathogens. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of NTHi microarrays for exploring the presence of carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface. Furthermore, the microarray approach is shown to be efficient for detecting strain-selective binding of three innate immune lectins, namely, surfactant protein D, human galectin-8, and Siglec-14, to different NTHi clinical isolates. In parallel, QCM bacteria-chips were developed for the analysis of lectin-binding kinetics and affinity. This novel QCM approach involves capture of NTHi on lectin-derivatized chips followed by formaldehyde fixation, rendering the bacteria an integrated part of the sensor chip, and subsequent binding assays with label-free lectins. The binding parameters obtained for selected NTHi-lectin pairs provide further insights into the interactions occurring at the bacterial surface.

  1. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A

    2014-04-18

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  2. In situ NMR and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance techniques reveal the structure of the electrical double layer in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Tsai, Wan-Yu; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Grey, Clare P

    2015-08-01

    Supercapacitors store charge through the electrosorption of ions on microporous electrodes. Despite major efforts to understand this phenomenon, a molecular-level picture of the electrical double layer in working devices is still lacking as few techniques can selectively observe the ionic species at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Here, we use in situ NMR to directly quantify the populations of anionic and cationic species within a working microporous carbon supercapacitor electrode. Our results show that charge storage mechanisms are different for positively and negatively polarized electrodes for the electrolyte tetraethylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile; for positive polarization charging proceeds by exchange of the cations for anions, whereas for negative polarization, cation adsorption dominates. In situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements support the NMR results and indicate that adsorbed ions are only partially solvated. These results provide new molecular-level insight, with the methodology offering exciting possibilities for the study of pore/ion size, desolvation and other effects on charge storage in supercapacitors.

  3. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  4. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  5. Adsorption of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles within layer-by-layer films: a kinetic study carried out using quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Gustavo B; Paterno, Leonardo G; Afonso, André S; Faria, Ronaldo C; Pereira-da-Silva, Marcelo A; Morais, Paulo C; Soler, Maria A G

    2011-12-28

    The paper reports on the successful use of the quartz crystal microbalance technique to assess accurate kinetics and equilibrium parameters regarding the investigation of in situ adsorption of nanosized cobalt ferrite particles (CoFe(2)O(4)--10.5 nm-diameter) onto two different surfaces. Firstly, a single layer of nanoparticles was deposited onto the surface provided by the gold-coated quartz resonator functionalized with sodium 3-mercapto propanesulfonate (3-MPS). Secondly, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was used to build multilayers in which the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle-based layer alternates with the sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) layer. The adsorption experiments were conducted by modulating the number of adsorbed CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers (n) and/or by changing the CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration while suspended as a stable colloidal dispersion. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles onto the 3-MPS-functionalized surface follows perfectly a first order kinetic process in a wide range (two orders of magnitude) of nanoparticle concentrations. These data were used to assess the equilibrium constant and the adsorption free energy. Alternatively, the Langmuir adsorption constant was obtained while analyzing the isotherm data at the equilibrium. Adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles while growing multilayers of CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS was conducted using colloidal suspensions with CoFe(2)O(4) concentration in the range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) (moles of cobalt ferrite per litre) and for different numbers of cycles n = 1, 3, 5, and 10. We found the adsorption of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles within the CoFe(2)O(4)/PSS bilayers perfectly following a first order kinetic process, with the characteristic rate constant growing with the increase of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticle concentration and decreasing with the rise of the number of LbL cycles (n). Additionally, atomic force microscopy was employed for assessing the LbL film roughness and thickness. We found the film

  6. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Dan [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Lange, Sigrun [University College London School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Inal, Jameel, E-mail: j.inal@londonmet.ac.uk [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Microvesiculating cells record loss of mass on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. • Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance microvesicles are measured at 0.24 pg. • The QCM-D reveals loss in viscoelastic properties in microvesiculating cells. - Abstract: Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60 min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250 nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7 min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20 Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36 × 10{sup 6} MVs, was calculated to be 23 ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24 pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5 × 10{sup 7} MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235 pg per MV.

  7. Growth and characterization of the La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 piezoelectric single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Renqin; Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Shi, Zibin; Sun, Dunlu; Wang, Jiyang

    2017-01-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 (LGFS) was grown by the Czochralski method firstly. Its structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement to the X-ray diffraction. The effective segregation coefficient k eff of Fe in the LGFS was determined to be 0.6. The cost of LGFS is reduced due to the doping of cheap Fe. The crystal density was measured to be 5.7 g cm-3 by the buoyancy method. The defect structure of LGFS crystal was investigated by the chemical etching with 85% H2SO4 etchant. Dislocation etching pit patterns of LGFS crystal are consistent with the corresponding atomic arrangement schematics. Compared with LGS, LGN, LGT, and LGAS crystal, the LGFS crystal exhibits outstanding dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and ɛ 11, ɛ 33, d 11, and d 14 are 20.86, 51.99, 6.5 pC/N, and -5.10 pC/N, respectively. Therefore, LGFS may be a new potential piezoelectric crystal with high performance and low expense.

  8. Growth and piezoelectric properties of Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 crystals with langasite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Kainan; Zheng, Yanqing; Tu, Xiaoniu; Jiang, Bohan; Cao, Shuoliang; Shi, Erwei

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric crystals Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 (CNAGS) with langasite structure have been successfully grown by Czochralski method. In this work, the crystal structure, quality, chemical composition, piezoelectric properties, electric resistivity and optical properties of the as-grown crystals were characterized. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve of CNAGS was found to be 23″. The chemical compositions of CNAGS crystals are very close to that of initial compositions. At room temperature, the piezoelectric coefficients d11 and d14 of CNAGS crystals are 4.12 pC/N and -5.03 pC/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficients k12 and k26 are also determined as 11.6% and 18.3%, respectively. The electric resistivity of as-growth crystal was found to be on the order of 2×108 Ω cm at 500 °C and 1×106 Ω cm at 800 °C. And the transmittances of CNAGS crystals were found to be over 80% in the wavelength range of 700-2700 nm.

  9. Broadband 120 MHz Impedance Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM with Calibrated Resistance and Quantitative Dissipation for Biosensing Measurements at Higher Harmonic Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kasper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an impedance quartz crystal microbalance (QCM approach with the ability to simultaneously record mass changes and calibrated energy dissipation with high sensitivity using an impedance analyzer. This impedance QCM measures frequency shifts and resistance changes of sensing quartz crystals very stable, accurately, and calibrated, thus yielding quantitative information on mass changes and dissipation. Resistance changes below 0.3 Ω were measured with corresponding dissipation values of 0.01 µU (micro dissipation units. The broadband impedance capabilities allow measurements between 20 Hz and 120 MHz including higher harmonic modes of up to 11th order for a 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency quartz crystal. We demonstrate the adsorbed mass, calibrated resistance, and quantitative dissipation measurements on two biological systems including the high affinity based avidin-biotin interaction and nano-assemblies of polyelectrolyte layers. The binding affinity of a protein-antibody interaction was determined. The impedance QCM is a versatile and simple method for accurate and calibrated resistance and dissipation measurements with broadband measurement capabilities for higher harmonics measurements.

  10. Effects of Al substitution for Ca3Ta(Ga1-xAlx)3Si2O14 piezoelectric single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Medvedev, Andrey; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-06-01

    Ca3Ta(Ga1-xAlx)3Si2O14 [CTGAS] material is a piezoelectric material belonging to the Langasite-type group (space group: P321).and the CTGAS single crystals (x=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75) with a diameter of 1 in. were grown by a Czochralski [Cz] method using an Ir crucible under Ar+2%O2. The CTGAS single crystals without any cracks could be grown using a CTGAS seed crystal in the x range of 0≤x≤0.75. Cell parameters, a and c, decrease while the a/c ratio increased with the Al concentration. Piezoelectric constant d11 and electromechanical coupling factor k12 for the X-cut specimens of the CTGAS single crystals were increased by the Al substitution.

  11. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  12. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study on Au-supported Pt adlayers for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Underpotential deposition(UPD) of Cu on an Au electrode followed by redox replacement reaction(RRR) of CuUPD with a Pt source(H2PtCl6 or K2PtCl4) yielded Au-supported Pt adlayers(for short,Pt(CuUPD-Pt4+)n/Au for H2PtCl6,or Pt(CuUPD-Pt2+)n/Au for K2PtCl4,where n denotes the number of UPD-redox replacement cycles).The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM) technique was used for the first time to quantitatively study the fabricated electrodes and estimate their mass-normalized specific electrocatalytic activity(SECA) for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution.In comparison with Pt(CuUPD-Pt2+)n/Au,Pt(CuUPD-Pt4+)n/Au exhibited a higher electrocatalytic activity,and the maximum SECA was obtained to be as high as 35.7 mA ?g?1 at Pt(CuUPD-Pt4+)3/Au.The layer-by-layer architecture of Pt atoms on Au is briefly discussed based on the EQCM-revealed redox replacement efficiency,and the calculated distribution percentages of bare Au sites agree with the experimental results deduced from the charge under the AuOx-reduction peaks.The EQCM is highly recommended as an efficient technique to quantitatively examine various electrode-supported catalyst adlayers,and the highly efficient catalyst adlayers of noble metals are promising in electrocatalysis relevant to biological,energy and environmental sciences and technologies.

  13. Compositional analysis of electrodeposited bismuth telluride thermoelectric thin films using combined electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry--stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sunyoung; Jeon, Soyeon; Lee, Ungki; Park, Minsoon; Paeng, Ki-Jung; Myung, Noseung; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2008-09-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te 3 ) is a benchmark material for thermoelectric power generation and cooling applications. Electrodeposition is a versatile technique for preparing thin films of this material; however, it affords films of variable composition depending on the preparation history. A simple and rapid assay of electrodeposited films, therefore, has both fundamental and practical importance. In this study, a new protocol for the electroanalysis of Bi 2Te 3 thin films is presented by combining the two powerful and complementary techniques of electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry (EQCM) and stripping voltammetry. First, any free (and excess) tellurium in the electrodeposited film was reduced to soluble Te ( 2- ) species by scanning to negative potentials in a 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 electrolyte, and the accompanying frequency increase (mass loss) was used to determine the content of free tellurium. The film was again subjected to cathodic stripping in the same medium (to generate Bi (0) and soluble Te (2-) from the Bi 2 Te 3 film component of interest), and the EQCM frequency change was used to determine the content of chemically bound Te in the Bi 2Te 3 thin film and thereby the compound stoichiometry. Finally, the EQCM frequency change during Bi oxidation to Bi (3+) and the difference between total Bi and Bi in Bi 2Te 3 resulted in the assay of free (excess) Bi in the electrodeposited film. Problems associated with the chemical/electrochemical stability of the free Bi species were circumvented by a flow electroanalysis approach. Data are also presented on the sensitivity of electrodeposited Bi 2Te 3 film composition to the electrodeposition potential. This newly developed method can be used for the compositional analysis of other thermoelectric thin-film material candidates in general.

  14. Sequential adsorption of bovine mucin and lactoperoxidase to various substrates studied with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthur, Tobias J; Arnebrant, Thomas; Macakova, Lubica; Feiler, Adam

    2010-04-01

    Mucin and lactoperoxidase are both natively present in the human saliva. Mucin provides lubricating and antiadhesive function, while lactoperoxidase has antimicrobial activity. We propose that combined films of the two proteins can be used as a strategy for surface modification in biomedical applications such as implants or biosensors. In order to design and ultilize mixed protein films, it is necessary to understand the variation in adsorption behavior of the proteins onto different surfaces and how it affects their interaction. The quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique has been used to extract information of the adsorption properties of bovine mucin (BSM) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) to gold, silica, and hydrophobized silica surfaces. The information has further been used to retrieve information of the viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed film. The adsorption and compaction of BSM were found to vary depending on the nature of the underlying bare surface, adsorbing as a thick highly hydrated film with loops and tails extending out in the bulk on gold and as a thinner film with much lower adsorbed amount on silica; and on hydrophobic surfaces, BSM adsorbs as a flat and much more compact layer. On gold and silica, the highly hydrated BSM film is cross-linked and compacted by the addition of LPO, whereas the compaction is not as pronounced on the already more compact film formed on hydrophobic surfaces. The adsorption of LPO to bare surfaces also varied depending on the type of surface. The adsorption profile of BSM onto LPO-coated surfaces mimicked the adsorption to the underlying surface, implying little interaction between the LPO and BSM. The interaction between the protein layers was interpreted as a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which was in turn influenced by the interaction of the proteins with the different substrates.

  15. Low Symmetry Phases in Piezoelectric Systems : PZN-xPT Single Crystal and Powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noheda, B.; Cox, D.E.; Shirane, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this review we address some of the experimental challenges found in the x-ray diffraction characterization of the low-symmetry phases recently discovered in the Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT), Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric systems around their morphotropi

  16. Characteristic of SMD quartz crystal under high-g overload%SMD石英晶体抗高过载性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 沈瑞琪; 臧小为; 刘卫

    2015-01-01

    为了研究SMD石英晶体的抗高过载能力,采用自由式霍普金森压杆对7050、6035、5032、3225、3225(一级加固)、3225(二级加固)六种型号SMD石英晶体进行高过载环境下的动态加载测试。结果表明,在高过载条件下,SMD 石英晶体的抗高过载性能随尺寸减小而不断提高,并且产品经历高过载环境后电气参数的不良率逐步降低。未经过加固处理的各型号SMD石英晶体(7050、6035、5032、3225)经过高过载试验(50000~80000 g)后,电气参数均出现超差,不能满足武器系统的要求。经过加固处理的SMD石英晶体样品(3225一级加固、3225二级加固)经过高过载试验可以正常工作。%In order to study the anti-overload ability of SMD quartz crystal, the free Hopkinson pressure bar technology was performed to test the six SMD quartz crystals, including 7050, 6035, 5032, 3225, 3225 (primary reinforcement) and 3225 (secondary reinforcement), under high-g overload environment. Conclusions are that, under high-g overload environment, the anti-overload ability of SMD quartz crystal increases with its size decreasing, and the poor rate of electrical parameters after loading declines gradually. The electrical parameters of the SMD quartz crystal which were not reinforced appear ultra-poor, unable to satisfy the needs in weapon system. The SMD quartz crystal samples which were reinforced works very well after high-g overload experiment (50 000–80 000 g).

  17. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sarangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have used scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS, ammonium nitrate (AN and sodium chloride (SC, and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA, where size segregation was done based on particle electrical mobility. At the downstream of DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC to measure particle number concentration, whereas other one is sent to QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD over a size range 10 to 478 nm, i.e. AS, SC and AN is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm−3, which are comparable with the material density (ρ values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm−3, respectively. Among individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by QCM, QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and equivalence of CPC and QCM derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2 in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of winter period in New Delhi is measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm−3. It was found that in general, mid-day effective density of ambient aerosols increases with increase in CMD of particle size measurement but particle photochemistry is an

  18. Aerosol effective density measurement using scanning mobility particle sizer and quartz crystal microbalance with the estimation of involved uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Bighnaraj; Aggarwal, Shankar G.; Sinha, Deepak; Gupta, Prabhat K.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have used a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to estimate the effective density of aerosol particles. This approach is tested for aerosolized particles generated from the solution of standard materials of known density, i.e. ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN) and sodium chloride (SC), and also applied for ambient measurement in New Delhi. We also discuss uncertainty involved in the measurement. In this method, dried particles are introduced in to a differential mobility analyser (DMA), where size segregation is done based on particle electrical mobility. Downstream of the DMA, the aerosol stream is subdivided into two parts. One is sent to a condensation particle counter (CPC) to measure particle number concentration, whereas the other one is sent to the QCM to measure the particle mass concentration simultaneously. Based on particle volume derived from size distribution data of the SMPS and mass concentration data obtained from the QCM, the mean effective density (ρeff) with uncertainty of inorganic salt particles (for particle count mean diameter (CMD) over a size range 10-478 nm), i.e. AS, SC and AN, is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.24, 2.08 ± 0.19 and 1.69 ± 0.28 g cm-3, values which are comparable with the material density (ρ) values, 1.77, 2.17 and 1.72 g cm-3, respectively. Using this technique, the percentage contribution of error in the measurement of effective density is calculated to be in the range of 9-17 %. Among the individual uncertainty components, repeatability of particle mass obtained by the QCM, the QCM crystal frequency, CPC counting efficiency, and the equivalence of CPC- and QCM-derived volume are the major contributors to the expanded uncertainty (at k = 2) in comparison to other components, e.g. diffusion correction, charge correction, etc. Effective density for ambient particles at the beginning of the winter period in New Delhi was measured to be 1.28 ± 0.12 g cm-3

  19. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedesseau, L., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Even, J., E-mail: laurent.pedesseau@insa-rennes.fr, E-mail: jacky.even@insa-rennes.fr; Durand, O. [Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l’Information, FOTON UMR 6082, CNRS, INSA de Rennes, 35708 Rennes (France); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O. [LMGP, CNRS, Université Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-01

    New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4}). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al{sub 4}SiC{sub 4} material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.

  20. Development of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals using photolithography and selective etching process. Pt. I. Selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon City (Korea); Kang, K.M. [National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2001-05-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was found superior to previously used positive photoresist photolithography to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM), 3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU), chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. Optimum processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. The quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators with electrode patterns on them photolithographically. (orig.)

  1. Performance of PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric versus PZT8 Piezoceramic Materials in Ultrasonic Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, D. A.; Schulze, G. W.

    The recent advancements in the manufacturing of single crystal PIN-PMN-PT piezoelectric materials now make them a cost-competitive alternative to PZT4 and PZT8 (Navy Types I and III) piezoceramic materials, which have been the workhorse of power ultrasonic applications (e.g., welding, cutting, sonar, etc.) for over 50 years. Although there are great benefits to the use of single crystal materials with respect to high output, as well as added actuating and sensing abilities, many transducer designers are still reluctant to explore these materials due to inadequate design guidelines for substituting the familiar PZT materials; for example, what are the implications of the higher capacitance, sensitivity to chipping/cracks, aging effects, frequency shifts, or how much preload can be used are all common questions. This research is a case study on the performance of identical ultrasonic transducer bodies, used for semiconductor wire bonding, assembled with either PZT8 or PIN-PMN-PT piezo material. The main purpose of the study is to establish rule-of-thumb design guidelines for direct substitution of single crystal materials in existing PZT8 transducer designs, along with a side-by-side performance comparison to highlight benefits. Several metrics are investigated such as impedance, frequency, displacement gain, quality factor and electromechanical coupling factor.

  2. Comparison characteristics of surface acoustic waves propagating on LGT and quartz substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guowei; SHI Wenkang; JI Xiaojun; HAN Tao

    2004-01-01

    For comprehending the propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on novel piezoelectric crystal Langatate (LGT), the numerical analysis of the most important propagation characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) on LGT are presented and compared with that of quartz. The results are that the phase velocity on LGT is generally about 1000 m/s slower than that on quartz; there are zero temperature cuts and pure mode directions on LGT; the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) of LGT is larger than that of quartz. The results show that LGT has lower propagation velocity, higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, good temperature stability and other good characteristic. The results also show that there are somewhat deviations with different material constants, especially, the temperature coefficient of frequency.

  3. The calculation of active Raman modes of -quartz crystal via density functional theory based on B3LYP Hamiltonian in 6–311+G(2d) basis set

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Talebian; E Talebian; A Abdi

    2012-05-01

    We obtained an approximation of the force field of -quartz crystal using a new idea of applying density functional theory [J Purton, R Jones, C R A Catlow and M Leslie, Phys. Chem. Minerals 19, 392 (1993)]. Our calculations were based on B3LYP Hamiltonian [A N Lazarev and A P Mirgorodsky, Phys. Chem. Minerals 18, 231 (1991)] in 6−311+G(2d) basis set for H16Si7O6 cluster and included a unit cell of the lattice. The advantage of our method is the increase in the speed of calculations and the better adaption of simulation results with the experimental data.

  4. Blocking force of a piezoelectric stack actuator made of single crystal layers (PMN-29PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, K. S.; Phan, H. V.; Lee, H. Y.; Kim, Yongdae; Park, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated and characterized a stack actuator made of forty layers of 1 mm thick PMN-29PT with a cross-sectional area of 10 × 10 mm2. From the measurement of actuation displacement, we confirmed that the piezoelectric strain constant in the direction of thickness of the material is 2000 pm V-1, as suggested by the manufacturer. The blocking forces of the actuator are measured to be 230 N, 369 N, and 478 N for 100 V, 200 V, and 300 V, respectively. The measured blocking forces showed large discrepancies from the estimated blocking forces calculated using linear models, especially for a high voltage application. An empirical equation acquired by fitting the measured blocking forces indicates that the blocking force has a nonlinear relationship with the applied voltage. The measured hysteresis showed a slight nonlinear voltage-stroke relationship and small energy loss.

  5. Shape-controlled crystal growth of Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 and Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 piezoelectric crystals by the micro-pulling-down method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Sato, Masato; Futami, Yoshisuke; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-09-01

    We grew column-shaped Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS) and Sr(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. 3-mm-diameter SNGS and STGS crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die. According to X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals had crystallinity equivalent to that of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. The crystals were single-phase materials with langasite-type crystal structure. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were almost consistent with those of crystals grown by the Cz method.

  6. Separate measurement of the density and viscosity of a liquid using a quartz crystal microbalance based on admittance analysis (QCM-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Atsushi; Ichihashi, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    We previously used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to identify a frequency f2 that allows measurement of the mass load without being affected by the viscous load of a liquid in the liquid phase. Here, we determined that frequency in order to separately measure the density and viscosity of a Newtonian liquid. Martin et al separately measured the density and viscosity of a liquid by immersing two quartz resonators, i.e. a smooth-surface resonator and a textured-surface resonator, in the liquid. We used a QCM based on admittance analysis (QCM-A) in the current study to separately measure the viscosity and density of a liquid using only a textured-surface resonator. In the current experiments, we measured the density and viscosity of 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% aqueous glycerol solutions and compared the measured values to reference values. The density obtained had an error of ±1.5% of reference values and the viscosity had an error of about ±5% of reference values. Similar results were obtained with 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% ethanol solutions. Measurement was possible with a quartz resonator, so measurements were made with even smaller samples. The density and viscosity of a liquid were successfully determined with an extremely small amount of liquid, i.e. 10 µl, with almost the same precision as when using 500 µl of the liquid.

  7. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  8. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran, E-mail: rksaripalli@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Sanath Kumar, R.; Elizabeth, Suja [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Raghavendra Rao, K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); PES University, 100 Feet Ring Road,Banashankari Stage III, Banashankari, Bengaluru-560085 (India); Bhat, H. L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Professor UR Rao Road, Jalahalli, Bengaluru-560013 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 31}, elastic coefficient (S{sub 11}) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k{sub 31}) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  9. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Raghavendra Rao, K.; Sanath Kumar, R.; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d31, elastic coefficient (S11) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k31) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  10. Piezoelectric Biosensors for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marrazza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the crystal structure, band-gap energy, polarization, and piezoelectric properties of ZnO-BeO solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Alpay, S. P.

    2011-07-01

    The electrical properties, the spontaneous polarization, and the piezoelectric response of ZnO can be tailored by alloying ZnO with BeO for applications such as electrodes in flat panel displays and solar cells, blue and ultraviolet (UV) light emitting devices, and highly sensitive UV detectors. We present here the results of a study that employs density-functional theory to analyze the crystal structure, the band structure, spontaneous polarization, and piezoelectric properties of Zn1-xBexO solid solutions. Our findings indicate that Zn1-xBexO alloys may have a different crystal structure than the end components ZnO and BeO that crystallize in the prototypical wurtzite structure (P63mc). It is shown that orthorhombic lattices with Pmn21, Pna21, or P21 structures may have lower formation energies than the wurtzite lattice at a given Be composition. The band-gap energies of Zn1-xBexO in the wurtzite and the orthorhombic structures are nearly identical and the bowing of the band-gap energy increases with increasing Be concentration. The spontaneous polarization of Zn1-xBexO in the orthorhombic lattice is markedly larger compared to the wurtzite structure while the piezoelectric polarization in the wurtzite and orthorhombic structures varies linearly with the Be concentration.

  12. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  13. Origin of giant piezoelectric effect in lead-free K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Hu, Chengpeng; Tan, Peng; Cao, Xilong; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-05-10

    A series of high-quality, large-sized (maximum size of 16 × 16 × 32 mm(3)) K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 (x = 0.61, 0.64, and 0.70 and corresponding y = 0.58, 0.60, and 0.63) single crystals were grown using the top-seed solution growth method. The segregation of the crystals, which allowed for precise control of the individual components of the crystals during growth, was investigated. The obtained crystals exhibited excellent properties without being annealed, including a low dielectric loss (0.006), a saturated hysteresis loop, a giant piezoelectric coefficient d33 (d33 = 416 pC/N, determined by the resonance method and d33(*) = 480 pC/N, measured using a piezo-d33 meter), and a large electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (k33 = 83.6%), which was comparable to that of lead zirconate titanate. The reason the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of K0.39Na0.61Ta0.42Nb0.58O3 was larger than those of the other two crystals grown was elucidated through first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicated that K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 crystals can be used as a high-quality, lead-free piezoelectric material.

  14. Origin of giant piezoelectric effect in lead-free K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Meng, Xiangda; Hu, Chengpeng; Tan, Peng; Cao, Xilong; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Rui

    2016-05-01

    A series of high-quality, large-sized (maximum size of 16 × 16 × 32 mm3) K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 (x = 0.61, 0.64, and 0.70 and corresponding y = 0.58, 0.60, and 0.63) single crystals were grown using the top-seed solution growth method. The segregation of the crystals, which allowed for precise control of the individual components of the crystals during growth, was investigated. The obtained crystals exhibited excellent properties without being annealed, including a low dielectric loss (0.006), a saturated hysteresis loop, a giant piezoelectric coefficient d33 (d33 = 416 pC/N, determined by the resonance method and d33* = 480 pC/N, measured using a piezo-d33 meter), and a large electromechanical coupling factor, k33 (k33 = 83.6%), which was comparable to that of lead zirconate titanate. The reason the piezoelectric coefficient d33 of K0.39Na0.61Ta0.42Nb0.58O3 was larger than those of the other two crystals grown was elucidated through first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicated that K1-xNaxTa1-yNbyO3 crystals can be used as a high-quality, lead-free piezoelectric material.

  15. Research on Development Trends of Quartz Crystal Oscillator%石英晶体振荡器的发展趋势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍华林; 吕延; 吕明

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development status of the quartz crystal oscillator at home and abroad, technology trends and market prospects. The results show that the current quartz crystal oscillator is moving trends of chip-based integration and environmental protection, and SMT products will increasingly become the market mainstream products, which is widely used in fields converged communications, navigation, satellite, radar and mapping, the demand is rapid growth with 38% per annum, the future has a broad market space.%本文叙述和分析了石英晶体振荡器的国内外发展现状、技术发展趋势和市场前景.结果表明目前石英晶体振荡器正朝着型化、片式化、集成化和环保的趋势发展,表面贴装式的产品将日益成为市场的主流产品,广泛应用于融合通信、导航、卫星、雷达、测绘等领域,需求量以每年38%快速增长,未来具有广阔的市场空间.

  16. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Dan; Lange, Sigrun; Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Inal, Jameel

    2014-10-24

    Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36×10(6)MVs, was calculated to be 23ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5×10(7)MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235pg per MV.

  17. Investigation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA Attachment onto Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs Using Combinatorial Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanh T M Phan

    Full Text Available Understanding protein adsorption kinetics to surfaces is of importance for various environmental and biomedical applications. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to various self-assembled monolayer surfaces including neutral and charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was investigated using in-situ combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin varied as a function of surface properties, bovine serum albumin concentration and pH value. Charged surfaces exhibited a greater quantity of bovine serum albumin adsorption, a larger bovine serum albumin layer thickness, and increased density of bovine serum albumin protein compared to neutral surfaces at neutral pH value. The quantity of adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein increased with increasing bovine serum albumin concentration. After equilibrium sorption was reached at pH 7.0, desorption of bovine serum albumin occurred when pH was lowered to 2.0, which is below the isoelectric point of bovine serum albumin. Our data provide further evidence that combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry is a sensitive analytical tool to evaluate attachment and detachment of adsorbed proteins in systems with environmental implications.

  18. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  19. In vitro study of a multi-layer piezoelectric crystal attic hearing implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R P; Wang, Z G; Abel, E W

    2001-05-01

    We have developed a prototype middle-ear hearing implant which uses a multilayer piezoelectric actuator. In this series of experiments the actuator was attached to the medial wall of the attic so that it makes contact with the body of the incus. Initial in vitro evaluation has been carried out using a laser vibrometer (Polytec CLV) to measure stapes velocity. Stapes displacement is calculated by mathematical integration. The device used in this way is particularly effective at transmitting high frequency sound to the stapes. When switched off the actuator impairs the transmission of sound to the ossicular chain at low frequencies, but this effect is only 7 dB at most. The stapes displacements resulting from the action of the implant have a linear relationship with the voltages used to drive the system. The high capacitance of the present actuator means that its power requirements are higher than that of other comparable devices. An optimal method of coupling the device to the incus has yet to be identified.

  20. Preparation of Macroporous Epitaxial Quartz Films on Silicon by Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí

    2015-12-21

    This work describes the detailed protocol for preparing piezoelectric macroporous epitaxial quartz films on silicon(100) substrates. This is a three-step process based on the preparation of a sol in a one-pot synthesis which is followed by the deposition of a gel film on Si(100) substrates by evaporation induced self-assembly using the dip-coating technique and ends with a thermal treatment of the material to induce the gel crystallization and the growth of the quartz film. The formation of a silica gel is based on the reaction of a tetraethyl orthosilicate and water, catalyzed by HCl, in ethanol. However, the solution contains two additional components that are essential for preparing mesoporous epitaxial quartz films from these silica gels dip-coated on Si. Alkaline earth ions, like Sr(2+) act as glass melting agents that facilitate the crystallization of silica and in combination with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) amphiphilic template form a phase separation responsible of the macroporosity of the films. The good matching between the quartz and silicon cell parameters is also essential in the stabilization of quartz over other SiO2 polymorphs and is at the origin of the epitaxial growth.

  1. Energy Harvesting via Piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Dikshit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. For example, in the applications such as villages, border areas, forests, hilly areas, where generally remote controlled devices are used, continuous charging of the microcells is not possible by conventional charging methods .So, some alternative methods needs to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries.. To resolve such problems, Energy harvesting technique is proposed as the best alternative. There exists variety of energy harvesting techniques but mechanical energy harvesting happens to be the most prominent. This technique utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. Subsequently the electrical energy can be regulated or stored for further use. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. In this paper two important techniques are stressed upon to harness the energy viz Piezoelectric Windmill and Increased Bandwidth Piezoelectric Crystal. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  2. Characterization of PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystal and PMN-PT 1-3 composite at elevated temperatures by electrical impedance resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengbin; Xi, Kui

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) piezoelectric single crystal and its 1-3 composite counterpart were characterized and analyzed under different stable temperatures using both a Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm and the commercial software PRAP (Piezoelectric Resonance Analysis Program). Electrical impedance resonance characteristics of the two material samples over the range 25-125 °C were measured. The correlation between experimental data and numerical fits derived from both SA and PRAP is considered. Calculation of the determination coefficient (R1(2)) between numerically fitted and measured results is above 95% for both methods. Furthermore, variations in the number of data values used for the fit introduced no more than 3.1% uncertainty on the calculated material parameters. It is found that the complex material parameters of PMN-PT composite are more dependent on temperature than the single crystal. The phase transition of the PMN-PT, which is close to 90 °C, has an effect on the high temperature material characteristics of both piezoelectric materials. These calculated complex material parameters can be used for the design of ultrasonic transducers for elevated temperature applications.

  3. Results from a Novel Method for Corrosion Studies of Electroplated Lithium Metal Based on Measurements with an Impedance Scanning Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to study the chemical stability of electrodeposited lithium on a copper metal substrate via measurements with a fast impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance is presented. The corrosion of electrochemically deposited lithium was compared in two different electrolytes, based on lithium difluoro(oxalato borate (LiDFOB and lithium hexafluorophosphate, both salts being dissolved in solvent blends of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. For a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms, scanning electron microscopy images of electrodeposited lithium were also consulted. The results of the EQCM experiments were supported by AC impedance measurements and clearly showed two different corrosion mechanisms caused by the different salts and the formed SEIs. The observed mass decrease of the quartz sensor of the LiDFOB-based electrolyte is not smooth, but rather composed of a series of abrupt mass fluctuations in contrast to that of the lithium hexafluorophosphate-based electrolyte. After each slow decrease of mass a rather fast increase of mass is observed several times. The slow mass decrease can be attributed to a consolidation process of the SEI or to the partial dissolution of the SEI leaving finally lithium metal unprotected so that a fast film formation sets in entailing the observed fast mass increases.

  4. X-ray topography of piezoelectric La(3)Ta(14)Ga(5.5)O(14) crystal grown by Czochralski Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Y; Mizuki, J; Takeda, H; Shiosaki, T

    2008-05-01

    We performed synchrotron X-ray topography on a La(3)Ta0(0.5)Ga (5.5)O(14) (LTG) crystal grown by the Czochralski method. Since a synchrotron X-ray source can provide high-energy X-rays, one can detect bulk structures by X-ray topography. LTG is one of the most attractive piezoelectric crystals along with La(3)Ga(5)SiO(14) (LGS) because of its excellent acoustic properties (temperature compensation of acoustic losses). Since LTG single crystals can be grown from a stoichiometric melt, it was expected that single crystals with better quality than the LGS crystal, which cannot be grown from a stoichiometric system but only from a congruent melt, can be obtained. However, 60 keV X-ray topography revealed that the LTG crystal quality was not as high as the LGS crystal quality. The crystal quality of the central region was lower than that of the surrounding region.

  5. The Quartz Analog Watch: A Wonder Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, H. Richard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Summarizes how a quartz watch works. Discusses the quartz crystal, its form, and how its frequency is set to a standard; the integrated circuit chip that drives the crystal in vibration, scales its frequency down, and forms pulses that turn the motor; and the motor that drives the gear train that turns the hands. (ZWH)

  6. On the lipid-bacterial protein interaction studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Delcea, Mihaela; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe Bernd; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between the bacterial S-protein SbpA on different types of lipid membranes has been studied using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. On one hand, It has been found that the bacterial forms two dimensional nanocrystals on zwitterionic DOPC bilayers and negatively charged DMPG vesicles adsorbed on mica, on zwitterionic DPPC and charged DPPC/DMPG (1:1) monolayers adsorbed on carbon grids. On the other hand, SbpA protein adsorption took place on zwitterionic DOPC bilayers and DOPC/DOPS (4:1) bilayers, previously adsorbed on silicon supports. SbpA adsorption also took place on DPPC/DOPS (1:1) monolayers adsorbed on carbon grids. Finally, neither SbpA adsorption, nor recrystallization was observed on zwitterionic DMPC vesicles (previously adsorbed on polyelectrolyte multilayers), and on DPPC vesicles supported on silicon.

  7. Development and application of quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on novel molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymer for rapid detection of histamine in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Pan, Mingfei; Kong, Lingjie; Wang, Shuo

    2014-06-11

    To rapidly detect histamine (HA) in foods, a novel material for HA-specific recognition was synthesized by a sol-gel process and coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor. The Scatchard model was used to evaluate the adsorption performance of the material; high affinity for HA was demonstrated. Based on QCM frequency change, the sensor exhibited linear behavior for HA concentrations of 0.11 × 10(-2) to 4.45 × 10(-2) mg L(-1), a detection limit of 7.49 × 10(-4) mg kg(-1) (S/N = 3), high selectivity for HA (selectivity coefficient >4) compared with structural analogues, good reproducibility, and long-term stability. The sensor was used to determine the concentration of HA in spiked fish products; the recovery values were satisfactory (93.2-100.4%) and compared well with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (correlation coefficient, r(2) = 0.9965).

  8. Determination of flux ionization fraction using a quartz crystal microbalance and a gridded energy analyzer in an ionized magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K. M.; Hayden, D. B.; Juliano, D. R.; Ruzic, D. N.

    1997-12-01

    A diagnostic which combines a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a gridded energy analyzer has been developed to measure the metal flux ionization fraction in a modified commercial dc magnetron sputtering device. The sensor is mounted on a linear motion feedthrough and embedded in a slot in the substrate plane to allow for measuring the uniformity in deposition and ionization throughout the plane of the wafer. Radio-frequency (rf) power is introduced through a coil to ionize the Al atoms. The metal flux ionization fraction at the QCM is determined by comparing the total deposition rate with and without a bias that screens out the ions, but that leaves the plasma undisturbed. By varying the voltage applied to the grids, the plasma potential is determined. At a pressure of 35 mTorr, a magnetron power of 2 kW, and a net rf power of 310±5 W, 78±5% ionization was found.

  9. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huaping, E-mail: wuhuaping@gmail.com, E-mail: hpwu@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Ma, Xuefu; Zhang, Zheng; Zeng, Jun; Chai, Guozhong [Key Laboratory of E& M (Zhejiang University of Technology), Ministry of Education & Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jie [Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110) orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111) orientation in BaTiO{sub 3} films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature T{sub C} of (110)-oriented BaTiO{sub 3} films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110)- and (111)-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  10. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110 orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111 orientation in BaTiO3 films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature TC of (110-oriented BaTiO3 films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110- and (111-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  11. Full solution, for crystal class 3m, of the Holland-EerNisse complex material-constant theory of lossy piezoelectrics for harmonic time dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Jean C; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A

    2007-06-01

    A complex material-constant theory of lossy piezoelectrics is fully solved for crystal class 3m for harmonic time dependence of the fields and stresses. A new demonstration that the theory's eigen coupling factor equation applies to the lossy alternating current (AC) case also is given. The solution presented for crystal class 3m provides a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues for the eigen coupling factor problem, and it also provides a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues for the eigen loss tangent problem, for this crystal class. It is shown that two positive coupling factors are sufficient to express an arbitrary 3m crystal state. Despite the complex nature of the material constants, the Holland-EerNisse theory produces fully real expressions for the coupling factors. The loss tangent eigenvalues also are fully real and positive. The loss eigenstates are important because driving a crystal in a loss eigenstate tends to minimize the impact of material losses. Given also is a set of loss inequalities for crystal class 3m. The loss inequalities of crystal class 6mm are recovered from these when d22 and s(E)14 both vanish.

  12. Piezoelectric effects of single-crystal GaAs and multi-layered AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs material measured by the Michelson interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patara Aiyarak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The inverse piezoelectric effect, in which the strains were electrically induced, in a single crystal of GaAs and in a multilayer structure of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs was measured using a simple optical system, i.e., Michelson interferometer. An ac driving voltage was applied to the sample to produce a change in the order of 10-13 m in sample thickness. These changes were detected by the optical system to give the sample displacement as a function of applied driving voltage. The slope of the plot of this relationship led to the piezoelectric coefficients of (2.8±0.1×10-12 and (3.9±0.1×10-12 m/V for GaAs and AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs, respectively. The first agreed well with reported values and the latter was the first report for AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs. Owing to the equality for the inverse effect and the direct effect, in which an electric field can be mechanically induced, it is anticipated that in the absence of external electric field, the internal piezoelectric field can be induced in the multi-layered semiconductor.

  13. Band structure calculation of SH waves in nanoscale multilayered piezoelectric phononic crystals using radial basis function method with consideration of nonlocal interface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhizhong; Wei, Chunqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the radial basis function (RBF) collocation method based on the nonlocal Eringen piezoelectricity theory is developed to compute the band structures of nanoscale multilayered piezoelectric phononic crystals taking account of nonlocal interface effects. Detailed calculations are performed for anti-plane transverse waves propagating obliquely or vertically in the system. The correctness of the present method is verified by comparing the numerical results with those obtained by applying the transfer matrix method in the case of nonlocal perfect interfaces. The effects of nonlocal interface imperfections are considered by comparing with the nonlocal perfect interfaces. In addition, the influences of the piezoelectric constant, the nanoscale size, the impedance ratio and the incidence angle on the cut-off frequency and band structures are investigated and discussed in detail. Numerical results show that the nonlocal interface discontinuity has more obvious effect on the low-frequency band structures at the microscopic scale than at the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, at the macroscopic scale, the nonlocal interface imperfection has an obvious effect on the high frequency waves, but the effect on the low frequency waves is not obvious, and the nonlocal interface imperfection has no effect on the cut-off frequency at the microscopic scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Kityk, I. V.; Krymus, A. S.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Rudysh, M. Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Piasecki, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe3Se7.6Te0.4 decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 × 10-4 eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V ( d 11), 31.5 pm/V ( d 22) and 35.5 pm/V ( d 33). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients.

  15. New features of different frequency generating systems due to the use of electrodeless rigidly mounted VBA quartz crystal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendly, A.; Graf, E.; Busca, G.; Brownsea, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The BVA 5 MHz crystal equipped frequency sources exhibit a new blend of performances such as 10 to 11 daily stability, 5x10-13 short term stability (1 to 30 s time intervals) and close to the carrier low phase noise (1 Hz : -120 dBc, 10 Hz : -140 dBc), whereby retaining the customary crystal oscillator benefits of small volume, high reliability and low price, as opposed to more sophisticated frequency generators which would be required to achieve comparable performances. Examples illustrating the impact of the Oscilloquartz BVA oven-controlled crystal oscillator in different frequency generating systems are presented: cesium frequency standards; hydrogen frequency standard; a precision distribution sub-system for satellite ground stations; and high hierarchy exchanges of digital networks, synchronized by the master-slave method are discussed.

  16. OSL and photo-transferred TL of quartz single crystals sensitized by high-dose of gamma-radiation and moderate heat-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Souza, Leonardo B; Guzzo, Pedro L; Khoury, Helen J

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and the photo-transferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) signals in quartz single crystals showing a strong TL peak near 300°C after being sensitized by irradiation with 25kGy of gamma rays and heating at 400°C. Natural and sensitized samples were prepared from two crystals with different sensitivity levels in the 300°C TL region. Continuous-wave (CW) and linearly-modulated (LM) OSL signals were stimulated with blue light-emitting diodes during 40 and 1000s, respectively. Two components were isolated from the CW-OSL signals of sensitized samples. These components were clearly seen in LM-OSL measurements together with two long-term components. LM-OSL showed that the sensitization process considered in this study sensitized an ultrafast OSL component of these crystals. The similar behavior found for the thermal stabilities of OSL and TL signals and the dependence of these signals with sample origins suggested that the trapping site related to the ultrafast component is also related to the TL process of the sensitized peak. The PTTL signal induced by blue LEDs increased the intensity of the sensitized glow peak. On the other hand, a remarkable reduction in the intensity of this peak as a result of the accumulated effect of blue light exposure was clearly seen in both kinds of crystals. These results were explained by a mechanism of competition between optically unstable deep traps and trap levels responsible to the sensitized TL peak. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion-selective piezoelectric sensor for niacinamide assay in serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y; Li, W; Nie, L; Yao, S

    2001-01-01

    An ion-selective piezoelectric (ISP) sensor was successfully applied for the determination of niacinamide in serum and urine. By coating a polyvinylchloride membrane containing niacinamide-silicotungstate on one electrode of a thickness-shear mode piezoelectric quartz crystal, the ISP device can adsorb niacinamide selectively. The amount of coating applied to the crystal was calculated from the Sauerbrey equation by monitoring the frequency change. The logarithm of the frequency shift was linear with the logarithm of niacinamide concentration over the range from 1.0 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-3) M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-9) M at pH 7.0. Influencing factors were investigated and optimized. The results for real samples obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional methods.

  18. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB, uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf. We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs (benign substances or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots

  19. Piezoelectric valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  20. Nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite on arc-deposited TiO{sub 2} surfaces studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilja, Mirjam [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Butt, Umer [Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials and Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian [Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials and Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjöörn, Dorota, E-mail: dorota.bjoorn@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant Sverige AB, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-01

    Understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics of biomimetically deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) on crystalline TiO{sub 2} surfaces is important with respect to the application and performance of HA as functional implant coatings. Arc-evaporation was used to deposit TiO{sub 2} coatings dominated by anatase phase, rutile phase or their mixtures. Subsequent formation of HA from phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS) was investigated in real-time using in situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the presence, morphology and crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} coatings and the formed HA. Increasing temperature of the PBS, increasing flow rate and applying a higher ion concentration in solution were found to accelerate HA nucleation process and hence affect growth kinetics. Lower PBS temperature resulted in the formation of HA coatings with flake-like morphology and increasing HA porosity. All TiO{sub 2} coatings under study enabled HA formation at body temperature, while in contrast Ti reference surfaces only supported HA nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. QCM-D technique is a powerful tool for studying the impact of process parameters during biomimetic coating deposition on coating structure evolution in real time and provides valuable information for understanding, optimizing as well as tailoring the biomimetic HA growth processes.

  1. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  2. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2017-03-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17-0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as

  3. Measurement of fluid viscosity at microliter volumes using quartz impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Atul; Kalonia, Devendra S

    2004-08-05

    The purpose of this work was to measure viscosity of fluids at low microliter volumes by means of quartz crystal impedance analysis. To achieve this, a novel setup was designed that allowed for measurement of viscosity at volumes of 8 to 10 microL. The technique was based on the principle of electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric quartz crystals. The arrangement was simple with measurement times ranging from 2 to 3 minutes. The crystal setup assembly did not impose any unwanted initial stress on the unloaded quartz crystal. Quartz crystals of 5- and 10-MHz fundamental frequency were calibrated with glycerol-water mixtures of known density and viscosity prior to viscosity measurements. True frequency shifts, for the purpose of this work, were determined followed by viscosity measurement of aqueous solutions of sucrose, urea, PEG-400, glucose, and ethylene glycol at 25 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C. The measured viscosities were found to be reproducible and consistent with the values reported in the literature. Minor inconsistencies in the measured resistance and frequency shifts did not affect the results significantly, and were found to be experimental in origin rather than due to electrode surface roughness. Besides, as expected for a viscoelastic fluid, PEG 8000 solutions, the calculated viscosities were found to be less than the reported values due to frequency dependence of storage and loss modulus components of complex viscosity. From the results, it can be concluded that the present setup can provide accurate assessment of viscosity of Newtonian fluids and also shows potential for analyzing non-Newtonian fluids at low microliter volumes.

  4. Growth and characterization of the La{sub 3}Ga{sub 4.85}Fe{sub 0.15}SiO{sub 14} piezoelectric single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Renqin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Key Laboratory of Photonic Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Sun, Dunlu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Key Laboratory of Photonic Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Hefei, Anhui Province (China); Zhang, Qi [Anhui Firesky Crystal Science and Technology Co. Ltd, Tongling (China); Shi, Zibin [26th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Chongqing (China); Wang, Jiyang [Shandong University, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Jinan (China)

    2017-01-15

    A new piezoelectric single crystal La{sub 3}Ga{sub 4.85}Fe{sub 0.15}SiO{sub 14} (LGFS) was grown by the Czochralski method firstly. Its structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement to the X-ray diffraction. The effective segregation coefficient k{sub eff} of Fe in the LGFS was determined to be 0.6. The cost of LGFS is reduced due to the doping of cheap Fe. The crystal density was measured to be 5.7 g cm{sup -3} by the buoyancy method. The defect structure of LGFS crystal was investigated by the chemical etching with 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} etchant. Dislocation etching pit patterns of LGFS crystal are consistent with the corresponding atomic arrangement schematics. Compared with LGS, LGN, LGT, and LGAS crystal, the LGFS crystal exhibits outstanding dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and ε {sub 11}, ε {sub 33}, d{sub 11}, and d{sub 14} are 20.86, 51.99, 6.5 pC/N, and -5.10 pC/N, respectively. Therefore, LGFS may be a new potential piezoelectric crystal with high performance and low expense. (orig.)

  5. An electrochemical quartz crystal impedance study on anti-human immunoglobulin G immobilization in the polymer grown during dopamine oxidation at an Au electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Xie, Qingji; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2005-09-15

    The polymeric film grown during dopamine oxidation at an Au electrode was studied as a novel matrix for immobilizing anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) via the electrochemical quartz crystal impedance analysis (EQCIA) method. The growth of the polymeric films at Au electrodes during dopamine oxidation in neutral phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and the immobilization of anti-human IgG into the polymeric films during their growth have been traced at real time. Lysozyme control experiments suggested that anti-human IgG was electrostatically incorporated into the polymeric film. Also, the porosity of the polymeric films has been discussed by measuring the "wet" and "dry" frequency shifts. Compared with a polypyrrole film immobilized with anti-human IgG, the proposed matrix possessed a larger amount of specific binding sites for human IgG by subsequent immunoreaction tests. The association constant of the anti-human IgG immunoreaction was obtained with satisfactory results.

  6. Protein adsorption behaviors on chitosan/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend films studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring(QCM-D)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blend films in different mass ratios were prepared using the chitosan/PCL mixture solutions in 80 vol.-% acetic acid by spin coating. Their surface micromorphologies were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the micromorphology of chitosan/PCL blend films was in large extent related to the mass ratio of chitosan. 25 wt% chitosan/PCL blend film presented microphase separation. The protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto chitosan/PCL blend films was investigated by using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in real time. The results suggested that the amount of adsorbed BSA on the chitosan/PCL blend films decreased with the addition of chitosan, but the structure and viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed BSA layers were greatly affected by the surface micromorphology of chitosan/PCL blend films. BSA absorbed on the 25 wt% chitosan/PCL blend film with microphase separa- tion showed larger adsorption reversibility, and preferred to form a loose, dissipative layer in comparison with those on other chitosan/PCL blend films without microphase separation.

  7. Investigation of photoelectrochemical oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions on porous nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} electrodes using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si Shihui; Huang Kelong; Wang Xiaoguang; Huang Mingzhi; Chen Hanfang

    2002-12-20

    The photoelectrochemical oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions on porous nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} electrodes was investigated using in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). It was found that the adsorption of Fe{sup 2+} ions at the surface of TiO{sub 2} electrodes strongly depended on the pH of the solution, and that the saturated amount of adsorbed Fe{sup 2+} ions was approximately 4.4 ions nm{sup -2} at pH 4. The protons produced in photochemical reactions could cause the release of adsorbed Fe{sup 2+} ions from TiO{sub 2} surface, therefore, the frequency of QCM increased at the initial stage of illumination, during which the direct oxidation of adsorbed Fe{sup 2+} ions by photogenerated holes was dominant. When the frequency decreased, the major reaction was the photoelectrochemical deposition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the bulk solution via a hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation pathway, whose efficiency depended on the Fe{sup 2+} ion concentration.

  8. A quick responding quartz crystal microbalance sensor array based on molecular imprinted polyacrylic acids coating for selective identification of aldehydes in body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sunil K; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2015-03-01

    In present work, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor array has been developed for prompt identification of primary aldehydes in human body odor. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are prepared using the polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer matrix and three organic acids (propenoic acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid) as template molecules, and utilized as QCM surface coating layer. The performance of MIP films is characterized by 4-element QCM sensor array (three coated with MIP layers and one with pure PAA for reference) dynamic and static responses to target aldehydes: hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal in single, binary, and tertiary mixtures at distinct concentrations. The target aldehydes were selected subsequent to characterization of body odor samples with solid phase-micro extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometer (SPME-GC-MS). The hexanoic acid and octanoic acid imprinted PAA exhibit fast response, and better sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility than the propenoic acid, and non-imprinted PAA in array. The response time and recovery time for hexanoic acid imprinted PAA are obtained as 5 s and 12 s respectively to typical concentrations of binary and tertiary mixtures of aldehydes using the static response. Dynamic sensor array response matrix has been processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for visual, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier for quantitative identification of target odors. Aldehyde odors were identified successfully in principal component (PC) space. SVM classifier results maximum recognition rate 79% for three classes of binary odors and 83% including single, binary, and tertiary odor classes in 3-fold cross validation.

  9. Protein adsorption behaviors on chitosan/poly(ε-caprolactone)blend films studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong; ZHANG Yi; LIANG ZhiHong; TU Mei; ZHOU ChangRen

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL)blend films in different mass ratios were prepared using the chitosan/PCL mixture solutions in 80 vol.-% acetic acid by spin coating.Their surface micromorphologies were assessed by atomic force microscopy(AFM).It was found that the micromorphology of chitosan/PCL blend films was in large extent related to the mass ratio of chitosan.25 wt% chitosan/PCL blend film presented microphase separation.The protein adsorption of bovine serum albumin(BSA)onto chitosan/PCL blend films was investigated by using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring(QCM-D)in real time.The results suggested that the amount of adsorbed BSA on the chitosan/PCL blend films decreased with the addition of chitosan,but the structure and viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed BSA layers were greatly affected by the surface micromorphology of chitosan/PCL blend films.BSA absorbed on the 25 wt% chitosan/PCL blend film with microphase separation showed larger adsorption reversibility,and preferred to form a loose,dissipative layer in comparison with those on other chitosan/PCL blend films without microphase separation.

  10. A Simple Method for the Detection of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in an Anaerobic Digestate Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Kobayashi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In anaerobic digestion (AD, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs produced by hydrolysis of lipids, exhibit toxicity against microorganisms when their concentration exceeds several millimolar. An absorption detection system using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was developed to monitor the LCFA concentration during an anaerobic digester’s operation treating oily organic waste. The dissociation of the LCFAs considerably improved the sensor response and, moreover, enabled it to specifically detect LCFA from the mixture of LCFA and triglyceride. Under alkaline conditions, the frequency-shift rates of the QCM sensor linearly increased in accordance with palmitic acid concentration in the range of 0–100 mg/L. Frequency changes caused by anaerobic digestate samples were successfully measured after removing suspended solids and adjusting the pH to 10.7. Finally, the QCM measurements for digestate samples demonstrated that frequency-shift rates are highly correlated with LCFA concentrations, which confirmed that the newly developed QCM sensor is helpful for LCFA monitoring in terms of rapidness and usability.

  11. Assessment of DNA binding to human Rad51 protein by using quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy: effects of ADP and BRC4-28 peptide inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Charles; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Takahashi, Masayuki; Casse, Nathalie; Delorme, Nicolas; Louarn, Guy; Fleury, Fabrice; Pilard, Jean-François; Chénais, Benoît

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of human Rad51 protein (HsRad51) with single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) was investigated by using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) visualization. Gold surfaces for QCM and AFM were modified by electrografting of the in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from the sulfanilic acid to obtain the organic layer Au-ArSO3 H. The Au-ArSO3 H layer was activated by using a solution of PCl5 in CH2 Cl2 to give a Au-ArSO2 Cl layer. The modified surface was then used to immobilize long ssDNA molecules. The results obtained showed that the presence of adenosine diphosphate promotes the protein autoassociation rather than nucleation around DNA. In addition, when the BRC4-28 peptide inhibitor was used, both QCM and AFM confirmed the inhibitory effect of BRC4-28 toward HsRad51 autoassociation. Altogether these results show the suitability of this modified surface to investigate the kinetics and structure of DNA-protein interactions and for the screening of inhibitors.

  12. Adsorption kinetics of laponite and ludox silica nanoparticles onto a deposited poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) layer measured by a quartz crystal microbalance and optical reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Hodges, Chris; Ding, Yulong; Biggs, Simon; Brooker, Anju; York, David

    2010-12-07

    A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and an optical reflectometer (OR) have been used to investigate the adsorption behavior of Laponite and Ludox silica nanoparticles at the solid-liquid interface. The adsorption of both Laponite and Ludox silica onto poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)-coated surfaces over the first few seconds were studied by OR. Both types of nanoparticles adsorbed rapidly and obtained a stable adsorbed amount after only a few minutes. The rate of adsorption for both nanoparticle types was concentration dependent. The maximum adsorption rate of Ludox nanoparticles was found to be approximately five times faster than that for Laponite nanoparticles. The QCM data for the Laponite remained stable after the initial adsorption period at each concentration tested. The observed plateau values for the frequency shifts increased with increasing Laponite particle concentration. The QCM data for the Ludox nanoparticles had a more complex long-time behavior. In particular, the dissipation data at 3 ppm and 10 ppm Ludox increased slowly with time, never obtaining a stable value within the duration of the experiment. We postulate here that this is caused by slow structural rearrangements of the particles and the PDADMAC within the surface adsorbed layer. Furthermore, the QCM dissipation values were significantly smaller for Laponite when compared with those for Ludox for all nanoparticle concentrations, suggesting that the Laponite adsorbed layer is more compact and more rigidly bound than the Ludox adsorbed layer.

  13. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and microscale thermophoresis as tools for investigation of protein complex formation between thymidylate synthesis cycle enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Anna; Senkara, Elżbieta; Cieśla, Joanna

    2015-02-15

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) play essential role in DNA synthesis, repair and cell division by catalyzing two subsequent reactions in thymidylate biosynthesis cycle. The lack of either enzyme leads to thymineless death of the cell, therefore inhibition of the enzyme activity is a common and successful tool in cancer chemotherapy and treatment of other diseases. However, the detailed mechanism of thymidylate synthesis cycle, especially the interactions between cycle enzymes and its role remain unknown. In this paper we are the first to show that human TS and DHFR enzymes form a strong complex which might be essential for DNA synthesis. Using two unique biosensor techniques, both highly sensitive to biomolecular interactions, namely quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) we have been able to determine DHFR-TS binding kinetic parameters such as the Kd value being below 10 µM (both methods), k(on) = 0.46 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and k(off) = 0.024 s(-1) (QCM-D). We also calculated Gibbs free energy as in the order of -30 kJ/mol and DHFR/TS molar ratio pointing to binding of 6 DHFR monomers per 1 TS dimer (both methods). Moreover, our data from MST analysis have pointed to positive binding cooperativity in TS-DHFR complex formation. The results obtained with both methods are comparable and complementary.

  14. Particle Characterization for a Protein Drug Product Stored in Pre-Filled Syringes Using Micro-Flow Imaging, Archimedes, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Songyan; Puri, Aastha; Li, Jinjiang; Jaiswal, Archana; Adams, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Micro-flow imaging (MFI) has been used for formulation development for analyzing sub-visible particles. Archimedes, a novel technique for analyzing sub-micron particles, has been considered as an orthogonal method to currently existing techniques. This study utilized these two techniques to investigate the effectiveness of polysorbate (PS-80) in mitigating the particle formation of a therapeutic protein formulation stored in silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. The results indicated that PS-80 prevented the formation of both protein and silicone oil particles. In the case of protein particles, PS-80 might involve in the interactions with the hydrophobic patches of protein, air bubbles, and the stressed surfaces of silicone oil-coated pre-filled syringes. Such interactions played a role in mitigating the formation of protein particles. Subsequently, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was utilized to characterize the interactions associated with silicone oil, protein, and PS-80 in the solutions. Based on QCM-D results, we proposed that PS-80 likely formed a layer on the interior surfaces of syringes. As a result, the adsorbed PS-80 might block the leakage of silicone oil from the surfaces to solution so that the silicone oil particles were mitigated at the presence of PS-80. Overall, this study demonstrated the necessary of utilizing these three techniques cooperatively in order to better understand the interfacial role of PS-80 in mitigating the formation of protein and silicone oil particles.

  15. Mucoadhesion vs mucus permeability of thiolated chitosan polymers and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejin; Borrós, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the combination properties between mucoadhesion/mucus permeability of thiolated chitosans (TC) and their resulting nanoparticles using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The QCM-D experiments were conducted at pH 4 or 6.8 to assess the interaction between thiolated polymers, with low (TCL), medium (TCM) and high (TCH) contents of free thiol groups, and native porcine gastric mucin (NPGM). TCL was chosen for further carriers as it showed higher permeability into the NPGM layer compared to TCM and TCH. In this study, we describe a formulation of a novel carrier comprised by positively charged TCL, negatively charged DNA and degradable oligopeptide-modified poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs), which were employed in order to approach for tuning particle size and surface charge of complexes. TCL/PBAE complexes with or without DNA were characterized using dynamic light scattering. Mechanism of adsorption or permeation of the TCL/PBAE/DNA complexes into the NPGM barrier was investigated with QCM-D, which is a highly sensitive technique for studying nanomechanical (viscoelastic) changes of the substrates. This work might provide that the QCM-D technique would be a promising method to monitor the dynamic behaviour between complexes and NPGM.

  16. Application of a quartz crystal microbalance to the study of copper corrosion in acid solution inhibited by triazole-iodide protective films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jope, D.; Sell, J.; Pickering, H.W.; Weil, K.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-07-01

    When one uses one side of a quartz crystal microbalance as the working electrode in electrochemical experiments, mass changes can be monitored continuously with a sensitivity of a few nanograms per square centimeter. In this study the working electrode consisted of electrolytically deposited copper, exposed to 0.1M sodium sulfate at pH 3, open to the atmosphere and in some cases containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Upon addition of one of the inhibitors, benzotriazole (BTA), tolyltriazole (TTA), carboxy-benzotriazole (CBT), or these inhibitors plus potassium iodide, the rate of frequency change decreases markedly. After removal of the inhibitors from the corrosive medium by fast solution exchange there is a marked continuing protective effect of the inhibitor films in the cases of BTA + KI and TTA + KI with the latter being the most stable and protective of all of the films. The results were qualitatively the same in the more corrosive solution containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  17. Characterization of the native and denatured herceptin by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and quartz crystal microbalance using a high-affinity single chain fragment variable recombinant antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2012-10-02

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain a single chain fragment variable (scFv, designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin's heavy chain CDR3. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35-220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amounts of aggregates when heated. UV-vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 10(13) M(-2). The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize nonspecific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of the use of QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed.

  18. Electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance: an associative study on cytochrome c adsorption on pyridine tail-group monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Tércio de F; de Sousa, Ticyano P; de Abreu, Dieric S; Felício, Nathalie H; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lopes, Luiz G de F; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Diógenes, Izaura C N

    2013-07-25

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemistry techniques were used to study the electron-transfer (ET) reaction of cytochrome c (Cyt c) on gold surfaces modified with thionicotinamide, thioisonicotinamide, 4-mercaptopyridine, 5-(4-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol, 4,4'-bipyridine, and 4,4'-dithiopyridine. The electrochemical results showed that the ET process is complex, being chiefly diffusional with steps depending on the orientation of the pyridine or phenyl tail group of the modifiers. The correlation between the electrochemical results and those acquired by SPR and QCM indicated the presence of an adlayer of Cyt c adsorbed on the thiolate SAMs. This adlayer, although being not electroactive, is essential to assess the ET reaction of Cyt c in solution. The results presented in this work are consistent with the statement (Feng, Z. Q.; Imabayashi, S.; Kakiuchi, T.; Niki, K. J. Electroanal. Chem. 1995, 394, 149-154) that the ET reaction of Cyt c can be explained in terms of the through-bond tunneling mechanism.

  19. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies on enzymatic specific activity and direct electrochemistry of immobilized glucose oxidase in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhua; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qingfang; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was utilized to monitor in situ the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) and the mixture of GOD and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) onto Au electrodes with and without modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or SDBS/MWCNTs composite, and the relationship between enzymatic specific activity (ESA) and direct electrochemistry of the immobilized GOD was quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Compared with the bare gold electrode at which a little GOD was adsorbed and the direct electrochemistry of the adsorbed GOD was negligible, the amount and electroactivity of adsorbed GOD were greatly enhanced when the GOD was mixed with SDBS and then adsorbed onto the SDBS/MWCNTs modified Au electrode. However, the ESA of the adsorbed GOD was fiercely decreased to only 16.1% of the value obtained on the bare gold electrode, and the portion of adsorbed GOD showing electrochemical activity exhibited very low enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the electroactivity and ESA of immobilized GOD responded oppositely to the presence of MWCNTs and SDBS. The ESA results obtained from the EQCM method were well supported by conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry. The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins including enzymes as a function of their biological activities is an important concern in biotechnology, and this work may have presented a new and useful protocol to quantitatively evaluate both the electroactivity and ESA of trace immobilized enzymes, which is expected to find wider applications in biocatalysis and biosensing fields.

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance study of ionic strength and pH-dependent polymer conformation and protein adsorption/desorption on PAA, PEO, and mixed PEO/PAA brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, M F; Demoustier-Champagne, S; Dupont-Gillain, C C

    2014-01-14

    The conformation of polymer chains grafted on a substrate influences protein adsorption. In a previous study, adsorption/desorption of albumin was demonstrated on mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, triggered by solutions of adequate pH and ionic strength (I). In the present work, homolayers of PEO or PAA are submitted to saline solutions with pH from 3 to 9 and I from 10(-5) to 10(-1) M, and their conformation is evaluated in real time using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Shrinkage/swelling of PAA chains and hydration and salt condensation in the brush are evidenced. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) onto such brushes is also monitored in these different saline solutions, leading to a deep understanding of the influence of polymer chain conformation, modulated by pH and I, on protein adsorption. A detailed model of the conformation of PEO/PAA mixed brushes depending on pH and I is then proposed, providing a rationale for the identification of conditions for the successive adsorption and desorption of proteins on such mixed brushes. The adsorption/desorption of albumin on PEO/PAA is demonstrated using QCM-D.

  1. Detection of Cry2A Protein Based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Technique%Cry2A蛋白的石英晶体微天平检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜方; 黄新; 纪淑娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立检测苏云金芽孢杆菌Cry2A蛋白的石英晶体微天平(quartz crystal microbalance,QCM)传感方法.方法:根据抗原抗体相互作用原理,利用QCM技术,在金片表面修饰抗原所对应的单克隆抗体,对苏云金芽孢杆菌Cry2A蛋白进行检测研究.结果:该方法灵敏度达到1μg/mL,特异性好、重复性高.结论:该方法有利于为苏云金芽孢杆菌蛋白检测提供新思路,可以应用到实际样品的检测,在农产品转基因检测和进出口检验检疫中具有很好的应用前景.

  2. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Tao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4], a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis.

  3. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of the bond of biotic and abiotic particles adhering to solid-liquid interfaces using a window-equipped quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westen, Rebecca; van der Mei, Henny C; De Raedt, Hans; Olsson, Adam L J; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K

    2016-12-01

    The quartz-crystal-microbalance-with-dissipation (QCM-D) has become a powerful tool for studying the bond viscoelasticity of biotic and abiotic colloidal particles adhering to substratum surfaces. A window-equipped QCM-D allows high-throughput analysis of the average bond viscoelasticity, measuring over 10(6) particles simultaneously in one single experiment. Other techniques require laborious analyses of individual particles. In this protocol, the quantitative derivation of the spring-constant and drag-coefficient of the bond between adhering colloidal particles and substratum surfaces using QCM-D is explained for bacteria and silica particles, using the particle-mass derived for validation. Bond viscoelasticity is calculated using a coupled resonator model, paying special attention to the protocol for mathematical fitting needed to obtain reliable quantitative output. Knowledge of the viscoelasticity of the bond between colloidal particles and substratum surfaces facilitates development of new strategies to detach adhering particles from or retain them on a surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate Film as a Highly Selective Sensing Material for Non-Invasive Detection of Acetone Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wenyan; Lin, Peng; Liu, Sili; Xie, Qingji; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong

    2017-01-01

    Breath acetone serves as a biomarker for diabetes. This article reports 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]), a type of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), as a selective sensing material for acetone. The RTIL sensing layer was coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for detection. The sensing mechanism is based on a decrease in viscosity and density of the [bmim][BF4] film due to the solubilization of acetone leading to a positive frequency shift in the QCM. Acetone was detected with a linear range from 7.05 to 750 ppmv. Sensitivity and limit of detection were found to be 3.49 Hz/ppmv and 5.0 ppmv, respectively. The [bmim][BF4]-modified QCM sensor demonstrated anti-interference ability to commonly found volatile organic compounds in breath, e.g., isoprene, 1,2-pentadiene, d-limonene, and dl-limonene. This technology is useful for applications in non-invasive early diabetic diagnosis. PMID:28117697

  5. Application of quartz crystal nanobalance for simultaneous determination of vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acids by a net analyte signal-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Omidi, Yadollah; Farbodi, Maryam

    2009-10-01

    Homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were selectively determined by quartz crystal nanobalance sensor in conjunction with net analyte signal (NAS)-based method called HLA/GO. An orthogonal design was applied for the formation of calibration and prediction sets including HVA, VMA, and some common and structurally similar urine compounds. The selection of the optimal time range involved the calculation of the NAS regression plot in any considered time window for each test sample. The searching of a region with maximum linearity of NAS regression plot (minimum error indicator) and minimum of predicted error sum of squares value was carried out by applying a moving window strategy. Based on the obtained results, the differences on the adsorption profiles in the time range between 1 and 300 s were used to determine mixtures of compounds by HLA/GO method. Several figures of merit like selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, and limit of detection were calculated for both compounds. The results showed that the method was successfully applied for the determination of VMA and HVA.

  6. Use of quartz crystal microbalance to study the effect of chloride, sulphate and magnesium ions on the scaling rate; Apport de la microbalance a quartz dans l'etude de l'influence des ions sulfate, chlorure et magnesium sur la cinetique d'entartrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Y.; Triki, E. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis, Unite de Recherche Corrosion et Protection des Metalliques (Tunisia); Bousselmi, I. [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Technologique, Lab. des Eaux et Environnement, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Sutter, E.; Labbe, J.P.; Fiaud, C. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Genie des Procedes Plasmas et Traitements de Surface, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance was used to study the effect of chloride, sulphate and magnesium ions on the scaling rate of gold in synthesized water. The chrono-electro-gravimetric results allow the evaluation of the nucleation and crystal growth steps. Infrared analysis of deposits was used to interpret the kinetic data, particularly in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Mg{sup 2+} containing. Threshold effects were identified in each situation and essentially attributed to adsorption phenomena of ions on the metal and/or on the scale layers, as indicated by the influence of electrode potential and concentration of ions in solutions. (authors)

  7. An investigation into biological recognition coatings for piezoelectric sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Sharron

    2002-07-01

    The concept of harvesting chemicals from nature and employing them with piezoelectric crystals for biosensor development is investigated. Literature is reviewed for information theory relating to molecular structure, biosensors, immobilisation techniques, piezoelectric transducers and biosensor applications of quartz crystals. Three types of molecules were investigated for their biosensing potential, saccharides (pectic acid and alginic acid), an enzyme (galactose oxidase) and an antibody (specific for Botrytis cinerea). Immobilisation procedures using {gamma}-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane, polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linking are developed for pectic acid, alginic acid, galactose oxidase and the Botrytis antibody. These materials are immobilised onto the gold electrode area of an AT-cut quartz crystal microbalance. Operating conditions, either dip and dry batch monitoring or dynamic real-time monitoring using a flow cell are outlined. Ageing of the piezoelectric crystal sensor through erosion of coatings or during physical cleaning of crystals, prior to recoating, is featured and is particularly important to future cost effective commercial piezoelectric crystal sensor systems. Scanning tunnel microscopy is selected and an example from literature is used to evidence possible mechanisms of primary coat bonding to the gold electrodes. The associated cleaning problems and explanation of memory effects are then postulated. Calibrating data with sensitivities and limits of detection are presented for Cu{sup 2+} (pectic acid coating, Cu{sup 2+} range of 0.002mM (0.128ppm) to 0.5mM (32ppm); galactose oxidase coating, Cu{sup 2+} range of 0.002mM (0.128ppm) to 0.5mM (32ppm)); and for Pb{sup 2+} (alginic acid coating, Pb{sup 2+} range of 0.002mM (0.414ppm) to 0.1mM (20.7ppm)). Interference effects of Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Ca and Mg on Cu{sup 2+} detection and measurement are presented. Similarly interference effects of Cu, Co, Ni, Zn and Ca on Pb{sup 2+} detection

  8. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  9. Potential and piezoelectric response imaging of 180^o domain of atomically ordered clean surfaces of BaTiO3 single crystals in UHV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yukio; Kaku, S.; Matsumoto, D.; Cheong, S. W.

    2009-03-01

    We report the electrostatic and piezoelectric properties of the clean, free surface of BaTiO3 single crystal in ultra high vacuum (UHV) The topographic imaging by AFM confirmed that the surface is atomically wellordered exhibiting clear one-lattice-height atomic steps. The amplitude and the phase image of piezoelectric response microscopy (PFM) identified 180^o domains. The electrostatic potential mapping by Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) of these domains revealed that the shapes of the domains agreed exactly with the PFM images, which confirms the correctness of the standard 180^o domain theory and disagrees with closure domains. However, the potential difference of upward and downward domain is approx. 0.1V, which is 100 times smaller than the value estimated by the standard theory. Similar measurements with changing temperature across Curie temperature show that this result cannot be explained by the compensation of the spontaneous polarization by contamination or oxygen deficiency or ionic conduction). The present results suggest that an intrinsic electrostatic shielding mechanism exists for 180^o domains, which is consistent with the reports of surface electron/hole layers [1]. [4pt] [1] Watanabe et al. PRL86332(2001);Ferroelectr.367, 23(2008) We acknowledge JSPS No.19340084.

  10. Fluid-rock interaction controlling clay-mineral crystallization in quartz-rich rocks and its influence on the seismicity of the Carboneras fault area (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Espinosa, R.; Abad, I.; Jimenez-Millan, J.; Lorite-Herrera, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Carboneras Fault zone is one of the longest fault in the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain) and it would be a good candidate to generate large magnitude earthquakes (Gracia et al., 2006). Seismicity in the region is characterised by low to moderate magnitude events, although large destructive earthquakes have occurred, which reveals significant earthquake and tsunami hazards (Masana et al., 2004). Due to the internal architecture of the fault zone, shear lenses of post-orogenic sediments of Miocene and Pliocene age including marls and sandstones sequences are juxtaposed to the predominant slaty gouges of the Alpine basement. Microcataclasites and gouges of the quartz-rich post-orogenic sediments are also developed as cm- to m-scale bands, allowing the comparison between the deformed materials and their protoliths. Red, yellow and white sandstones and their respective cataclasites can be identified. This communication is concerned with the clay mineral crystallization events in these materials and its possible influence on the seismicity model of the region. The presence of phyllosilicates in fault zones as either neoformed or inherited clays is commonly related with fluid circulation and a mechanically weak fault behaviour (e.g., Wang, 1984). A critical factor for the understanding of the mechanical role of clays in fault rocks is to determine the timing of formation of mineral assemblages and microstructure of fault rocks and protolith. The effects of post-faulting alteration limit inferences about fault behaviour that can be made from exhumed rocks. The Carboneras fault zone provides good opportunities to study mineral processes enhanced by deformation, given that it is located in a region of arid climate and shows outcroppings of quartzitic rocks included in slaty rocks. Combined XRD, optical microscopy and SEM analyses reveal that deformed quartzitic rocks are enriched in phyllosilicates, increasing especially the amount of chlorite. The samples strongly damaged

  11. Electronic dipole resonance in smoky quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssen, J.; Volger, J.

    1967-01-01

    Microwave absorption in smoky quartz mono-crystal is ascribed to resonance transitions of trapped electrons between initially configurational degenerated states, which are Stark-splitted by a polarizing electric field.

  12. Effect of inorganic positive ions on the adsorption of surfactant Triton X-100 at quartz/solution interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electrode-separated piezoelectric sensor (ESPS), an improved setup of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), has been employed to investigate the adsorption behavior of nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 at the hydrophilic quartz-solution interface in mineralized water medium in situ, which contained CaCl2 0.01 mol·L?1, MgCl2 0.01 mol·L?1, NaCl 0.35 mol·L?1. In a large scale of surfactant concentration, the effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ on the adsorption isotherm and kinetics are obviously different. In aque-ous solution containing NaCl only, adsorption of Triton X-100 on quartz-solution interface is promoted, both adsorption rate and adsorption amount increase. While in mineralized water medium, multivalent positive ions Ca2+ and Mg2+ are firmly adsorbed on quartz-solution interface, result in the increasing of adsorption rate and adsorption amount at low concentration of surfactant and the peculiar desorption of surfactant at high concentration of Triton X-100. The results got by solution depletion method are in good agreement with which obtained by ESPS. The "bridge" and "separate" effect of inorganic positive ions on the adsorption and desorption mechanism of Triton X-100 at the quartz- solution interface is discussed with molecular dynamics simulations (MD), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods.

  13. Apparatus for measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading with application to measurement of third-order elastic constants of piezoelectric single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, J A; Karim, Md Afzalul

    2013-05-01

    We describe an apparatus for the measurement of acoustic wave propagation under uniaxial loading featuring a special mechanism designed to assure a uniform mechanical load on a cube-shaped sample of piezoelectric material. We demonstrate the utility of the apparatus by determining the effects of stresses on acoustic wave speed, which forms a foundation for the final determination of the third-order elastic constants of langasite and langatate single crystals. The transit time method is used to determine changes in acoustic wave velocity as the loading is varied. In order to minimize error and improve the accuracy of the wave speed measurements, the cross correlation method is used to determine the small changes in the time of flight. Typical experimental results are presented and discussed.

  14. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  15. Nanoassembled thin film gas sensors. III. Sensitive detection of amine odors using TiO2/poly(acrylic acid) ultrathin film quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Takahara, Naoki; Korposh, Sergiy; Yang, Do-Hyeon; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kunitake, Toyoki

    2010-03-15

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensors based on the alternate adsorption of TiO(2) and polyacrilic acid (PAA) were developed for the sensitive detection of amine odors. Individual TiO(2) gel layers could be regularly assembled with a thickness of approximately 0.3 nm by the gas-phase surface sol-gel process (GSSG). The thickness of the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer is dependent on its molecular weight, showing different thicknesses of approximately 0.4 nm for PAA(25) (Mw 250,000) and 0.6-0.8 nm for PAA(400) (Mw 4,000,000). The QCM sensors showed a linear response to ammonia in the concentration range 0.3-15 ppm, depending on the deposition cycle of the alternate TiO(2)/PAA layer. The ammonia binding is based on the acid-base interaction to the free carboxylic acid groups of PAA and the limit of detection (LOD) of the 20-cycle TiO(2)/PAA(400) film was estimated to be 0.1 ppm when exposed to ammonia. The sensor response was very fast and stable in a wide relative humidity (rH) range of 30-70%, showing almost the same frequency changes at a given concentration of ammonia. Sensitivity to n-butylamine and ammonia was higher than to pyridine, which is owing to the difference of molecular weight and basicity of the amine analytes. The alternate TiO(2)/PAA(400) films have a highly effective ability to capture amine odors, and the ambient ammonia concentration of 15 ppm could be condensed up to approximately 20,000 ppm inside the films.

  16. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface.

  17. Deposition of selenium thin layers on gold surfaces from sulphuric acid media: Studies using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, cyclic voltammetry and AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Murilo Feitosa [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 780, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Pedrosa, Valber A., E-mail: vzp0002@auburn.ed [Department of Materials Engineering, Samuel Ginn College of Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Spinola Machado, Sergio Antonio [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 780, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report here new considerations about the relationship between the mass and charge variations (m/z relationship) in underpotential deposition (UPD), bulk deposition and also in the H{sub 2}Se formation reaction. Nanogravimetric experiments were able to show the adsorption of H{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} on the AuO surface prior to the voltammetric sweep and that, after the AuO reduction, 0.40 monolayer of H{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} remains adsorbed on the newly reduced Au surface, which was enough to gives rise to the UPD layer. The UPD results indicate that the maximum coverage with Se{sub ads} on polycrystalline gold surface corresponds to approximately 0.40 monolayer, in good agreement with charge density results. The cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrated that the amount of bulk Se obtained during the potential scan to approximately 2 Se monolayers, which was further confirmed by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements that pointed out a mass variation corresponding of 3 monolayers of Se. In addition, the Se thin films were obtained by chronoamperometric experiments, where the Au electrode was polarized at +0.10 V during different times in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 1.0 mM SeO{sub 2}. The topologic aspects of the electrodeposits were observed in Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements. Finally, in highly negative potential polarizations, the H{sub 2}Se formation was analyzed by voltammetric and nanogravimetric measurements. These finding brings a new light on the selenium electrodeposition and point up to a proposed electrochemical model for molecule controlled surface engineering.

  18. Evaluating the Effect of Surface Roughness on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Deposition using a Combined Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Generalized Ellipsometry (GE) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananizadeh, N.; Lee, J.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Sekora, D.; Schubert, M.; Schubert, E.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Quantification and characterization of nanoparticles in soils and sediments are very challenging because they will interact not only with soil-water chemistry but also with highly heterogeneous soil and sediment surfaces. In this work, we measured the interaction of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), the most extensively manufactured engineered materials, with engineered rough surfaces under varied ionic strength conditions. Innovative three-dimensional Silicon nanostructured surfaces, referred to here as slanted columnar thin films (SCTFs), were used to generate surface roughness with controlled heights of 50nm, 100nm, and 200nm. Using atomic layer deposition technique (ALD), surfaces of SCTF were coated with either silicon dioxide or aluminum oxides to represent the most abundant silica aquifer materials and metal oxide impurities, respectively. The interaction between nTiO2 and model rough surfaces was measured using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The data were analyzed using a model that couples the viscoelastic effect with the surface roughness effect. No nTiO2 deposition was observed on neither flat nor rough silicon dioxide surfaces under ionic strength ranged from 0 to 100 mM NaCl. On the other hand, the deposition of nTiO2 on the aluminum oxides coated surfaces increased as the height of roughness increased. In parallel with QCM-D, a Generalized Ellipsometry (GE) was used to measure the mass of deposited nTiO2. The combination of QCM-D and GE revealed that the properties (i.e. porosity and rigidness) of attached nTiO2 layer on the QCM-D surfaces were dependent on ionic strength and surface roughness.

  19. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sz-Hau; Chuang, Yao-Chen; Lu, Yi-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Chao; Yang, Yun-Liang; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2009-05-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change (ΔF) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml-1 and a linear correlation (R2 = 0.987) of ΔF versus virus titration from 2 × 100 to 2 × 106 PFU ml-1 was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  20. On the electric double-layer structure at carbon electrode/organic electrolyte solution interface analyzed by ac impedance and electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Tae; Egashira, Minato; Yoshimoto, Nobuko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1, Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan); Morita, Masayuki, E-mail: morita@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1, Tokiwadai, Ube 755-8611 (Japan)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {center_dot} We monitored resonance frequency change of smooth surface carbon electrode to determine mass changes during electrochemical polarization.{center_dot} This was done from viewpoints of ensuring the electric double-layer structure in organic electrolytes.{center_dot} Clear difference was observed in the mass changes among the electrolyte composition.{center_dot} It were related with differences in the double-layer capacitance at carbon. - Abstract: ac impedance and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques have been applied to analyze the structure of electric double-layer formed at carbon/organic electrolyte solution interface using a sputtered carbon electrode. The mass changes caused by electrochemical adsorption (accumulation) of ions have been estimated in the solutions of propylene carbonate (PC) dissolving tetrafluoroborate (BF{sub 4}{sup -}) salts of lithium (Li{sup +}), tetraethylammonium (TEA{sup +}) and tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA{sup +}) cations. The observed mass changes during the cathodic polarization in the solutions containing TEA{sup +} and TBA{sup +} were well consistent with those expected by the calculation based on mono-layer adsorption of the cations with giving the consideration to the surface roughness. On the other hand, the mass change observed in the solution containing Li{sup +} salt showed that the solvation of Li{sup +} with three or four molecules of PC would be the charge compensation species at the interface. Comparison of the quantity of the electricity passed during the EQCM measurements with that from theoretical calculation with simple Helmholtz-layer model revealed that the major part of the double-layer capacitance would be based on the electrostatic polarization of the solvent molecule directly adsorbed at the carbon surface.

  1. A sensitive and specific method for isoniazid determination based on selective adsorption using an isoniazid ion-selective piezoelectric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S; Li, W; Su, X; Zuo, X; Wei, W

    1999-10-01

    A selective, sensitive and simple ion-selective piezoelectric (ISP) sensor was developed for the direct determination of isoniazid (INH) in body fluids. Based on sensitive mass response of piezoelectric quartz crystal and selective adsorption/desorption across the modified film, the ISP sensor was fabricated by coating a PVC film containing activant on one electrode of a thickness-shear mode piezoelectric quartz crystal. The observed frequencies of ISP sensor were found to decrease with the increase of the INH concentration in a 0.1 M NaNO(3) solution. In this paper, three activants, INH-phosphotungstate (I), INH-silicotungstate (II), and INH-[BiI(4)](-) (III), were synthesized and investigated. Calibration graphs were linear from 6x10(-8) to 2x10(-3) M for I, 2x10(-7) to 2x10(-3) M for II and 2x10(-7) to 2x10(-3) M for III, with detection limits 6x10(-8) M for I, 2x10(-7) M for II and 2x10(-7) M for III, in a 0.1 M NaNO(3) solution at pH 7.0 and 37 degrees C. Recoveries were from 98% to 102% with R.S.D. up to 2%. Results for real samples obtained by the proposed method agreed well with those obtained by the conventional pharmacopeia method.

  2. AN EXACT ANALYSIS OF FORCED THICKNESS-TWIST VIBRATIONS OF MULTI-LAYERED PIEZOELECTRIC PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the thickness-twist vibration of a multi-layered rectangular piezoelectric plate of crystals of 6 mm symmetry or polarized ceramics. An exact solution is obtained from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. The solution is useful to the understanding and design of composite piezoelectric devices. A piezoelectric resonator, a piezoelectric transformer, and a piezoelectric generator are analyzed as examples.

  3. Piezoelectric Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  4. A Diagram of the Structure Evolution of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3 O3-9%PbTiO3 Relaxor Ferroelectric Crystals with Excellent Piezoelectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric properties are of significant importance to medical ultrasound, actuators, sensors, and countless other device applications. The mechanism of piezoelectric properties can be deeply understood in light of structure evolutions. In this paper, we report a diagram of the structure evolutions of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/30.91Ti0.09O3 (PZN-9PT crystals with excellent piezoelectric properties among orthorhombic, tetragonal, and cubic phases, with a temperature increasing from room temperature to 220 °C. Through fitting the temperature-dependent XRD curves with Gauss and Lorenz functions, we obtained the evolutions of the content ratio of three kinds of phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic and the lattice parameters of the PZN-9PT system with the changes of temperature. The XRD fitting results together with Raman and dielectric spectra show that the phase transitions of PZN-9PT are a typical continuous evolution process. Additionally, resonance and anti-resonance spectra show the excellent piezoelectric properties of these crystals, which probably originate from the nano twin domains, as demonstrated by TEM images. Of particular attention is that the thickness electromechanical coupling factor kt is up to 72%.

  5. Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Sillenite-Type Bi12TiO20 and Bi12SiO20 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanying Shen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The full matrix of electro-elastic constants of sillenite-type crystals Bi12TiO20 (BTO and Bi12SiO20 (BSO were determined by the resonance method, with d14 and k14 being on the order of 40–48 pC/N and 31%–36%, respectively. In addition, double-rotated orientation dependence of d33 was investigated, with the maximum values of 25–28 pC/N being achieved in ZXtl45°/54°-cut samples. The electrical resistivity of BSO was found to be two orders higher than that of BTO, being on the order of 7 × 105 Ω cm at 500 °C. The temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. BSO exhibited a high thermal stability in the temperature range of 25–500 °C, while BTO showed a variation of ~3% in the range of 25–350 °C. The high values of d14 and k14, together with the good thermal stability, make BTO and BSO crystals potential candidates for electromechanical applications in medium temperature range.

  6. Micromachined Piezoelectric Actuators for Cryogenic Adaptive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes micromachined single crystal piezoelectric actuator arrays to enable ultra-large stroke, high precision shape control for large aperture,...

  7. Piezoelectric Structural Microensor Technology for Extreme Environments (> 1800 F) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTPC) sensors are desired for future propulsion component structure health monitoring, operating parameters optimization,...

  8. Piezoelectrical Structural Sensor Technology for Extreme Environments (> 1800 F) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature piezoelectric crystal (HTP) sensors are desired for future propulsion component structure health monitoring, operating parameters optimization,...

  9. 石英微机械陀螺的研究进展%Reaearch Development of Quartz Micromachined Gyroscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关冉; 张卫平; 陈文元; 张弓; 成宇翔

    2012-01-01

    首先介绍了石英微机械陀螺基于压电效应和科氏加速度的工作原理,回顾了石英微机械陀螺的发展历程,并且介绍了石英微机械陀螺的国内外发展现状.然后,针对石英微机械陀螺不同的结构进行了分类,并且对于不同结构的石英微机械陀螺的具体加工工艺、性能参数、应用领域等进行了综述.最后,对不同结构类型的石英微机械陀螺的尺寸、加工工艺,检测轴向,精度等参数进行了总结和对比,在此基础上分析了石英微机械陀螺的发展趋势,并指出了石英微机械陀螺研究中存在的问题,例如石英加工过程中产生的侧壁晶棱的不平整、石英侧壁电极的制作困难以及石英微机械陀螺多轴化应用的限制等.%Firstly, the working principle of the quartz micromachined gyroscope is introduced, which is based on the piezoelectric effect and the Coriolis acceleration, the development history of the quartz micromachined gyroscope is reviewed, and the development present situation of the quartz micromachined gyroscope is introduced both domestically and abroad. Then, the quartz micromachined gyroscope is classified into several types according to its different structures, and the specific fabrication process, performance parameter and application fields of the quartz micromachined gyroscope for the different structures are reviewed. Finally, the parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope for the different kinds of structures are summarized and compared, including the size, fabrication process, detection axis and accuracy, and on that basis, the development trends of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are analyzed, and the problems that limit the development of quartz micromachined gyroscope are pointed out, including the uneven crystal edges of the quartz sidewall caused by the fabrication process, the difficulties of electrode fabrication on the quartz sidewall and the limitation of the multi

  10. A method of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticle hybridization in a quartz crystal microbalance DNA sensing system used to detect dengue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S-H; Chuang, Y-C; Lu, Y-C; Lin, H-C; Yang, Y-L; Lin, C-S [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lincs@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-05-27

    Dengue virus (DENV) is nowadays the most important arthropod-spread virus affecting humans existing in more than 100 countries worldwide. A rapid and sensitive detection method for the early diagnosis of infectious dengue virus urgently needs to be developed. In the present study, a circulating-flow quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensing method combining oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles (i.e. AuNP probes) used to detect DENV has been established. In the DNA-QCM method, two kinds of specific AuNP probes were linked by the target sequences onto the QCM chip to amplify the detection signal, i.e. oscillatory frequency change ({delta}F) of the QCM sensor. The target sequences amplified from the DENV genome act as a bridge for the layer-by-layer AuNP probes' hybridization in the method. Besides being amplifiers of the detection signal, the specific AuNP probes used in the DNA-QCM method also play the role of verifiers to specifically recognize their target sequences in the detection. The effect of four AuNP sizes on the layer-by-layer hybridization has been evaluated and it is found that 13 nm AuNPs collocated with 13 nm AuNPs showed the best hybridization efficiency. According to the nanoparticle application, the DNA-QCM biosensing method was able to detect dengue viral RNA in virus-contaminated serum as plaque titers being 2 PFU ml{sup -1} and a linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) of {delta}F versus virus titration from 2 x 10{sup 0} to 2 x 10{sup 6} PFU ml{sup -1} was found. The sensitivity and specificity of the present DNA-QCM method with nanoparticle technology showed it to be comparable to the fluorescent real-time PCR methods. Moreover, the method described herein was shown to not require expensive equipment, was label-free and highly sensitive.

  11. Bone-inducing Activity of Biological Piezoelectric Ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To simulate the piezoelectric effect of nature bone, two kinds of biological piezoelectric composite ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite ( HA ) and lithium sodium potassium riobate (LNK) ceramic of which the ratio of HA/ LNK was 1: 10 and 5:5( wt/ wt ) were prepared. Their piezoelectric property and growth of apatite crystal in the ceramics surface were investigated. With the increase of LNK amount, piezoelectric activity increased correspondingly. By immersing the poled piezoelectric ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 36.5 ℃ for 7,14, and 21 days, apatite crystal was formed on negatively charged surfaces. After 21 days immersion in SBF,the thickest apatite crystal on the negatively charged surfaces increased to 3.337μm. The novel biological piezoelectric ceramics show an excellent piezoelectric property and superior potential bioactivity.

  12. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-05-13

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V(-1). We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  13. Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Yang; Zhang, Jinxing; Zueger, Chris; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoo, So Young; Wang, Eddie; Meyer, Joel; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2012-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, and piezoelectric devices made of a variety of inorganic materials and organic polymers have been demonstrated. However, synthesizing such materials often requires toxic starting compounds, harsh conditions and/or complex procedures. Previously, it was shown that hierarchically organized natural materials such as bones, collagen fibrils and peptide nanotubes can display piezoelectric properties. Here, we demonstrate that the piezoelectric and liquid-crystalline properties of M13 bacteriophage (phage) can be used to generate electrical energy. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we characterize the structure-dependent piezoelectric properties of the phage at the molecular level. We then show that self-assembled thin films of phage can exhibit piezoelectric strengths of up to 7.8 pm V-1. We also demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the dipole strength of the phage, hence tuning the piezoelectric response, by genetically engineering the major coat proteins of the phage. Finally, we develop a phage-based piezoelectric generator that produces up to 6 nA of current and 400 mV of potential and use it to operate a liquid-crystal display. Because biotechnology techniques enable large-scale production of genetically modified phages, phage-based piezoelectric materials potentially offer a simple and environmentally friendly approach to piezoelectric energy generation.

  14. Design of two-channel phase discriminator applied to quartz crystal test%用于石英晶体测试的双通道鉴相系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓彦; 李东; 王艳林

    2015-01-01

    为提高石英晶体的测试效率,搭建了双独立通道的鉴相系统。该系统采用同一DDS信号源同时激励两个π网络电路,设计了两个独立的鉴相电路,可实现两个通道同时鉴相。该系统采用差频鉴相的方法,使用AD8302作为鉴相器件,在提高鉴相的效率的同时确保了π网络零相位法的检测精度。为验证其可行性,将该系统应用到石英晶体电参数测量系统中。该双独立通道鉴相系统的频率测试范围为1~200 MHz,实验结果表明,鉴相精度达到±1°,满足石英晶体的测试需要。%In order to improve the measuring efficiency of quartz crystal,a two⁃channel phase discriminator system applied to quartz crystal test is designed. One DDS signal generator are used in the system to inspire two π⁃network circuits. The two in⁃dependent phase discriminator circuits are designed to discriminate the phase of two channels simultaneously. The difference fre⁃quency phase discriminating method is adopted in the system. The AD8302 is taken as a phase discriminator,which can im⁃prove the testing efficiency and ensure the testing precision simultaneously. In order to verify the viability of two⁃channel phase discriminator,it was used in a electrical parameter measuring system for quartz crystal test. The testing range of the two⁃channel phase discriminator system is 1~200 MHz. The experiment result shows that its phase discrimination accuracy is ±1°,which can meet the testing needs of quartz crystal.

  15. Theoretical and experimental research on the influence of multiple piezoelectric effects on physical parameters of piezoelectric actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Shi

    2015-04-01

    effects on the physical parameters of piezoelectric actuators. On the one hand, this can further increase the control precision of piezoelectric actuators. On the other hand, it can be applied to research on the physical parameters and self-sensing actuators, like piezoelectric quartz and piezoelectric ceramic self-sensing actuators, which will be of great service for MEMS.

  16. The role of quartz in the origin of optical activity on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgenii, K; Wolfram, T

    2000-10-01

    A thorough analysis of literature data on distribution of right and left quartz in many locations on the surface of Earth indicates that quartz enantiomorph crystals are distributed in equal amounts in all locations. Therefore optically active quartz crystals of one or the other enantiomorph could not serve as the source of homochirality in the evolution of biosphere. Hence the calculation of a PVED based on published 'small excess of left quartz crystals' on Earth lacks a sound physical basis.

  17. Crystal Growth of Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 Piezoelectric Single Crystals with Various Al Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuui Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 (CNGAS single crystals with various Al concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (µ-PD method and their crystal structures, chemical compositions, crystallinities were investigated. CNGAS crystals with x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 indicated a single phase of langasite-type structure without any secondary phases. In contrast, the crystals with x = 0.8 and 1 included some secondary phases in addition to the langasite-type phase. Lattice parameters, a- and c-axes lengths, of the langasite-type phase systematically decreased with an increase of Al concentration. The results of chemical composition analysis revealed that the actual Al concentrations in as-grown crystals were almost consistent with the nominal compositions. In addition, there was no large segregation of each cation along the growth direction.

  18. Crystal Growth of Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx)3Si2O14 Piezoelectric Single Crystals with Various Al Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Kudo, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuji; Medvedev, Andrey; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx)3Si2O14 (CNGAS) single crystals with various Al concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (µ-PD) method and their crystal structures, chemical compositions, crystallinities were investigated. CNGAS crystals with x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 indicated a single phase of langasite-type structure without any secondary phases. In contrast, the crystals with x = 0.8 and 1 included some secondary phases in addition to the langasite-type phase. Lattice parameters, a- and c-axes lengths, of the langasite-type phase systematically decreased with an increase of Al concentration. The results of chemical composition analysis revealed that the actual Al concentrations in as-grown crystals were almost consistent with the nominal compositions. In addition, there was no large segregation of each cation along the growth direction. PMID:28793525

  19. Nucleation-fibrillation dynamics of Aβ1-40 peptides on liquid-solid surface studied by total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled with quartz-crystal microbalance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hiroki; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Noi, Kentaro; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    We have successfully developed the total-internal-reflection-fluorescence microscopy combined with a quartz-crystal microbalance (TIRFM-QCM) biosensor, and monitored the nucleation-fibrillation phenomenon of amyloid β1-40 peptide on the naked quartz surface. The cross-β-sheet structures were visualized with the TIRFM using the thioflavin-T (Th-T) label, and other unlabeled aggregates were detected through the frequency change of the 58-MHz wireless-electrodeless QCM throughout the aggregation reaction. The QCM response indicates significant adsorption of the peptides on the quartz surface at the early stage, which is followed by fibrillation. The non-cross-β-sheet oligomers are first formed, and nuclei appear in the oligomer region, from which fibrils originate and elongate. The two-color TIRFM observation was performed after the aggregation reaction with the Nile-red label as well as the ThT label for identifying nucleation from non-β-sheet regions. An aggregation model is proposed.

  20. Advanced piezoelectric crystal Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14}: growth, crystal structure perfection, and acoustic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Plotitcyna, Olga; Irzhak, Dmitry; Fahrtdinov, Rashid [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay Cedex (France); Erko, Alexei; Zizak, Ivo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Berlin (Germany); Buzanov, Oleg [FOMOS Materials Co., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15

    A five-component crystal of the lanthanum-gallium silicate family Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CTGS) was grown by the Czochralski method. The CTGS crystal, like the langasite crystal (La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14}, LGS), possesses unique temperature properties and the fewer number of the Ga atoms in the unit cell makes the density much lower and, consequently, increases the velocity of acoustic wave propagation. The unit-cell parameters were determined by the powder diffraction technique. The defects in the CTGS crystal structure were studied by X-ray topography, which enables the visualization of growth banding characteristics of crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in the CTGS crystal was investigated by the high-resolution X-ray diffraction method on the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. The velocities of propagation and power flow angles of SAWs in the Y- and X-cuts of the CTGS crystal were determined from the X-ray diffraction spectra. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the Structure Characteristics of Quartz MEMS Gyroscope%石英MEMS陀螺的结构特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林日乐; 谢佳维; 周倩; 满欣; 李文蕴; 张巧云

    2011-01-01

    The principle and typical sensing elements structure of quartz MEMS gyroscope have been introduced in this paper. The structure characteristics of sensing elements have been analyzed, and the structure has been optimized by using the finite element method. The suitable electrode pattern has been designed by using the piezoelectric effect of quartz crystal. The quartz MEMS processing technology has been introduced based on the sensing elements structure. The performance of quartz MEMS gyroscope has been improved by optimizing the structure and designing the electrode pattern suitably. At last, the primary performance and application fields of quartz MEMS gyroscope have been introduced.%介绍了石英微机电系统(MEMS)陀螺的工作原理及敏感芯片的音叉结构特点,采用有限元法分析了敏感芯片的结构特性,并对结构进行优化.利用石英晶体的压电效应,设计了合理的电极布局,并结合敏感芯片结构特点介绍了其微机械加工工艺.通过结构优化和合理的电极布局,提高了石英MEMS陀螺的性能.

  2. Site-selective spectroscopy of Er{sup 3+} ions in the Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20} piezoelectric crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira C, A.; Caldino G, U. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ramirez, M.O.; Sanz-Garcia, J.A.; Bausa, L.E. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luisa.bausa@uam.es

    2001-12-03

    Site-selective spectroscopy fluorescence experiments (emission and excitation) in the near-infrared region associated with the {sup 4}I{sub 15/24}I{sub 11/2} transitions of Er{sup 3+} ions have been successfully used to show the presence of two different Er{sup 3+} centres in the Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20} piezoelectric crystal. Green (545-570 nm), red (650-690 nm) and near-infrared (850-890 nm) up-converted emissions have been observed and resolved for each type of centre under excitation up to the {sup 4}{sub I11/2} state. The Stark energy level schemes of the three lower energy states of Er{sup 3+} ions have been determined and compared for both centres, showing two quite different crystalline field environments. The mechanisms responsible for the up-conversion process (excited state absorption and/or energy transfer up-conversion) are also analysed. (author)

  3. Acoustoelectric effects in reflection of leaky-wave-radiated bulk acoustic waves from piezoelectric crystal-conductive liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimeika, Romualdas; Čiplys, Daumantas; Jonkus, Vytautas; Shur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The leaky surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating along X-axis of Y-cut lithium tantalate crystal strongly radiates energy in the form of an obliquely propagating narrow bulk acoustic wave (BAW) beam. The reflection of this beam from the crystal-liquid interface has been investigated. The test liquids were solutions of potassium nitrate in distilled water and of lithium chloride in isopropyl alcohol with the conductivity varied by changing the solution concentration. The strong dependences of the reflected wave amplitude and phase on the liquid conductivity were observed and explained by the acoustoelectric interaction in the wave reflection region. The novel configuration of an acoustic sensor for liquid media featuring important advantages of separate measuring and sensing surfaces and rigid structure has been proposed. The application of leaky-SAW radiated bulk waves for identification of different brands of mineral water has been demonstrated.

  4. Studies on Non-potentiometric Piezoelectric Sensor System for Determination of Vitamin B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jin-bin; NIE Li-hua; YAO Shou-zhuo

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectric sensor responsive to vitamin B1 was fabricated based on the vitamin B1-tetraphenylborate ion pair. The general performance characteristics of the sensor are presented here. The proposed sensor showed a wide working pH range, a good sensitivity and selectivity. The response range is between 1.0×10-7-4.9×10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 8×10-8 mol/L at pH 4.0. The selectivity should be attributed to the preferential adsorption of the component ion on the membrane/solution interface. The adsorption behavior of vitamin B1 on the crystal surface was investigated with a quartz crystal impedance(QCI) system.

  5. Piezoelectric Film Waveguides for Surface Acoustic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zhovnir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of piezoelectric film waveguide structures for surface acoustic waves (SAW. Piezoelectric ZnO film is supposed to be placed on a fused quartz substrate. The analytical ratios and numerical results allow to determine the design parameters of the waveguide structures to provide a single-mode SAW propagation mode. The results of amplitude and phase experimental studies of the SAW in the waveguide structures that were carried out on the laser optical sensing set up confirm the theoretical calculations.

  6. Synchrotron White Beam X-Ray Topography Characterization of LGX and SXGS Bulk Single Crystals, Thin Films and Piezoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-27

    will be carried out on: (1) bulk LGX crystals grown using the Czochralski technique, (2) homo- and heteroepitaxial thin films of LGX, and (3...Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 1. J. Luo, D. Shah, C.F. Klemenz, M. Dudley and H. Chen, “The Czochralski Growth of Large...Total of 36 topographs of the longitudinal surface of 00-A1-08 LGT-X boule were recorded with the method described above. The topographs are

  7. Fundamentals of piezoelectric sensorics mechanical, dielectric, and thermodynamical properties of piezoelectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tichý, Jan; Kittinger, Erwin; Prívratská, Jana; Privatska, Jana; Janovec, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the physics of piezoleletric sensors in a straight-forward and easy-to-grasp way, from the fundamentals of phenomenological crystal physics through more complex concepts, to its explanation of several important piezoelectric materials.

  8. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  9. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  10. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P., E-mail: veber@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Université Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Shimamura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  11. Simulation of quartz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, M.; Radius, R.; Mohr, R.

    Quartz resonators are suitable as novel sensor elements in the field of profilometry and three dimensional measurement techniques. This application requires a tailoring of the oscillator circuit which is performed by a network analysis program. The equivalent network parameters are computed by a finite element analysis. The mechanical loading of the quartz is modeled by a viscous damping approach.

  12. A New Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measuring Method with Expansive Frequency Range and Broadband Adaptive Response Capacity%新型宽频自适应石英晶体微天平测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊鹏; 包宇; 林青; 逄仁山; 王连明; 牛利

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of present quartz crystal microbalance ( QCM ) measuring instruments, such as high demand for crystal cutting technology and uncomprehensive measurements for crystal parameters, a modified quadrature demodulation-based method was proposed with broadband adaptive response capacity and high frequency resolution. Moreover, it is also capable of measuring both resonant frequencies and dissipation factor D synchronously and continuously. Experimental results at room temperature indicated that the adaptive frequency range was 1-9 MHz while the frequency resolution was less than 1 Hz, measured resonance frequency shifts of crystals in the range scale linearly with the equal thickness increments of poly acrylic acid ( PAA) membrane on the working electrode, and with the volatilization of different solvent factor D is measured continuously and effectively along the time axis. To sum up, compared with traditional ones, this new method has lower material cost and more obtained parameters.%针对目前石英晶体微天平( Quartz crystal microbalance,QCM)仪器所存在的对晶体切割工艺要求过高,测量参数不够全面等问题,在正交解调法的基础上,提出了一种在较宽频率范围内具有自适应功能,测量频率分辨率高,并且可同时连续获取谐振频率和耗散因子D的测试方法。实验表明:室温下,频率测量自适应范围在1~9 MHz且频率分辨率小于1 Hz;随着工作电极聚丙烯酸( Poly acrylic acid,PAA)膜厚度的均匀叠加,测得范围内各晶体频率偏移呈线性变化;随着不同溶剂挥发,D因子测量结果在时间轴上连续有效。与传统方法相比,本方法具有耗材成本低,获取参数丰富等优点。

  13. Optical absorption, piezoelectric effect and second harmonic generation studies of single crystal AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronchuk, G.L.; Krymus, A.S.; Piasecki, M. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Lakshminarayana, G. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Wireless and Photonic Networks Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Kityk, I.V. [Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa (Poland); Eastern European National University, Physics Department, Lutsk (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Eastern European National University, Department of Chemistry, Lutsk (Ukraine); Rudysh, M.Ya.; Shchepanskyi, P.A. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Physics Department, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    Spectral features of absorption were studied for novel AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} solid-state alloys at different temperatures. The synthesized crystals structure parameters are obtained by the X-ray Rietveld refinement method. During increasing temperature from 100 up to 300 K, the energy gap of AgGaGe{sub 3}Se{sub 7.6}Te{sub 0.4} decreases linearly from 2.05 up to 1.94 eV at a rate 5.7 x 10{sup -4} eV/K. The magnitudes of piezoelectric coefficients are significantly changed and demonstrate substantial anisotropy. At room temperature, these values are equal to 5.2 pm/V (d{sub 11}), 31.5 pm/V (d{sub 22}) and 35.5 pm/V (d{sub 33}). It is crucial that with an increasing temperature the piezoelectric efficiencies are increased. We have explored temperature and laser-induced changes of piezoelectric coefficients. (orig.)

  14. Mass flux response comparisons of a 200-MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator microbalance to a 15-MHz thermoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (TQCM) in a high-vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Donald A.; Bowers, William D.

    1994-10-01

    Using a 200 MHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonator device as a high-vacuum molecular deposition microbalance, similar to a bulk quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and an often-used 15 MHz thermoelectric QCM (TQCM), a comparison of various parameters was made during a high-vacuum outgassing experiment. The source of molecular outgassing was a bright aluminum foil which was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature and alternately, to ambient temperature. The two sensors, the SAW QCM and the TQCM were placed next to each other and viewed only the aluminum foil. In this high-vacuum environment, a comparison between various parameters, i.e., mass sensitivity, long term drift rate, stability, thermal effects and dynamic range of the SAW and the TQCM, was obtained.

  15. Piezoelectric particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew

    2017-08-29

    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.

  16. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  17. Radiation Damage of Quartz Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    1999-01-01

    Quartz fibers are used in high energy physics experiments as the active medium in high radiation area calorimetry. Quartz fibers are also used in the transmission of optical signals. Even though quartz does not damage by moderate amounts of irradiation, the clad of the fibers and the protective coating ( buffer) do damage reducing light transmission. Various types of quartz fibers have been irradiated and measured for light transmission. The most radiation hard quartz fibers are those with quartz clad and aluminum buffer.

  18. Piezoelectric, elastic, structural and dielectric properties of the Si(1-x)Ge(x)O(2) solid solution: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kelany, Kh E; Erba, A; Carbonnière, P; Rérat, M

    2014-05-21

    We apply first principles quantum mechanical techniques to the study of the solid solution Si1-xGexO2 of α-quartz where silicon atoms are progressively substituted with germanium atoms, to different extents, as a function of the substitutional fraction x. For the first time, the whole range of the substitution (x = 0.0, 0.1[Formula: see text], 0.[Formula: see text], 0.5, 0.[Formula: see text], 0.8[Formula: see text], 1.0), including pure end-members α-SiO2 and α-GeO2, is explored. An elongated supercell (doubled along the c crystallographic axis) is built with respect to the unit cell of pure α-quartz and a set of 13 symmetry-independent configurations is considered. Their structural, energetic, dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties are computed and analyzed. All the calculations are performed using the CRYSTAL14 program with a Gaussian-type function basis set with pseudopotentials, and the hybrid functional PBE0; all geometries are fully optimized at this level of theory. In particular, for each configuration, fourth-rank elastic and compliance tensors and third-rank direct and converse piezoelectric tensors are computed. It has already been shown that the structural distortion of the solid solution increases, almost linearly, as the substitutional fraction x increases. The piezoelectric properties of the Si1-xGexO2 solid solution are found to increase with x, with a similar quasi-linear behavior. The electromechanical coupling coefficients are enhanced as well and the linear trend recently predicted by Ranieri et al (2011 Inorg. Chem. 50 4632) can be confirmed from first principles calculations. These doped crystals do represent good candidates for technological applications requiring high piezoelectric coupling and high thermal stability.

  19. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  20. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-21

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  1. A Novel Signal-Amplified Immunoassay for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using HRP-Doped Magnetic Nanoparticles as Labels with the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance as a Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel horseradish peroxidase- (HPR- doped magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanocomposites (Fe-Au MNPs were employed on immunoassay for the determination of C-reactive protein (CRP based on a electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance detector (EQCM. Firstly, the secondary CRP antibody and HRP were both immobilized on the Fe-Au MNPs (Fe-Au MNPs-anti-CRP2/HRP as a signal tag. Secondly, the above tag and the primary antibody (anti-CRP1 in the bottom of 96-well microtiter plate were employed to conjugate with a serial of CRP concentrations to produce a sandwich immunocomplex. Thirdly, the immunocomplex solution was subsequently exposed to 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB in the presence of H2O2, resulting in an insoluble product. When the precipitation solution was dripped on EQCM, it can achieve a decrease of frequency of crystal (Δf. The amount of Δf was proportional to (CRP from 0.003 to 200 ng mL−1 with a low detection limit of 1 pg mL−1. Compared with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the immunoassay shows greatly improved sensitivity due to the significant amount of HRP labeled on signal tag. It also has good specificity and low sample consumption, which is expected to be a benefit for the CRP screening in early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Derivation of Piezoelectric Losses from Admittance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ural, Seyit O.; Rajapurkar, Aditya; Tuncdemir, Safakcan; Amin, Ahmed; Uchino, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    High power density piezoelectrics are required to miniaturize devices such as ultrasonic motors, transformers, and sound projectors. The power density is limited by the heat generation in piezoelectrics, therefore, clarification of the loss mechanisms is necessary. This paper provides a methodology to determine the electromechanical losses, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric loss factors in piezoelectrics by means of a detailed analysis of the admittance/impedance spectra. This method was applied to determine the piezoelectric losses for lead zirconate titanate ceramics and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals. The analytical solution provides a new method for obtaining the piezoelectric loss factor, which is usually neglected in practice by transducer designers. Finite element simulation demonstrated the importance of piezoelectric losses to yield a more accurate fitting to the experimental data. A phenomenological model based on two phase-shifts and the Devonshire theory of a polarizable-deformable insulator is developed to interpret the experimentally observed magnitudes of the mechanical quality factor at resonance and anti-resonance.

  3. Impedance analysis of an enhanced piezoelectric biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Ho

    This study investigated the usefulness and characteristics of a five-megahertz quartz crystal resonator oscillating in a thickness-shear mode as a sensor of biological pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium . An impedance analyzer measured the impedance of the oscillating quartz crystal, which determined all mechanical properties of the oscillating quartz and its immediate environment. In this study, the impedance behavior of the bare crystal was characterized in air and in potassium phosphate buffer solution. The potassium phosphate buffer was a Newtonian liquid. The resonance frequency of the oscillating quartz shifted down about 900 Hz by contacting with the buffer. An immobilized-antibody layer on the quartz surface behaved like a rigid mass when immersed in the buffer solution. The quartz crystal with immobilized antibodies was characterized in various solutions containing antibody- coated paramagnetic microspheres and varying concentrations of Salmonella typhimurium (102 - 108 cells/ml). The Salmonella cells were captured by antibody- coated paramagnetic microspheres, and then these complexes were moved magnetically to the oscillating quartz and were captured by antibodies immobilized on the crystal surface. The response of the crystal was expressed in terms of equivalent circuit parameters. The motional inductance and the motional resistance increased as a function of the concentration of Salmonella. The viscous damping was the main contribution to the resistance and the inductance in a liquid environment. The load resistance was the most effective and sensitive circuit parameter. A magnetic force was a useful method to collect the complexes of Salmonella-microspheres on the crystal surface and enhance the response sensor. In this system, the detection limit, based on resistance monitoring, was about 103 cells/ml.

  4. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  5. Elevated silver, barium and strontium in antlers, vegetation and soils sourced from CWD cluster areas: do Ag/Ba/Sr piezoelectric crystals represent the transmissible pathogenic agent in TSEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High levels of Silver (Ag), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr) and low levels of copper (Cu) have been measured in the antlers, soils and pastures of the deer that are thriving in the chronic wasting disease (CWD) cluster zones in North America in relation to the areas where CWD and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported. The elevations of Ag, Ba and Sr were thought to originate from both natural geochemical and artificial pollutant sources--stemming from the common practise of aerial spraying with 'cloud seeding' Ag or Ba crystal nuclei for rain making in these drought prone areas of North America, the atmospheric spraying with Ba based aerosols for enhancing/refracting radar and radio signal communications as well as the spreading of waste Ba drilling mud from the local oil/gas well industry across pastureland. These metals have subsequently bioconcentrated up the foodchain and into the mammals who are dependent upon the local Cu deficient ecosystems. A dual eco-prerequisite theory is proposed on the aetiology of TSEs which is based upon an Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn replacement binding at the vacant Cu/Zn domains on the cellular prion protein (PrP)/sulphated proteoglycan molecules which impairs the capacities of the brain to protect itself against incoming shockbursts of sound and light energy. Ag/Ba/Sr chelation of free sulphur within the biosystem inhibits the viable synthesis of the sulphur dependent proteoglycans, which results in the overall collapse of the Cu mediated conduction of electric signals along the PrP-proteoglycan signalling pathways; ultimately disrupting GABA type inhibitory currents at the synapses/end plates of the auditory/circadian regulated circuitry, as well as disrupting proteoglycan co-regulation of the growth factor signalling systems which maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system. The resulting Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based compounds seed piezoelectric crystals which incorporate PrP and ferritin into

  6. Effect of antimony substitution for niobium on the crystal structure, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgbemere, H E; Schneider, G A; Stegk, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The effect of antimony (Sb) substitution for niobium (Nb) on potassium sodium niobate (KNN) ceramic was investigated with respect to the densification behaviour at different sintering temperatures, microstructure and electrical properties. A small amount of Sb5+ was added while simultaneously...... lowering the amount of Nb5+ and in this study of the (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb1-xSbx)O3 system, x content was varied from 0 to 14 mol%. Our results show that Sb5+ slightly increased the optimum sintering temperature for KNN but above 8 mol%, its resistivity and piezoelectric properties decreased. As the amount of Sb5...... temperature. The dielectric loss slightly increases with increasing Sb5+ content up to 200°C. There was an improvement in the piezoelectric properties with ≤ 6 mol% Sb content while optimum properties were obtained with 4 mol% (KP = 0.46, Qm = 6.2, NP = 2296)....

  7. Piezoelectric characteristics of PZT thin films on polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Do, Younh-Ho; Oh, Seung-Min; Rahayu, Rheza; Kim, Yiyein; Kang, Chong-Yun; Nahm, Sahn; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2012-02-01

    The goal of piezoelectric energy harvesting is to improve the power efficiency of devices. One of the approaches for the improvement of power efficiency is to apply the large strain on the piezoelectric materials and then many scientists approached using thin films or nano-structured piezoelectric materials to obtain flexibility. However, the conventional thin film processes available for the fabrication of piezoelectric materials as PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) are not compatible with flexible electronics because they require high processing temperatures (>700^oC) to obtain piezoelectricity. Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is attractive heat process for the low-temperature crystallization, because of its material selectivity and short heating time. In this study, the amorphous PZT thin films were deposited on polymer substrate by rf-sputtering. To crystallize the amorphous films, the ELA was carried out with various conditions as function of the applied laser energy density, the number of pulse, and the repetition rate. To evaluate the piezoelectric characteristics, piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and electrometer are used. As a result, we obtained the crystallized PZT thin film on flexible substrate and obtained flexible piezoelectric energy harvester.

  8. Trace elements in quartz shed light on sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Michael R.; Tailby, Nicholas D.; Watson, E. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Quartz is one of the most common minerals on the surface of the earth, and is a primary rock-forming mineral across the rock cycle. These two factors make quartz an obvious target for sediment provenance studies. Observations from experimental and natural samples demonstrate that the trace element content of quartz often reflects the conditions of quartz formation. When quartz is weathered from its primary crystallization setting (i.e., quartz from a granitoid) it can retain many chemical signatures of formation throughout the sedimentation processes. These geochemical signatures can be used to understand the primary source of individual quartz grains within a sediment. Here we present a case study from the Bega River catchment to demonstrate that quartz grains in sediments at the mouth of the Bega River are sourced from granitoids within the drainage basin. Data presented here also indicate that a portion of the beach sediment is also derived from either (i) sedimentary rocks within the basin or; (ii) mixing with sediments at the mouth of the river. The Bega River catchment was selected for this study because it is both small and has a well-constrained bedrock lithology, making it an ideal location to test the utility of this provenance technique. However, quartz trace element provenance has broad applications to modern and ancient sediments and can be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, other provenance techniques to elucidate sediment transport through time.

  9. In-situ etch rate study of Hf{sub x}La{sub y}O{sub z} in Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} plasmas using the quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchack, Nathan; Kim, Taeseung; Chang, Jane P., E-mail: jpchang@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Blom, Hans-Olof [Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    The etch rate of Hf{sub x}La{sub y}O{sub z} films in Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} plasmas was measured in-situ in an inductively coupled plasma reactor using a quartz crystal microbalance and corroborated by cross-sectional SEM measurements. The etch rate depended on the ion energy as well as the plasma chemistry. In contrast to other Hf-based ternary oxides, the etch rate of Hf{sub x}La{sub y}O{sub z} films was higher in Cl{sub 2} than in BCl{sub 3}. In the etching of Hf{sub 0.25}La{sub 0.12}O{sub 0.63}, Hf appeared to be preferentially removed in Cl{sub 2} plasmas, per surface compositional analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the detection of HfCl{sub 3} generation in mass spectroscopy. These findings were consistent with the higher etch rate of Hf{sub 0.25}La{sub 0.12}O{sub 0.63} than that of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. APPLICATION OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE IN ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION INVESTIGATION%石英晶体微天平(QCM)在大气腐蚀研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严川伟; 曹楚南; 林海潮

    2001-01-01

    石英晶体微天平(QCM)作为一种高灵敏度的质量检测手段,已经用于金属材料大气腐蚀动力学及其环境因素和缓蚀剂存在的影响规律的研究,对QCM在大气腐蚀研究中的应用进行了综述.%The application of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the study of atmospheric corrosion is reviewed. QCM is available to measure mass changes of a nanngram order and has widely been used for in-situ investigations of atmospheric corrosion. The effects of environmental factors,corrosive gas constituents and gas-phase inhibitors on the atmospheric corrosion mechanism of metal materials have been studied with QCM. In the recent years, the atmospheric corrosivity probe based on QCM techniques has been developed. The characteristics and developing trend of QCM for atmospheric corrosion investigation and monitoring are analyzed and discussed

  11. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage.

  12. Small non-polar complexes exhibiting significant piezoelectric properties: Solvothermal synthesis and crystal structures of MO5V(tren)·H2O (M=Mo and W; tren=tris(2-aminoethyl)amine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M.; Näther, C.; Bismayer, U.; Bensch, W.

    2012-11-01

    The two isostructural complexes MO5V(tren)·H2O (M=Mo (1) and W (2)) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at pH≈12 crystallizing in the non-centrosymmetric space group P212121. The structures are constructed by a distorted tetrahedral [MO4]2- anion bound via one shared oxygen atom to a severely distorted [VIVN4O]2+ complex completing the octahedral coordination around the V centre. The two O atoms in the VN4O2 octahedron are in cis position. The two compounds represent rare examples where the [MO4]2- anion is acting as a ligand. Both compounds exhibit a piezoelectric effect which is more pronounced for M=Mo. The samples are further characterized with IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and thermal analysis.

  13. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  14. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  15. Construction and analytical application of ion-selective piezoelectric sensor for atropine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y; Lei, L; Li, W; He, D; Nie, L; Yao, S

    1999-11-01

    The method describes the use of a piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) as a substitute for ion-selective electrodes. The approach is feasible when the membrane materials are electrically non-conductive and membrane potential measurements are consequently not possible. An ion-selective piezoelectric sensor sensitive to atropine sulfate was constructed by coating a PVC membrane containing activant on one the side of a PQC. On the basis of selective adsorption of atropine ions across the modified film and the sensitive mass response of PQC, the method exhibits a sensitive, rapid response and is easy to operate without pretreatment of the sample. The logarithm of the frequency shift gave a linear relationship with the logarithm of atropine sulfate concentration in the 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-3) M range with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-9) M at pH 7.0. Recoveries were from 98.7-102.2%. Two activants, atropine tetraphenylborate and atropine dipicrylaminate, were synthesized and investigated. Influencing factors were also examined and optimized. The results for real samples obtained by the proposed method agreed with those obtained by conventional methods.

  16. Propellant Flow Actuated Piezoelectric Igniter for Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant flow actuated piezoelectric igniter device using one or more hammer balls retained by one or more magnets, or other retaining method, until sufficient fluid pressure is achieved to release and accelerate the hammer ball, such that it impacts a piezoelectric crystal to produce an ignition spark. Certain preferred embodiments provide a means for repetitively capturing and releasing the hammer ball after it impacts one or more piezoelectric crystals, thereby oscillating and producing multiple, repetitive ignition sparks. Furthermore, an embodiment is presented for which oscillation of the hammer ball and repetitive impact to the piezoelectric crystal is maintained without the need for a magnet or other retaining mechanism to achieve this oscillating impact process.

  17. Chemical etching of deformation sub-structures in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, M. W.; Christie, J. M.

    1983-02-01

    Chemical etching of dislocations has been studied in natural and synthetic quartz single crystals, in deformed synthetic quartz and in naturally and experimentally deformed quartzites. The ability of different etchants to produce polished or preferentially etched surfaces on quartz is described. Dislocation etching was achieved on all crystal planes examined by using a saturated solution of ammonium bifluoride as the etchant. Appropriate etching times were determined for etching quartzites for grain size, subgrain boundaries, deformation lamellae, dislocations and twins. Growth and polished surfaces of synthetic single crystal quartz were similarly etched and dislocation etch pits, characteristic of various orientations were found. The use of ammonium bifluoride proved to be expecially advantageous for the basal plane, producing a polished surface with etch pits, suitable for dislocation etch pit counting. “Double” etch pits have been found on Dauphiné twin boundaries on the basal plane and the first order prism, using this etchant. Slip lines and deformation bands were suitably etched on deformed synthetic crystal surfaces for identification of the slip planes. Other acidic etchants have been explored and their application to the study of deformation structures in quartz crystals is discussed.

  18. A piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  19. Piezoelectric Wheel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Puu-An

    2007-10-01

    A piezoelectric wheel system is proposed for used as a microstepping displacement device including a carrier and two displacement members, which are separately pivoted on the carrier. Each displacement member includes two wheels, and which can not rotate. In addition, each wheel includes a wheel sheet and a piezoelectric element embedded on its surface. When the piezoelectricity element generates and transmits power to the wheel sheet, the wheel induces vibration and deformation. Therefore, owing to the wheel sheets and the touched ground involving their relative motion, the displacement device can be moved or can be oriented its motion direction. The wheel system involves direct movement, and has no rotor requirement. In this research, a three-dimensional (3D) mechanical element with an extra electrical degree of freedom is employed to simulate the dynamic vibration modes of the linear piezoelectric, mechanical, and piezoelectric-mechanical behaviours of the piezoelectric wheel.

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Erturk, Alper

    2011-01-01

    The transformation of vibrations into electric energy through the use of piezoelectric devices is an exciting and rapidly developing area of research with a widening range of applications constantly materialising. With Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, world-leading researchers provide a timely and comprehensive coverage of the electromechanical modelling and applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters. They present principal modelling approaches, synthesizing fundamental material related to mechanical, aerospace, civil, electrical and materials engineering disciplines for vibration-

  1. Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    "Advanced Mechanics of Piezoelectricity" presents a comprehensive treatment of piezoelectric materials using linear electroelastic theory, symplectic models, and Hamiltonian systems. It summarizes the current state of practice and presents the most recent research findings in piezoelectricity. It is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of applied mechanics, material science and engineering, computational engineering, and aerospace engineering. Dr. Qinghua Qin is a professor at the School of Engineering, Australian National University, Australia.

  2. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Diana Christine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  3. “固化水层”模型拓展石英晶体微天平的应用%Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Solidified Liquid Layer Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾莉娟; 汪杰; 马宏伟

    2013-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has many advantages in research,but the data interpretation has hindered its applications in many research fields,especially for application in liquid.Recently,we proposed'solidified liquid layer' (SLL) model to simplify the data analysis.In this article,some missing evidences are provided to demonstrate the SLL model.The thickness result from ellipsometry accords with the result from the SLL model.The SLL model predicts that 1 Hz signal respond to a 0.18-nm change of TSLL,which greatly improve the resolution of QCMs in liquid.These researches effectively improve our understanding in the nature of Au—S bond breakage and its breakage process.Our results show that the SLL model will improve the applications of QCM in many fields.%石英晶体微天平(QCM)在液态环境下的应用一直由于数据分析复杂而受到限制.最近,我们提出了“固化水层”模型(SLL)以简化QCM数据分析过程.本文进一步提供了SLL模型的有关数据.根据SLL模型,1 Hz QCM频率信号对应于0.18 nm SLL层厚度的变化,而大多数商业的QCM均可以达到该精度.因此,根据SLL模型设计的检测方案将具有很高的灵敏度.QCM作为生物传感器的应用也得以拓展,可以相信SLL模型将大大增强QCM的分析能力.

  4. Development of a rubber elongation factor, surface-imprinted polymer-quartz crystal microbalance sensor, for quantitative determination of Hev b1 rubber latex allergens present in natural rubber latex products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontimuang, Chonlatid; Suedee, Roongnapa; Canyuk, Bhutorn; Phadoongsombut, Narubodee; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-02-21

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for screening to detect rubber latex allergens (Hev b1) in natural rubber based products were designed as artificial recognition polymeric materials coated onto a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The polymers were prepared using a stamp imprinting procedure after mixing optimum amounts of methacrylic acid-vinylpyrrolidone-dihydroxyethylene bisacrylamide and Hev b1 latex allergen proteins, obtained from rubber gloves. QCM measurements showed that the resulting polymer layers after removal of the proteins used in their preparation could incorporate structures and features down to nanometer scale of protein templates into the imprinted polymer much better than a non-specific control polymer under controlled sensor conditions and an optimized polymerization process. This selective polymer but not the non-selective polymer clearly distinguished between the latex allergen Hev b1 and proteins such as lysozyme, ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin, with a selectivity factor of from 2 to 4, and the response of the rubber elongation factors by an astonishing factor of 12. The imprinted cavities recognized specific binding sites and could distinguish among related hevein latex allergenic proteins isolated from fresh natural rubber latex; Hev b1, Hev b2, and Hev b3 with a selectivity factor of from 4 to 6. The different QCM measurements obtained presumably reflected slightly different conformations and affinities to the MIP binding sites. The sensor layers selectively adsorbed Hev b1 within minutes in amounts ranging from 10 to 1500 μg L⁻¹ and with a detection limit of 1 μg L⁻¹. This work has demonstrated that this new sensor provides a fast and reliable response to natural rubber latex protein, even after being extracted from the matrix of rubber gloves.

  5. Hybrid thermoelectric piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Hewitt, C. A.; Carroll, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents an integration of flexible thermoelectric and piezoelectric materials into a single device structure. This device architecture overcomes several prohibitive issues facing the combination of traditional thermoelectric and piezoelectric generators, while optimizing performance of the combined power output. The structure design uses a carbon nanotube/polymer thin film as a flexible thermoelectric generator that doubles as an electrode on a piezoelectric generator made of poly(vinylidene fluoride). An example 2 × 2 array of devices is shown to generate 89% of the maximum thermoelectric power, and provide 5.3 times more piezoelectric voltage when compared with a traditional device.

  6. Étude de la sensibilité d'un capteur de pression à quartz à distribution radiale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaite, R.

    1996-03-01

    An analysis is presented to determine the sensitivity of a piezoelectric pressure sensor in the case of a resonator subject to radial compression uniformly distributed over an angular part of the crystal edge. For a cut crystal singly rotated and for a doubly rotated, a coefficient of pressure sensitivity is calculated and gives the advantage of introducing the optimal value of the angular sector, as well as the azimut of application of the pressure. This solution becomes particularly interesting if one applies it to a singly rotated AT-cut crystal. Une étude est effectuée pour déterminer la sensibilité d'un capteur de pression à quartz dans le cas d'une distribution uniforme de la pression selon un secteur angulaire à la périphérie du cristal. Un coefficient de sensibilité à la pression est calculé pour des coupes à simple ou double rotation. Il permet d'introduire une valeur optimale du secteur angulaire et de sa position dans le repère du cristal. Cette solution devient intéressante pour le capteur si on utilise une coupe AT.

  7. Force chain forming quartz in an ultramylonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Peters, Max

    2014-05-01

    Polymineralic ultramylonites often show microstructures indicative of grain size sensitive creep with dissolution precipitation or diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding. Typically phases show an anticorrelated distribution, the grain size is small and a crystallographic preferred orientation is absent. The latter observation is usually thought to originate from rigid body rotation of grains because flow dominated by diffusion creep operates at differential stresses, which are too low to activate crystal-plastic mechanisms. Here, we present quartz texture measurements from a natural ultramylonite, deformed under upper amphibolite facies conditions from the Nordmannvik Nappe, Upper Allochton of the Norwegian Caledonides. The ultramylonite has a mean grain size crystal-plastic processes. Alternative texture forming processes (e.g. growth textures) are also discussed. The texture in the foliation parallel clusters is thought to be an inherited texture from lower strain stages in the ultramylonite, as it is mostly present in the least deformed parts of the ultramylonite. However, we suggest that the texture formed in the foliation oblique clusters is related to a dynamic formation of force chains between quartz grains, where differential stresses become high enough for plastic yielding. The presence of force chains questions whether ultramylonites necessarily need to possess a linear viscous rheology, even if microstructures would indicate a diffusion creep mechanism. Pennacchioni G., Menegon L., Leiss B., Nestola F., Bromiley G., 2010: Development of crystallographic preferred orientation and microstructure during plastic deformation of natural coarse?grained quartz veins. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, B12405

  8. Step-down piezoelectric transformer fabricated with (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-xPbTiO3 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou; Luo, Haosu

    2010-04-01

    In present work, a ring-type unipoled step-down piezoelectric transformer with the dimensions of Phi16x0.7 mm(3) was designed and fabricated using relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). Both the input and output parts of this transformer were poled along the thickness direction, utilizing the radial vibration mode of PMN-PT. The electrical measurement results indicated that under the matching load resistance of 257 Omega, a voltage transformation ratio of 0.44 was obtained at the resonance frequency of 105 kHz. The frequency and load dependences of this transformer were also systematically studied and discussed. With the input voltage increasing, a maximum output power of about 0.9 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 degrees C. This step-down single-crystal transformer show potential applications in compact-size, small-power ac-dc converters.

  9. Small non-polar complexes exhibiting significant piezoelectric properties: Solvothermal synthesis and crystal structures of MO{sub 5}V(tren){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (M=Mo and W; tren=tris(2-aminoethyl)amine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, M.; Naether, C. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 2, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Bismayer, U. [Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Grindelallee 48 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Bensch, W., E-mail: wbensch@ac.uni-kiel.de [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 2, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The two isostructural complexes MO{sub 5}V(tren){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (M=Mo (1) and W (2)) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions at pH Almost-Equal-To 12 crystallizing in the non-centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The structures are constructed by a distorted tetrahedral [MO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anion bound via one shared oxygen atom to a severely distorted [V{sup IV}N{sub 4}O]{sup 2+} complex completing the octahedral coordination around the V centre. The two O atoms in the VN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedron are in cis position. The two compounds represent rare examples where the [MO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anion is acting as a ligand. Both compounds exhibit a piezoelectric effect which is more pronounced for M=Mo. The samples are further characterized with IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and thermal analysis. - Graphical abstract: The complexes [(V(tren)O)(MO4)]{center_dot}H2O (M = Mo, W; tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine)) composed of vertex-linked [MO4]{sup 2-} tetrahedron and [VN4O6]{sup 2+}octahedron. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [MO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} tetrahedron (M=Mo, W) acting as ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jahn-Teller and steric distortion of the [VN{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} octahedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-centrosymmetric complexes exhibiting pronounced piezoelectric effect.

  10. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  11. Axiomatic Design of Micro Quartz Rate Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yang-he; ZHANG Hong-hai; LIU Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Quartz rate sensors (QRS) made out of one single piece of quartz crystal are inertial devices which can be used for general rate control, stabilization, automotive and aerospace/defense markets,etc. The mechanical design of the QRS has been investigated based on axiomatic design. The axiomatic design matrix of the mechanical structure of Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes (CVG) has been proposed. The mechanical function of QRS is divided into three Function Requirements ( FR ) , i. e. , FR1 is the drive mode, FR2 is the sense mode, FR3 is a coupled connection where the Coriolis force can couple the two modes with a term proportional to the rotational rate. A new QRS which is easy to be fabricated has been put forward. Furthermore, the new QRS indicated that the axiomatic design is a help to functional design of products.

  12. Preparation and Sintering Effect in Quartz-Barium Titanate Porous Ceramics and Permeability Modulation Using an Implanted Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate and quartz mixed in different proportions were used to create porous piezoelectric ceramics. Three different sintering temperatures were used for the ceramics preparation; a nichrome wire was used as internal electrode in porous ceramics. Characteristics as porous area, porosity, and its relationship with quartz percentage and sintering temperatures were studied. Porous ceramics with an implanted electrode were created, by applying an alternating voltage in the internal electrode that controlled the liquid permeability coefficient, calculated by the Darcy Law.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Piezoelectric and Seismoelectric Anomalies in Subsurface Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2017-04-01

    , apatite-nepheline, essentially sphalerite, and ore-quartz deposits of gold, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, crystal, and other raw materials. This method also enables differentiation of rocks such as bauxites, kimberlites, etc., from the host rocks, by their electrokinetic properties. Classification of some rocks, ores, and minerals by their piezoactivity is given in Table 1. These objects (targets) transform wave elastic oscillations into electromagnetic ones. It should be taken into account that anomalous bodies may be detected not only by positive, but also by negative anomalies, if low-piezoactive body occurs in the higher piezoactive medium. The piezoelectric method is an example of successful application of piezoelectric and seismo-electrokinetic phenomena in exploration and environmental geophysics and designed for delineation of targets differing from the host media by piezoelectric properties (Neishtadt et al., 2006, Neishtadt and Eppelbaum, 2012). This method is employed in surface, downhole, and underground modes. Recent testing of piezeoelectric effects of archaeological samples composed from fired clay have shown values of 2.0 - 3.0 ṡ 10-14 C/N. However, absence of reliable procedures for solving the direct and inverse problems of piezoelectric anomalies (PEA), drastically hampers further progression of the method. Therefore, it was suggested to adapt the tomography procedure, widely used in the seismic prospecting, to the PEA modeling. Diffraction of seismic waves has been computed for models of circular cylinder, thin inclined bed and thick bed (Alperovich et al., 1997). As a result, spatial-time distribution of the electromagnetic field caused by the seismic wave has been found. The computations have shown that effectiveness and reliability of PEA analysis may be critically enhanced by considering total electro- and magnetograms as differentiated from the conventional approaches. Distribution of the electromagnetic field obtained by solving the direct

  14. Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-06

    immobilized onto the gold sensor in citric buffer (pH = 4), rinsed and washed subsequently in cycles of citric buffer (pH = 4) and PBS buffer (pH...dissipation (tougher) at acidic pH, with excellent reversibility up to five cycles . At pH = 7.4, a higher dissipation was observed in the triblock...CcE20Cc (Figure 2) was engineered with a long glutamic acid (Glu)-abundant E20 block (red, containing 40 mol % of Glu) in the middle and joined at

  15. Diagenetic Quartz Morphologies and Zeolite formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Hansen, Rikke Weibel; Friis, Henrik

    ; the core of the zeolite crystals appears to have been more unstable than the rim and dissolved first.  Later the entire crystal dissolved and left an impression of the euhedral zeolite crystal in the microquartz coating.  Such openings in the microquartz coating are nucleation points for macroquartz.  Thus......, the precipitation of zeolite may later facilitate further quartz cementation, which might otherwise be retarded by the presence of disordered microquartz. The silica activity of pore fluids can influence zeolite precipitation.  Although zeolite formation is clearly related to volcanic ash, zeolite has also formed...... are abundant in some of associated shales; and 2) volcanic ash. The dissolution of biogenic silica may result in a rapid release of silica thereby promoting the formation of diagenetic opal/microquartz, but there may be a limited release of Al. A limited release of Al may result in precipitation of Si...

  16. The giant piezoelectric effect: electric field induced monoclinic phase or piezoelectric distortion of the rhombohedral parent?

    CERN Document Server

    Kisi, E H; Forrester, J S; Howard, C J

    2003-01-01

    Lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN-PT) single crystals show very large piezoelectric strains for electric fields applied along the unit cell edges e.g. [001] sub R. It has been widely reported that this effect is caused by an electric field induced phase transition from rhombohedral (R3m) to monoclinic (Cm or Pm) symmetry in an essentially continuous manner. Group theoretical analysis using the computer program ISOTROPY indicates phase transitions between R3m and Cm (or Pm) must be discontinuous under Landau theory. An analysis of the symmetry of a strained unit cell in R3m and a simple expansion of the piezoelectric strain equation indicate that the piezoelectric distortion due to an electric field along a cell edge in rhombohedral perovskite-based ferroelectrics is intrinsically monoclinic (Cm), even for infinitesimal electric fields. PZN-PT crystals have up to nine times the elastic compliance of other piezoelectric perovskites and it might be expected that the piezoelectric strains are also very large. ...

  17. Research on Impedance Matching Features of Piezoelectric Crystal for Photoelastic Modulated Interfermeter%弹光调制器压电晶体阻抗匹配特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海潮; 张记龙; 陈友华; 王艳超; 陈媛媛; 王志斌

    2013-01-01

    According to the principle of photoelastic modulated interfermeter, the impedance matching features of piezoelectric crystal has been analyzed and calculated firstly based on the equivalent circuit method,then the ideal matching condition between the piezoelectric crystal and the signal source has been derived.and finally the theoretical relation of inductance and capacitance in the impedance matching network has been obtained. In order to validate the proposed theory, some impedance matching experiments are designed and implemented. The experiment results indicate that the vibration performance of photoelastic modulated interfemeter has been optimized after using the impedance matching network. Meanwhile, the electronic quality factor of the driving controller is raised so that it leads to 40% increase of optical path difference, which improves the spectral resolution of the photoelastic modulated Fourier transform spectrometer.%根据弹光调制干涉具的工作原理,利用等效电路的方法,对压电晶体的阻抗特性进行了分析与计算,推导出了压电晶体与信号源间的理想匹配条件,得出了匹配网络中电感、电容的理论关系.根据理论关系,在信号源与压电晶体间作相应的阻抗匹配,搭建系统并进行相关实验验证.实验结果表明,通过该阻抗匹配网络,可使弹光调制干涉具的振动性能达到最佳,提高了驱动控制器的电品质因数,进而将弹光调制干涉具调制光程差提高了40%,达到了提高弹光调制傅里叶变换光谱仪光谱分辨率的目的.

  18. Identification of color development potential of quartz by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkmim, Danielle G.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Almeida, Frederico O.T., E-mail: alkmia@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fsl@cdtn.br [Centro e Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horionte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Colorless quartz is usually exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays or high energy electron beams) to acquire different colors for jewelry. Color development is due to the presence of traces of some elements such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, lithium, or sodium. Most quartz crystals are extracted colorless from nature and it is necessary to separate those that can develop colors from those that cannot. Irradiation tests can be used to accomplish this separation, but they take a long time. Infrared signature of colorless quartz can also be used. However, infrared spectroscopy is quite expensive, especially when using portable devices. Raman spectroscopy is now available as an inexpensive and portable technique that could provide identification of the samples of colorless quartz still in the field, facilitating the prediction for their economic exploitation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy usually requires a minimum or no sample preparation. This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as a substitute for infrared spectroscopy to predict the potential for color development of quartz. A band at 3595 cm{sup -1} in the Raman shift spectrum was observed only along the c axis of a prasiolite excited by a high power 514 nm laser. This band was not observed in quartz samples that do not develop color after irradiation. Further studies are required to identify the potential for color development by Raman spectroscopy of other types of colorless quartz. (author)

  19. PMN-PT单晶与陶瓷在性能及相变方面的特点%Characters of Piezoelectricity and Phase Transition of PMN-PT Single Crystals and Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王评初; 罗豪; 李东林; 潘晓明; 陈辛尘; 殷之文

    2001-01-01

    着重介绍了用Bridgman方法生长的(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3(PMN-PT)固溶体单晶在介电、压电、热释电性能及相变方面的一些特点:①异常高的压电常数d33(高达3000pC/N以上),耦合系数kt(在0.6以上),k33(达0.90),高的介电常数ε(高达5000甚至更高),低的Qm值(约60),热释电系数也较高. ②强烈的各向异性. ③随着PT含量的增加,系统的弛豫行为逐渐减弱,在x0.33时, 材料在室温下成为正常铁电体,但PE--FE相变并非正常铁电相变,表现为在T>Tm时,ε~T关系不遵守居里-外斯定律,而是遵守Smolenskii 的关系. 该相变也明显地与弥散相变不同. 这种行为可用无规场的观点加以解释. 对PMN-PT陶瓷,其压电性能与最好的软性PZT相似,而ε和k31略大.%Some special features in dielectric, piezoelectric properties and phase transition behavior of (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (x=0.24, 0.3, 0.33 and 0.35) single crystals grown by Bridgman method were outlined: 1) Extremely high piezoelectric constant d33 (up to 3000 pC/N) and coupling factors k33 and kt (up to 0.94 and 0.62 respectively), low mechanical factor of merit (Qm60), large dielectric constant (5000). 2) Strong orientation dependence of piezoelectric properties. 3) with increasing PT content, the system becomes less relaxational, but at least upto x=0.35, the system still partly exhibites relaxor feature: for x=0.33 and 0.35. ~T curves look sharp enough to show a normal ferroelectric like feature, however when T>Tm the ε~T relation does not obey Curie-Weiss law, but follows Smolenskii's relation.The piezoelectric properties of PMN-PT ceramics are similar to PZT-5H, but with higher and k31.

  20. Czochralski growth of 2 in. Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 single crystals for piezoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery I.; Kitahara, Masanori; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Medvedev, Andrey; Kochurikhin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Growth of 2-in. diameter Al-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 crystals by Czochralski method is reported. The crystals were grown from the melt of Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition and had langasite structure. No inclusions of secondary phases were detected in these crystals. The Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 mixed crystals produced using non-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 seeds were defective. They had cracks and/or poly-crystalline structure. However, those grown on the seed of approximately Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition were defect-free. Phase diagram of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14-Ca3TaAl3Si2O14 pseudo-binary system and segregation phenomenon are discussed in some details. Homogeneity of the crystals was evaluated by measuring 2D-mapping of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities for Y-cut Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 substrate. Although some inhomogeneities were observed due to slight variations in chemical composition, the crystal had acceptable homogeneity for applications in acoustic wave devices exhibiting the LSAW velocity variation within ±0.048%.