WorldWideScience

Sample records for piedmont

  1. Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Piedmont NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Regular Cosmogenic Nuclide Dosing of Sediment Moving Down Desert Piedmonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Hooke, R. L.; Eppes, M. C.; Persico, L.; Caffee, M.; Finkel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Low-gradient alluvial piedmonts are common in desert areas throughout the world; however, long-term rates of processes that modify these landscapes are poorly understood. Using cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al, we attempt to quantify the long-term (>103 y) behavior of desert piedmonts in Southern California. We measured the activity of 10Be and 26Al in three samples of drainage basin alluvium and six amalgamated samples from transects spaced at 1-km intervals down a piedmont in Fort Irwin, Mojave Desert, California. Each transect sample consists of sediment from 21 collection sites spaced at 150 m intervals. Such sampling averages the variability of nuclide activity between sub-sample locations and thus gives a long-term dosing history of sediment as it is transported from uplands to the distal piedmont. The piedmont is heavily used during military training exercises during which hundreds of wheeled and tracked vehicles traverse the surface. The piedmont surface is planar, and fan-head incision is minimal at the rangefront decreasing to zero between the first and second transects, 1.5 km from the rangefront. 10Be activity increases steadily from 5.87 X 105 atoms g-1 at the rangefront to 1.02 X 6 atoms g-1 at the piedmont bottom. Nuclide activity and distance are well correlated (r2 = 0.95) suggesting that sediment is dosed uniformly as it is transported down piedmont. We have measured similar increases in nuclide activity in transect samples collected from two other Mojave Desert piedmonts, those fringing the Iron and Granite Mountains (Nichols et al, in press, Geomorphology). These piedmonts have nuclide activities that also correlate well with distance (r2 = 0.98 and 0.96, respectively) from their rangefronts, but nuclides increase at a lower rate down piedmont. Modeled sediment transport speeds for the Iron and Granite Mountain piedmonts are decimeters per year. The regular increase in nuclide activities down three different Mojave Desert piedmonts suggests that

  3. [Immigrants and dialysis: a survey in Piedmont].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Giacomo; Boero, Roberto; Massara, Carlo; Quarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The number of immigrants has been rapidly increasing in Italy in the last decade, with potentially profound effects on the national health care system. Yet, few data are available on the clinical and demographic features of these subjects, or on their need for nephrological care and dialysis treatment. A survey was conducted in 19 dialysis facilities of Piedmont (a northwestern Italian region) about immigrants on chronic dialysis treatment. Data on native country, administrative position, clinical and dialysis aspects were anonymously collected. Overall, 93 immigrant dialysis patients coming from 24 foreign countries were registered. Most of them were young (mean age 46∓14 years) and on extracorporeal treatment (87%); late referral (38%) or starting dialysis in emergency (17%) were common modalities of presentation. Glomerular (33%) or unknown (31%) nephropathies were the most representative causes of end stage renal disease. No difference in incidence of HCV, HBV and HIV compared with native Italian patients was observed. Notably, more than 50% of the immigrant patients had low-level knowledge of Italian. As regards administrative position, 69% were regular foreign citizens, 19% were temporary foreign workers, and 9% had a residence permit. Our survey confirms the existence of a young immigrant population on dialysis in Piedmont, whose social and relational problems are more challenging than clinical aspects and call for new organizational models to manage this growing population on dialysis.

  4. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  5. The Trail Inventory of Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  6. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  7. 40 CFR 81.148 - Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.148 Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Piedmont Intrastate...

  8. 40 CFR 81.150 - Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.150 Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Piedmont Intrastate...

  9. The Traversella mining site as Piedmont geosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emanuele; Benna, Piera; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    The multidisciplinary research project PROGEOPiemonte, started in 2012, selected nine strategic geothematic areas that have been and are still investigated as representative of the geodiversity of Piedmont region. The dissemination of the knowledge connected to geological history, climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources, not only of the geosites but also of the museum collections, has been and will be spread, evidencing the mining and quarrying activities, and by means of science exhibits and Nature trails. Among the nine selected geosites, there is the Traversella mining area, object of the present research. Traversella mine is located nearly 50 km north of Torino, and it was (together with the neighbor site of Brosso) one of the most important mining location for iron exploitation. The Traversella orebody was exploited from late medieval age up to the middle XX century. It is a representative contact-metasomatic deposit at the border between granodiorite and preexisting host rocks (micaschists, gneisses and marbles of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone), and the mining district represents the only exploited skarn-type mineralization in the Alps. The iron mineral, exploited from different veins and mass (pertaining to the contact aureola) was primarily magnetite, an iron oxide easy to treat in cast iron even employing the technology locally available before 1900. After the beginning of XX century the extraction involved also pyrite and chalcopyrite (iron and copper-iron sulfide), used mainly for the production of sulfuric acid. The mine, after some interruptions and re-openings, was officially closed in the second half of the XX century, due to the high exploitation costs and the competition of the foreign mine deposits interested by iron extraction. The area still presents several signs of mining and dressing activities (underground pits, explorable under severe restrictions, traces of dressing plant, offices, and miners changing

  10. Conditions of gully development within piedmont areas with examples from the western part of the Getic Piedmont, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boengiu, Sandu; Vladut, Alina; Marinescu, Emil

    2012-04-01

    Features of gully morphometry and associated relief characteristics emphasize that gully develop under a wide variety of rock conditions, rainfall regimes, geomorphic predisposition, and human influence. Consequently, many slopes within piedmont areas, in this case, the Getic Piedmont, are characterized by dense gully systems, as there occur excessive clearing, inappropriate land use, compaction of the soil caused by grazing, on the general background of a favourable climate. Both rainfall and runoff factors must be considered in assessing a water erosion problem. The erosional slope development within the Getic Piedmont was evaluated based on maps and field studies in the last 15 years, which emphasized that about 20% of the total surface of the piedmont is affected by gully erosion. The results show that the factors leading to the strong gully erosion in this area include - the widely distributed friable rocks, the unique geomorphologic configuration, the strong and time-concentrated rainfall, the alternance of drought-humid periods that prepares the ground for the development of fissures in soils, the drought that influence the growth and recovery of vegetation, and the intense human activities. Gully erosion is one of the most visible forms of soil erosion, which affects its productivity, provides considerable material transport- torrential transports, debris flow, restricts land use, and threatens local communities.

  11. Topographic Signatures of Geomorphic Processes at Desert Piedmonts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2004-12-01

    Geomorphic processes operating on desert piedmonts leave their mark in the topography of the piedmonts, measured at a range of scales. For example, at the km to 10's of m scale, slope, curvature, and dissection give clues to the relative importance of erosional, aggradational, and transport processes. When a desert piedmont is dominated by erosional and transport processes, a pediment is formed. Conversely, when aggradational processes dominate, alluvial fans are formed. The relative rates of uplift vs. aggradation determine the slope of the fan and whether the fan is dissected. Changes in uplift rate or climatic conditions can lead to isolation of the currently forming fan surface through entrenchment and construction of another fan either further from the mountain front (decreased uplift or increased runoff) or closer to the mountain front (increased uplift or decreased runoff). Fitting 3-dimensional surfaces to alluvial fan units allows parameters for the apex position, slope, and radial curvature to be compared with unit age. The topographic signature of individual fan units will help in regional correlation of fan surfaces and may assist in separating the effects of climate and uplift. At scales of m to cm, processes such as salt weathering, aeolian deposition, and desert pavement formation dominate. The lithologies that make up the piedmont determine their susceptibility to processes of disintegration due to salts (e.g. coarse-grained rocks) or dissolution (e.g. limestones). The composition of the source areas also helps determine the relative importance of debris and mud flows. Resistant lithologies tend to form desert pavement surfaces with time, caused by infiltration of aeolian dust below a monolayer of resistant pebbles to cobbles. This leads to local relief of a few cm, while surfaces composed of easily weathered lithologies have much lower relief at that scale. Work performed under contract to NASA.

  12. BEE AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATOR: FIRST RESULTS IN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guaraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products (honey, wax, pollen as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. Several reports refer of their utility in monitoring environmental radionuclides or heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of pollution on Biella area, located in the east of Piedmont region. A survey of 6 apiaries was carried out, samples of: honey, beeswax, bees and pollen were collected and analyzed for: pesticides and PCB, neonicotinoides and heavy metal; by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS or AAS. We found 23% of samples of bees contained neonicotinoides, suggesting the correlation with bees mortality.

  13. Quality of water from bedrock aquifers in the South Carolina Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.G.; Padgett, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The geographic distributions of 12 common water-quality parameters of ground water from bedrock aquifers in the Piedmont physiographic province of South Carolina are presented in a series of maps. The maps are based on analyses by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control of water samples taken during the period 1972 to 1982 from 442 public and private wells developed in the Piedmont. In general, alkalinity, hardness, and concentrations of sodium, magnesium, and chloride were higher in the Carolina Slate Belt than they were in the other geologic belts of the Piedmont. (USGS)

  14. [Poliomyelitis surveillance: seroepidemiologic study on a Piedmont population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, A; Ossola, O; Guidetti, A; Zotti, C; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity/receptivity towards the three poliovirus strains, a sample representative of the sex and age composition of the resident population in Piedmont at census 1981, was examined. For each subject data were collected in order to identify the population from social-ambient point of view. For the evaluation of antibodie's title to poliovirus 1, 2, 3, the serums were analyzed with the neutralization method using the microtitolation plates and epithelial larynx cancer cells (HEp-2), like revealing system. The samples with > or = 2 title were considered positives for specific antibodies. To determine the relation between presence/absence of specific poliovirus antibodies and the other variables, a multiple logistic regression was fitted and the odds ratio was calculated. The results of our study show an immunity in all age groups, underlying a herd immunity condition. Furthermore the incomplete antibodies response to the three poliovirus strains seems to be influenced by age only.

  15. Modeling Forest Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Piedmont Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2014-12-01

    When the interacting stressors of climate change and land cover/land use change (LCLUC) overwhelm ecosystem resilience to environmental and climatic variability, forest ecosystems are at increased risk of regime shifts and hyperdynamism in process rates. To meet the growing range of novel biotic and environmental stressors on human-impacted ecosystems, the maintenance of taxonomic diversity and functional redundancy in metacommunities has been proposed as a risk spreading measure ensuring that species critical to landscape ecosystem functioning are available for recruitment as local systems respond to novel conditions. This research is the first in a multi-part study to establish a dynamic, predictive model of the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular plant diversity in North Carolina Piedmont mixed forests using remotely sensed data inputs. While remote sensing technologies are optimally suited to monitor LCLUC over large areas, direct approaches to the remote measurement of plant diversity remain a challenge. This study tests the efficacy of predicting indices of vascular plant diversity using remotely derived measures of forest structural heterogeneity from aerial LiDAR and high spatial resolution broadband optical imagery in addition to derived topo-environmental variables. Diversity distribution modelling of this sort is predicated upon the idea that environmental filtering of dispersing species help define fine-scale (permeable) environmental envelopes within which biotic structural and compositional factors drive competitive interactions that, in addition to background stochasticity, determine fine-scale alpha diversity. Results reveal that over a range of Piedmont forest communities, increasing structural complexity is positively correlated with measures of plant diversity, though the nature of this relationship varies by environmental conditions and community type. The diversity distribution model is parameterized and cross-validated using three high

  16. Islam and state school: opinions of Muslim parents in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Guolo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available What are the opinions of Muslim parents, as to the teaching of Islamic religion? In case it were possible, would they prefer it to be taught in state or religious schools? And in the first case, by whom? What do families think about problems like the observance of dietary laws in school canteens, the class of physical education for girls in mixed classes, the wearing of veil? The article summarizes the data of a survey on these topics (between 2006 and 2007 carried out in Piedmont, in particular in Turin, on a sample of about 1000 people representing the different ethnonational islamic communities living in the region. The methodology employed is both quantitative (the whole sample was given a structured questionnaire and qualitative. The latter concerns detailed interviews with the leaders of Islamic associations in the region. The result is definitely in favour of the teaching of Islamic religion in state schools, together with the request to observe dietary laws, both cultural and religious, and the acceptance, on principle, of the mixed class of physical education. There are of course different opinions which, however, show a growing trend in favour of free choice as to the obligation of veil: a picture widely determined by the ethnonational origin of the interviewed, confirming the pluralism of Italian Islam. The result points out that most Muslims in Piedmont have an inclusive approach and that religion does not mean cultural separation. The main trend, apart from the opinions and projects of a few associative leaderships, is one of an Islam that wishes to become a recognized member of Italian religious and cultural scene.

  17. 76 FR 35202 - Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    .... Mendoza, Piedmont Natural Gas Company, Inc., Post Office Box 33068, Charlotte, NC 28233 or by e-mailing michelle.mendoza@piedmontng.com or to James H. Jeffries IV, Moore & Van Allen PLLC, 100 North Tryon...

  18. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2015 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Piedmont NWR in 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software and...

  19. Similarities and Differences Between Headwater Streams in the Mountains and Piedmont of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L.

    2005-05-01

    Biological sampling has been underway in headwater streams in the North Carolina Piedmont for two years and in Mountain headwater streams for one. Streams in the mountains usually started at springs, whereas most piedmont streams are fed by surface water runoff. Watersheds above springs, both mountain and piedmont, were smaller (mean 4 acres) than surface water streams in both regions (mean 19 acres). While taxa richness at perennial mountain headwater sites was similar (mean 38 taxa/sample) to piedmont perennial sites (mean 35), macroinvertebrate abundance in the mountains (mean 540 organisms/sample) was nearly double the sample abundance in the piedmont (mean 295). In both ecoregions winter/spring peaks in taxa richness and abundance were observed. Intermittent segments in the mountains were rare, but occurred as wet weather springs, while in the piedmont, intermittent segments were stream channels above perennial reaches. In both types, taxa richness and abundance were very low when the channel was dry, but were only slightly below levels found in perennial segments when wet. There were few species confined to intermittent reaches. Most taxa collected in intermittent reaches were also found downstream in perennial reaches, however some groups (e.g. mayflies, caddisflies, odonates, megaloptera) were rarely found in intermittent segments.

  20. Authentication and traceability study of hazelnuts from piedmont, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Matteo; Aceto, Maurizio; Baldizzone, Massimo; Musso, Davide; Osella, Domenico

    2009-05-13

    Hazelnut is one of the most important items in high-quality food products from Piedmont, Italy. The 'Tonda Gentile delle Langhe' (TGL) variety is acknowledged all over the world as the best one, and it is particularly appreciated when used to provide flavor in chocolate products. Authentication and/or traceability studies must therefore be developed to safeguard this variety against fraud, which can occur when the product is partially or totally substituted with hazelnuts of lower quality. In this work, a classification of hazelnuts from different countries is presented, showing the possibility to discriminate the TGL from other productions on the basis of the distribution of trace elements as determined by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with particular reference to lanthanides. Accuracy of the sample treatment procedure was tested by analysis of biological certified materials. Data from elemental analysis were chemometrically treated with an unsupervised method, such as principal component analysis (PCA), allowing for a good discrimination among groups.

  1. Geologic Map of the Piedmont Hollow Quadrangle, Oregon County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Piedmont Hollow 7.5-min quadrangle is located in south-central Missouri within the Salem Plateau region of the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Fenneman, 1938; Bretz, 1965) (fig. 1). Almost all of the land in the quadrangle north of the Eleven Point River is part of the Mark Twain National Forest. Most of the land immediately adjoining the river is part of the Eleven Point National Scenic River, also administered by the U.S. Forest Service. South of the Eleven Point River, most of the land is privately owned and used primarily for grazing cattle and horses. The quadrangle has topographic relief of about 480 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from 550 ft on the Eleven Point River at the eastern edge of the quadrangle to 1,030 ft on a hilltop about a mile to the west-northwest. The most prominent physiographic feature in the quadrangle is the valley of the Eleven Point River, which traverses the quadrangle from west to northeast.

  2. Dendrochronology and late Holocene history of Bering piedmont glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.C.; Post, A.; Muller, E.H.; Molnia, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the piedmont lobe of Bering Glacier and its sublobe Steller Glacier over the past two millennia are reconstructed using 34 radiocarbon dates and tree-ring data from 16 sites across the glaciers' forelands. The general sequence of glacial activity is consistent with well-dated fluctuations of tidewater and land-terminating glaciers elsewhere along the Gulf of Alaska. Extensive forested areas along 25 km of the Bering ice margin were inundated by glacio-lacustrine and glacio-fluvial sediments during a probable ice advance shortly before 500 cal yr A.D. Regrowth of forests followed the retreating ice as early as the 7th century A.D., with frequent interruptions of tree growth due to outwash aggradation. Forests overrun by ice and buried in outwash indicate readvance about 1080 cal yr A.D. Retreat followed, with ice-free conditions maintained along the distal portions of the forefield until the early 17th century after which the ice advanced to within a few kilometers of its outer Neoglacial moraine. Ice reached this position after the mid-17th century and prior to 200 yr ago. Since the early 20th century, glacial retreat has been punctuated by periodic surges. The record from forests overrun by the nonsurging Steller Lobe shows that this western ice margin was advancing by 1250 A.D., reaching near its outer moraine after 1420 cal yr A.D. Since the late 19th century, the lobe has dominantly retreated.

  3. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace

  4. An alternative model for the development of the allochthonous southern Appalachian Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, E.-A.

    1981-01-01

    The recent deep-seismic-reflection data across the S Appalachian Piedmont require rethinking of the tectonic relations in that area. Some of the traditional tectonic-lithostratigraphic belts of the Piedmont may be 'doubly allochthonous', that is, they may be terranes that are exotic mutually and with respect to the N American craton. These terranes may have been brought to the edge of the craton by plate-tectonic processes, in a manner similar to that proposed for the post-Triassic 'Wrangellia' in southeastern Alaska, and then obducted onto the craton as traditional thrust allochthons. If this idea is correct, then there is no compelling need for an intercontinental suture in the lower crust under the exposed southern Appalachian Piedmont; however, multiple sutures may obtain under the Coastal Plain overlap or farther off shore. The location of the Paleozoic Iapetus Ocean may also be off the present shore. The tectonic units now exposed in the Appalachian Piedmont not only may not be continuous with those of the N Appalachian region that have been considered by many authors to be the same on a cylindrical model but could have had different geologic origins. The nature of the ultramafic rocks spatially associated with the Kings Mountain belt and the Raleigh and Kiokee belts, as well as the paleomagnetic orientations of rocks of the various Piedmont belts, may provide useful tests for this microplate model.-Author

  5. Fertilization Management of Paddy Fields in Piedmont (NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zavattaro

    Full Text Available A well-documented analysis of fertilization management techniques in use by farmers in a given region is the first step to improving the management standards of agronomic practices. The aim of this work was to summarize the fertilization management that farmers normally utilize for the rice crop in the Piedmont Region of Northwest Italy, and to analyze its agronomic and environmental sustainability. On average, 127 kg ha-1 of N, 67 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 161 kg ha-1 of K2O were applied to the rice crop. Inorganic fertilizers were used on most of the surface. Calcium cyanamide was the most widely used slow-release product. Commercial organic compounds were spread on about 32% of the paddy surface, while farmyard manure was distributed over 6% of the surface. Organic-mineral products were also widely used. One fourth of the paddy surface received only inorganic products. Using organic or organic-mineral fertilizers together with inorganic products was the most common strategy (55% of the paddy surface. In most cases, N and P fertilization was balanced with crop removal. The N soil surface balance was in the ± 50 kg range for 77% of the surface, P fertilization was less than removal for 53% of the surface, whereas K fertilization was excessive (surplus >100 kg ha-1 for 53% of the surface. The nutrient balance was affected by the widespread practice of burning straw after harvest (66% of the paddy surface. The farmers modulated fertilization according to the rice variety requirements and tolerance to high N supply. The largest nutrient surplus was associated with stocking farms. Inefficient use of fertilizers that should be avoided to improve the territorial nutrient balance were then outlined, and possible specific actions were proposed.

  6. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

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    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  7. Piedmont seismic reflection study: A program integrated with tectonics to probe the cause of eastern seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, L. III; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.; Bollinger, G.A. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-03-01

    A new tectonic model of the Appalachian orogen indicates that one, not two or more, terrane boundaries is present in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge of the central and southern Appalachians. This terrane boundary is the Taconic suture, it has been transported in the allochthonous Blue Ridge/Piedmont crystalline thrust nappe, and it is repeated at the surface by faulting and folding associated with later Paleozoic orogenies. The suture passes through the lower crust and lithosphere somewhere east of Richmond. It is spatially associated with seismicity in the central Virginia seismic zone, but is not conformable with earthquake focal planes and appears to have little causal relation to their localization.

  8. Underplanted shortleaf pine seedling survival and growth in the North Carolina Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Schnake; Scott D. Roberts; Ian A. Munn; John D. Kushla

    2016-01-01

    A study was established in North Carolina to evaluate the viability of underplanting shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings beneath a residual hardwood overstory as a method of reestablishing the shortleaf pine component to Central Appalachian Piedmont sites. Twenty-eight treatment plots were harvested to retain one of four residual overstory basal areas (RBA...

  9. Modeling soil erosion and sediment transport from fires in forested watersheds of the South Carolina Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Crumbley; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty

    2008-01-01

    Forested watersheds in the Southeastern U.S. provide high quality water vital to ecosystem integrity and downstream aquatic resources. Excessive sedimentation from human activities in forest streams is of concern to responsible land managers. Prescribed fire is a common treatment applied to Southeastern piedmont forests and the risk of wildfire is becoming increasingly...

  10. Soapstones from the Ossola Valley (Piedmont, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The term "soapstones" is referred to "soft", easily workable stones (talc and/or chlorite-rich metamorphic rocks, deriving from mafic - ultramafic protoliths), typically used for jars, pots and pipes. The term has been also improperly extended to "harder" varieties (e.g. serpentinites), mostly suitable for roof slabs and millstones. These rocks are characterized by easy workability and fire-resistance, and they had a remarkable historical, artistic and archaeological importance. In the Ossola region (Piedmont, northern Italy), the soapstones are traditionally known as "Pietra Laugera", "Pietra Lavizzaria" or "Pietra Ollare", and represent one of the oldest stony raw materials used since the Bronze Age (archaeological find in the Toceno surroundings, Vigezzo Valley). The discovery of archaeological handmade objects in the surroundings of the Ossola Valley testifies a massive use of green stones during the I century A.D., even for cinerary urns and grave outfits. A lot of two handles pots and milk vessels date back to the Middle Ages, as well as millstones and water pipes. Artistic and ornamental uses are documented in churches and civil buildings: for example, columns, capitals, pilasters and bas-reliefs (Sacro Monte del Calvario chapels, now UNESCO heritage, and the Collegiale Church in Domodossola) as well as fireplaces (e.g. Silva Palace in Domodossola), sculptures, ornaments and balustrades. The productivity reached the top in the XIX century and stopped in the twenties; nowadays the extraction occurs only in the Loana Valley, with a very limited production. The historical soapstones derive both from ophiolitic complexes (Antrona and Zermatt-Saas Zones) and from the ultramafic complexes within the Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno Zone, Monte Leone nappe and Sesia-Lanzo Zone. The historical quarries are usually small (even erratic boulders), and scattered over many lateral valleys, such as Brevettola, Antrona, Bognanco and Loana. A total of 52 representative samples were

  11. Landscape Change in the Southern Piedmont: Challenges, Solutions, and Uncertainty Across Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Piedmont of the southeastern United States epitomizes the complex and seemingly intractable problems and hard decisions that result from uncontrolled urban and suburban sprawl. Here we consider three recurrent themes in complicated problems involving complex systems: (1 scale dependencies and cross-scale, often nonlinear relationships; (2 resilience, in particular the potential for complex systems to move to alternate stable states with decreased ecological and/or economic value; and (3 uncertainty in the ability to understand and predict outcomes, perhaps particularly those that occur as a result of human impacts. We consider these issues in the context of landscape-level decision making, using as an example water resources and lotic systems in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States.

  12. Monitoring road safety in an information-wired environment: the case of Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs are an essential determinant of urban change. They make it possible to build new Socio-Technical Systems (STS where the knowledge flow initiated by the interactions of ICT-enabled nodes has a crucial role. This contribution illustrates examples of these systems. Reference is made to the Piedmont Region, where a socio-technical system had to be established in order to support the monitoring of the regional road safety policy. The contribution is divided into two main parts. First, insights for developing the STS are given and an overview of the road safety planning issues in Piedmont is presented; there then follows a description of the STS and an account of its regional application and installation.

  13. THE OLIGOCENE MOLLUSC FAUNA OF THE PIEDMONT BASIN (NORTH-WESTERN ITALY I. SCAPHOPODA AND ARCHAEOGASTROPODA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CRISTINA BONCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to study the Oligocene Scaphopoda and Archaeogastropoda of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (T.P.B., aiming towards an overall revision of the Oligocene mollusc fauna of this Basin. Five taxa of Scaphopoda and twenty-eight taxa of Archaeogastropoda have been analysed; among these a new species of Nerita (Theliostyla is proposed. 

  14. Estimating carbon sequestration in the piedmont ecoregion of the United States from 1971 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxun; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Heath, Linda S.; Tan, Zhengxi; Wilson, Tamara; Sherba, Jason T; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human activities have diverse and profound impacts on ecosystem carbon cycles. The Piedmont ecoregion in the eastern United States has undergone significant land use and land cover change in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to use newly available land use and land cover change data to quantify carbon changes within the ecoregion. Land use and land cover change data (60-m spatial resolution) derived from sequential remotely sensed Landsat imagery were used to generate 960-m resolution land cover change maps for the Piedmont ecoregion. These maps were used in the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to simulate ecosystem carbon stock and flux changes from 1971 to 2010. Results: Results show that land use change, especially urbanization and forest harvest had significant impacts on carbon sources and sinks. From 1971 to 2010, forest ecosystems sequestered 0.25 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while agricultural ecosystems sequestered 0.03 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The total ecosystem C stock increased from 2271 Tg C in 1971 to 2402 Tg C in 2010, with an annual average increase of 3.3 Tg C yr−1. Conclusions: Terrestrial lands in the Piedmont ecoregion were estimated to be weak net carbon sink during the study period. The major factors contributing to the carbon sink were forest growth and afforestation; the major factors contributing to terrestrial emissions were human induced land cover change, especially urbanization and forest harvest. An additional amount of carbon continues to be stored in harvested wood products. If this pool were included the carbon sink would be stronger. Keywords: Land-use change, Carbon change, Piedmont ecoregion, IBIS model

  15. Prospective varieties of Narcissus hybridus hort. suitable for mass growing in piedmont Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repetskaya Anna Igorevna

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation determined six (6 unpromising, thirteen (13 average promising and eleven (11 highly promising varieties. The highly promising varieties are 'Ice Follies', 'Kissрroof', 'Pink Charm', 'Salome', 'Serola', (Large-cupped Daffodils, 'Curlew', 'Pipit' (Jonquilla Daffodils, 'Tahiti' (Double Daffodils, 'Mount Hood' (Trumpet Daffodils, 'Jetfire' (Cyclamineus Daffodils and 'Lemon Beauty' (Split Corona Daffodils. They are recommended for use in landscaping practice within the piedmont Crimea.

  16. Remobilization Rates and Cumulative Contributions of Floodplains and Legacy Sediments from Piedmont Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. J.; Donovan, M.; Baker, M. E.; Gellis, A.

    2014-12-01

    The disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has been an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a frequent focus. In the Piedmont province of the eastern US, post-settlement upland deforestation and agricultural land use led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment ("legacy deposits") in valley bottoms. Previous authors have argued that legacy sediment is a potentially important source of sediment being remobilized by lateral migration of channels. We seek to address 1) How rapidly sediment is remobilized from floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) the proportion of streambank sediment derived from legacy sediment, and 3) the potential contributions of net stream bank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yields within the Piedmont of Baltimore County, Maryland. We measured gross erosion and deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 30 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Measured deposition within channel and point bars accounted for an average of 46% (28-75%) of gross erosion, with deposition increasingly important in larger drainages. Legacy sediments accounted for 6-90% of bank erosion at individual study segments, represented about 60% of bank height at most exposures, and accounted for 57% of the measured gross erosion. Extrapolating the results indicated that first- and second-order streams account for 62% of total stream bank erosion from northern Baltimore County. After accounting for estimated redeposition, extrapolated net stream bank sediment yields (72 Mg/km2/yr) are equivalent to 70% of average Piedmont watershed yield (104 Mg/km2/yr) cited in studies by previous

  17. Naturally occurring contaminants in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge crystalline-rock aquifers and Piedmont Early Mesozoic basin siliciclastic-rock aquifers, eastern United States, 1994–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan; Lindsay, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality and aquifer lithologies in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States vary widely as a result of complex geologic history. Bedrock composition (mineralogy) and geochemical conditions in the aquifer directly affect the occurrence (presence in rock and groundwater) and distribution (concentration and mobility) of potential naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic and radionuclides, in drinking water. To evaluate potential relations between aquifer lithology and the spatial distribution of naturally occurring contaminants, the crystalline-rock aquifers of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces and the siliciclastic-rock aquifers of the Early Mesozoic basin of the Piedmont Physiographic Province were divided into 14 lithologic groups, each having from 1 to 16 lithochemical subgroups, based on primary rock type, mineralogy, and weathering potential. Groundwater-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program from 1994 through 2008 from 346 wells and springs in various hydrogeologic and land-use settings from Georgia through New Jersey were compiled and analyzed for this study. Analyses for most constituents were for filtered samples, and, thus, the compiled data consist largely of dissolved concentrations. Concentrations were compared to criteria for protection of human health, such as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water maximum contaminant levels and secondary maximum contaminant levels or health-based screening levels developed by the USGS NAWQA Program in cooperation with the USEPA, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University. Correlations among constituent concentrations, pH, and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions were used to infer geochemical controls on constituent mobility within the aquifers. Of the 23 trace-element constituents evaluated

  18. Sediment source identification and load prediction in a mixed-use Piedmont watershed, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney-Castle, Kerry; Childress, Tristan M; Heaton, Christian R

    2016-10-28

    Many streams in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States transport a disproportionately large amount of suspended sediment in response to moderately increased streamflows. Transport and deposition of excess sediment affect the stability of the channel and the health of the biological community; therefore, identifying the main source(s) of sediment and assessing the relationships between source, transport, and streamflow are critical to aquatic life and habitat management, dynamic equilibrium preservation, and development of feasible mitigation scenarios. The objectives of this study were to: (1) predict the annual suspended sediment yield and (2) identify significant contributing upland sources of sediment in the Lawsons Fork Creek basin, a 217 km(2) mixed-use watershed in the South Carolina Piedmont. A regularly monitored cross-section located in the downstream reach was equipped with a passive sediment sampler, gage-height recorder, and sediment tiles. Streamflow and sediment concentration were measured over a 24-month period under variable hydrologic regimes. Results indicated that the average annual sediment yield (168 t/km(2)/yr) is significantly higher than yields documented in Piedmont watersheds of comparable size. To identify and prioritize sources of sediment contribution, stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) were used as tracers. Source material was compared with suspended sediment near the watershed outlet (target material) and SIAR, a Bayesian Inference model, was used to estimate source apportionment. Results of this source study indicate that approximately 60% of the total sediment load in the water column during high flow events is derived from stream bank erosion. Findings are consistent with observed unstable stream bank conditions in the watershed. This study supports the use of a dual-isotopic fingerprinting approach in tandem with traditional sediment monitoring as a cost-effective method to identify and

  19. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  20. Land and Nation: The Ancient Modernity of National Geography (Piedmont, 1750-1800).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarzere, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the shift that occurred in the spatial representation of states in the eighteenth century. This shift will be considered as a combination of institutional reforms and of a new social awareness of space. A consideration of the case of the Italian Piedmont will demonstrate how "national" space was created through antiquarian research and how a larger political confrontation took place in the guise of a learned debate. The diverse accounts of Piedmontese history under examination all employed methods derived from previous ages, relying upon a concept of space as historically continuous, embedded in time immemorial.

  1. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961 in order to quantify 44-46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources. Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9-4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and were

  2. [Endemic goiter in Nepal. Comparisons with endemic goiter in the Piedmont].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortara, M; Cenderelli, G; Reposi, G; Migiardi, M; Costa, A

    1976-11-10

    Comparison of certain features of endemic goitre in the Khumbu district of Nepal and Piedmont is reported. Cases in the younger generations were observed in both areas. In Khumbu, the incidence of goitre in schoolchildren was 75% and cases were even noted in children who had been receiving iodine prophylactic management (injections of iodised oil: 500-1000 mg/yr) for at least three years. The iodine content of drinking water and the most commonly eaten foods was determined. Values were very low and a daily intake of not more than 30 mug was calculated. The findings are in line with metabolic studies carried out by other workers in Upper Khumbu. While it is clear that ambiental iodine deficiency is much higher in Khumbu than in those areas of Piedmont where goitre is most markedly endemic, the inadequacy of preventive iodine administration measures, and environmental features common to both areas, suggest that iodine deficiency is a concomitant factor and not the prime cause of endemic goitre.

  3. Sustainable Production of Japanese Eggplants in a Piedmont Soil in Rotation with Winter Cover Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elobeid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant is a popular vegetable consumed all over the world. Cover cropping is an efficient way of recycling nutrients and reducing inorganic fertilizer requirements to maintain the sustainability of the soil without affecting productivity and profitability. Eggplants (Solanum melongena (Japanese varieties Hansel and Kamo were grown in a Piedmont soil with two main treatments, cover crop (CC and no cover crop (NC, and four sub-fertilizer treatments (T1: 0-0-0, T2: 56-28-112, T3: 84-56-168, and T4: 168-112-224 N-P-K kg/ha, using four replications. The Hansel variety eggplant yield was significantly higher than the Kamo variety. Eggplant yields from CC treatments for both varieties were significantly higher (p < 0.001 than the yields from NC treatments. No significant difference was observed in the yields between T1 and T2 treatments, but the yields from T3 were significantly higher than T1 and T2 and yields from T4 were significantly higher than T3 yields. N released through mineralization of cover crop mixture ranged from 13.33 g/kg at the beginning of the growing season and increased to 18.32 g/kg at the end of the growing season. These results suggest that Japanese eggplants can be successfully grown in the Piedmont area of North Carolina in rotation with cover crops for higher yields.

  4. Paragenesia of Quaternary pediments and river terraces on the north piedmont of Wutai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShiMin; REN JunJie; NIE GaoZhong

    2007-01-01

    A study has been made of the paragenetic relations of the pediments and river terraces on the northern piedmont of Wutai Mountains via geomorphologic mapping of 1:10000 scale, and an analysis on the role of tectonic, climatic, and drainage factors in the parageneses. The Quaternary pediments and river terraces on the north piedmont of Wutai Mountains united to constitute six steps of geomorphic surfaces. The episodic uplifting of fault blocks was the dominant factor in the formation of the unified surfaces, however climatic change and drainage diversities led to undulation of the surfaces. The second terrace of Yangyan River (T2) was formed in the last glacial maximum, when the river was in aggradational state. The third to fifth terraces were formed in interglacial stages, when the river was in equilibrium or degradational state. It is inferred that climate had no insignificant effect on the river incision caused by tectonic uplifting. In light of terraces dating, since the Quaternary the Wutai fault-block mountains experienced six rapid uplifting events, and the starting time of the last four events was respectively 1.2, 0.6, 0.13, and 0.02 Ma B.P.

  5. Development of Ecogeomorphological (EGM Stream Design and Assessment Tools for the Piedmont of Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Helms

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional data needed for effective stream restoration include hydraulic geometry relationships (i.e., regional curves and reference channel morphology parameters. Increasingly ecological conditions are being considered when designing, implementing, and assessing restoration efforts. We provide morphology relationships and associated ecological endpoint curves for reference streams in the Alabama piedmont. Twenty-one reference stream reaches were identified in the Tallapoosa drainage of Alabama, ranging from 0.2 to 242 km2 drainage area. Geomorphic surveys were conducted in each stream to measure riffle cross-sections and longitudinal profiles and related to drainage area to develop regional curves. Fish, crayfish, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from each surveyed reach and related to drainage area and geomorphic data to provide associated biological community endpoints. Bankfull channel cross-section area, width, mean depth, and estimated discharge were strongly correlated to watershed drainage area, similar to efforts in other areas of the Piedmont ecoregion. Multiple measures of fish assemblages and crayfish size were strongly predicted by drainage area and geomorphic dimensions. Macroinvertebrates showed no taxonomic and limited functional relationships with drainage area and geomorphic dimension. These tools, which integrate geomorphological and ecological conditions, can result in improved stream evaluations and designs increasing the effectiveness of stream restoration projects.

  6. The geological heritage of Piedmont Region: Turin a "Stone-Town"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Castelli, Daniele; Costa, Emanuele; d'Atri, Anna; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Favero, Sergio; Ferrando, Simona; Groppo, Chiara; Martire, Luca; Piervittori, Rosanna; Rolfo, Franco; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Vaggelli, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    The stone resources have always been a major source of material in the building and, in particular, as raw material to create the masterpieces of sculpture and architecture that are now part of the cultural heritage of the humanity. Therefore, knowledge of stone resources, their mineral-petrographic features, their use and quarrying and working techniques from antiquity to the present, can provide a broad overview of the historical and cultural significance of these materials, stressing the importance of a relevant economic activity in the history and traditions of different cultures that have developed over the centuries in the Mediterranean area. In particular, in Piedmont, stone has always been the most widely used building material, characterizing the strong architectural identity of the city of Turin. Here the stone have been widely used in the historical and contemporary buildings, monuments and urban art. From Roman times to the '700, marbles were the rocks used in construction of more value. Starting from '800, granites and other silicate rocks were progressively used thanks to the development of technologies for their exploitation and processing. The study of stone resources is also of particular importance for the proper preservation of architectural and artistic heritage. Often, the task of restoration of works of art was carried out with stones aesthetically similar to the originals for color. Only recently, chances to find the same original material, identifying the place of origin, has become object of study and interest. The great variety of ornamental and building stones found in Turin is certainly due to the highly composite geological nature of our region. In Piedmont, in fact, there are geological features very different from each other as the western portion of the metamorphic Alpine chain, the sedimentary Tertiary Piedmont basin (Langhe and Monferrato) and a small sector of the Northern Apennine. Turin Urban Geosite represents the symbol place

  7. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the Piedmont Zone of Ganga Plain, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep K Goswami; Charu C Pant; Shefali Pandey

    2009-06-01

    The Piedmont Zone is the least studied part of the Ganga Plain.The northern limit of the Piedmont Zone is defined by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT)along which the Himalaya is being thrust over the alluvium of the Ganga Plain.Interpretation of satellite imagery,Digital Terrain Models (DTMs)and field data has helped in the identification and mapping of various morpho-tectonic features in the densely forested and cultivated Piedmont Zone in the Kumaun region of the Uttarakhand state of India.The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and aggradation processes in the area are mainly controlled by the ongoing tectonic activities.Such activities along the HFT and transverse faults have controlled the accommodation space by causing differential subsidence of the basin,and aggradation processes by causing channel migration,channel incision and shifting of depocentres.The active tectonic movements have further modified the landscape of the area in the form of tilted alluvial fan,gravel ridges,terraces and uplifted gravels.

  8. A model to quantify sediment mixing across alluvial piedmonts with cycles of aggradation and incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca C.; Berger, Quentin; Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The accurate interpretation of clastic sedimentary records hinges on a good understanding of the timescale and mode of sediment transport from source to sink. An environmental signal can be accurately recorded in the stratigraphy if it is transported quickly without being mixed with older sediments, or it can be entirely shredded by a slow transport and significant mixing along the way. Both transformations can happen in alluvial piedmonts by successive episodes of aggradation and incision. For example, in the Tian Shan the sediment flux reaching the foreland basin is mixed with sediments of up to 0.5 Ma age, mixing and blurring the environmental signals it carries. We present here a numerical model that reproduces cycles of aggradation and incision on an alluvial fan and keeps track of the age composition in the sediment outflow. The model is based on three fundamental time- and length-scales: the period of aggradation-incision cycles, the depth of incision with respect to net aggradation, and the pattern of lateral migration. All three parameters can be reasonably easily surveyed in the field and with remote sensing. For simple geometries, we replace the numerical model with a probabilistic light analytical model. The output of both models quantifies sediment mixing in terms of the probability of finding a given minimum proportion of sediments of age T or older in the output flux. We apply and test the analytical and numerical models to the Eastern Tian Shan where we can rely on independent measurements of mixing and buffering. There, rivers repeatedly aggraded and incised 100's of meters every 20 to 30 kyr with two main effects: 1) the delivery of coarse sediments to the basin is delayed by at least 7 to 14 kyrs between being first evacuated from the mountain and later re-eroded and transported basinward; 2) the outflux of coarse sediments from the piedmont contains a significant amount of recycled material that was deposited on the piedmont as early as the

  9. A molecular approach to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community in a typical Piedmont grapevine cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurno, F.; Bughi Peruglia, G.; Lumini, E.; Bianciotto, V.; Balestrini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Viticulture and wine production represent one of the most relevant agro-food sectors for the Piedmont Region (Italy) in terms of value, with more than 400 millions € a year (12 % of total agricultural production of the Region and the 10 % of the national grape and wine production). The soil where grapevines (Vitis spp.) grow is one of the first parameters influencing the complex grapevine-wine chain. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs), a main component of soil microbiota in most agrosystems, are considered crucial biomarkers of soil quality because of their biofertilisers role. As mutualistic symbionts, they colonize the roots of the majority of plants. Benefits in symbiosis are well showed as an improvement in shoot/root growth, mineral transport, water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. Grapevines roots are often heavily colonized by AMFs under field conditions and in some cases AMFs appear to be necessary for their normal growth and survival. Even so, little information are until now available about composition of AMFs communities living in the vineyards soil and in associations with grapevine roots, mainly related to morphological characterization. Vineyard of Nebbiolo, one of the most important Piedmont cultivar, was selected in order to study the AMFs community using a molecular approach. Soil samples and roots from an experimental vineyard located in Lessona (Biella, Piedmont, Italy) were analyzed using AM fungal-specific primers to partially amplify the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal DNA genes. Much more than 650 clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses identified 32 OTUs from soil, clustered into Glomus groups Aa, Ab, Ad and B, Diversisporaceae and Gigasporaceae families. Thirteen OTUs from roots were determined, clustered into Glomus groups Ab, Ad and B, and Gigasporaceae family. In particular, Glomus group Ad was the best represented in both compartments, suggesting a correlation between intra and extra radical communities

  10. Facilities for Territorial Medicine: the experiences of Piedmont and Lombardy Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Capolongo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demographic transition and epidemiological has made the health system hospital-centric obsolete and has highlighted the need for a new organization focused on territorial health community, taking charge of the patient, on team work and can ensure, through dedicated facilities, continuity of care and integration of social welfare.The main changes in the regulatory field have thus oriented investments both structural and economic towards poles to network with hospitals that represent new points of reference for the health of citizens, where primary care services are integrated with the territory and the specialized services of the Public Health departments.These facilities provide the organizational paradigm to which the regional realities must strive.The article reports recent experiments conducted within the regions of Piedmont and Lombardy in this sector and the ongoing research in the field of CNETO on behalf of the Lombardy Region.

  11. Driving under the influence of alcohol. A 5-year overview in Piedmont, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leporati, Marta; Salvo, Raffaella A; Pirro, Valentina; Salomone, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption represents a major health issue worldwide and a crucial factor in road accidences. This study provides information on the prevalence of alcohol in blood testing performed on 2752 subjects involved in vehicle accidents, which occurred in Piedmont (northern Italy) between 2008 and 2013. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was determined by an ISO 17025 accredited GC/MS procedure. Fifty-one % of positive samples showed BAC concentrations above 1.5 g/L, with a legal cut-off fixed at 0.5 g/L (and 0 g/L for specified categories such as novice and professional drivers). BAC values proved statistically different regarding the day of sampling (week or weekend days), age and gender, with a prevalence of positive results that reflects different drinking habits of a multifaceted population of alcohol consumers.

  12. Leveraging ICT for mobility future in a region in transition: the case of Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current challenges of mobility in urban and regional areas call for new approaches to the analysis of the transportation system. Technological progress and spreading of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide ground to the idea that a digital-age transportation system can be put in place. The text aims to contribute to the discussion of these changes, thus helping conceiving ICT based initiatives oriented at mobility improvements. A conceptual framework of mobility is proposed which highlights some potentials of ICT impacts and recalls the main determinants of mobility. Using that framework as a background, insights into mobility changes in the Piedmont region are discussed. Building upon previous studies of Internet usage, the results of an investigation into the role of the Internet to relax constraints in social practices are also mentioned as they offer interesting clues for designing new approaches to mobility.

  13. Monitoring forest succession in the NC Piedmont using a Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2013-12-01

    Forest successional stage, an indicator of compositional turnover and structural development in forest stands, is a central factor in efforts to quantify productivity and carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, wildlife habitat and species diversity in forests. Despite its importance, only recently have advances in remote sensing and computer processing provided researchers with the synoptic view necessary for landscape-scale mapping of successional change. This research reports on results from the first segment of a multi-part project to ascertain the rate and distribution of structural development and compositional turnover in the North Carolina Piedmont. The Piedmont study site was selected for hosting a diversity of forest community types and possessing a recent history characterized by dynamic land cover transitions. In this study, a Landsat time series stack (LTSS) from 1984-2011 is used at a tri-annual time step to quantify landscape-scale forest successional processes using temporal trajectory analysis rather than space-for-time substitutions. After controlling for phenological noise in the LTSS trajectory by downscaling a AVHRR/MODIS-derived phenological profile, relative change in spectral values, rather than absolute radiometric values, is used to assess characteristic temporal signatures in spectral space that map onto successional processes. Model validation from CVS and Duke forest plot data confirm the utility of fitting nonlinear regression to a Tasseled Cap Angle time series as a means to monitor regeneration rates for disturbed forests that return to a closed canopy within the period. While results fail to find a consistent change pattern across the study site, spatial autocorrelation in summer increment NDVI change vectors indicate clustering of successional processes characterized by high rates of evergreen establishment in disturbed areas and a transition from evergreen to deciduous communities in closed-canopy forests.

  14. Hydrogeologic unit map of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Payne, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The numerous geologic formations and rock types in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina have been grouped into 21 hydrogeologic units on the basis of their water-bearing potential as determined from rock origin, composition, and texture. All major classes of rocks--metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary--are present, although metamorphic rocks are the most abundant. The origin of the hydrogeologic units is indicated by the rock class or subclass (metaigneous, metavolanic, or metasedimentary). The composition of the igneous, metaigneous, and metavolcanic rocks is designated as felsic, intermediate, or mafic except for the addition in the metavolcanic group of epiclastic rocks and compositionally undifferentiated rocks. Composition is the controlling attribute in the classification of the metasedimentary units of gneiss (mafic or felsic), marble, quartzite. The other metasediments are designated primarily on the basis of texture (grain size, degree of metamorphism, and development of foliation). Sedimentary rocks occur in the Piedmont in several downfaulted basins. A computerized data file containing records from more than 6,200 wells was analyzed to determine average well yields in each of the 21 units. The well yields were adjusted to an average well depth of 154 feet and an average diameter of 6 inches, the average of all wells in the data set, to remove the variation in well yield attributed to differences in depth and diameter. Average yields range from a high of 23.6 gallons per minute for schist to a low 11.6 gallons per minute for sedimentary rocks of Triassic age.

  15. Genetic variation of common walnut (Juglans regia in Piedmont, Northwestern Italy

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    Ferrazzini D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The European or common walnut is a large tree prized as a multipurpose species: it provides valuable timber and produces a high-quality edible nut. The diffusion of the species in Italy has been largely influenced by the human activity, mainly through germplasm movement, selection of genotypes most suited for wood or fruit production and adaptation induced on fruit crop reproductive materials. As a consequence, genetic variability has been reduced, so that programs aimed at its preservation appear of the utmost importance. 104 walnut plants growing in Piedmont, northwestern Italy, were investigated through genetic variation scored at RAPD loci, yielded by PCR amplification of 10 decamer primers. Among the 101 studied loci, only 53 were polymorphic, showing a low level of genetic variation within the studied material. Genetic differentiation was estimated both at individual and geographical area level. Only in few cases trees growing in the same area showed to be genetically similar, while the differentiation between areas accounted for about 10% of the total variation, according to AMOVA. No significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances. The results of the study showed that also in Piedmont (such as it was already demonstrated in other parts of Italy the distribution of common walnut is a direct consequence of the human activity. The selection of individual trees, to be used as basic materials for seed supply, should therefore be based mainly on phenotypic traits, rather than ecological features of the location: in species characterized by artificial diffusion, the adoption of Region of Provenance has a scarce significance and prominence should be given to the phenotype selection.

  16. Geological and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Characteristics in Piedmont Zone%山前带地质及油气成藏特征探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传鹏; 罗良; 漆家福; 于洪洲

    2013-01-01

    The piedmont zone includes fold-thrust belt and foreland basin adjacent to the orogen.According to the formation mechanism classification of foreland basin,piedmont zones can be divided into three types,i.e. retro-arc foreland piedmont zone,peripheral foreland piedmont zone and rejuvenated foreland piedmont zone. Based on the superimposed basin classification,piedmont zones can be divided into positive inversion piedmont zone and successor foreland piedmont zone.Rejuvenated foreland piedmont zone and successor foreland pied-mont zone are only found in the middle and western China.Some principles of hydrocarbon accumulation in piedmont zone have been summarized.Pre-foreland shale is source rock,foreland sandstone and pre-foreland carbonate rock are good reservoirs,and mudstone,gypsum salt and salt rock are cap rocks.Fault is the main channel of hydrocarbon migration.Structural trap is the main type in the fold-thrust belt,while structural-strati-graphic trap is dominated in the foreland basin.%山前带包括前陆褶皱冲断带和前陆盆地靠近造山带部分,其油气资源极为丰富。根据前陆盆地的形成机制分类,将山前带划分为弧后前陆型山前带、周缘前陆型山前带和再生前陆型山前带。参考叠合盆地的分类方案,将山前带划分成正反转山前带和继承前陆型山前带。再生前陆型山前带和继承前陆型山前带仅在中国中西部地区发育。山前带的油气成藏具有一定的规律性,前前陆期沉积的页岩作为优质的烃源岩,前陆期砂岩和前前陆期碳酸盐岩是油气成藏良好的储集层,而泥岩、膏盐层、盐岩层等是优质的盖层,断层是油气运移的主要通道。前陆褶皱冲断带以构造圈闭为主,前陆盆地则以构造-地层圈闭为主。

  17. Carbon storage, soil carbon dioxide efflux and water quality in three widths of piedmont streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica F. Wadl; William Lakel; Michael Aust; John Seiler

    2010-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are used to protect water quality. Monitoring carbon pools and fluxes in SMZs may a good indicator of the SMZ’s overall function and health. In this project we evaluated some of these pools and fluxes from three different SMZ widths (30.5, 15.3, and 7.6 m) in the Piedmont of Virginia. We quantified carbon storage in the soil (upper 10...

  18. Late Glacial-Holocene climatic transition record at the Argentinian Andean piedmont between 33–34° S

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    A. E. Mehl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arroyo La Estacada (~33°28' S, 69°02' W, eastern Andean piedmont of Argentina, cuts through an extensive piedmont aggradational unit composed of a dominant late Pleistocene–early Holocene (LP–EH alluvial sequence including several paleosols. The arroyo sedimentary record exhibits a paleosol developed affecting the topmost part of likely Lateglacial aeolian deposits aggraded into a floodplain environment by the end of the late Pleistocene. The paleosol shows variable grade of development in the outcrops along the arroyo probably in relation to fluvial valley paleotopography. Organic matter humification, carbonate accumulation and redox processes were the dominant processes associated with paleosol formation. By the early Holocene, when the formation of the paleosol ended, alluvial aggradation renewed and a higher frequency of flooding events could have affected the arroyo's floodplain environment. A period of relative landscape stability in the Arroyo La Estacada basin is inferred from the paleosol developed by the LP–EH transition in response to a climatic amelioration in the Andes cordillera piedmont after the Late Glacial arid conditions. The renewal of early Holocene alluvial aggradation was probably influenced by the South American Monsoon and resulted in a change in the sedimentary dynamics of the arroyo. The analyzed Late Glacial-Holocene alluvial record of the Andean piedmont constitutes a suitable record of the LP–EH climatic transition at the extra Andean region of Argentina. It is in agreement with regional paleoclimatic evidence along the southern tip of the South American continent, where other sedimentary sequences record similar late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes over both fluvial and interfluvial areas.

  19. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI'S SPECIES OF ARCHAEOLITHOTHAMNIUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

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    GRAZIA VANNUCCI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, containing thirteen new species. In this paper Archaeolithothamnium praeerithraeum Airoldi 1932 and Archaeolithothamnium statiellense Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The features observable in the sporangial compartments allowed to attribute both species to the genus Sporolithon. 

  20. Recent and historic sediment dynamics along Difficult Run, a suburban Virginia Piedmont stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Noe, Gregory B.; Schenk, Edward R.; Bentham, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended sediment is one of the major concerns regarding the quality of water entering the Chesapeake Bay. Some of the highest suspended-sediment concentrations occur on Piedmont streams, including Difficult Run, a tributary of the Potomac River draining urban and suburban parts of northern Virginia. Accurate information on catchment level sediment budgets is rare and difficult to determine. Further, the sediment trapping portion of sediment budget represents an important ecosystem service that profoundly affects downstream water quality. Our objectives, with special reference to human alterations to the landscape, include the documentation and estimation of floodplain sediment trapping (present and historic) and bank erosion along an urbanized Piedmont stream, the construction of a preliminary sediment balance, and the estimation of legacy sediment and recent development impacts. We used white feldspar markers to measure floodplain sedimentation rates and steel pins to measure erosion rates on floodplains and banks, respectively. Additional data were collected for/from legacy sediment thickness and characteristics, mill pond impacts, stream gaging station records, topographic surveying, and sediment density, texture, and organic content. Data were analyzed using GIS and various statistical programs. Results are interpreted relative to stream equilibrium affected by both post-colonial bottomland sedimentation (legacy) and modern watershed hardening associated with urbanization. Six floodplain/channel sites, from high to low in the watershed, were selected for intensive study. Bank erosion ranges from 0 to 470 kg/m/y and floodplain sedimentation ranges from 18 to 1369 kg/m/y (m refers to meters of stream reach). Upstream reaches are net erosional, while downstream reaches have a distinctly net depositional flux providing a watershed sediment balance of 2184 kg/m/y trapped within the system. The amounts of both deposition and erosion are large and suggest

  1. The vertical slip rate of the Sertengshan piedmont fault, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Liang, Kuan; Wang, Jinyan

    2017-08-01

    The vertical slip rate of a normal fault is one of the most important parameters for evaluating its level of activity. The Sertengshan piedmont fault has been studied since the 1980s, but its absolute vertical slip rate has not been determined. In this paper, we calculate the displacements of the fault by measuring the heights of piedmont terraces on the footwall and the stratigraphic depths of marker strata in the hanging wall. We then calculate the vertical slip rate of the fault based on the displacements and ages of the marker strata. We selected nine sites uniformly along the fault to study the vertical slip rates of the fault. The results show that the elevations of terraces T3 and T1 are approximately 1060 m and 1043 m, respectively. The geological boreholes in the basin adjacent to the nine study sites reveal that the elevation of the bottom of the Holocene series is between 1017 and 1035 m and that the elevation of the top of the lacustrine strata is between 925 and 1009 m. The data from the terraces and boreholes also show that the top of the lacustrine strata is approximately 65 ka old. The vertical slip rates are calculated at 0.74-1.81 mm/a since 65 ka and 0.86-2.28 mm/a since the Holocene. The slip rate is the highest along the Wujiahe segment and is lower to the west and east. Based on the findings of a previous study on the fault system along the northern margin of the Hetao graben basin, the vertical slip rates of the Daqingshan and Langshan faults are higher than those of the Sertengshan and Wulashan faults, and the strike-slip rates of these four northern Hetao graben basin faults are low. These results agree with the vertical slip components of the principal stress field on the faults. The results of our analysis indicate that the Langshankou, Wujiahe, and Wubulangkou areas and the eastern end of the Sertengshan fault are at high risk of experiencing earthquakes in the future.

  2. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  3. Trends and risk factors for syphilis infection in Piedmont Region, Italy, 2002-2008.

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    Federica Vigna-Taglianti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: This work aims to analyze trends of syphilis infections in the Piedmont Region (Italy between 2002 and 2008, and to evaluate risk factors for infection. Methods: Syphilis trends were described according to socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom use, number of partners and HIV infection. Independent risk factors for syphilis among men having sex with men (MSM, men having sex with women (MSW, and women were identified through logistic regression comparing cases with 12,773 negative patients. Results: Between 2002 and 2008, 1,046 cases of syphilis were diagnosed, with peaks in 2004 and 2007. The risk of a syphilis diagnosis was independently associated with being older than 24, having a low education level, homosexual behavior, HIV self-reported infection (for MSM and MSW, number of partners (for MSW and women and non- consistent condom use (for women. Conclusions: Recent outbreaks suggest that the attention to syphilis can’t be lowered. Screening, treatment of cases and notification of partners should be reinforced and integrated with sexual health education and counselling in high-risk environments. Surveillance data must be continuously collected.

  4. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  5. Ecological aspects of Lebiasina erythrinoides (Characiformes: Lebiasinidae from an andean piedmont stream in Colombia

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    Javier Alejandro Maldonado Ocampo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes ecological aspects of Lebiasina erythrinoides; 200 individuals were sampled throughout an annual hydrological cycle from October 2008 to September 2009 in La Calaboza stream, a Piedmont tributary of the Rio Cravo Sur. The studied population had more females than males (1.5:1 and preferred habitats dominated by shoreline vegetation and rocky substrates. Prior to reproductive events, individuals presented an increase in the condition factor (K and the gonosomatic index (GSI. On average, 648.8 oocytes are discharged twice a year: at the beginning of the rainy season, and during falling water phase. The mean sizes at sexual maturity found for females were 73.5 mm standard length (SL and for males 70 mm SL. Rounding up, an average minimum size of capture of 75 mm SL is proposed. Most specimens of the population (65 % were found to be maturing or mature (stages II and III, 28.5 % immature (stage I, 5.0 % in post reproduction stage V, and 1.5 % in reproductive phase (IV. Results suggest this species is omnivorous with a preference for invertebrates (IRI = 41.2 % and vegetal material (IRI = 27.8 %, but also includes a variety of other items. The values of the diet are correlated with hydrological cycle and size.

  6. Analysis of information on food chain in Europe and Piedmont region, Italy

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    Daniele Pattono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food chain information (FCI is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain.

  7. Quaternary folding in the south piedmont of central segment of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold scarps located at the south limb of the Kuqatawu anticline and the north limb of the Dongqiulitag anticline in the Kuqa rejuvenation foreland thrust belt, south piedmont of central segment of the Tianshan Mountains. Fold scarp is a newly found structural phenomenon. Because of the bend of thrust plane and the movement of hanging wall above the thrust plane, the original horizontal deposits of hanging wall and their surface become a monocline structure, resulting from the separating and migration of the active and fixed axial surfaces. Measuring the geometry of fold scarp and using the data of age of the deformed deposits, the crustal shortening rate resulting from the deeply seated subsurface thrust is calculated. The crustal shortening rate reflected by the fold scarp located at the north limb of the Dngqiulitag anticline is (1±0.1) mm/a. The fold scarps of the Dongqiulitag anticline and the Kuqatawu anticline identify that the deformation process of the crustal compressive structures in the Kuqa area extends into the Late Quaternary.

  8. Small reservoir effects on headwater water quality in the rural-urban fringe, Georgia Piedmont, USA

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    Dr.. Amber R. Ignatius, Geographer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small reservoirs are prevalent landscape features that affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of headwater streams. Tens of thousands of small reservoirs, often less than a hectare in size, were constructed over the past century within the United States. While remote-sensing and geographic-mapping technologies assist in identifying and quantifying these features, their localized influence on water quality is uncertain. We report a year-long physicochemical study of nine small reservoirs (0.15–2.17 ha within the Oconee and Broad River Watersheds in the Georgia Piedmont. Study sites were selected along an urban-rural gradient with differing amounts of agricultural, forested, and developed land covers. Sites were sampled monthly for discharge and inflow/outflow water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium. While the proportion of developed land cover within watersheds had positive correlations with reservoir specific conductivity values, agricultural and forested land covers showed correlations (positive and negative, respectively with reservoir alkalinity, total nitrogen, nitrate, and specific conductivity. The majority of outflow temperatures were warmer than inflows for all land uses throughout the year, especially in the summer. Outflows had lower nitrate concentrations, but higher ammonium. The type of outflow structure was also influential; top-release dams showed higher dissolved oxygen and pH than bottom-release dams. Water quality effects were still evident 250 m below the dam, albeit reduced.

  9. Pliocene foraminifera of Piedmont (north-western Italy: a synthesis of recent studies

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    Donata Violanti

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of recent biostratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental studies on foraminifera assemblages of he Piedmont Pliocene (north-astern Monferrato, Astigiano, Langhe and Monregalese is discussed. In the region, biozone MPl1 is documented by typical Sphaeroidinellopsis assemblages only in its central area. Rich and diversified assemblages of MPl2 biozone, with Globorotalia margaritae Bolli & Bermudez, and MPl3 biozone, with G. margaritae and G. puncticulata (Deshayes, are indicative of the upper epibathyal zone, and suggest palaeoenvironmental conditions similar to those of coeval pelagic successions of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Already along biozone MPl3, and chiefly biozone MPl4, with G. puncticulata, less diversified assemblages become more widespread, indicating shelf palaeoenvironments, subject to heavy transport of displaced foraminifera from more inner neritic zones. In the study area most inner neritic and shallow outer neritic microfaunas are devoid of biostratigraphic markers; only few silty sediments yield Bulimina basispinosa Tedeschi & Zanmatti and Globobulimina ovula (d’Orbigny, reported from the Middle Pliocene, and can be correlated to the MPl5 biozone.

  10. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Giacobini, Mario; Mosca, Andrea; Grasso, Ivan; Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Bertolotti, Luigi

    2012-05-22

    Flavivirus is a highly heterogeneous viral genus that includes important human pathogens and several viral strains with unknown zoonotic potential. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been isolated and characterized in Northern Italy: West Nile virus and Usutu virus were detected in mosquitoes and in different host species and recent studies provided evidence about the circulation of "insect Flavivirus" strains. In order to clarify the diffusion and the distribution of the mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in Italy, we analyzed Culex and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes collected in 2009 and 2010 in an area divided evenly between hills and plains and where the landscape is dominated by mixed agricultural patches, rice fields, deciduous tree forests, and urban environments. Each mosquito pool was tested for the presence of Flavivirus strains and we characterized positive samples by genetic sequencing. Positive mosquito pools revealed low infection prevalence, but suggested a continuous circulation of both Usutu virus and insect Flavivirus. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses based on NS5 gene partial sequences showed a closer relationship among new Usutu virus strains from Piedmont and the reference sequences from the Eastern Europe, with respect to Italian samples characterized so far. Moreover, NS5 gene phylogeny suggested that mosquito flaviviruses found in Italy could belong to different lineages. Our results contribute to a wider point of view on the heterogeneity of viruses infecting mosquitoes suggesting a taxonomical revision of the Mosquito-borne Flavivirus group.

  11. Evidence of mosquito-transmitted flavivirus circulation in Piedmont, north-western Italy

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    Cerutti Francesco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavivirus is a highly heterogeneous viral genus that includes important human pathogens and several viral strains with unknown zoonotic potential. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been isolated and characterized in Northern Italy: West Nile virus and Usutu virus were detected in mosquitoes and in different host species and recent studies provided evidence about the circulation of “insect Flavivirus” strains. Methods In order to clarify the diffusion and the distribution of the mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in Italy, we analyzed Culex and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes collected in 2009 and 2010 in an area divided evenly between hills and plains and where the landscape is dominated by mixed agricultural patches, rice fields, deciduous tree forests, and urban environments. Each mosquito pool was tested for the presence of Flavivirus strains and we characterized positive samples by genetic sequencing. Results Positive mosquito pools revealed low infection prevalence, but suggested a continuous circulation of both Usutu virus and insect Flavivirus. Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses based on NS5 gene partial sequences showed a closer relationship among new Usutu virus strains from Piedmont and the reference sequences from the Eastern Europe, with respect to Italian samples characterized so far. Moreover, NS5 gene phylogeny suggested that mosquito flaviviruses found in Italy could belong to different lineages. Conclusions Our results contribute to a wider point of view on the heterogeneity of viruses infecting mosquitoes suggesting a taxonomical revision of the Mosquito-borne Flavivirus group.

  12. SYNSEDIMENTARY TECTONICS AND SEDIMENTATION IN THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN, NORTHWESTERN ITALY

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    ROMANO GELATI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The Late Oligocene/Early Miocene tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the eastern sector of the Langhe Sub-Basin (Teriary Piedmont Basin is proposed and discussed. The area is located between the villages of Roccaverano and Mombaldone, along the western side of the Bormida di Spigno River Valley (see attached geologic map. Synsedimentary tectonics strongly influenced the geologic evolution of the region during the time span examined, being particularly evident at three specific "times" that were chosen as models. During "Time 1" (Late Oligocene gentle anticlines, aligned WNW-ESE and NW-SE, started to form, affecting only hemipelagic mudstones and creating structural highs that controlled the areal distribution of both turbidites (i.e.T. Ovrano High and a thick pelitic slump sheet (i.e.M. Pisone High. During "Time 2"(Aquitanian the C. Mazzurini Half-Graben developed, separated by W-E and WNW-ESE growth faults from the M. Ovrano High to the north and gradually connecting, through a gently sloping ramp, with the Rocchetta High to the south. Turbidity currents and debris flows were channeled into the half-graben, while hemipelagic limestones were deposited onto the adjacent higher areas. During "Time 3" (Early Burdigalian the depocenter of the depression shifted southward, while the half-graben evolved into a wide trough (Piantivello Trough characterized by turbidites. Subsequently, the strongly irregular topography was progressively leveled to the quite homogeneous landscape on which the Cortemilia Formation (Late Burdigalian was deposited. 

  13. [Safety culture of nursing staff. A descriptive study in a Piedmont Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Ines; Dogliotti, Daniele; Poletti, Piera; Gambarini, Lorella

    2012-01-01

    Assessing safety culture is the first step towards a responsible and wary system to the errors and to the quality of the performance. The aim of the study was to assess nurses' safety culture, in order to identify improvement's priorities. A survey of nursing staff, using a questionnaire was carried out in a Piedmont hospital. Of 1056 health care workers, 707 participated (67%). The staff's perception of patient safety was positive: the results of the domains "Information and communication", "Suggestions and development" and "Safety guarantees" tend to be fair, while "Teamwork" was sufficient. The weakest areas were related to involvement (Items: "We are consulted when choosing equipment and devices to be used", 25.9% agreement, "At the end of the year we discuss together activities carried out and results" 31,8%), and "Work organization (shifts, workload) doesn't cause overload and stress", 25.3% agreement, "When an error occurs we know how to communicate with the patient as we have a guideline to lead us" 35.8% agreement. The study shows that, even if the safety culture is overall positive, there are some critical aspects that lead to distress and uncertainty between nursing staff. Improvement strategies may include: staff training to improve teamwork skills and staff involvement, increasing opportunities for discussion, organizing systematic multi-professional audit, to reflect in a structured way on clinical practice.

  14. Paleoclimatic significance of Late Quaternary eolian deposition on the Piedmont and High Plains, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Oglesby, Robert; Markgraf, Vera; Stafford, Thomas

    1995-06-01

    Presently stabilized dune systems on the piedmont of eastern Colorado and adjacent High Plains have been repeatedly re-activated during the past 20,000 years. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates indicate eolian activity late in the last glacial cycle ca. 20,000-12,000 yr B.P. and subsequent episodes of dune reactivation at ca. 6000, 4500 and 1000 yr B.P. Pollen analysis from aggraded buried soil A horizons show a shift from grasses and shrubs to goosefoot, a disturbance indicator. The association of maximum goosefoot levels with the coarsest part of the buried A horizon immediately prior to burial by eolian sand indicates a substantial reduction in grass and dominance of shrubs with onset of eolian activity. The vegetation change and eolian depositional sequence indicates a reduction in plant coverage with regional drought, possibly augmented by bison grazing and surface heating effects. We infer an increase in summer monsoonal precipitation between 13,000 and 9000 yr B.P. reflecting a heightened land-to-sea temperature gradient associated with rising summer solar-insolation values and a meltwater cooled Gulf of Mexico. Dune reactivation in the middle and late Holocene appears to be independent of summer insolation values, but rather reflects a small (< 10°) easterly shift of the Bermuda High and western ridge aloft, difficult parameters to link to a cause and to resolve with climate models.

  15. Swot Analysis of Tourism on Kopaonik and the Spas of its Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bojović

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kopaonik and the four spas of Jošanica, Lukovo, Prolom and Kursumlija, of its piedmont occupy an area of approximately 3,400 km² with a population of 110,000 inhabitants. In terms of administration, the researched area is disposal of 11 municipalities. In some municipalities, tourism has been developed and improved according to plan, with the municipalities of Raška, Kuršumlija and Brus being the leading ones. In the development plans of these municipalities, tourism has received priority importance. In addition to the numerous indicators of sustainable tourism development of this mountain-spa region, the SWOT analysis certainly contributes significantly to a clearer view of this situation. Through specific examples of “advantages and opportunities” the SWOT analysis will indicate the link of reality of tourism with opportunities of the region and offer guidelines to ease some of many years’ disadvantages and shortcomings. “ Five key factors for the mountain and spa tourism of Kopaonik will be exposed to the authors in the thesis through analysis and comments.

  16. Dramatic undercutting of piedmont rivers after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Nie, Ruihua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xingnian

    2016-11-01

    Changes in river channel erosion or deposition affect the geomorphic evolution, aquatic ecosystems, and river regulation strategies. Fluvial processes are determined by the flow, sediment and boundary conditions, and it has long been expected that increasing sediment supply will induce aggradation. Here, based on thorough field surveys, we show the unexpected undercutting of the piedmont rivers influenced by the 2008 Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) Earthquake. The rivers flow from the Longmen Mountain with significant topographic relief to the flat Chengdu plain. In the upstreams, sediment supply increased because of the landslides triggered by the earthquake, causing deposition in the upstream mountain reaches. However, the downstream plain reaches suffered undercutting instead of deposition, and among those rivers, Shiting River was the most seriously affected, with the largest undercutting depth exceeding 20 m. The reasons for this unexpected undercutting are proposed herein and relate to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition, we also demonstrate, at least for certain conditions, such as rivers flowing from large-gradient mountain regions to low-gradient plain regions, that upstream sediment pulses may induce aggradation in upstream and degradation in downstream, causing the longitudinal profile to steepen to accommodate the increasing sediment flux.

  17. Dramatic undercutting of piedmont rivers after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Niannian; Nie, Ruihua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xingnian

    2016-11-18

    Changes in river channel erosion or deposition affect the geomorphic evolution, aquatic ecosystems, and river regulation strategies. Fluvial processes are determined by the flow, sediment and boundary conditions, and it has long been expected that increasing sediment supply will induce aggradation. Here, based on thorough field surveys, we show the unexpected undercutting of the piedmont rivers influenced by the 2008 Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) Earthquake. The rivers flow from the Longmen Mountain with significant topographic relief to the flat Chengdu plain. In the upstreams, sediment supply increased because of the landslides triggered by the earthquake, causing deposition in the upstream mountain reaches. However, the downstream plain reaches suffered undercutting instead of deposition, and among those rivers, Shiting River was the most seriously affected, with the largest undercutting depth exceeding 20 m. The reasons for this unexpected undercutting are proposed herein and relate to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition, we also demonstrate, at least for certain conditions, such as rivers flowing from large-gradient mountain regions to low-gradient plain regions, that upstream sediment pulses may induce aggradation in upstream and degradation in downstream, causing the longitudinal profile to steepen to accommodate the increasing sediment flux.

  18. Actinomycetal complex of light sierozem on the Kopet-Dag piedmont plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanova, O. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the samples of light sierozem from the Kopet Dag piedmont plain (75 km from Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan) reaches hundreds of thousand CFU/g soil. The actinomycetal complex is represented by two genera: Streptomyces and Micromonospora. Representatives of the Streptomyces genus predominate and comprise 73 to 87% of the actinomycetal complex. In one sample, representatives of the Micromonospora genus predominated in the complex (75%). The Streptomyces genus in the studied soil samples is represented by the species from several sections and series: the species of section Helvolo-Flavus series Helvolus represent the dominant component of the streptomycetal complex; their portion is up to 77% of all isolated actinomycetes. The species of other sections and series are much less abundant. Thus, the percentage of the Cinereus Achromogenes section in the actinomycetal complex does not exceed 28%; representatives of the Albus section Albus series, Roseus section Lavendulae-Roseus series, and Imperfectus section belong to rare species; they have been isolated not from all the studied samples of light sierozem, and their portion does not exceed 10% of the actinomycetal complex.

  19. Escherichia coli O157 in foodstuffs: first year results of monitoring plan in Piedmont region, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbaro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 260 food samples were examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157. Samples were collected between May 2011 and September 2011 in Piedmont region and included 120 minced meat and meat preparation (hamburger and meat balls and 180 soft and semi-soft cheeses made from raw milk with less than 60 days of ripening. Samples were collected at re-tail level. All samples were tested using an Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA (AFNOR BIO 12/8 - 07/00, with kit VIDAS® ECO (bioMérieux; if positive, the samples have been tested with VIDAS® ICE and spread onto selective media to allow the growth of the strains. If present, all the strains have been tested to detect the genes encoding the pathogen factors (stx1, stx2 and eae. STEC O157 was not detected in any products. This survey on the presence of STEC O157 in foodstuffs provided data, demonstrating a low prevalence of the pathogen in our Region.

  20. The reorganization of irrigation system in Piedmont; La riorganizzazione del sistema irriguo piemontese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, S. [Associazione Irrigazione Est Sesia, Direzione Generale, Novara (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    In Piedmont, outside the areas interested by two big Irrigation Consortia East Sesia (in Novara) and West Sesia Baraggia (in Vercelli), the irrigation organization is managed by a big number of very small bodies. To avoid the inconveniences of this situation, it was necessary the compiling and the approving a Regional bill that, among other things, promotes a rational reassessment of irrigations. The bill became the Regional law: Reclamation and irrigation directions, n. 21 August 9. 1999. The Head II is dedicated to the Reclamation and Drainage Consortia, while the Head III concerns the Irrigation Consortia, moreover, are provided Reclamation and Irrigation Consortia (items no. 47 and 48) which are Organizations carrying out, beyond peculiar Irrigation Consortium's functions, reclamation's activity too, such as already happening for East Sesia in Novara. Italian agriculture, and so Piedmont's agriculture too, is nowadays substantially conditioned by decisions made inside the European Community's agricultural policy, Community which Italy takes part. European Community's agriculture, subject to bigger production's costs determined by ecological and sanitary bonds, non-existent elsewhere, meets great difficulties to become part of world market where agricultural products prices are often very cheaper; from here a number of problems that have not still found a clear and definitive strategy of solution. In this ambit there is also the requirement to equalize Consortia operating structures to the new opportunities offered by the recent National and Regional laws about soil defence, territory and environment safeguard and development. [Italian] Le irrigazioni in Piemonte, al di fuori delle aree interessate de due grandi enti irrigui dell'Est Sesia (Novara) e dell'Ovest Sesia Baraggia (Vercelli), risultano frammentate in numerosissimi organismi consortili con dimensioni medie assai modeste. Per ovviare gli inconvenienti derivanti

  1. Evaluation of hygiene and safety criteria in the production of a traditional Piedmont cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Astegiano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B. Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  2. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astegiano, Sara; Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw)] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  3. Abundance and reproduction of songbirds in burned and unburned pine forests of the Georgia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Chapman, B.R.; Brunjes, J.H.; Raftovich, R.V.; Seginak, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the abundance and productivity of songbirds in prescribed burned and unburned mature (>60 yr) pine forests at Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, during 1993-1995. We estimated species abundance, richness, and evenness using data from 312 point counts in 18 burned sites and six unburned sites. We measured gross habitat features in 0.04-ha circles centered on each point count station. We calculated productivity estimates at nests of seven of the most common nesting species. Habitat components we measured in 1-, 2-, and 3-yr post-burn sites were similar, but most components differed between burned and unburned sites. Although 98 species were detected during point counts, we report only on the 46 species that nested in the area and were detected >10% of the counts in either habitat class. Twenty-one species preferred burned sites and six preferred unburned sites. Avian species richness and evenness were similar for burned and unburned sites. Burned sites were preferred for nesting over unburned sites. Only nine nests of six species were found in unburned sites. Productivity estimates were low in burned sites. One or more eggs hatched in only 59 of 187 nests monitored, and an average of only 0.82 chicks per nest were estimated to have fledged. Predation was the most common probable cause for nest failure, ranging from 45% in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to 64% in the Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). Because the sources of predation at the refuge are unknown, future research should address this issue.

  4. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw)] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  5. A double-entry tree volume table for beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to fill a gap in the collection of available algorithms for the estimation of standing tree volume. The deficiency of such tools is especially marked when their object is represented by stands undergoing strong or rapid changes in forest structure. Such is the case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont, once managed mainly for firewood, i.e., with fast rotations and a mean tree size much smaller than what observed in current stands. In addition, the structure of most of these stands was heavily impacted by selection cuttings in the early '90s, aimed at the conversion of coppices to high forests in the long run. A single tree volume table (inclusive of branches and bark volumes has been prepared according to the following steps: (1 selection of relevant stands, representative in their extent, density and merchantability (13 alpine valleys in 6 provinces; (2 computation of sample size according to the observed variability in the selected study areas (1085 model trees for height and volume; (3 tree measurement and data mining (statistical detection of outliers and selection of the most suitable model form for a double-entry tree volume table. The main output of the study is the volume table itself. The paramount importance of such tool for forest management is confirmed by the abundance of beech forests (136000 hectares, i.e., the second most represented forest cover type in the study region, 90% of which is still managed as coppice stands.

  6. REVISION AND RE-DOCUMENTATION OF M. AIROLDI’S SPECIES OF MESOPHYLLUM FROM THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA BASSO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Airoldi (1930, 1932 described twenty-three fossil Corallinales (Rhodophyta from the Oligocene of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy, including thirteen new species. In this paper Mesophyllum fructiferum Airoldi 1932 and Mesophyllum obsitum Airoldi 1932 are re-documented and re-described. The presence of cell fusions, multiporate conceptacles and a ventral core of cell filaments passing from coaxial to non-coaxial confirm that both species belong to the genus Mesophyllum.   SHORT NOTES  

  7. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  8. Knickpoint series of gullies along the Luoyunshan Piedmont and its relation with fault activity since late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Wan, Tianfeng; Xie, Xinsheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Liang, Kuan

    2016-09-01

    The authors surveyed the longitudinal profiles of 28 gullies across the Luoyunshan Piedmont fault (LPF) by differential GPS and dating of sediments well preserved in the typical terraces and obtained 6-level knickpoint series of the gullies along the Luoyunshan Piedmont. The authors compared it with previous studies on the paleo-earthquakes of the LPF revealed by trenches and found that the paleo-earthquake events from knickpoint and trench studies are in good agreement in terms of the time of occurrence and vertical displacement of the fault. It shows studying the paleo-earthquake events of the fault by knickpoint series is feasible. At last, the authors established a more complete paleo-earthquake sequence of the LPF supported by geomorphologic and sedimentary evidence, i.e., six paleo-earthquake events happened on the LPF from about 28,000 years ago; the LPF has the characteristic of quasi-periodic recurrence and the average recurrence interval is 4585 years. The vertical displacement of the paleo-earthquake events is 2.4-3.0 m; according to the empirical equations between co-seismic displacement and earthquake magnitude the magnitude of these events is Ms 7.0-7.5. This study aims to complement and improve the traditional trenching method, provide theoretical and methodological support for the research of active tectonics, and contribute important information for the seismic hazard assessment of the densely populated Linfen area.

  9. A multidisciplinary approach for analysing landslide susceptibility in Abruzzo piedmont (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Marco; Urbano, Tullio; Coco, Laura

    2016-04-01

    , topographic curvature, Morphometric Slope Index (MSI), drainage density, bedrock lithology, surficial deposits, deposit thickness and land use. Secondly, the landslide inventory was conducted for different type of instabilities: rock falls, landslides, earth flows. Finally, landslide susceptibility was modelled via GIS, based on geostatistical relationships between driver factors and instability landforms and calibrated through field surveys and recent landslide events (2011-2015). The outcomes of the entire analysis were the landslides susceptibility maps for different type of instabilities. The results of this study outline slope and lithology as main predisposing factor of landslides, and the key role of surficial deposits in susceptibility assessment. This methodology has been tested and calibrated in the Abruzzo piedmont but it could be used to assess landslide susceptibility in other areas of the Adriatic hillslopes showing similar morphological, climatic and geomorphologic features and frequent landslides reactivation.

  10. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene

    2012-01-01

    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  11. Effects of a controlled release fertilizer on the nitrogen dynamics of mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation in the Piedmont, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Rob Elliot; Thomas R. Fox

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the Southeast. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being...

  12. Confirmation of the southwest continuation of the Cat Square terrane, southern Appalachian Inner Piedmont, with implications for middle Paleozoic collisional orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Matthew T.; Hatcher, Robert D.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping, U-Pb zircon geochronology and whole-rock geochemical analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that the southwestern extent of the Cat Square terrane continues from the northern Inner Piedmont (western Carolinas) into central Georgia. Geologic mapping revealed the Jackson Lake fault, a ∼15 m-thick, steeply dipping sillimanite-grade fault zone that truncates lithologically distinct granitoids and metasedimentary units, and roughly corresponds with a prominent aeromagnetic lineament hypothesized to represent the southern continuation of the terrane-bounding Brindle Creek fault. Results of U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology indicate Late Ordovician to Silurian granitoids (444–439 Ma) occur exclusively northwest of the fault, whereas Devonian (404–371 Ma) granitoids only occur southeast of the fault. The relatively undeformed Indian Springs granodiorite (three individual bodies dated 317–298 Ma) crosscuts the fault and occurs on both sides, which indicates the Jackson Lake fault is a pre-Alleghanian structure. However, detrital zircon signatures from samples southeast of the Jackson Lake fault reveal dominant Grenville provenance, in contrast to Cat Square terrane detrital zircon samples from the northern Inner Piedmont, which include peri-Gondwanan (600–500 Ma) and a prominent Ordovician-Silurian (∼430 Ma) signature. We interpret the rocks southeast of the Jackson Lake fault to represent the southwestern extension of the Cat Square terrane primarily based on the partitioning of granitoid ages and lithologic distinctions similar to the northern Inner Piedmont.Data suggest Cat Square terrane metasedimentary rocks were initially deposited in a remnant ocean basin setting and developed into an accretionary prism in front of the approaching Carolina superterrane, ultimately overridden by it in Late Devonian to Early Mississippian time. Burial to >20 km resulted in migmatization of lower plate rocks, forming an infrastructure beneath the

  13. Composition and provenance of Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial sediments of the eastern Andean piedmont between 33 and 34° S (Mendoza Province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, A.; Blasi, A.; Zárate, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Andean cordillera, and its piedmont in the central western Argentina, has been long considered as one of the main source areas of detritus for the Chaco-Pampean plain sand dune fields and loess/loess-like deposits of central Argentina. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial deposits of the Andes cordillera piedmont, from 33° to 34° S. The results are interpreted in the context of the regional geology, tectonic setting of the study area and its implications in the continent-wide perspective of modern alluvial sands proposed by Potter (1994). Sampling was conducted at the alluvial stratigraphic sequences of four study sites along three Andean piedmont arroyos; modal mineralogy in the very fine sand fraction (3 phi to 4 phi) was determined using standard petrographic microscope methods. Q:F:LF average compositions indicate that the Late Pleistocene-Holocene very fine-grained alluvial sands of the Cordillera Frontal piedmont reflects the modern lithic arenites of the Argentine Association reported by Potter (1994). The results show two geologically distinct sources in the catchment areas, volcaniclastic and metamorphic rocks. High concentrations of mica and volcanic glass are likely related to particle morphologies and to the deposition sedimentary environment recorded in the alluvial sequences—floodplains. The overabundance of micas over the volcanic glass in the mid-late Holocene alluvial sequence indicates the drainage of a metamorphic area at the expense of other lithological sources. Source areas are located mainly in the Frontal cordillera, and to a lesser extent, in the piedmont Tertiary deposits, another likely source for the analyzed Quaternary alluvial sediments. The mineralogical signature of the late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial sequences is in agreement with the composition of the southern Pampean sand mantles, loess and loess-like deposits mainly formed by a volcanic mineral

  14. Biological and economic impact of stream alteration in the Virginia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, James B.

    1981-01-01

    A 31 month (September 1974 - March 1977) study was conducted on warmwater streams located in the Roanoke Creek watershed of the Piedmont Region of Virginia. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of stream channelization on the aquatic/riparian wildlife resource and agricultural land-use patterns associated with the altered streams. Three streams, which were channelized 3, 6, and 10 years prior to initiation of the study, and teo unaltered streams, were selected as representative streams for the study. Recently channelized streams lacked overstory cover but has an abundance of herbaceous and small woody plany cover, Conversely, control streams had significantly larger percentages of trees over 46 m tall. Plant species diversity, foliage height diversity, and evenness diversity increased as age since channelization increased. No major differences in water quality parameters were found for either channelized or control streams, although channelized streams had greater deposits of sand and lesser amount of rock, rubble, and gravel. These changes in substrate composition did not significantly modify actual stream flow rates. Fish species composition and species diversity among channelized and unchannelized streams were only slightly different, with most of the differences probably attributable to strays from adjacent habitats, However, evenness diversity for fish communities was lower in channelized streams. The benthic population showed greater changes than did the fish populations with an increase in Chironominae tolerant of unstable sand substrates in channelized streams. Evenness diversity of benthic populations was also higher and showed more consistency in the control stream than in channelized streams. Evenness diversity of benthic communities in control stream averaged between 0.5 to 0.6 and was quite consistent; whereas, the average in the two youngest channelized streams was 0.3 to 0.4. These data seem to indicate decreased stability of the

  15. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of

  16. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy

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    F. Luino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero.

    The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5–6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability.

    Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954 were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River.

    The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports.

    The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs; aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas.

    This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were

  17. Large Wood recruitment and transport along a piedmont gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Lorenzo; Tonon, Alessia; Ravazzolo, Diego; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2015-04-01

    In recent years an increasing attention has been devoted on Large Wood (LW), focusing to its role and impact along riverine systems. However there is still a lack of knowledge about many aspects of its recruitment and displacement from the vegetated patches (e.g. floodplain and island) of a riverine environment. This research aims to analyse and consider the differences in LW recruitment during a flood event along a reach of a piedmont gravel bed river. The study has been carried out along a 3 km - long study reach located into the middle course of the gravel bed Piave River (North-Eastern Italian Alps). A buffer zone of 20 m - wide was considered along the floodplains and islands. Into this stripe every standing tree, with diameter ≥ 0.10 m, was measured manually (Diameter Breast Height-DBH; Height). Moreover, for each tree the GPS position was recorded and a numbered tag was installed to simplify the post event recovery. In November 2014 an over bankfull flood (Q=1039 m3 s-1; R.I=3.5 years) occurred. Preliminary results shows that 668 trees were recruited during the flood event thanks to both bank erosion processes along the floodplain banks and along the island shores. Analysing the origin, it is possible to define as 401 (60.03 %) trees were recruited from the floodplain, 244 (36.53%) from fluvial islands and, finally, 23 (3.44%) trees were not completely moved into the active channel area and recruited by the flood, but were just uprooted. Thanks to the accurate dendrometric measurements, it has been possible to define the dimensions for both category of LW, recruited from floodplain and island respectively. Looking to the minimum, maximum and mean height detected were defined values of 2.00, 20.00 and 8.98 m, and 2.20, 15.00 and 6.64 m, for floodplain and island, respectively. The DBH show minimum, maximum and mean values of about 0.10, 0.54 and 0.14 m, and 0.10, 0.44 and 0.14 m for floodplain and island, respectively. These dendrometric measurements

  18. Selected Physical, Chemical, and Biological Data for 30 Urbanizing Streams in the North Carolina Piedmont Ecoregion, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, E.M.; Moorman, Michelle; Cuffney, Thomas F.; McMahon, Gerard; Harned, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides summarized physical, chemical, and biological data collected during a study of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment study. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of streams across a gradient of urban intensity. Thirty sites were selected along an urbanization gradient that represents conditions in the North Carolina Piedmont ecoregion, including the cities of Raleigh, Durham, Cary, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, High Point, Asheboro, and Oxford. Data collected included streamflow variability, stream temperature, instream chemistry, instream aquatic habitat, and collections of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. In addition, ancillary data describing land use, socioeconomic conditions, and urban infrastructure were compiled for each basin using a geographic information system analysis. All data were processed and summarized for analytical use and are presented in downloadable data tables, along with the methods of data collection and processing.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Valley and Ridge and Piedmont and Blue Ridge carbonate-rock aquifers constitute two of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 2 percent of the study area.

  20. Patterns and contributions of floodplain and legacy sediments remobilized from Piedmont streams of the mid-Atlantic U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    The perceived role of streambank erosion as a contributor to watershed sediment yield is an important driver of policy decisions for managing downstream impacts in the United States. In the Piedmont physiographic province of the eastern U.S. and in other regions of the south and midwest, the issue of 'legacy' sediment stored in stream valleys has long been recognized as a consequence of rapid deforestation and erosive agricultural practices following European settlement. Remobilization of stored floodplain sediment by bank erosion is frequently cited as a dominant component of watershed sediment budgets, with legacy sediment comprising the largest portion of this source. However there are few published studies documenting spatially extensive measurements of channel change throughout the drainage network on time scales of more than a few years. In this study we document 1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and 3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We measured gross erosion and channel deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing stream channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Results were extrapolated to estimate contributions to watershed sediment yield from 1005 km2 of northern Baltimore County. Results indicate that legacy sediment is a dominant component (62%) of the sediment derived from bank erosion and that its relative importance is greater in larger valleys with broader valley floors and lower gradients. Although mass of sediment remobilized per unit channel length is greater in

  1. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

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    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.

  2. The impact of national and international guidelines on newborn care in the nurseries of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, Italy

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    Fabris Claudio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care procedures for preventing neonatal diseases are carried out according to nurseries' traditions and may be not consistent with the evidence based medicine issues. Methods A multi-centric survey was conducted in 2 Regions located in NW Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley in order to collect information on some healthy newborn care procedures. During 2001, a questionnaire was sent to the chief pediatrician in charge to the all 33 nurseries of the region asking the methods used during 2000 as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum, early and late hemorrhagic disease of newborn, umbilical cord care and recommendations of vitamin D administration. Thereafter, during 2004 the same questionnaire was sent to the 34 chief pediatrician of nurseries to evaluate if the procedures were changed during 2003 according to guidelines. The nurseries care for 32,516 newborns in 2000 and 37,414 in 2003. Results Aminoglycoside eyes drops as prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum were the first choice in both periods (23 out 33 nurseries in 2000 and 24 out 34 in 2003 p > 0.05; the corresponding figures for newborns were18,984 out 32,516 newborns vs. 28,180 out of 37,414 p 0.05, (6,380 newborns, p 0.05. The numbers of parents of newborns who receive the recommendations of oral vitamin K during the first months life decreased from 2000 (25,516/30,606 to 2003 (29,808/37,414, p 0.05, the corresponding figures for Vitamin D were 15 and 14 (p > 0.05. Conclusion In the present study a large variability of procedures among the nurseries was observed. During the study periods, guidelines and evidence based medicine issues have only partially modified the neonatal care procedures In Piedmont and Aosta Valley nurseries. These observations suggest to implement local forum/consensus conference to standardized procedures as much as possible.

  3. Cultural Routes and Networks of Knowledge: the Identity and Promotion of Cultural Heritage. The Case Study of Piedmont

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    Silvia Beltramo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project called “PER VIAM Pilgrims’ Routes In Action”, funded by the European Commission in 2012, is a significant opportunity of cultural and economic development for the whole Europe and also for the territory of Piedmont Region. The certainty of the need for transnational cooperation, which should create a network amongst the different territories in a perspective of working together and exchange of traveling, economic and cultural experiences – as well as best practices - nowadays calls for implementation tools such as European projects supported and sought for by the local authorities.The Piedmont is nowadays crossed by various cultural itineraries, many of which are certificated by the European Council: Via Francigena, the Route of the Cistercian Abbeys, the Transromanica, the itinerary of the historical thermal cities and the Saint Michael's way. Starting from a survey on the meaning of "cultural itinerary" expressed by the different European institutions (i.e. ICOMOS, UNESCO, Council of Europe and European Commission, this essay is proposing an analysis of the current status of such territory, highlighting the public policies in progress, the role and activities of the local associations and the valorisation of implemented projects as related to those itineraries which have already been recognized by the Council of Europe.This paper presents some significant experiences and best practices in the study of religious tourism, as they have been defined on the regional territory throughout the last few years, which can contribute to the debate and to the overall awareness on management and valorization of sustainable tourism. 

  4. Evaluation of groundwater monitoring according to 2000/60/EC and 2006/118/EC directives in Piedmont

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    Riccardo Balsotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize monitoring activities as well to adapt it to legislative framework, since 2011 Piedmont Regional Groundwater Monitoring Network (RMRAS has undergone several upgrades interesting both number of monitoring points and such points location. This process, according to WFD proceedings, has also involved modifications on the analytical protocol adopted as well as on the final configuration of groundwater bodies (GWB Main results from first WFD triennium implementation (2009- 2011, by applying the new monitoring system, has had as a consequence a new definition of Chemical Status, according to D.lgs. 30/2009 and Decreto 260/2010, which allows us to express some considerations on the methodological approach proposed by the above mentioned legislation. In general, emerges a very articulated monitoring and classification system which allows to provide additional elements of knowledge than in the past. Others innovative aspects include modulation of monitoring cycles (Surveillance-Operational Monitoring and Punctual Operational Monitoring related with an upgrade of analytical programs, toward a general approach much more tied to the pressures which are insisting over GWBs. Study of main contaminants occurrences compared with their SQA/ VS allow to obtain a more detailed overview to assess main implications that favored groundwater contamination. Chemical Status definition may be influenced by the natural background values (VF of certain elements in very specific context. In Piedmont case such phenomena involves Nickel and ChromeVI. VF determination can give as a result VS modification for the considered elements inside the entire GWB area or parts of it. However, difficulties arise when attempting accurate discrimination from mixed contributions (natural + anthropogenic occurring in complex environmental scenarios.

  5. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  6. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pacheco, Johanna I; Rös, Matthias; Escobar, Federico; Castro-Lima, Francisco; Verdú, José R; López-Iborra, Germán M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean-Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1) type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms) and (2) origins (natural, mixed and artificial). A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81%) were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution). Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha), with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha) supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  7. Effects of a Control Release Nitrogen Fertilizer and Thinning on the Nitrogen Dynamics of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Stand in the Piedmont of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot, James Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen deficiency is characteristic of many mid-rotation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the Piedmont region of the southeastern USA. Fertilization with urea is the most common method used to correct this deficiency. Previous studies show that urea fertilization produces a rapid pulse of available nitrogen (N) with only a portion being utilized by plantation trees. Controlled release fertilizers release available N more slowly over a longer period of time and therefore may ...

  8. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

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    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  9. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).

  10. Assessing the contribution of legacy sediment and mill dam storage to sediment budgets in the Piedmont of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M.; Miller, A. J.; Baker, M. E.; Gellis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Storage and remobilization of legacy sediment and its net contribution to overall watershed sediment budgets has been an active topic of research in fluvial geomorphology for at least a century. The influence of historic mill dams on storage of legacy sediment and on floodplain morphology in the Piedmont province of the mid-Atlantic region has become a prominent focus of discussion in recent years. The goals of this project are to quantify rates of remobilization of legacy sediment by bank erosion as a contribution to watershed sediment yield in the Piedmont of Baltimore County, Maryland, and to compare contributions from mill-dam deposits with contributions from floodplain sediments not directly attributable to mill dams. The watershed sample will be used to project net remobilization rates for the entire drainage network in select watersheds, and to estimate the component attributable to legacy sediments upstream of mill dams. These results will be compared with regional sediment yields documented in the literature. Through comparison of a 1-m resolution LiDAR DEM from 2005 and 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961, we quantify nearly 50 years of channel change along 27 valley reaches from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 1.8 and 162.9 km2. Sites chosen represent a stratified sample of stream orders and drainage areas including sites in broad alluvial valleys and upstream headwater tributaries at the limit of where floodplains are observed. Particle size and bulk density for floodplain and channel-bar sediments were determined from 182 samples cores, and were classified as Legacy material, Pre-European Settlement, or Channel material. Density and particle size were combined with the volume of gross and net erosion for each valley reach in order to calculate the net mass of sediment remobilized per year for each site. Preliminary results indicate average lateral migration rates of 0.06 - 0.29 m/year, with net erosion ranging between 24 and 171 Mg

  11. Shallow-depth location and geometry of the Piedmont Reverse splay of the Hayward Fault, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Trench, David; Buga, Michael; Chan, Joanne H.; Criley, Coyn J.; Strayer, Luther M.

    2017-04-18

    The Piedmont Thrust Fault, herein referred to as the Piedmont Reverse Fault (PRF), is a splay of the Hayward Fault that trends through a highly populated area of the City of Oakland, California (fig. 1A). Although the PRF is unlikely to generate a large-magnitude earthquake, slip on the PRF or high-amplitude seismic energy traveling along the PRF may cause considerable damage during a large earthquake on the Hayward Fault. Thus, it is important to determine the exact location, geometry (particularly dip), and lateral extent of the PRF within the densely populated Oakland area. In the near surface, the PRF juxtaposes Late Cretaceous sandstone (of the Franciscan Complex Novato Quarry terrane of Blake and others, 1984) and an older Pleistocene alluvial fan unit along much of its mapped length (fig. 1B; Graymer and others, 1995). The strata of the Novato Quarry unit vary greatly in strike (NW, NE, and E), dip direction (NE, SW, E, and NW), dip angle (15° to 85°), and lithology (shale and sandstone), and the unit has been intruded by quartz diorite in places. Thus, it is difficult to infer the structure of the fault, particularly at depth, with conventional seismic reflection imaging methods. To better determine the location and shallow-depth geometry of the PRF, we used high-resolution seismic imaging methods described by Catchings and others (2014). These methods involve the use of coincident P-wave (compressional wave) and S-wave (shear wave) refraction tomography and reflection data, from which tomographic models of P- and S-wave velocity and P-wave reflection images are developed. In addition, the coincident P-wave velocity (VP) and S-wave velocity (VS) data are used to develop tomographic models of VP/VS ratios and Poisson’s ratio, which are sensitive to shallow-depth faulting and groundwater. In this study, we also compare measurements of Swave velocities determined from surface waves with those determined from refraction tomography. We use the combination of

  12. Major temporal variations in shortening rate absorbed along a large active fold of the southeastern Tianshan piedmont (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Carlier, Dimitri; Charreau, Julien; Lavé, Jérôme; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Dominguez, Stéphane; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Wang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of deformation rates on a mountain piedmont can provide key information for improving our understanding of the overall dynamics of a mountain range. Here, we estimate the shortening rate absorbed by a Quaternary emergent detachment fold on the southeastern piedmont of the Tianshan (China). Our work is primarily based on new 10Be cosmogenic exposure dating of deformed alluvial surfaces. The method we have developed combines depth profiling with sampling of surface cobbles, thereby allowing exposure time, erosion rate and inheritance to be simultaneously constrained. The exposure ages of the uppermost uplifted alluvial surfaces are around 140 ± 17 ka, 130 ± 9 ka and 47 ± 9 ka, from west to east. A terrace lying below the 140 ka surface is dated at 65 ± 5 ka. The ages of the uplifted and folded alluvial surfaces were then combined with estimates of shortening obtained using two distinct methods: (1) the excess area method, where sedimentation rates, extracted from magnetostratigraphic studies, are used to determine the amount of sedimentation after the abandonment of the river; and (2) a folding model derived from sandbox experiments. The late Pleistocene shortening rates are shown to be between 0.4 ± 0.1 mm /yr and 0.8 ± 0.5 mm /yr on the western part of the fold and 2.1 ± 0.4 mm /yr along its central part. The central part of the frontal Yakeng anticline therefore accommodates up to 25% of the total shortening currently absorbed across the whole Eastern Tianshan range (8 mm/yr). However, this situation seems to have prevailed for only the last 150 ka, as the shortening rate absorbed by this nascent fold was previously ten times slower. While the initiation of folding of the Yakeng anticline can be traced back to 5.5 Ma ago, the basinward migration of the active deformation front onto the Yakeng fold is a relatively recent phenomenon and appears to be diachronous from west to east, probably in relation to the tectonic activity of the folds in

  13. Identification of aquifer limits inside an Andean Piedmont (between 19,5°S and 20°S - Northern Chile) with TDEM and gauging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguier, Benoit; Jourde, Hervé; Leonardi, Véronique; Moya, Claudio; Líra, Elias; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Maringue, José; García-Pérez, Tiaren; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    In times of brutal climate changes and water scarcity in arid areas, the management of water resource has become a major issue. In this aim, several studies attempted to quantify the aquifer recharge and hydrodynamic processes. However, the quality of many studies depends on the characterization of aquifer boundaries. In arid areas, the amount of observation points (e.g. wells) and their spatial distribution constrain the understanding of aquifer boundaries spatial variations. In this study, we propose a methodology to characterize both water table level and boundaries of aquifer in such areas where the observation points do not exist. The Andean Piedmont (between 19,5°S and 20°S - Northern Chile) is located in the Pampa del Tamarugal Central Depression and is bounded respectively at the westside and the eastside by the Coastal Cordillera (1100 m a.s.l) and the Precordillera mountain range (4500 m a.s.l). The piedmont and the basin floor are composed of the late-Cenozoic alluvial deposits (hundred meters thick) which contain the Pampa del Tamarugal aquifer. Due to the hyperarid context, this regional aquifer is one of the main strategic groundwater resources in Northern Chile. This aquifer is mainly unconfined and the electrical conductivity of groundwater varies around 3000 μS/cm in the study area. The analysis of resistivity variation with depth, acquired by Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) method in various points inside the piedmont, allow identifying a continuous resistivity contrast (from ≥ 100-40 Ω.m to ≤ 10 Ω.m) that varies over the study area. This continuous resistivity contrast is assumed to be related to the water table of the unconfined aquifer rather than to a lithology contrast. After validation of the observations, a piezometric map was constructed using both the available hydrogeological information and the TDEM results. In the piedmont, river sink were identified; these zones where surface water sinks are correlated with the resistivity

  14. Clear-water abutment and contraction scour in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina, 1996-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, collected observations of clear-water aburment and contraction scour at 146 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina. Scour depths ranged from 0 to 23.6 feet. Theoretical scour depths were computed at each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths and often were excessive. A comparison of field data with dimensionless relations for laboratory data showed that the range of dimensionless variables used in laboratory investigations was outside of the range for field data in South Carolina, suggesting laboratory relations may not be applicable to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing scour within laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence within the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions found in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were embankment length, geometric-contraction ratio, approach velocity, and soil cohesion. Envelope curves developed with the field data are useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in South Carolina. These tools are simple to apply and are an improvement over the current methods for predicting theoretical scour.

  15. Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Fisher, Dwight S; Adams, M Paige; Lowrance, Richard; Newton, G Larry; Vellidis, George

    2012-01-01

    Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physical-chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial inflow and outflow is located in the Piedmont, and Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bromide and chloride tracer experiments at Bishop Pond reflected a residence time much greater than that estimated by two models, and indicated that complete mixing within Bishop Pond was never obtained. The long residence time meant that fecal bacteria were exposed to solar UV-radiation and microbial predation. At Bishop Pond outflow concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were significantly less than inflow concentrations; such was not observed at Ponds A and C. Both Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 were measured when concomitant concentrations of commensal E. coli were below the criterion for surface water impairment indicating problems with the effectiveness of indicator organisms. Bishop Pond improved down stream water quality; whereas, Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow and possibly greater nutrient concentrations within the two ponds appeared to be less effective in improving down stream water quality.

  16. Ground Penetrating Radar Profiles of Breached Anticlinal Ridges in the Northern Piedmont of the San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyarchick, A. R.; Eppes, M. C.; Diemer, J. A.; Cathey, R. B.; Cottingham, M. A.; Eckardt, I. J.; Shiflet, J. E.; Waldron, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    The northern piedmont of the San Bernardino Mountains contains kinematic elements characteristic of the Mojave block dextral plate boundary zone between the North American and Pacific plates and the complex convergent Transverse Ranges partition of that motion here represented by the North Frontal thrust system. Predominantly lateral slip in the central Mojave block is carried by the Helendale fault through Lucerne Valley and southward to intersect the North Frontal thrust system in the San Bernardino Mountains. Active anticlinal flexures and partially emergent north-verging thrust faults have deformed Pleistocene alluvial fans and older rocks into east-trending ridges in the piedmont on both sides of the Helendale fault. The Cougar Buttes anticline underlies such a ridge east of the fault and is breached by contemporaneous orthogonal washes in several places along strike of the anticline. Greater relief occurs where the alluvial fans comprise carbonate- cemented soils and particularly resistant, prominent petrocalcic horizons. It is within these incised valleys that the sequence of Tertiary through Pleistocene deposits show that the asymmetric anticline is cored by a thrust fault. In order to examine more closely the fold-fault association in the Cougar Buttes anticline and suggest possible kinematic models, we conducted several ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles at different levels across the ridge. Relatively superior relief in some washes allowed us to conduct profiles along the present topographic ridge crests (and thus along the crestal zone of the fold) and also along wash bottoms to provide profiles at the level of the fold's core. We used a GSSI SIR-3000 GPR system equipped with a monostatic 100 MHz antennae set to continuous recording mode; traverses over very irregular ground were done in point data mode. The system was set up with nominal high and low cutoff filters and automatic gain control, but we found that AGC overly amplified multiples or

  17. Abundance, feeding and reproduction of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae from mountain streams of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rodríguez-Olarte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain basic information for management, aspects of the ecology of Salminus sp. (Pisces: Characidae, were studied in piedmont rivers of the southwestern flank of the Andes in Venezuela. Collections were made with seines of various lengths and mesh sizes, and both underwater and terrestrial observations were recorded to estimate abundance and feeding events. Interviews with local fishermen and inhabitants were made to obtain data on use. The species is present along the entire length of the Andean piedmont in Venezuela, although in some rivers it is now scarce. Small individuals form mixed schools with Brycon whitei, but larger Salminus sp. usually only school with others of the same species. Average abundance was greater in larger rivers, and didn't vary appreciably with season for any of the rivers studied. Size and weight ranged from 15.1 to 40.5 cm SL and 47.7 to 1,210 g, respectively. Females had maximum ovary maturity at the beginning of the rainy season, with an average fecundity of 35,834 eggs, and spawning occurred during spates of high water. Feeding was crepuscular, with most events recorded during the first and last hours of sunlight. In smaller fish up to 20 cm SL, the diet was varied, but above that size fish were the principal food item. Salminus sp. has little commercial importance in this region but forms an important part of the local subsistence fishery, and occasionally it is targeted for sport fishing. The minimum legal size of capture for the species should be raised, since the current limit permits the capture of many sexually immature individuals.Para obter informações básicas para o manejo de Salminus sp. no sopé andino ocidental da Venezuela, se estudaram aspectos sobre sua ecologia e aproveitamento. Nos rios do sopé da montanha efetuaram-se capturas de peixes com variados tamanhos de malha, assim como observações subaquáticas e terrestres para estimar abundâncias e eventos de alimentação. Aplicaramse

  18. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  19. Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, P; Płoskonka, D

    2014-06-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use and soil properties were studied in the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont over the last 150 years, with a special emphasis on the period 1930-2010. Analysis of historical reports, combined with the visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images, indicates that the land reforms related to the location of tea gardens caused rapid deforestation of the higher elevated terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth between 1930 and 2010 caused a shift in the major land use changes from the terraces to the floodplains. As a consequence, a gradual extension of tea plantation and forestry development helped in stabilizing the land use of the terraces, while the parallel deforestation of mountain catchments and floodplains for rice cultivation intensified fluvial activity. The enlargement of river-channel area by about 42% between 1930 and 2010 excluded a large part of the floodplains from cultivation and increased risk of soil degradation. The replacement of natural forest by monocultural tea and rice cultivation influenced the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Statistically significant changes were observed only in some chemical properties of the topsoil. Tea cultivation reduced the total carbon content by 26% and total nitrogen content by 33% in the surface soil horizon. The influence of rice tillage on the soil properties is masked by the fluvial activity. The combined effect of flooding and rice cultivation is reflected in the lower content of total carbon and nitrogen in the surface of the soil, namely, 76% and 77% respectively. Taking into account the long-term nature of the plantation, the soil still has the capability to support tea production. The productivity of rice depends partly on fertilization levels and partly on the natural deposition of fresh sediment eroded from mountains.

  20. The Lake Gordan mylonite zone: A link between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zones of Eastern Piedmont fault system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, J.W. Jr.; Sacks, P.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Berquist, C.R. Jr.; Marr, J.D. Jr. (Virginia Div. of Mineral Resources, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Druhan, R.M. (Robert M. Carolina Friends School, Durham, NC (United States)); Butler, J.R. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary results of geologic mapping indicate that the Nutbush Creek and Hylas mylonite zone of the lake Paleozoic Eastern Piedmont fault system are not coextensive, as has been proposed. In south-central Virginia and northern North Carolina, a separate NNE-trending, orogen-parallel mylonite zone, the Lake Gordon mylonite zone, lies between the Nutbush Creek and Hylas zone and may link them. The Lake Gordon mylonite zone, named for exposures near Lake Gordon Mecklenburg Co., Va., lies mainly along the eastern flank of the Buggs Island granite pluton and has been mapped for a distance of about 80 km. Reconnaissance between Blackstone and Kenbridge, Va., suggests that the Lake Gordon mylonite zone is linked to the Hylas zone by either a releasing bend or an en echelon right step. The Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zone converge southward and are separated by only 3 km of granitic gneiss at the southern limit of mapping near Henderson, N.C. Mylonitic foliation in the Lake Gordon mylonite zone strikes 10--25[degree] E., dips subvertically to steeply northwest, and is parallel to the mapped boundaries of the zone. Intensity of mylonitization varies across the 1.5--3.6-km width of the zone. Subhorizontal mineral-elongation lineation is common in the plane of mylonitic foliation. Asymmetric porphyroclasts and shear bands indicate dextral simple shear. Coincidence of the Lake Gordon and Nutbush Creek mylonite zones, respectively, with the eastern and western margins of the highly elongate Buggs Island granite pluton suggests that the mylonite zones influenced emplacement of the pluton. These map relations, combined with very localized mylonitic fabric in the granite, suggest that mylonite in the Lake Gordon zone, like that in the Nutbush Creek zones is partly coeval with the Pennsylvanian-age Buggs Island granite. Postmylonitic brittle faulting is found locally in both the Lake Gordon and the Nutbush Creek zones.

  1. Characterization of nitrogen oxide fluxes from soil of a fallow field in the central piedmont of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deug-Soo; Aneja, Viney P.; Robarge, Wayne P.

    NO x emissions from soils may contribute to the formation of 0 3 in rural areas, especially when there is substantial emissions of natural hydrocarbons from surrounding vegetation, such as in the southeastern United States. Soil NO, flux measurements were made from 6 June 1992 to 7 July 1992 in the central Piedmont region of North Carolina (Southeast Oxidants and Nitrogen Intensive Analysis site, SONIA) in an effort to determine the role of natural emissions of NO, on rural atmospheric photochemistry. The overall average NO and N0 2 emission rates, using a dynamic chamber technique, were found to be 1.79 ± 1.37 ng-N m -2 s -1 (range: 0.13 to 6.67 ng-N m - s -1') and -1.07 ± 0.87 ng-N m -2s -1 (range: -6.71 to 3.16ng-Nm -2s -1 respectively. Over 85% of the N0 2 flux measurements were negative indicating net deposition to the soil surface. No negative NO flux rates were observed. NO flux was correlated with soil temperature. There was a positive correlation between NO concentration near the soil surface (˜50 cm) and NO flux ( r=0.35). The NO compensation point (1.12 ppbv) was estimated from the relationship between NO emission rate and ambient NO concentrations measured at 10 m. Both positive and negative vertical gradients of NO concentration between 10 m and soil surface were detected. The positive vertical gradients are indicative of NO transport to the site from polluted air masses. A significant negative correlation between NO flux and ambient 03 concentration ( r=0.66), however, supports the hypothesis that soil emissions of NO contribute to local production of 03 in rural areas.

  2. Social and spatial relationships driving landowner attitudes towards aquatic conservation in a Piedmont-Blue Ridge landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Samuel N; Baldwin, Robert F; Baldwin, Elizabeth Dennis; Bridges, William C; Fouch, Nakisha

    2017-04-01

    More than half of land in the U.S. is privately owned and covers most of known endangered species habitat. An understanding of private landowners' attitudes towards conservation may help to bridge the science-practice gap in regards to conservation initiatives. Aquatic biodiversity is particularly imperiled; in the United States headwaters and isolated wetlands receive little protection through regulations, becoming a focus of conservation planning. In an effort to assess how landowners view such efforts, a 27-question mixed methods survey was mailed to 409 landowners in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions of South Carolina with wetland areas and where land was owned by a family or individual, not a corporation. We received 70 completed surveys and analyzed the results using an encapsulated mixed methods approach that analyzed both scaled and qualitative questions. The combined results gave a more contextual understanding of conservation on private lands in the study area. In this article we present a history of private land conservation and surveying landowners in understanding conservation potential. This demonstrates a need for a more comprehensive method needed in conservation planning. We then show our use of an integrated methodology, using quantitative and qualitative questions, to measure landowners' interest in conserving land. Through classification and spatial analysis, our study demonstrated that aquatic areas and wildlife are valued by and show influence on landowners' decisions. We also found that distance from protected area has a positive correlation to the willingness to protect aquatic areas. Landowners showed concern for threats of pollution from runoff and siltation. Disinterest in conservation seemed prevalent throughout many of the respondents' answers. These results suggest a relation to geographic distance and that the attitudes are more related near each other and specific places in the landscape. We conclude that any successful

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region. More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies. Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface. In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  4. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Reilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  5. The hydrogeologic framework and a reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, with a design for future study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the relation of ground- water quality and land use in the regolith and fractured rock ground-water system of the North Carolina Piedmont. The initial phase of this study provides a description of the ground-water flow system and a review of available ground-water data and formulates hypotheses that guide the design of a water-quality monitoring network for study of selected areas. In the Piedmont, the solid igneous and metamorphic bedrock grades upward into unweathered fractured rock that is covered by a transition zone of highly-fractured, partially weathered rock, clay-rich saprolite, and the soil. The fractured bedrock, transition zone, saprolite, and soil make up a complex flow system. A review of available ground-water quality data shows a lack of information about organic compounds and trace metals and changes in ground- water quality with depth. Land use, soils, and geology significantly influence ground-water quality. The hypotheses that need to be tested in the next study phase are: (1) that ground-water contamination can be related to land use, and (2) that the transition zone between bedrock and regolith serves as a primary transmitter of contaminants. Monitoring of basins containing industrial, urban, residential, and agricultural land uses in future studies will help define the relation of ground-water quality to land use. Water quality at different depths in the flow system and in streams during base flow needs to be identified.

  6. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  7. Tectonic implications of the Indian Run Formation; a newly recognized sedimentary melange in the northern Virginia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Avery Ala

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentary melange in the northeastern part of Fairfax County, Virginia, contains both mesoscopic and mappable fragments of Accotink Schist, Lake Barcroft Metasandstone, metagabbro, and ultramafic rocks as well as smaller fragments of other rock types. This melange was originally mapped as the Sykesville Formation, a major precursory sedimentary melange in northern Virginia and Maryland. The fragments of Accotink Schist and Lake Barcroft Metasandstone within the Sykesville were considered to be rip-ups of these units over which the Sykesville slid when finally emplaced. More recent study has shown that fragments of Accotink and Lake Barcroft are restricted to a certain area of sedimentary melange originally defined as Sykesville, and this part of the melange is now considered to be a separate mappable unit, here named the Indian Run Formation. The Indian Run underlies the sequence Accotink Schist and Lake Barcroft Metasandstone which is here formally named the Annandale Group. The Indian Run is intruded by the Occoquan Granite of Cambrian age, so it is of Cambrian or Late Proterozoic age. The Sykesville Formation (restricted) is a much more extensive unit than the Indian Run Formation and is characterized by its contained olistoliths of the Peters Creek Schist, the unit that tectonically overlies it. The Sykesville and Peters Creek constitute a precursory melange-allochthon pair which is here termed a 'tectonic motif.' The Indian Run-Annandale pair then forms a tectonically lower motif, and the overlying pair, the Yorkshire Formation-Piney Branch Complex, forms a tectonically higher motif. The Chopawamsic Formation and underlying sedimentary melange in the area south of Fairfax County may form a tectonic motif beneath the Indian Run-Annandale tectonic motif. Thus, three and perhaps four repetitions of precursory melange-allochthon pairs occur in northern Virginia. Other percursory melanges and motifs may occur in the Maryland Piedmont to the north. The tectonic

  8. The Influence of a Series of Workshops Related to Citizen Participation in Civic Affairs on Anomia, Life Satisfaction, & Locus of Control Among the Aged Population in the Piedmont Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Curtis; And Others

    The effect of participation in a series of workshops about citizen involvement in civic affairs on locus of control, life satisfaction and anomia among the aged population in the Piedmont region of North Carolina was investigated, as well as the extent to which certain personal and situational characteristics of respondents were associated with…

  9. Effects of Urban Development on Water Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina: Association of Landscape Variables With Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    An assessment of effects of urban development on water quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina is part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Thirty sites along a gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins were selected using geographic information analysis to control variability in natural factors that influence water quality. Data collected include nutrient, pesticide, ion, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow, stage, habitat characteristics, and algal, benthic invertebrate, and fish communities. Sampling for water chemistry ranged from two samples (at 20 sites) to six samples (at 10 sites) per year from October 2002 to September 2003. Geomorphic and biological data were collected once in each basin. An index that integrates information on human influences, including land cover, population, and socioeconomic characteristics was used to define the urban gradient and to select sites. Relations among landscape, streamflow, temperature, and water-chemistry variables were analyzed to define urban effects on water quality. Distinct patterns of association occurred between landscape variables and water quality. An increase in urban index is associated with increases in pH (r=0.60), specific conductance (0.72), sulfate (0.68), a multiple-constituent chemical index (0.91), and a pesticide index (0.76). Landscape characteristics correlated with water quality in a similar manner. Increasing basin population density is associated with higher pH (0.55, 1990; 0.56, 2000), specific conductance (0.71, 1990), chloride (0.66, 1990), sulfate (0.72), and pesticides (0.71, 1990; 0.68, 2000). This pattern also is reflected in household density (pH (0.60), chemical index (0.87), and pesticide index (0.68)); in the total percentage of developed land in the basin (specific conductance (0.85), chloride (0.77), sulfate (0.81), total nitrogen (0.50), chemical index (0.84), and pesticide

  10. Exploration study on mortality trends in the territory surrounding an incineration plant of urban solid waste in the municipality of Vercelli (Piedmont, Italy) 1988-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, C; Marciani, P; Barasolo, E; Fossale, P G; Panella, M; Palin, L A

    2015-01-01

    The places, where the incinerators are located, often present problems of heterogeneous people having different environmental factors. It becomes important to evaluate the possible etiologic role of various environmental risk factors and try to quantify as they affect in the excess epidemiological. This study considers the ISTAT index mortality due to all causes occurred from 1988 to 2009 referred to ten municipalities at south of Vercelli (Piedmont, North Western Italy) placed nearby the active incinerator from 1977 (10 latent years). The risks were calculated considering this area at risk versus the municipalities placed at North of Vercelli and versus the Vercelli. Some significant statically excesses emerged in the South area such as neoplasia of nervous system, liver and total of tumours. The study presents some drawbacks, but it is a work creditable of widening by specific research ad hoc such as cohort and/or control where it is possible to verify various environmental, occupational and occasional factors.

  11. The quality of our nation's waters: water quality in the Principal Aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions, eastern United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions underlie an area with a population of more than 40 million people in 10 states. The suburban and rural population is large, growing rapidly, and increasingly dependent on groundwater as a source of supply, with more than 550 million gallons per day withdrawn from domestic wells for household use. Water from some of these aquifers does not meet human-health benchmarks for drinking water for contaminants with geologic or human sources. Water from samples in crystalline- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with geologic sources, and samples in carbonate-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with human sources, most often nitrate and bacteria.

  12. Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China Plain using AquaCrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011—2013 field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67—1.25 t·hm-2, and that of relative error (RE was 9.4%—15.4%, the coefficient of determination (R2 ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0—100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and R2 in the range of 1.07%—1.20% and 0.880—0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50—2.66 kg·m-3. The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980—2010 and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

  13. Management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the coronary care units of Piedmont in 2005: results from the PRIMA regionwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenino, Giuseppe; Chinaglia, Alessandra; Millesimo, Giorgio; Gnavi, Roberto; Picariello, Roberta; Orlando, Anna

    2008-02-01

    In Piedmont (north-western Italy) a network for emergency treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction is being implemented. To provide a baseline for care assessment and quality improvement, a regionwide survey was conducted. We describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients admitted to the coronary care units (CCUs) of the Regional Health System. All patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction study. Of 818 patients (28.1% female, mean age 66 +/- 12 years), 14.3% had diabetes mellitus and 39.7% anterior myocardial infarction; 77% had their first medical contact within 3 h of symptom onset, and 53% reached full-time interventional CCUs. The 118 emergency medical system was used by 50% of patients. Median door-to-electrocardiogram time was 9 min (case for the absence of reperfusion treatment (odds ratio 2.16; 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.02), TIMI risk index >33 (odds ratio 6.78; 95% confidence interval 3.70-12.40), and chronic renal failure (odds ratio 4.96; 95% confidence interval 1.82-13.55). In Piedmont, candidates for myocardial reperfusion treatment admitted to the CCUs of the Regional Health System are about 600 per million inhabitants/year. The 118 emergency medical system is used by about half of them, and medical contact occurs within 3 h of symptom onset in most cases. Use of reperfusion treatment is frequent, the choice is related to on-site availability rather than to risk profile, and door-to-treatment times can be improved. Use of emergency transfer is limited, poorly selected, and slow.

  14. An Improved Analysis onTrends and Uncertainties of Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in the Piedmont Ecoregion of the United States Using Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Liu, S.; Young, C.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate quantification of carbon fluxes and stocks in the terrestrial ecoregions can improve our understanding of carbon sequestration processes and further help address global climate change issues. However, two current principal approaches, modeling and measuring, have inherent limitations that usually lead to uncertainties of quantification. Such limitations include poorly defined parameters, model input errors, and spatially patchy and multi-resolution characteristics of measurements. Advanced data assimilation techniques can mitigate these limitations by combining a series of measurements with dynamic models. In this study, we used a sequential data assimilation method, the Smoothed Ensemble Kalman Filter (SEnKF), to assimilate the data from various sources into the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). This method (1) optimally estimates trends of carbon fluxes and stocks in the Piedmont ecoregion of the United States from the 1970s to the 2000s, and (2) simultaneously constrains several key model parameters (e.g., maximum potential production) for various types of land covers for improving the model prediction. Assimilated data included gross primary production, net primary production, and leaf area index from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), grain yields at the county level from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and forest characteristics from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database. Our preliminary analyses indicated that carbon sequestration in the Piedmont ecoregion gradually decreased in the past three decades, and the interannual variability was strongly affected by climate variability. Our approach reduced uncertainties in the estimated carbon fluxes and stocks in forests, croplands, and grasslands by 50 percent compared to the estimates using originally defined parameters.

  15. TAPHONOMIC ANALYSIS ON FOSSIL REMAINS FROM THE CIOTA CIARA CAVE (PIEDMONT, ITALY AND NEW EVIDENCE OF CAVE BEAR AND WOLF EXPLOITATION WITH SIMPLE QUARTZ FLAKES BY NEANDERTHAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO BUCCHERI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ciota Ciara cave is located in the karst area of Monte Fenera (Borgosesia - VC and, with the Ciotarun cave, it is the only Middle Palaeolithic site in Piedmont where the presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been confirmed by discoveries of human remains. Preliminary taphonomic and archaeozoological studies have been performed on a portion of the palaeontological remains from the Stratigraphic Unit 14 (1144 bones. The studies confirmed the presence of cut-marks on Ursus spelaeus and Canis lupus, made by lithic instruments. The position of the cut marks on the bones can be related to skinning and butchery. An experimental butchery has been performed to test the efficiency of the tools made by local quartz during slaughtering activities. The archaeozoological analysis of the faunal remains of S.U. 14, identified cut-marks with weak peculiarities, probably due to the use of quartz tools. The analysis of the experimental collection allowed distinguishing between cut-marks made by quartz tools from those made by flint tools. A preliminary experimentation, conducted on more than 50 different cut-marks made with flakes of three different raw materials (vein quartz, quartzite and flint, allow us to hypothesize that it is possible to distinguish cut-marks made with unretouched flakes of different raw materials.

  16. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault constitutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with differential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3―1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota- tion of micro-block.

  17. Small Reservoir Distribution, Rate of Construction, and Uses in the Upper and Middle Chattahoochee Basins of the Georgia Piedmont, USA, 1950–2010

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    Amber R. Ignatius

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of small reservoirs affects ecosystem processes in numerous ways including fragmenting stream habitat, altering hydrology, and modifying water chemistry. While the upper and middle Chattahoochee River basins within the Southeastern United States Piedmont contain few natural lakes, they have a high density of small reservoirs (more than 7500 small reservoirs in the nearly 12,000 km2 basin. Policymakers and water managers in the region have little information about small reservoir distribution, uses, or the cumulative inundation of land cover caused by small reservoir construction. Examination of aerial photography reveals the spatiotemporal patterns and extent of small reservoir construction from 1950 to 2010. Over that 60 year timeframe, the area inundated by water increased nearly six fold (from 19 reservoirs covering 0.16% of the study area in 1950 to 329 reservoirs covering 0.95% of the study area in 2010. While agricultural practices were associated with reservoir creation from 1950 to 1970, the highest rates of reservoir construction occurred during subsequent suburban development between 1980 and 1990. Land cover adjacent to individual reservoirs transitioned over time through agricultural abandonment, land reforestation, and conversion to development during suburban expansion. The prolific rate of ongoing small reservoir creation, particularly in newly urbanizing regions and developing counties, necessitates additional attention from watershed managers and continued scientific research into cumulative environmental impacts at the watershed scale.

  18. Geostatistical interpolation model selection based on ArcGIS and spatio-temporal variability analysis of groundwater level in piedmont plains, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Gu, Xiaomin; Yin, Shiyang; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Niu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the geo-statistical theory and ArcGIS geo-statistical module, datas of 30 groundwater level observation wells were used to estimate the decline of groundwater level in Beijing piedmont. Seven different interpolation methods (inverse distance weighted interpolation, global polynomial interpolation, local polynomial interpolation, tension spline interpolation, ordinary Kriging interpolation, simple Kriging interpolation and universal Kriging interpolation) were used for interpolating groundwater level between 2001 and 2013. Cross-validation, absolute error and coefficient of determination (R(2)) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of different methods. The result shows that simple Kriging method gave the best fit. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability suggest that the nugget effects from 2001 to 2013 were increasing, which means the spatial correlation weakened gradually under the influence of human activities. The spatial variability in the middle areas of the alluvial-proluvial fan is relatively higher than area in top and bottom. Since the changes of the land use, groundwater level also has a temporal variation, the average decline rate of groundwater level between 2007 and 2013 increases compared with 2001-2006. Urban development and population growth cause over-exploitation of residential and industrial areas. The decline rate of the groundwater level in residential, industrial and river areas is relatively high, while the decreasing of farmland area and development of water-saving irrigation reduce the quantity of water using by agriculture and decline rate of groundwater level in agricultural area is not significant.

  19. Hormonal contraception and the risk of venous thrombosis: Management recommendations from the Piedmont Region and the Consensus Conference of the Italian National Institute of Health

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    Valentina Donvito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal methods are used by many fertile women who require contraception. They are highly effective, but their use is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. This report summarizes the recommendations of the Public Health Service of Italy’s Piedmont Region for the prescription of hormonal contraception (November 2007 and the results of the Consensus Conference of the Italian National Health Institute on the prevention of thromboembolism related to hormonal contraception (July 2009. Although hormonal contraception increases the relative risk for venous thromboembolism, both documents agreed that the absolute risk remains very small. Assessments of eligibility for hormonal contraception must be based on complete medical history that include medical conditions, drugs used, and family history. Unnecessary medical barriers, such as routine screening for thrombophilia, are not recommended. Most women can safely use hormonal contraception. Physicians and women should discuss the risks, benefits, and uncertainties associated with hormonal contraception so that women will be able to make informed decisions regarding their use.

  20. Risk management on an alluvial fan: a case study of the 2008 debris-flow event at Villar Pellice (Piedmont, N-W Italy

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    M. Arattano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Piedmont Region (North-Western Italy, the regional authorities manage debris flow risk by following the ideal sequence of steps that are generally pursued in land planning and civil protection activities. Complex procedures and methods are elaborated and widely discussed with politicians, economists and the general public. On the contrary, in emergency situations, civil protection agencies generally prefer the adoption of simple and flexible criteria. In this paper, a catastrophic debris flow event, that occurred in 2008 in Villar Pellice, is described in this perspective, after an analysis of the triggering rainfalls and of the effects on human life and properties. The availability of a series of personal accounts coming from people who witnessed the occurrences before, during and after the event has allowed us to analyse, in detail, the dynamics of the event. Thanks to these accounts, it has been possible to propose new guidelines for the planning of the emergency activities in areas that are potentially prone to similar impulsive phenomena.

  1. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: effects of lithology and well characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shelley A; Billmeyer, Ernest R; Robinson, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    Radon (222Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482 +/- 1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750 +/- 5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R2) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  2. Climatic impact on isovolumetric weathering of a coarse-grained schist in the northern Piedmont Province of the central Atlantic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possible impact of periglacial climates on the rate of chemical weathering of a coarse-grained plagioclase-muscovite-quartz schist has been determined for a small watershed near Baltimore, Maryland. The isovolumetric chemical weathering model formulated from the geochemical mass balance study of the watershed shows that the weathering front advances at a velocity of 9.1 m/m.y., if the modern environmental parameters remain the same back through time. However, recent surficial geological mapping demonstrates that periglacial climates have impacted the area. Such an impact significantly affects two key chemical weathering parameters, the concentration of CO2 in the soil and groundwater moving past the weathering front. Depending upon the assumptions used in the model, the rate of saprolitization varies from 2.2 to 5.3 m/m.y. The possible impact of periglacial processes suggested by the chemical weathering rates indicates a need to reconsider theories of landscape evolution as they apply to the northern Piedmont Province of the mid-Atlantic states. I suggest that from the Late Miocene to the present that the major rivers have become incised in their present locations; this incision has enhanced groundwater circulation and chemical weathering such that crystalline rocks beneath interfluvial areas remain mantled by saprolite; and the saprolite mantle has been partially stripped as periglacial conditions alternate with humid-temperate conditions. ?? 1993.

  3. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  4. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-02-23

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy.

  5. Hydrogeology aspects of the Tandilia piedmont region (Buenos Aires, Argentine); Aspectos hidrogeologicos de la region periserrana de Tandilia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Busso, A. A.; Amato, S. D.

    2011-07-01

    The Sierras de Tandilia piedmont area is a region trending NW-SE from the Atlantic Ocean to the China Hills (Olavarria) in the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires. Despite the intense demand for groundwater in the area, more so than in almost any other part of Argentina, knowledge about the aquifers is very scarce or highly localized. In a large part of the region little or nothing is known about the aquifer units, which might afford very important comparative benefits in terms of potential water exploitation rates. The aim of this study has been to analyse the main features of these aquifers, bearing in mind their different sedimentary architectures (depositional characteristics of the region), to define the basic hydrogeologic models. We also include a brief analysis of the hydraulic characteristics determined in these aquifers with reference to their architectural types. We have identified various types of aquifer: leaky, unconfined, semi-unconfined, and fractured, and obtained very diverse transmissivity values, from 30 m2/d with specific flow capacities of 1 m3/hm, to 500 m2/d with specific flow capacities of 20 m3/hm or more. We propose that these variations in the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers conditioned to a great extent by the hydro stratigraphy and, especially, the types of sedimentary architecture that go to framing the hydrogeologic models in this region. (Author) 37 refs.

  6. Tectonic characteristics of the Lishan Piedmont Fault in the SE Weihe Graben (central China), as revealed by the geomorphological and structural analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gang; Cheng, Yali; Yu, Yangli; Yan, Bing; Lin, Aiming

    2017-04-01

    The fault kinematics, slip rate and paleoseismicity along the approximate EW-trending Lishan Piedmont Fault (LPF) in the SE Weihe Graben, central China have been determined. The results of geomorphological analysis, field investigations and radiocarbon (14C) age dating indicate that: (i) slope angles of the observed triangular facets cluster around 20°; (ii) empirical correlations yield a vertical slip rate (throw rate) of 0.11-0.25 mm yr- 1, which is lower than the neighboring active faults; (iii) the LPF is characterized by almost purely normal slip, and was active within the past 18,000 yr. These findings can provide a basis for the assessment of seismic risk in and around the densely-populated city of Xi'an (an old capital of China). However, we suggest more precise constraints on the fault slip rate and detailed paleoseismological studies on the timing of the most recent earthquake and the repeat time of paleo-earthquakes are needed in order to better understand the seismogenic behaviors of the active LPF.

  7. Projected hydrological changes in the North Carolina piedmont using bias-corrected North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kim

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY with projected CO2, precipitation, and temperature during 2044–2070 were affected by each climate factor separately and synergistically. Increasing CO2 to 600 ppm only scenario resulted in an ET decrease (5–17% which led to WY increase (17–36%. With projected temperature increases (1–5 °C only scenarios, ET was projected to increase noticeably (12–112% especially in winter and spring. The amount of projected ET increase was reduced by a CO2 increase to 600 ppm due to decreased stomatal conductance. Projected WY varied due to the high variability of future precipitation patterns (−54% to 33% but generally increased when solely precipitation projections were applied. However, WY with combined effects of CO2, precipitation, and temperature did not show significant changes compared with the historical WY. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate interactions of precipitation, temperature, and CO2 to simulate future water availability in the North Carolina Piedmont.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  9. Volcanic rock-hosted gold and base-metal mineralization associated with neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic back-arc extension in the Carolina terrane, southern Appalachian Piedmont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, P.G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Vance, R.K. (Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro (United States)); Wesolowski, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Volcanogenic mineral deposits in the Carolina terrane, southern Appalachian Piedmont, include Kuroko-type polymetallic massive sulfide deposits and disseminated gold-pyrite deposits associated with propylitic, silicic, argillic, and advanced argillic alteration. Host rocks are metavolcaniclastic and metaepiclastic rocks of a Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian magmatic arc. The favorable gold horizon is the transition from a lower succession of andesitic and rhyolitic pyroelastic rocks with basal mafic lavas to an upper sequence of epiclastic sedimentary units and minor lava and ash flows. Kuroko-type deposits are associated with mafic to bimodal volcanic rocks in the upper sequence. Whole-rock oxygen isotope analyses indicate that gold mineralization is associated with a transition from hydrothermal systems dominated by isotopically relatively light ([delta][sup 18]O = -6% to -10%) waters, typical of high-latitude subaerial systems, to seawater ([delta][sup 18]O = 0%). Plots of [delta][sup 18]O vs. SiO[sub 2] of the host rocks show a compositional gap associated with mineralization at the subaerial to submarine transition. Values of [delta][sup 18]O for the hydrothermal waters, lithostratigraphic analyses, and tectonic models of the Carolina terrane demonstrate that mineralization coincided with extension in a rifted arc. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Late Quaternary normal faulting and its kinematic mechanism of eastern piedmont fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains in northwestern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZhongHai; ZHANG YongShuang; HU DaoGong; ZHAO XiTao; YE PeiSheng

    2009-01-01

    The regional geologic and geomorphic observations show that an active arcuate normal fault consti-tutes the main boundary fault of the Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYSM). This fault is called eastern piedmont fault of Haba-Yulong Snow Mountains (HYPF). The fault consists of two segments with dif-ferential trend; the northern segment is NW-trending and NE-dipping and the southern section is S-N trending and E-dipping. Three sets of fault scarps cutting late Quaternary landforms and their dating results indicate that the fault is a prominent Holocene active fault and its throw rates are 0.3-1.4 mm/a during late Quaternary. The geometry and kinematics of the fault suggest that the arcuate normal faulting or rifting are typical surface deformation pattern at the two tips of the Z-shaped rift zone of northwestern Yunnan, which is related to regional east-west extension accompanying clockwise rota-tion of micro-block.

  11. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  12. Nitrate pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in irrigated areas: a case study of the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation projects have diverted water from the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China for more than 50 years and are unique in the world. This study investigated the effect of irrigation practices on the transfer and regional migration mechanisms of nitrate (NO3(-)) in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan. Hydrochemical indices (EC, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO(3-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) were determined for samples. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the sources of water constituents. Kriging was employed to simulate the spatial diffusion of NO3(-) and stable isotopes. Our results demonstrated that the groundwater exhibited more complex saline conditions than the surface water, likely resulting from alkaline conditions and lixiviation. NO3(-) was detected in all samples, 87.0% of which were influenced by anthropogenic activity. The NO3(-) pollution in groundwater was more serious than the common groundwater irrigation areas in the North China Plain (NCP), and was also slightly higher than that in surface water in the study area, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the groundwater sites with higher NO3(-) concentrations did not overlap with the spatial distribution of fertilizer consumption, especially in the central and western parts of the study area. NO3(-) distributions along the hydrogeological cross-sections were related to the groundwater flow system. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidences indicate that surface water-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of NO3(-) in the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains.

  13. NEW OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE DATA IN THE TERTIARY PIEDMONT BASIN (NW-ITALY: UNCONFORMITY-BOUNDED STRATIGRAPHIC UNITS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH BASIN-MODIFICATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMO ROSSI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the regional stratigraphy around the Alps-Apennines junction during late Eocene-Miocene. The basin-fill architecture and its relation to changes in structural style were deciphered through the integration of subsurface and outcrop data on the basis of seismic- and sequence-stratigraphy principles, respectively.During late Eocene-Oligocene, the study area hosted a mosaic of partially interconnected sub-basins, and the Torino Hill area marked the junction towards the western apex of the Southern Alps foredeep (Gonfolite Basin. Since the latest Oligocene, the uplift of the north-verging Monferrato arc provided the separation from the adjacent Gonfolite Basin and the Tertiary Piedmont Basin behaved as a larger and more regularly subsiding thrust-top basin.The upper Eocene-Miocene successions record a long-term, major transgressive-regressive cycle, consisting of seven large-scale unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units, whose stacking pattern was controlled by changes in the rate of tectonic subsidence and whose boundaries were generated by basin-modification phases. During the Oligocene-lower Miocene deepening-upward sequence set, the marginal marine systems show a marked diachronism associated with  the SW-ward change of coastal onlap, punctuated by drowning-platform unconformities generated in relation to basinward tilting and high-angle synsedimentary faults.  The maximum transgression coincides with the late Burdigalian tectonic space creation phase, when a basinwide, highly efficient turbidite system was deposited. The middle-upper Miocene progradation, punctuated by forced regression pulses, was driven by the inversion and uplift of the southern basin margin, so that a northward shift and progressive narrowing of the turbidite depocentre occurred. 

  14. Developing a new stream metric for comparing stream function using a bank-floodplain sediment budget: a case study of three Piedmont streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Noe, Greg

    2013-01-01

    A bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic parameters and sediment dynamics and to develop a floodplain trapping metric for comparing streams with variable characteristics. Net site sediment budgets were best explained by gradient at Difficult Run, floodplain width at Little Conestoga Creek, and the relation of channel cross-sectional area to floodplain width at Linganore Creek. A correlation for all streams indicated that net site sediment budget was best explained by relative floodplain width (ratio of channel width to floodplain width). A new geomorphic metric, the floodplain trapping factor, was used to compare sediment budgets between streams with differing suspended sediment yields. Site sediment budgets were normalized by floodplain area and divided by the stream's sediment yield to provide a unitless measure of floodplain sediment trapping. A floodplain trapping factor represents the amount of upland sediment that a particular floodplain site can trap (e.g. a factor of 5 would indicate that a particular floodplain site traps the equivalent of 5 times that area in upland erosional source area). Using this factor we determined that Linganore Creek had the highest gross and net (floodplain deposition minus bank erosion) floodplain trapping factor (107 and 46, respectively) that Difficult Run the lowest gross floodplain trapping factor (29) and Little Conestoga Creek had the lowest net floodplain trapping factor (–14, indicating that study sites were net contributors to the suspended sediment load). The trapping factor is a robust metric for comparing three streams of varied watershed and geomorphic character, it promises to be a useful tool for future stream assessments.

  15. Alleghenian regional diagenesis: A response to the migration of modified metamorphic fluids derived from beneath the Blue Ridge-Piedmont thrust sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedl, A.; McCabe, C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (United States)); Montanez, I.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States)); Fullagar, P.D. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Valley, J.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1992-05-01

    To examine the nature and origin of fluids that caused widespread diagenetic alteration and remagnetization of the Appalachian foreland during the late Paleozoic, the authors examined the evidence for metamorphic fluids originating from beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont, causing extensive alteration along the Linville Falls fault in the Grandfather Mountain window, North Carolina. These fluids were hot (310 to 400C), enriched in radiogenic strontium, and had {delta}{sup 18}O values of 3 to 10{per thousand} SMOW and {delta}D values of {minus}20 to 10{per thousand}. A Rb/Sr isochron from the fault zone rocks yielded an Alleghenian age of 301 {plus minus} 5.0 Ma. Next they examined the diagenetic fluids that produced Alleghenian silicification, K-feldspar authigenesis, and associated dolomitization in remagnetized Upper Knox Group carbonates of the Valley and Ridge and Plateau Provinces from Tennessee to northern Virginia. The fluids were hot (140 to 245C), highly saline (14 to 23 wt % NaCl equivalent), enriched in radiogenic strontium, and had a {delta}{sup 18}O of 5 to 13{per thousand}. Thus, the fluids that caused alteration in the Linville Falls area were remarkably similar geochemically to the fluids that caused alteration in the Upper Knox Group at about the same time. The authors suggest that both alteration events were part of a large-scale fluid flow system involving metamorphic and basinal fluids rather than meteoric waters. Thus, metamorphic fluids may have played a key role in causing remagnetization and other diagenetic phenomena on the Appalachian foreland during the Alleghenian Orogeny.

  16. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

  17. Calcite Twinning in the Ordovician Martinsburg Formation, Delaware Water Gap, New Jersey, USA: Implications for Cleavage Formation and Tectonic Shortening in the Appalachian Piedmont Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Craddock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A traverse across the Stone Church syncline in the Ordovician Martinsburg turbidites reveals an axial planar cleavage (N40°E, SE dips in regional thrust-related folds (N40°E, shallow plunges and five phases of sparry calcite. Calcite fillings are bedding-parallel, cleavage-parallel, and one vein set cross-cuts both earlier phases; the youngest calcite filling is a bedding-parallel fault gouge that crosscuts the cleavage and preserves top-down-to-the-southeast normal fault kinematics. Calcite veins unique to disharmonically-folded calcareous siltstones (Maxwell, 1962 were also analyzed. Stable isotopic analysis (O, C of all of the calcite phases indicates a uniform fluid source (δ13C −2.0, δ18O −13.3 VPDB and, potentially, a similar precipitation and mechanical twinning age. The twinning strains (n = 1341; average Δσ = −32 MPa; average ε1 = −2.9% in the calcite suite are consistent with SE-NW thrust shortening, and sub-horizontal shortening perpendicular to evolving axial planar cleavage planes in the Stone Church syncline. Calcareous siltstone layers within the Martinsburg Fm. turbidites share concordant bedding planes and are unique, chemically (XRF, but folded and cleaved differently than the surrounding clay-rich Martinsburg turbidites. Neither sediment type yielded detrital zircons. Electron backscatter X-ray diffraction (EBSD and calcite twinning results in a folded calcareous siltstone layer preserving a layer-normal SE-NW shortening strain and Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO. Shortening axes for the five-phase calcite suite trends ~N40°W, consistent with tectonic transport associated with crystalline nappe emplacement of the Reading Prong within the Piedmont province.

  18. Deciphepring the grain-size trends through time: case study of the quaternary Urumqi alluvial in the Chinese Tian Shan piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, Laure; Barrier, Laurie; Gayer, Eric; Narteau, Clément; Youcun, Liu; Lajeunesse, Eric; Meunier, Patrick; Van der Woerd, Jerôme; Murray, Andrew; Métivier, François

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the controls on the size of the sediments observed in sedimentary basins is a key challenge in sedimentology, as it influences strongly the physical processes of transport and deposition, and thus the characteristics of basin filings. In addition, the size of the sediments is related to the conditions prevailing in the area where they have been produced, and we should theoretically be able to read the tectonic and climatic conditions that prevailed at the time of deposition from the granulometric evolution of the sediments coming from a given area. If large changes in the granulometry of the sediments are often associated to climatic or tectonic perturbations, the influence of autogenic processes, and in particular of autogenic incisions of alluvial deposits, should also be considered. To bring insight into this question, we sampled the grain size along a well-exposed, vertical section of an alluvial fan mainly made up of gravels, and located in the semi-arid northern piedmont of the Tian Shan in China. Alluvial fans are well designed to explore such questions, as they are located at the outlet of drainage basins and constitute therefore the first record of the sediments exported out of the relief. Datations based on cosmogenic and OSL analyses provide a good temporal framework, and allow the comparison with the documented climatic or tectonic events that have affected the area. Based on these data, we discuss the possible relationships between the observed evolution in grain size for the last 300 000 years and the known history of the studied fluvial system. We propose that the granulometric signal is related initially to the growth of the alluvial fan, and then, to its incision due to the last glacial-interglacial climatic change. However, autogenic events might also have been recorded and in particular, a recent and short-lived increase of the average grain size could be related to the rapid incision of the river, which could have enhanced the

  19. Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

    2004-12-01

    A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations

  20. Statistical characteristics of mudflows in the piedmont areas of Uzbekistan and the role of the synoptic processes for the formation of mudflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadjanova, Gavkhar; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Mudflows are formed almost every year in the territory of Uzbekistan and neighbouring countries. They represent a major threat to human life and settlements and can significantly damage infrastructure. In general, in addition to elevated soil moisture conditions, severe local rainfall events (e.g., 15 mm of precipitation in 12 hours) and associated air temperature conditions are understood to be the main factors in the formation of mudflows in the piedmont areas of Uzbekistan. The main purpose of this study is to understand factors on local and synoptic to hemispheric scales, which cause mudflow variability on interannual and longer time scales. To fulfil this objective, in a first step historical data of mudflow occurrences (mainly March to August) in Uzbekistan provided by the Centre of Hydro-meteorological Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzhydromet) for more than 140 years are statistically analysed. During the investigation period a total of around 3000 mudflow events were observed with about 21 events per year on average and a maximum of 168 mudflows in 1930. To understand principle factors steering the variability of mudflow occurrences, synoptic scale circulation weather types (CWT) over Central Asia and Uzbekistan are investigated. The majority of mudflows (22%) occur during the advection of westerly airflow when moist air from Central and Southern Europe reaches Uzbekistan. This objectively classified synoptic situation can be related to one of the 15 primary synoptic circulation types over the Central Asia and Uzbekistan which were subjectively derived by Bugayev and Giorgio in 1930-40s (Bugayev et al., 1957), thus confirming the validity of this approach. By means of the CWT approach, we further analyse that on mudflow-days the frequencies of cyclonic, westerly, south-westerly and north-westerly stream flows are increased in comparison to the climatological frequency of occurrence of these circulation weather types. Details of the necessary and

  1. Development and evaluation of clear-water pier and contraction scour envelope curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-scour depths collected in both provinces ranged from 0 to 8.0 feet. Contraction-scour depths collected in the Coastal Plain ranged from 0 to 3.9 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted clear-water scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted clear-water scour depths, in general, exceeded measured scour depths and at times were excessive. Predicted clear-water contraction scour, however, was underpredicted approximately 30 percent of the time by as much as 7.1 feet. The investigation focused on clear-water pier scour, comparing trends in the laboratory and field data. This comparison indicated that the range of dimensionless variables (relative depth, flow intensity, relative grain size) used in laboratory investigations of pier scour, were similar to the range for field data in South Carolina, further indicating that laboratory relations may have some applicability to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing pier scour in laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence on the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were pier width and approach velocity. Envelope curves developed from the field data are useful tools for evaluating reasonable ranges of clear-water pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. A modified version of the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 pier-scour equation also was developed as a tool for evaluating clearwater pier

  2. The Accotink Schist, Lake Barcroft Metasandstone, and Popes Head Formation; keys to an understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Virginia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Avery Ala; Lyttle, Peter T.

    1981-01-01

    The newly named Accotink Schist and Lake Barcroft Metasandstone of the Eastern Fairfax sequence are the structurally lowest metamorphic rocks in the northernmost Piedmont of Virginia. The Accotink consists of beds of pelitic schist that have thin basal intervals containing graded, very fine grained metasiltstone, as well as interbeds of metasandstone like that in the overlying Lake Barcroft Metasandstone. The unit is characterized by the Bouma turbidite sequences Te and Tde and can be assigned to turbidite facies D and E. The thickness of the Accotink is not known because its base is not exposed. The Accotink Schist grades up into the Lake Barcroft Metasandstone, which consists of two types of metasandstone. Type I metaarenite is quartzofeldspathic granofels which forms thick sequences of amalgamated beds that can best be described as belonging to the Bouma turbidite sequence Ta and to turbidite facies B 2 . Type II metagraywacke of the Lake Barcroft Metasandstone consists of micaceous metagraywacke in thin to medium beds, which can be described as belonging to the Buoma turbidite sequences Tabe and (or) Tae and to turbidite facies C. The Lake Barcroft Metasandstone appears to be about 400 m thick. It and the Accotink Schist are thought to represent a coarsening-upward sequence of an outer submarine-fan association of rocks. The Eastern Fairfax sequence is overlain by the Sykesville Formation. We believe that this contact is a movement surface upon which the Sykesville was emplaced by subaqueous sliding. The Sykesville contains isoclinally folded fragments, thought to be rip-ups, of Accotink and Lake Barcroft rocks. The Eastern Fairfax sequence is intruded by rocks of the Occoquan Granite batholith, which contains pendants of isoclinally folded schist and metagraywacke. Mter intrusion, the metasedimentary and plutonic rocks were folded together. Gamet and chlorite porphyroblasts within the Eastern Fairfax sequence appear to be related to the emplacement of the

  3. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  4. Contributions of Phosphorus from Groundwater to Streams in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces, Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Judith M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Ator, Scott W.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus from natural and human sources is likely to be discharged from groundwater to streams in certain geochemical environments. Water-quality data collected from 1991 through 2007 in paired networks of groundwater and streams in different hydrogeologic and land-use settings of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Physiographic Provinces in the eastern United States were compiled and analyzed to evaluate the sources, fate, and transport of phosphorus. The median concentrations of phosphate in groundwater from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.017 and 0.020 milligrams per liter, respectively) generally were greater than the median for the carbonate setting (less than 0.01 milligrams per liter). In contrast, the median concentrations of dissolved phosphate in stream base flow from the crystalline and siliciclastic bedrock settings (0.010 and 0.014 milligrams per liter, respectively) were less than the median concentration for base-flow samples from the carbonate setting (0.020 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of phosphorus in many of the stream base-flow and groundwater samples exceeded ecological criteria for streams in the region. Mineral dissolution was identified as the dominant source of phosphorus in the groundwater and stream base flow draining crystalline or siliciclastic bedrock in the study area. Low concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in groundwater from carbonate bedrock result from the precipitation of minerals and (or) from sorption to mineral surfaces along groundwater flow paths. Phosphorus concentrations are commonly elevated in stream base flow in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock, however, presumably derived from in-stream sources or from upland anthropogenic sources and transported along short, shallow groundwater flow paths. Dissolved phosphate concentrations in groundwater were correlated positively with concentrations of silica and sodium, and negatively with alkalinity and concentrations of calcium

  5. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2009-01-01

    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  6. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  7. Patterns of practice in the radiation therapy management of rectal cancer: survey of the Interregional Group Piedmont, Valle d'Aosta and Liguria of the "Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica (AIRO)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genesio Pagliuca, Milena; Turri, Lucia; Munoz, Fernando; Melano, Antonella; Bacigalupo, Almalina; Franzone, Paola; Sciacero, Piera; Tseroni, Vassiliki; Vitali, Maria Laura; Delmastro, Elena; Scolaro, Tindaro; Marziano, Corrado; Orsatti, Marco; Tessa, Maria; Rossi, Annalisa; Ballare, Andrea; Moro, Gregorio; Grasso, Rachele; Krengli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    To report the survey about the main aspects on the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of rectal cancer in Piedmont and Liguria. Sixteen centers (11 from Piedmont and 5 from Liguria) received and answered by email a questionnaire data base about clinical and technical aspects of the treatment of rectal cancer. All data were incorporated in a single data base and analyzed. Data regarding 593 patients who received radiotherapy for rectal cancer during the year 2009 were collected and analyzed. Staging consisted in colonoscopy, thoracic and abdominal CT, pelvic MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PET/CT was employed to complete staging and in the treatment planning in 12/16 centers (75%). Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was employed more frequently than adjuvant radiotherapy (50% vs 36.4%), using typically a total dose of 45 Gy with 1.8 Gy/fraction. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine was mainly employed in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, whereas oxaliplatin alone or in combination with 5-FU or capecitabine and leucovorin was commonly employed as the adjuvant agent. The median interval from neoadjuvant treatment to surgery was 7 weeks after long-course radiotherapy and 8 days after short-course radiotherapy. The pelvic total dose of 45 Gy in the adjuvant setting was the same in all the centers. Doses higher than 45 Gy were employed with a radical intent or in case of positive surgical margins. Hypofractionated regimens (2.5, 3 Gy to a total dose of 35-30 Gy) were used in the palliative setting. No relevant differences were observed in target volume definition and patient setup. Twenty-six patients (4.4%) developed grade 3 acute toxicity. Follow-up was scheduled in a similar way in all the centers. No relevant differences were found among the centers involved in the survey. The approach can help clinicians to address important clinical questions and to improve consistency and homogeneity of treatments.

  8. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  9. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  10. Procesos de piping en el piedemonte distal de la Precordillera Oriental, provincia de San Juan: factores y relieve Piping processes in the eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera, San Juan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Suvires

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available En la región, ubicada al norte del río San Juan, 31°30'S y 68°30'O, parte distal del piedemonte oriental de la Precordillera Oriental, sector La Laja - El Salado, se encontró la presencia de piping en sedimentos y sedimentitas finas rosadas pertenecientes a secuencias neógenas. Se investigan los condicionantes y factores que favorecieron su génesis. Se interpreta, que este proceso es la causa principal de la formación del relieve erosivo con desplomes, hundimientos, caída de rocas en ladera y de la erosión retrocedente existente en las cabeceras y base de los barrancos. Se analizan los distintos factores ambientales: climáticos, litológicos y estructurales de la región. Entre los condicionantes favorables resultan: la presencia de sedimentos y afloramientos de argilitas con muy altos contenidos en sodio, en un clima árido-seco con amplia variación estacional de precipitaciones. Además, la actividad neotectónica presente en ese sitio coadyuva mediante la emergencia de agua subterránea con alta mineralización a contaminar los afloramientos de argilitas. El piping resulta ser entonces, en esta región árida y con actividad neotectónica, un peligro subsuperficial para tener en cuenta en la planificación territorial.Piping process in fine-grained, pink coloured Neogene sediments and sedimentary rocks were studied in the La Laja-El Salado area, northern Río San Juan, in the distal and eastern piedmont of the Eastern Precordillera. Conditions favourable to the genesis of piping were investigated through aerial photo interpretation and fieldwork, and it was concluded that the factors controlling its occurrence are lithology, climate, structure and landscape. The piping in the study area took place mainly in fine clayey materials, with very high values of sodium, and in a dry and arid climatic environment. Neotectonic activity is particularly important for evaluation of the piping processes: some erosional geomorphological features

  11. Ciriottiite, Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56, the Cu-Analogue of Sterryite from the Tavagnasco Mining District, Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The new mineral species ciriottiite, ideally Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56 has been discovered in the Tavagnasco mining district, Piedmont, Italy, as very rare black metallic tubular crystals, up to 150 μm in length, associated with Bi sulfosalts and arsenopyrite. Its Vickers hardness (VHN10 is 203 kg/mm2 (range 190–219. In reflected light, ciriottiite is light grey in color, distinctly anisotropic with brownish to greenish rotation tints. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (% (λ in nm are: 33.2, 37.8 (471.1; 31.8, 35.3 (548.3, 31.0, 34.7 (586.6; and 27.9, 32.5 (652.3. Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses: Cu 2.33 (8, Ag 0.53 (5, Hg 0.98 (6, Tl 0.78 (3, Pb 44.06 (14, As 4.66 (7, Sb 23.90 (10, Bi 1.75 (7, total 99.38 (26. On the basis of 56 S atoms per formula unit, the chemical formula of ciriottiite is Cu3.23(11Ag0.43(4Hg0.43(2Pb18.74(9Tl0.34(1Sb17.30(5As5.48(10Bi0.74(3S56. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity: 4.09 (m, 3.91 (m, 3.63 (vs, 3.57 (m, 3.22 (m, 2.80 (mw, 2.07 (s. The crystal structure study revealed ciriottiite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 8.178 (2, b = 28.223 (6, c = 42.452 (5 Å, β = 93.55 (2°, V = 9779.5 (5 Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.118 for 21304 observed reflections. Ciriottiite is the Cu analogue of sterryite and can be described as an expanded derivative of owyheeite. The name ciriottiite honors Marco Ernesto Ciriotti (b. 1945 for his longstanding contribution to mineral systematics.

  12. Hydrogeologic setting, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at the Lake Wheeler Road research station, 2001-03 : North Carolina Piedmont and Mountains Resource Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Bolich, Richard E.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a 2-year field study of the regolith-fractured bedrock ground-water system at the Lake Wheeler Road research station in Wake County, North Carolina, indicate both disconnection and interaction among components of the ground-water system. The three components of the ground-water system include (1) shallow, porous regolith; (2) a transition zone, including partially weathered rock, having both secondary (fractures) and primary porosity; and (3) deeper, fractured bedrock that has little, if any, primary porosity and is dominated by secondary fractures. The research station includes 15 wells (including a well transect from topographic high to low settings) completed in the three major components of the ground-water-flow system and a surface-water gaging station on an unnamed tributary. The Lake Wheeler Road research station is considered representative of a felsic gneiss hydrogeologic unit having steeply dipping foliation and a relatively thick overlying regolith. Bedrock foliation generally strikes N. 10? E. to N. 30? E. and N. 20? W. to N. 40? W. to a depth of about 400 feet and dips between 70? and 80? SE. and NE., respectively. From 400 to 600 feet, the foliation generally strikes N. 70? E. to N. 80? E., dipping 70? to 80? SE. Depth to bedrock locally ranges from about 67 to 77 feet below land surface. Fractures in the bedrock generally occur in two primary sets: low dip angle, stress relief fractures that cross cut foliation, and steeply dipping fractures parallel to foliation. Findings of this study generally support the conceptual models of ground-water flow from high to low topographic settings developed for the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces in previous investigations, but are considered a refinement of the generalized conceptual model based on a detailed local-scale investigation. Ground water flows toward a surface-water boundary, and hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas; however, local

  13. Rockmagnetic correlation between Holocene cave sediments at the mountain and loess soil deposits in Piedmont Crimea (on example of the trap cave Emine-Bair-Khosar and archaeological site Biyuk-Karasu-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia BONDAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern soils and paleosols, loess and uncemented aeolian caves sediments are carriers of a paleoclimatic signal (Evans, Heller, 2003. The saturation degree of a layer with humus material, depending on the temperature, correlates well with magnetic susceptibility and different types of magnetization of deposits (Tang et al., 2003, Bosak&Pruner, 2011.On the base of rockmagnetic measurements of soil-containing samples, collected from sections at Biyuk-Karasu-XIX (Piedmont Crimea and Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave (lower plateau of Chatyrdag mountain massive in Crimea (Ridush et al., 2013, correlation of sediments done in the context of common climate changes in the region during Holocene.The process of sediments accumulation in the sections covers roughly the same period. The loess soil section Biyuk-Karasu-XIX contains findings of hand shaped pottery and flintstones. The section structure has characteristic features of Holocene soil formation for which received a definite chronological anchor. The section of cave deposits in the Emine-Bair-Khosar Cave was dated by radiocarbon and paleomagnetic methods (Ridush et al., 2013. For saiga bone from the depth of 2.0 m radiocarbon (14C date 10,490 +/- 170 (Ki-13063 obtained. At -1.1 m deep the paleomagnetic excursion, dated 2.8 kyr BP, was recorded (Bondar, Ridush, 2010.Sediments of both sections are horizontally-layered. They contain darker units, which color is controlled by organic material, and lighter units of loess-like loam.Section Biyuk-Karasu-XIX consists of the following lithofacial units: 1, 2 - hlb2 – meadow alkaline chernozem, where unit 1 - horizon Hegl, unit 2 - horizon Hp, Pikgl, Pkgl; 3, 4 - hlb1 - the soil has features of grey or sod-calcareous soil forming, unit 3 combines horizons He and Eh, unit 4 – illuvial horizons Ihp and Pigl; 5 - pc-bg? - silty-sandy light loam. Lithofacial units are named according to “Stratigraphic scheme of Quaternary deposits of Ukraine” (Veklich et al

  14. 库鲁克塔格南部山前带中-新生代构造演化史--来自磷灰石裂变径迹的证据%Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution History in the Southern Piedmont Zone of Kuruktag---the Evidence Taken from Apatite Fission Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阵; 张洪美; 何金有; 何登发; 温佳霖; 马渭; 王永飞

    2016-01-01

    Based on analysis of apatite fission track data and thermal history modeling, and combined with field geological survey, the Meso—Cenozoic tectonic evolution history in the southern piedmont zone of Kuruktag has been studied. Results showed that the formation had the characteristics of keeping the Kelatong attitude from Kuruktag uplift to the southern pied-mont direction. The age of apatite in the southern piedmont zone of Kuruktag recorded the two tectonic cooling events in 182Ma and 167—142 Ma, and the simulation of fission track thermal history indicated that Hercynian tectonic uplifted, Early—Middle Jurassic formation descended, Late Jurassic—Early Cretaceous tectonic uplifted, and Late Cenozoic tectonic uplifted, etc. Comprehensive study showed that the southern piedmont zone had been affected commonly by the early tec-tonic uplift that created in Hercynian and Yanshan movement, the Himalaya movement mainly caused the strong thrust at the upper part of fault. From the viewpoint of deposition, the deposition center of early—middle Jurassic is located in the ancient position of Queerqueke mountain.%通过对磷灰石裂变径迹数据的分析和热史模拟,结合野外地质调查,研究了库鲁克塔格南部山前带中—新生代构造演化史。结果显示,从库鲁克塔格隆起到南部山前带方向,地层具有稳定克拉通地层产状的特征。库鲁克塔格南部山前带磷灰石年龄记录了182Ma和167—142Ma两期构造冷却事件,裂变径迹热史模拟反映出海西期构造抬升、早—中侏罗世埋藏沉降、晚侏罗世—白垩纪初构造抬升和新生代晚期构造抬升等演化阶段。综合研究表明,南部山前带普遍受到海西期和燕山运动早期构造抬升的影响,喜马拉雅运动主要造成了研究区断裂上盘的强烈逆冲推覆;早—中侏罗世埋藏沉降阶段,从沉积角度看,沉积中心位于却尔却克山所在的古位置。

  15. Effect of conservation tillage on soil quality in the piedmont plain of Mount Taihang%保护性耕作对太行山前平原土壤质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜章留; 高伟达; 陈素英; 胡春胜; 任图生

    2011-01-01

    corn residue (CT), rotary tillage with corn residue (RT), and no tillage with com residue (NT). In 2007, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content, bulk density (pb), water stable aggregate, water retention curve, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (ks) and soil microbial biomass C and N were measured after winter wheat harvesting. Soil samples were also collected in 2008 and analyzed for SOC, pb, and earthworm count. The results indicated no significant (P > 0.05) differences in stored SOC among the treatments. However, conservation tillage showed SOC stratification in the soil profile. This was indicated by higher SOC stratification ratios (SR) of 1.74-2.04 for RT and NT, and 1.37-1.45 for CK and CT. Earthworm abundance and microbial biomass C and N also increased under RT and NT treatments. Application of NT significantly (P 500 um) and transmission pores (500~50 um), NT treatment increased storage pores (50-0.5 um) in the 0~5 cm soil layer. Tillage management increased soil Ks, field water capacity and plant available water content. The S index suggested that shift from conventional tillage to conservation tillage improved soil quality in the piedmont region of Mount Taihang.

  16. PALEOEARTHQUAKE EVENTS AND FORMATION OF RIVER TERRACES IN ACTIVE ANTICLINE REGION,NORTHERN PIEDMONT OF TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS, CHINA%天山北麓活动背斜区河流阶地与古地震事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓平; 李安; 黄伟亮; 张玲

    2011-01-01

    Using the aerial remote sensing photos and Google earth satellite images,we find seven terraces at the both sides along the Kuytun River in Dushanzi active anticline area, northern piedmont of Tians-han. Based on the field investigation, we find that all these terraces are pedestal terraces. The rock of pedestal is Pliocene mud rock, and on the top of each terrace pedestal are the stratums of sandy gravel or sandy clay with 2. 5 ~ 15m in thickness. We collected samples from deposits of all terraces for OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) geological dating using the SMAR( single-multiple-aliquot-regeneration) method on fine grains. We also performed dating using the C method to the samples from the deposit of terrace T, of the Kuytun River. The results show that the ages of all these deposits are the later phase of the Late Pleistocene. The accumulation time of the upper stratum for T, , T2, T3 , T5 , T6and T7 terraces is about 1. 7ka, 14. 98ka,20. 7 ~ 27. 3ka,29. 3 ~ 39. 2ka,47 ~ 56ka and 103 ~ 118ka,respectively. Combining with late Quaternary climate change,we believe that the formation age forT1 ~T7 terraces of Kuytun River are 1. 7ka, 14ka,20ka,25ka, 30ka,50ka and lOOkaBP. Paleo-earthquake data reveal that eight paleoearthquake events occurred on the Dushanzi-Anjihai reverse fault since about 25ka BP, respectively at 2ka, 3. 4ka, 4. 3ka, 5. 8ka, 7. 5ka, 12. 8ka, 18ka and 24ka BP. Comparing the ages of paleoearthquakes and terraces,we find that the ages of the latest,the sixth, the seventh and the eighth paleoearthquake are roughly corresponding to the formation times of T1 , T2 ,T3and T4 terraces,respectively. The other four paleoearthquake events occurred during the period after the formation of T2and before the formation of T,. In this time,no terraces developed along the Kuytun River, but the Kuytun River incised rapidly for 40m. We believe that the paleoearthquake e-vents resulted in the fast uplift of Dushanzi active anticline on the hanging wall of

  17. Sedimentación pedemontana en las nacientes delRío Jáchal y Pampa de Gualilán, Precordillera de San Juan Piedmont sedimentation in the headwaters of theRío Jachal and Pampa de Gualilán, Precordillera of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Suriano

    2009-11-01

    dominantemente local presentan mayor variabilidad litológica que losambientes antes mencionados. El análisis comparativo de los piedemontesencontrados en los distintos valles analizados, permite proponer un modeloconceptual de clasificación de piedemontes en cuencas intramontanas basado enextensión de las cuencas y en el espacio vertical de acomodación desedimentos.This paper deals with the sedimentological characteristics ofpiedmont deposits exposed in intramontane basins of the Precordillera. Detailedstudies carried out along the upper Jáchal river and in the Gualilán areaallowed identifying and characterizing six major types of piedmontaccumulations: 1 talus, 2 colluvial fans dominated by gravity flows, 3colluvial fans dominated by fluid flows, 4 collector-conoid fluvial system, 5piedmonts dominated by channalized flows and 6 alluvial fans. The talusdeposits are characterized by the dominance of clast-supported breccias(bearing minimum matrix amounts that commonly exhibit massive bedding, planaror high angle imbricated clasts fabric. Colluvial fans dominated by gravityflows are formed by massive matrix-supported breccias with minor percentages ofclast-supported breccias. On the contrary, colluvial fans dominated by fluidflows are composed of amalgamated channels infilled by both clast- andmatrix-supported breccias together with intercalation of graded breccias.Accumulations of the collector-conoid fluvial systems are the most diverse incomposition, including from massive matrix-supported breccias to cross-beddedconglomerates and scarce mudstones. In relation to the piedmont dominated bychannalized flows, they comprise massive clast-supported breccias and lessamounts of imbricated or cross-bedded ones. The alluvial fan deposits aremostly composed of cross-bedded clast-supported conglomerates, thoughmatrix-supported conglomerates and breccias also appear as proximal deposits.Different from the previously mentioned deposits, the clast of alluvial fanaccumulations shows

  18. 西昆仑山前和田-柯克亚挤压构造带新生代变形时序及其地质意义%Cenozoic Deformation Sequence of Hetian-Kekeya Structural Belt in the Piedmont of West Kunlun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瀚; 汪新; 陈伟; 王宇

    2014-01-01

    The uplift of the West Kunlun Mountains led to the development of the Cenozoic fold and thrust belt in eastern section of the piedmont of West Kunlun ranges. This paper focuses on the growth strata and sedimentary pattern of the fold and thrust belt to constrain the uplift time of the West Kunlun Mountains. There are three set of growth strata along the Keliyang-Fusha structural belt in the piedmont of West Kunlun Mountains. The first set of growth strata which deposited in the front limb of Kedong structure started at Middle Miocene, the second one deposited in the back limb of Kekeya anticline since Early Pliocene, and the third one deposited in the front limb of Kekeya anticline in Late Pliocene. It is evident that the Kekeya anticline began tectonic deformation since Pliocene, and the second growth strata were related to this anticline. It displayed“anti-fanning”shape, which is characterized by the break-forward sequence. On the other hand, geological age of growth strata in the Hetian’nan anticline (south Hetian anticline) is the Middle Miocene. Therefore, the Hetian-Kekeya structural belt began deformation since Middle Miocene too. Combined with the wedge shape sediment of the Cenozoic fold and thrust belt in eastern section of the piedmont of West Kunlun, we infer that the Western Kunlun Mountains uplift from Miocene, while the intensive uplift stage of Western Kunlun Mountains began at Pliocene.%受西昆仑山抬升挤压的影响,西昆仑山前东段发育褶皱冲断带,最新反射地震资料显示该地区发育了多套新生代的生长地层。本文利用这些生长地层数据分析了和田-柯克亚挤压构造带的变形时序,并且结合新生界的沉积形态探讨了西昆仑山的挤压隆升时间。研究结果表明,西昆仑山前和田-柯克亚挤压构造带西段的克里阳-甫沙构造发育三期前列式的生长地层:第一期在甫东构造东端始于中新世中期安居安期;第二期从上新世

  19. Study on Surrounding Rock Classification of Railway Tunnel with HiPParion Laterite Stratum in West Piedmont of Lvliang Mountain%吕梁山西麓三趾马红土铁路隧道围岩分级研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭乐; 蔡云廷; 王家鼎

    2014-01-01

    The Hipparion laterite stratum in west piedmont of Lvliang Mountain is characterized by thick deposition, good continuity and lots of type sections, and has always been the research hotspot of Hipparion laterite. But, the study on its engineering geology features and geo-mechanics properties still remains very weak. So, surrounding rock classification in Hipparion laterite stratum is a new geological question faced by tunnel construction of Lvliang section of Middle and Southern Shanxi Railway project. Based on on-site monitoring, laboratory test and practical experience, this study researched the physical and mechanical indexes and strength property of Hipparion laterite, and analyzed relevant effects on Hipparion-laterite surrounding rock stability, including the underground water effect, fissuring effect, sandy soil interlayer effect, and the coupling effect of various factors. Finally, this study quantitatively discussed how to class the Hipparion-laterite surrounding rocks respectively under the conditions of homogeneity and multiple factors.%吕梁山西麓地区三趾马红土地层沉积厚度大、连续性好、典型剖面多,历来为三趾马红土研究的热点地区,但有关其工程地质特征及岩土力学性质方面的研究非常薄弱。三趾马红土围岩分级是山西中南部铁路通道工程吕梁段隧道建设面临的一项工程地质新问题。通过现场监测、室内试验研究及工程实践经验,研究三趾马红土的物理力学指标及强度特性,对影响三趾马红土围岩稳定性的地下水作用、裂隙作用、砂土夹层作用及各因素耦合作用进行分析,最后对三趾马红土在均质和多因素条件下围岩分级进行定量化探讨。

  20. 太行山前平原区小麦玉米农艺节水技术集成模式综合评价%A comprehensive evaluation of wheat/maize agronomic water-saving modes in the piedmont plain region of the Mount Taihang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓敏; 张喜英; 王慧军

    2011-01-01

    太行山前平原区小麦玉米农艺节水是解决当地水资源危机和地下水严重超采的重要途径.在前期以华北山前平原高产区作为重点研究区形成的种植节水品种、秸秆覆盖、调亏灌溉、生育期优化及株行距优化等小麦玉米农艺节水技术的基础上,集成了常规模式(底墒水+拔节水+开花水)、综合节水模式(拔节水+开花水)、模式A(拔节水)和模式B(底墒水)等4种小麦玉米农艺节水模式.本研究利用熵权综合评价法对4种节水模式从生产效益、社会经济效益和生态效益方面进行技术经济评价.结果表明:小麦玉米4种节水模式的得分排序为综合节水模式>模式A>模式B>对照(常规模式),因此小麦玉米综合节水模式综合效益最优.从4种节水模式的投入产出看,综合节水模式肥料投入最低,投入产出比、纯收益、水分利用效率和水分经济利用效率最高.小麦玉米节水是未来发展的方向,应该进一步提高农户农业节水意识,利用多种手段,促进农户采用小麦玉米节水技术优化模式.%Saving water in wheat/maize cultivation is critical not only for preventing over-exploitation of groundwater, but also averting devastating water crisis in the piedmont plain of the Mount Taihang. At the studied area, former researchers had established a series of wheat/maize agronomic water-saving techniques, such as water-saving cultivars introduction, wheat/maize straw mulching, regulated deficit irrigation, optimization of growing stage and plant spacing. Four integrated wheat/maize agronomic water-saving modes were established based on these existing techniques. They were conventional mode (with 3 irrigations before sowing, and at jointing and flowering stages of wheat and maize), integrated water-saving mode (with 2 irrigations at jointing and flowering stages of wheat and maize), mode A (with 1 irrigation at jointing stage of wheat and maize) and mode B

  1. The Road Inventory of Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine the relative needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) was asked to inventory all public access and...

  2. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  3. TRACE GAS CONCENTRATIONS IN SMALL STREAMS OF THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen headwater watersheds within the SFBR watershed ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 km2 were selected. We have been monitoring concentrations of the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide, and other parameters (T, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, flow r...

  4. First admissions for psychoses in Eastern Piedmont-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Zeppegno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: 1 To identify the sociodemographic, anamnestic characteristics and presentation symptoms of patients, at the time of first hospitalization, associated with a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenic versus non-schizophrenic psychoses; 2 to define risk factors, at the time of the first admission, for a rehospitalization, regardless of reasons for readmission; 3 to assess the diagnostic stability between first and second hospitalization. Methods: This study includes 245 patients first admitted to the University Psychiatric Clinic of Novara in a period of seven years, discharged with a diagnosis of psychosis as reported in the Discharge Register (ICD-9-CM codes 290-299. Data were collected by consulting medical records and registers of community-based services of the South Novara Mental Health Department. A logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics associated with a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia. The relationship between the risk of rehospitalization and patients characteristics was studied using Cox,s regression analysis. Results: Risk factors for a discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia were age, compulsory admission, positive symptoms, and previous non-psychotic psychiatric episodes. Risk factors for rehospitalization were a diagnosis of schizophrenia, an age of less than 40 years, the absence of a stable affective relationship, and living with the family of origin. The 92% of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic on the first hospitalization had the same diagnosis on readmission. Conclusions: Schizophrenia differs from other psychoses in terms of the greater prevalence of both some symptomatological characteristics and an history of previous non psychotic episodes. Some sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at the time of the first hospitalization can provide indications useful in preventing rehospitalization.

  5. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  6. Genealogical Relationships between Early Medieval and Modern Inhabitants of Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Baricco, Luisella Pejrani; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration. PMID:25635682

  7. Analysis on change tendency of relative moisture index in northern piedmont of middle Tianshan mountain over recent 30 years%中天山北坡近30年相对湿润指数变化趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兴; 万瑜; 崔玉玲; 蔡新婷; 官恒瑞; 普宗朝

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly temperature and precipitation data at northern piedmont of middle Tianshan mountain from 1981-2010,relative moisture index was determined through calculating potential evaporation by using Thornthwaite method.Abrupt change pattern and cycle of relative moisture index was analyzed using Mann-Kendall and Morlet wavelet method.The results showed the precipitation was increased spirally,its spatial distribution is uneven,and temperature showed significant increasing tendency.Under context of global warming,potential evapotranspiration showed spiral ascending trend with significant different spatial distribution (P < 0.01).The potential evapotranspiration change pattern is same in different areas,basically they alternated in same orientation,increasing or decreasing in parallel.Relative moisture index decreased with negative trend from south to north,in range of-0.88 ~ 1.10.After entering 21st century,it showed an obvious climatic aridification tendency and autumn has fastest aridification rate.However it did not show significant abrupt change time zone.Different areas showed discrepancy in oscillatory cycle.3 ~ 6 years had better consistency in oscillatory cycle.At same time,7 ~ 8 years showed obvious low-frequency oscillatory cycle.%利用中天山北坡乌昌地区1981-2010年的逐月降水、气温资料,通过Thornthwaite方法计算潜在蒸数量确定气候相对湿润指数,并分析其时空变化特征;同时应用小波分析及Mann-Kendall法,对相对湿润指数进行突变和周期分析,结果表明:降水量呈波动的增加过程,空间分布不均,气温增暖趋势明显;在气候变暖的背景下,潜在蒸散量呈波动上升趋势,空间上分布差异显著(P<0.01),各区变化趋势较一致,基本上保持同增同减的过程;相对湿润指数在-0.88 ~ 1.10间,由南至北递减,在时间序列上均呈弱的负趋势.进入21世纪,气候干旱化态势显著,秋季气候干旱化速率快于其它季

  8. PRODUCCIÓN DE FORRAJE EN LOS PASTOS Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO Y Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO, SOMETIDOS A TRES FRECUENCIAS Y A DOS INTENSIDADES DE DEFOLIACIÓN EN CONDICIONES DEL PIEDEMONTE LLANERO COLOMBIANO FORAGE PRODUCTION IN THE GRASSES Brachiaria decumbens cv. AMARGO AND Brachiaria brizantha cv. TOLEDO SUBJECTED TO THREE FREQUENCIES AND TWO OF DEFOLIATION INTENSITIES UNDER CONDITIONS OF COLOMBIAN PLAIN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rincon Castillo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló en un oxisol del Piedemonte Llanero colombiano. Durante el primer año de establecimiento y con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar en arreglo de parcelas subdivididas, se evaluaron los pastos B. decumbens cv. Amargo y B. brizantha cv. Toledo, bajo tres frecuencias de defoliación (14, 28 y 42 días y dos intensidades de defoliación (alta y baja. El área foliar y la biomasa disponible total no presentaron diferencias significativas en los dos pastos, obteniéndose a un promedio de 2,5 y 2.036 kg MS×ha-1 respectivamente. La biomasa residual total fue superior en el pasto Toledo porque con 3.284 kg MS×ha-1, superó ampliamente al pasto Amargo cuya acumulación de biomasa residual fue de 1.944 kg MS×ha-1. La intensidad de defoliación baja, favoreció la producción de forraje disponible y residual de los pastos evaluados. Se presentó una disponibilidad de 2.056 kg MS×ha-1 en la intensidad baja y 1.760 kg MS× ha-1 en la intensidad alta. El forraje residual compuesto en su mayoría por tallos fue de 2.860 kg MS × ha-1 en la intensidad baja y de 2.216 kg MS×ha-1 en la intensidad alta. Cuando la defoliación se realizó a los 14 días, los pastos presentaron buen contenido de proteína (12,9% pero la disponibilidad de biomasa fue baja ( 714 kg MS×ha-1, en tanto, a los 42 días se alcanzó a 2.760 kg MS×ha-1 con una proteína de 9,8%. Los nutrientes de reserva en los dos pastos en su mayoría estuvieron conformados por azucares solubles, los cuales se acumularon en más cantidad en los tallos y el contenido más elevado se encontró a los 28 días de rebrote.In an oxisol of colombian plain piedmont was made the experiment. During the first year of establishment and with an experimental design of complete blocks at random in split-plot arrangement, the grasses B. decumbens cv. Amargo and B. brizantha cv. Toledo were evaluated under three defoliation frequencies (14, 28 and 42 days and two

  9. Characteristics of Non2uniformity and Vulnerability of Aquifers to Dewatering of Bedrock Fissure Water in the Hilly Area of the Taihang Mountains Piedmont%太行山前丘陵区基岩裂隙水赋存的非均一性和易疏干性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光辉; 严明疆; 刘春华; 冯慧敏; 王金哲

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the issues of sustainable utilization of groundw ater in the hil y area of the Taihang mountains piedmont, the characteristics of non2uniformity and vulnerability of the aquifers to dew atering in the area w ere investigated based on the quan2 titative comparison analysis of the pumping and recovery test data from the deep bedrock fissure groundwat er w ells. The re2 search results showed t hat the spatial non2uniformity exists not only in the groundwater storage betw een different w ells, but al2 so in different dept hs of t he same well. For the pumping t ime less than 70 minutes, t he drawdow n of groundwater level in the well ZKs23 was larger than that in t he well Zks22. However, after 70 minutes of pumping, the draw down of groundw ater level in the w el ZKs22 w as larger than that in the w ell ZKs23, and the drawdow n difference betw een t he tw o w el s increased gradually wit h the increasing pumping time. These results indicated that the upper aquifer of w el ZKs22 has more w ater than the low er aquifer of well ZKs22, while the upper aquifer of w ell ZKs23 has less w ater than the lower aquifer of w el ZKs23. T he aquifer systems in different w el s had different vulnerability of groundwater to dewatering. With the increasing of pumping time, the maximum draw down and the time for recovery of groundwater level in the w ell ZKs22 increased, but the groundw ater level can be ful y restored to the initial level. H ow ever, the groundw ater level cannot recover to the initial level in the w el ZKs23, and the difference between the recovered groundw ater level and initial level increased as well, but the recovery t ime of groundwater level to a stable level w ere similar for different pumping t ests. Therefore, the reasonable design and layout of w el s is important to prevent the aquifers to dewatering in t he hilly area.%  针对太行山东簏丘陵区地下水能否可持续开发利用问题,基于探采结合的大量深井抽水及

  10. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  11. Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont U.S. IV. Soil Surface Nitrogen Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of nitrogen (N applied in forage-based agricultural systems is important for understanding the long-term production and environmental impacts of a particular management strategy. We evaluated the factorial combination of three types of N fertilization (inorganic, crimson clover [Trifolium incarnatum L.] cover crop plus inorganic, and chicken [Gallus gallus] broiler litter pressure and four types of harvest strategy (unharvested forage, low and high cattle [Bos Taurus] grazing pressure, and monthly haying in summer on surface residue and soil N pools during the first 5 years of ̒Coastal̓ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers. management. The type of N fertilization used resulted in small changes in soil N pools, except at a depth of 0 to 2 cm, where total soil N was sequestered at a rate 0.2 g ‧ kg–1‧ year–11 greater with inorganic fertilization than with other fertilization strategies. We could account for more of the applied N under grazed systems (76–82% than under ungrazed systems (35–71%. As a percentage of applied N, 32 and 48% were sequestered as total soil N at a depth of 0 to 6 cm when averaged across fertilization strategies under low and high grazing pressures, respectively, which was equivalent to 6.8 and 10.3 g ‧ m–2 ‧ year–1. Sequestration rates of total soil N under the unharvested-forage and haying strategies were negligible. Most of the increase in total soil N was at a depth of 0 to 2 cm and was due to changes in the particulate organic N (PON pool. The greater cycling of applied N into the soil organic N pool with grazed compared with ungrazed systems suggests an increase in the long-term fertility of soil.

  12. Curricular Innovation for Sustainability: The Piedmont/Ponderosa Model of Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Peggy F.; Chase, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Curricular innovation is at the center of the challenges many colleges and universities face as they seek to help students address more successfully than previous generations the complex, multi-faceted, systemic challenges of global climate change, population growth, loss of biodiversity, environmental justice, toxic wastes, and food insecurity.…

  13. Description of a new Allobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae from the eastern Andean piedmont, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new nurse frog in the genus Allobates (Dendrobatidae from Río Negro, Municipio Córdoba, Estado Táchira, in western Venezuela. This species is a leaflitter inhabitant of primary and secondary lowland rainforest at altitudes from 400 to 1000 m. The new species is similar to the species in the Allobates marchesianus group and is restricted to the slopes of the western Venezuelan Andes. It differs from its congeners by having an irregularly spotted dorsalpattern, diffuse oblique lateral stripe, ventrolateral stripe and yellowish belly on males.

  14. Microbiological criteria in public catering: sampling and auditing experiences in canteens and cafeterias in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Traversa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2006-2011 six public catering establishments (3 canteens and 3 cafeterias were monitored, trough audit and sampling, in order to verify the application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during food production, handling and serving. The compliance to microbiological food safety criteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and process hygiene criteria were investigated using ISO standards for microbiological analyses. A total of 612 samples were collected: 192 food samples and 288 environmental swab samples from canteens; 33 food samples and 99 swab samples from cafeterias. Regarding food safety, two samples were in disagreement with criteria fixed in EU Regulation as Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a turkey breast in a canteen and from a sandwich in a cafeteria. Regarding process hygiene criteria, as no microbiological limits are legally defined for catering services, for this study limits were fixed according to the quality standards of tender, scientific literature and laboratory experience. 23.4% foodstuffs and 8.7% swabs resulted non-compliant in canteens; 48.5% foodstuffs and 6.1% swabs resulted non-compliant in cafeterias. The count of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS was higher of the fixed limits in raw turkey meat and in cooked spinach: the presence among CPS of S. aureus was confirmed, strains were not able to produce enterotoxins. The most common non-compliance in hygiene criteria was represented by aerobic colony count (60.7% of total non-compliance in canteens and 75.0% in cafeterias and coliform bacteria (20.3% in canteens and 25.0% in cafeterias. Nine raw foods or raw readyto- eat food samples were non-compliant for both coliform bacteria and aerobic count; one sample (raw turkey meat was non-compliant for CPS and aerobic count but resulted to be compliant after cooking. Auditing and sampling are the most effective tools to improve food quality standard and to enhance food business operators’ awareness of hygiene procedures.

  15. 75 FR 26979 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Jones and Jasper Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... restoration; (5) invasive species control; (6) climate change; (7) partnerships; (8) air and water quality; (9... as a demonstration area for waterfowl and implement a water management program to enhance habitat and... GIS data to provide for better resource protection. We would develop an integrated cultural...

  16. Brain aging and metabolic syndrome: a study in Cenischia Valley (Piedmont).

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Rinaldi; Giuseppe Graffi; Salvatore Gallone; Emma Rabino Massa

    2011-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a set of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension). Recent studies have identified an association between MetS and increased risk of dementia (Vascular Dementia and Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease ). The purpose of our research is the study of brain aging and cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people (n=200) belonging to a rural alpine community, in r...

  17. Gypsum's influence on corn yield and p loss from an eroded southern piedmont soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsum (CaSO4) has been shown to reduce dissolved P in surface water runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter (PL). However, limited research has evaluated gypsum’s influence on P loss under row crops. Moreover, can gypsum effectively reduce P loss when applied only to grass buffer strips...

  18. Bacterial Pathogens in Ixodid Ticks from a Piedmont County in North Carolina: Prevalence of Rickettsial Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    scapularis-Pathogen prevalence-Rickettsia-Rickettsia amblyommii. Introduction TICK-BORNE ILLNESSES (TBis) are zoonoses involving pathogens...white- tailed deer, and emergence of Amblyomma americanum- associated zoonoses in the United States. CTMI 2007; 315: 289-324. Papin, JF, Vahrson, W

  19. Patterns of cowbird parasitism in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Kilgo; C.E. Moorman

    2003-09-01

    Until recently, little information was available on patterns of brood parasitism by Brownheaded Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in the southeastern United States, a region into which cowbirds expanded their range only during the last half of the Twentieth Century and where their abundance is relatively low. We compiled parasitism data from several published and unpublished studies conducted in Georgia and South Carolina from 1993-2000 to examine levels of brood parasitism and determine frequent host species. The combined dataset included 1,372 nests of 24 species reported in the literature to have been parasitized by cowbirds. The parasitism rate on all species combined was 8.2%. Considering only those species that served as hosts in these studies (n = I2), the parasitism rate was 9.3%. Seven species were parasitized at rates 2 10%. Based on the extent of parasitism (among studies and locations), their relative abundance, and the sample size of nests, Prairie Warblers (Dendroicta discolor), Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina), Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), and Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), all shrub nesters, appear to be the most important cowbird hosts in the region. Parasitism on some species reported as frequent hosts elsewhere was extremely low or not documented. We conclude that the impact of brood parasitism on the seasonal fecundity of hosts in the region probably is minimal, but additional work is warranted on species of concern, such as the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris).

  20. An assessment of fish communities along a piedmont river receiving organic pollution (Aconquija Mountains, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fernandez luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The relationships between fish assemblage structure and environmental variables along a pollution gradient in the Medina River were analyzed over a year in four sampling sites (S1-S4. The river flows in a mountain-plain transition and is affected by several small town wastewater and sugar cane industries effluents. Environmental variables were divided in two sets, hereafter named “pollution” and “natural”. The first set included water quality variables modified by anthropic activities such as D.O., C.O.D, and dissolved ion concentrations. Natural variables included altitude, position, and time of the year. The upstream site (S1 had the lowest species richness and CPUE; but the number of species and density increased downriver (S2-S3. S1 was inhabited by invertivore species (Trichomycterus corduvensis, having low tolerance to environmental conditions and high D.O. requirements. S4 sustained the most tolerant and abundant species (Otocinclus vittatus, Corydoras paleatus, enduring the lowest D.O. and the highest C.O.D. A significant Canonical Correspondence Analysis for natural variables showed a gradient of species composition related to altitude and discharge. Water quality degradation by sugar cane factories and urban development, coupled with natural climatic, topographic and hydrological factors explained a significant amount of spatial and temporal variation in fish community structure (@48%. Natural and pollution variables shared about 15% of total variance. However, pollution variables were not significant after partialling- out the effects of natural variables, but natural variability remained significant after removal of pollution effects. The results suggest that effects of pollution may be just the result of ordination of fish communities along natural spatial and temporal gradients that are positively correlated to pollution gradients.

  1. 76 FR 13205 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Jones and Jasper Counties, GA; Final Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... population of 30 to 35 deer per-square-mile, with a balanced sex ratio. We will expand habitat management by..., reptiles and amphibians. We will initiate basic inventories for fish species and invertebrates, including...

  2. Use of green roofs for ultra-urban stream restoration in the Georgia Piedmont, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Inst. of Technology; Rasmussen, T.C. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Warnell School of Forest Resources

    2005-07-01

    As a result of clean water acts in the United States, stormwater permits are required for local governments that are designed to reduce impacts on receiving water bodies. Elevated runoff volumes and rates lead to high pollutant transfer and altered hydrology. Best management practices (BMP) for stormwater include porous pavements, bioretention ponds and vegetated swales. Green roofs have been overlooked as a tool for managing stormwater. This study tested vegetated roof plots at the University of Georgia for their effectiveness in reducing stormwater flows. Two test sites were retrofitted onto an existing flat roof at a site on the university campus. A control plot was used to validate the green roof performance. Storm events were continuously monitored for a 1 year period. Flow was calculated based on the width of the orifice and the height of the water. Detailed spatial analysis was then performed in an urban watershed to determine the effect of widespread green roof implementation using a soil conservation service curve number model. Green roof curve numbers were found for 11 storm events. Composite curve numbers were established for different scenarios to model changes in stormwater volume for existing land cover, the greening of all roofs, and the greening of all flat roofs. Results showed that green roof stormwater retention ranged from 39 to 100 per cent. It was concluded that green roofs alone cannot solely be relied on to provide the minimum recommended stormwater management at the watershed scale. Green roofs must be used with other management strategies in a comprehensive watershed management plan if effective rehabilitation is to be considered. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Consumer presence and resource diversity independently induce stability of ecosystem function in a Piedmont stream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swan, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    .... Given substantial variation in resource quality among senesced leaf species, organic matter processing rates are known to change with litter species loss as both microbial and invertebrate consumers...

  4. Geomorphology and fish assemblages in a Piedmont river basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D.M.; Leigh, D.S.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, B.J.; Pringle, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    1. We investigated linkages between fishes and fluvial geomorphology in 31 wadeable streams in the Etowah River basin in northern Georgia, U.S.A. Streams were stratified into three catchment sizes of approximately 15, 50 and 100 km2, and fishes and geomorphology were sampled at the reach scale (i.e. 20?40 times stream width). 2. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) identified 85% of the among-site variation in fish assemblage structure and identified strong patterns in species composition across sites. Assemblages shifted from domination by centrarchids, and other pool species that spawn in fine sediments and have generalised food preferences, to darter-cyprinid-redhorse sucker complexes that inhabit riffles and runs, feed primarily on invertebrates, and spawn on coarser stream beds. 3. Richness and density were correlated with basin area, a measure of stream size, but species composition was best predicted (i.e. |r| between 0.60?0.82) by reach-level geomorphic variables (stream slope, bed texture, bed mobility and tractive force) that were unrelated to stream size. Stream slope was the dominant factor controlling stream habitat. Low slope streams had smaller bed particles, more fines in riffles, lower tractive force and greater bed mobility compared with high slope streams. 4. Our results contrast with the `River Continuum Concept? which argues that stream assemblages vary predictably along stream size gradients. Our findings support the `Process Domains Concept?, which argues that local-scale geomorphic processes determine the stream habitat and disturbance regimes that influence stream communities.

  5. 78 FR 13664 - Piedmont Triad Regional Water Authority; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... of the intake canal;(6) a powerhouse with two turbine/ generator units operating at a hydraulic head... intervene should relate to project works which are the subject of the termination of exemption. A copy...

  6. PROSPECTS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS IN THE PIEDMONT AND MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the advantages of low energy in comparison with other renewable energy sources. It is shown that broad prospects are visible for small (100 - 1000 kW and micro hydropower plants (up to 100 kW when used in the foothill and mountain areas. At the same time, the construction of hydropower plants of sleeve-type has improved the operational and technical characteristics, among other types of small-scale power plants. The article presents main analytical expressions for calculating hydroelectric power generator and it has built graphic dependences for the power generator of pressure and water flow. To improve the performance of small hydroelectric power plants we have proposed using unregulated water turbine and non-contact induction generator in their construction, thus, we could stabilize voltage and frequency directly by the frequency converter. Depending on the requirements of consumers to power supply reliability and electricity quality, we have offered several options for structural and circuit solutions of autonomous systems of electrosupply, made using small hydroelectric power plants. Thus, we can greatly enhance the efficiency of such systems if they are used with other types of renewable sources, such as windfarms or solar power plants

  7. Atlanta : A Mega Logistics Center in the Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion (PAM)

    OpenAIRE

    DABLANC, Laetitia; Ross, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at spatial patterns of freight and logistics activities and the planning and policy issues associated with them. Two important characteristics of the geography of the logistics industry are analyzed: (1) "Logistics sprawl", i.e. the spatial deconcentration of logistics facilities and distribution centers in metropolitan areas, and (2) the polarization of logistics activities, i.e. the concentration of logistics activities in very large metropolitan areas. The paper focuses on...

  8. Natural history of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) in the piedmont physiographic province of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J M; Davidson, W R; Stallknecht, D E; Dawson, J E; Little, S E

    1997-10-01

    The roles of wild mammals and ticks in the epidemiology of Ehrlichia chaffeensis at a suspected endemic site were investigated using serologic testing, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) supported by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. Antibodies reactive to E. chaffeensis (> or = 1:64) were detected in 92% of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 21% of raccoons (Procyon lotor), and 8% of opossums (Didelphis virginianus), but not in 8 other species of mammals. Of 7 species of ticks found by host and environmental sampling, Amblyomma americanum was the dominant species, accounting for greater than 99% of all ticks collected. Deer, raccoons, and opossums were the only species parasitized by all life stages of A. americanum, and A. americanum was the only tick parasitizing deer. A nested PCR protocol incorporating E. chaffeensis-specific primers detected E. chaffeensis DNA in blood, lymph nodes, or spleen from 54% of deer examined. The nested PCR detected E. chaffeensis DNA in 6 of 50 (12%) individual adult A. americanum collected from the environment, in 14 of 79 (18%) pools representing 402 adult A. americanum collected from the environment, and in 7 of 25 (28%) pools of mixed stages of A. americanum collected from deer. Although no Ehrlichia spp. were isolated in culture, sequencing of representative amplicons from deer and ticks confirmed PCR products as E. chaffeensis. These data provide strong evidence that white-tailed deer and lone star ticks are the primary reservoir and vector of E. chaffeensis, respectively. The same PCR protocol, incorporating primers specific for an Ehrlichia-like organism of white-tailed deer, detected this organism in blood, lymph nodes, or spleen from 96% of these deer. The Ehrlichia-like organism of deer was detected by PCR from 0 of 50 individual ticks, 7 of 79 (9%) pools, and 1 of 25 (4%) pools of A. americanum collected from deer. Sequencing of representative amplicons from deer and ticks confirmed PCR products as Ehrlichia-like organism of deer. These data suggest that the Ehrlichia-like organism of deer is present in both the deer and lone star ticks populations at this location.

  9. Natural radionuclides in the rocks of the Valle del Cervo Pluton in Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Lucia; Fumagalli, Marco; Carnevale, Mauro; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; Colombo, Annita; Tunesi, Annalisa; De Capitani, Luisa; Rusconi, Rosella

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of the gamma radiation in Valle del Cervo Pluton was performed by determining U and Th contents in the main rock types cropping out over the entire area and pertaining to the granitic complex, syenitic complex and monzonitic complex. In particular, syenitic rocks were largely used as building and ornamental materials (e.g. Sienite della Balma). All the samples are fresh and do not present joints or fractures filled with U minerals. In the crushed samples the activity of uranium varies from 346 to 764 Bq/kg. Concentration of thorium varies from 202 to 478 Bq/kg. For all the analysed rocks uranium activity is higher than thorium one. The lowest value of radioactive concentration is referred to rocks of the granitic complex. The most active rocks are syenites. The data confirm the high activities of Valle del Cervo rock types, strongly connected with high K content of the source magma (geochemical signature); on the contrary, the activity seems to be not related to the location of the samples.

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF FISH COMMUNITIES ALONG A PIEDMONT RIVER RECEIVING ORGANIC POLLUTION (ACONQUIJA MOUNTAINS, ARGENTINA.

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    LUIS FERNÁNDEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la estructura de una comunidad de peces y variables ambientales a lo largo de un gradiente de polución en el Río Medina fue analizado por un año en cuatro sitios muestreados (S1-S4. El río corre en una transición de montaña-llanura y es afectado por descargas de efluentes de pueblos e ingenios azucareros. Las variables ambientales fueron divididas en dos grupos, denominados “polución” y “natural”. El primer conjunto incluyó variables de calidad de agua modificadas por actividades antropogénicas tales como D.O. (Oxígeno Disuelto, C.O.D. (Demanda Química de Oxígeno, y concentración de iones disueltos. Las variables naturales incluidas fueron altitud, ubicación, y tiempo del año. Río arriba (S1 tuvo la más baja riqueza de especies y C.P.U.E. (Captura Por Unidad de Esfuerzo; pero río abajo incrementa el número de especies y densidad (S2-S3. S1 estaba habitado por especies invertívoras (Trichomycterus corduvensis, teniendo baja tolerancia a condiciones ambientales y altos requerimientos de D.O. S4 tuvo las especies más tolerantes y abundantes (Otocinclus vittatus, Corydoras paleatus, soportando los más bajos D.O. y los más elevados C.O.D. Un Análisis de Correspondencia Canónico mostró un gradiente en la composición de especies relacionado a altitud y descarga para las variables naturales. La degradación de la calidad del agua por ingenios azucareros y efluentes urbanos, con factores climáticos naturales, topográfico e hidrológico explicaron la variación espacial y temporal de la estructura de comunidad de peces (=48%. Variables naturales y contaminación compartieron el 15% de la varianza total. Sin embargo, las variables de contaminación no fueron significates después de la partición de los efectos de las variables natural, pero la variabilidad natural permaneció significativa después de remover los efectos de polución.

  11. Volcanic Ashes Intercalated with Cultural Vestiges at Archaeological Sites from the Piedmont to the Amazon, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Viviana; Mothes, Patricia; Andrade, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis was done on 70 volcanic ashes; 9 corresponding to proximal samples of seven volcanoes: Cotopaxi (4500 yBP), Guagua Pichincha (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD), Cuicocha (3100 yBP), Pululahua (2400 yBP), Ninahuilca (2350 yBP and 4600 yBP) and 61 to distal ashes collected at eight archaeological sites in the Coastal, Sierra and Amazon regions of Ecuador. Cultural vestiges are from Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development and Integration periods, with the exception of a site denominated Hacienda Malqui, which also has Inca vestiges. The sampling process was done in collaboration with various archaeologists in 2011-2013. The volcanic ashes were washed, dried and divided in order to obtain a representative fraction and their later analysis with binocular microscope. The microscope analysis allowed determination of the characteristics of each component of volcanic ash. These main elements are: pumice fragments, minerals, volcanic glass, lithics and exogenous material (non volcanic). The petrographic analysis of distal volcanic ash layers at each archaeological site was correlated by their components and characteristics with proximal volcanic ashes of source volcanoes. Some correlations permitted obtaining a relative age for the layers of distal volcanic ash in the archaeological sites. The petrographic analysis showed a correlation between the archaeological sites of Las Mercedes - Los Naranjos, Rumipamba and El Condado (located west of Quito) with the eruptive activity of Guagua Pichincha volcano (3300 yBP, 1000 yBP and 1660 yAD) and Pululahua volcano (2400 yBP). Also, a correlation with eruptive activity of Ninahuilca (2350 yBP), Cotopaxi (4500 yBP) and Quilotoa (800 yBP) volcanoes at Hda. Malqui (60 km west of Latacunga) was provided by mineralogy of the respective ashes expulsed by these volcanoes. The ash layers at Cuyuja (50 km east of Quito) are mostly superficial; they are associated with Quilotoa's 800 yBP plinian. Finally at the Huapula and Pablo VI sites (in the western Amazon region of Ecuador), the reworked ashes are predominantly of Sangay volcano (in permanent eruptive activity since 1628). Finally, the work shared between archaeologists and volcanologists allowed us to discover more deposits of volcanic ashes at archaeological sites. These layers sometimes have more than 30 cm thickness in distal regions, such as the thick ash layer left by Pululahua's 2400 yBP eruption, a fact which helps us to comprehend the impact of volcanoes on past cultures.

  12. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

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    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation programs and for assessing the impact of other soil-related activities (e.g. agriculture and livestock rising.

  13. Chemical and Microbiological Characterization for PDO Labelling of Typical East Piedmont (Italy Salami

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    V. Gianotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the characterisation of typical salami produced in Alessandria province (North West of Italy. Seventeen small or medium salami producers from this area were involved in the study and provided the samples investigated. The aim is double and consists in obtaining a screening of the characteristics of different products and following their evolution along ripening. The study involved five types of typical salami that were characterised for aroma components and nutritional features. This approach could provide a basis for a possible PDO or PGI label request. Principal Component Analysis and cluster analysis were used as multivariate statistical tools for data treatment. The overall results obtained point out that the products investigated do not deviate from analogous European products and show the possibility of characterising by specific parameters three main groups of samples: Salamini di Mandrogne, Muletta, and Nobile Giarolo; moreover some considerations can also be drawn with respect to the nutritional characterization considering the biogenic amines profile.

  14. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  15. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Arkansas Multi-Agency Wetland Planning Team 2003). Some areas with shallow soils and unsup- pressed fire regimes historically may have supported communities...changes in the availability of water, short- and long- term droughts, and natural and human-caused disturbances (e.g., floods, fires , grazing...not include lichen trim lines which, due to slow regrowth, may reflect unusually high or infrequent flooding events. Certain species of aquatic

  16. Underweight, overweight and obesity among a Piedmont (Northern Italy children sample

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    M. Micheletti Cremasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.

  17. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and, in Europe, Italy is leader in rice production. The intensive cultivation of rice leads to continuous inputs chemicals as fertilizers, weeding and pesticides. The intensification of sustainable rice production by minimizing the impact on the environment of cultivation is a main issue . In this context this study, supported by the Italian National Project POLORISO (MIPAAF), aims to afford preliminary indications about the evaluation of ecological impact by different managements on soil mesofauna biodiversity. Biomonitoring of soil mesofauna, in particular nematodes and microarthropods, allows to determine the effects of crop management on the communities; the lack and/or reduction of these organisms can allow inference on the soil quality. This preliminary study aims at evaluate the different influence of conventional, integrated and biological managements on mesofauna communities. The samplings were conducted in Summer and Autumn 2013 near Vercelli (North Italy) in three study sites with similar pedologic characteristics but different in control strategies (conventional, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)). The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods was performed by Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological soil quality was evaluated by Maturity Index (MI) for nematodes, BSQar and the soil Biological Classes (sBC)(range I-VII) for microarthropods. Regarding nematodes, Rhabditidae, Dorylamidae, Mononchidae, Tylenchidae and Heteroderidae were the most represented families. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) evidenced that the trophic group of plant parasites was favored in organic farming, while groups of omnivores and predators were abundant in the other managements. The lowest nematodes' abundance was found in submerged rice soil with dominance of omnivores and plant parasites groups. Dry land was more suitable to development of bacterial feeders and predators. On the whole, MI values ranged between 2 and 3, registered in organic farming and conventional management, respectively. The Acari represented the main group of microarthropods (about 43%), then Diptera (33%), Collembola (19%) and the others. The only euedaphic groups are Acari and Collembola. The BSQar value was 48 (sBC II) in IPM rice field, 71 in organic farming (sBC II/III), 95 in conventional management (sBC III). On all situation tested, the analysis of soil quality, by the study of mesofauna, reflects low differentiation in the arthropod communities' structure. In general, the results relative to the soil mesofauna biodiversity indicated a quite high level of disturbance and a low level of biodiversity. Future studies on this subject could help preserve, or even enhance, the biodiversity and soil quality.

  18. Tsivat Basin conduit system persists through two surges, Bering Piedmont Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, P.J.; Cadwell, D.H.; Muller, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, occurred in two distinct phases. Phase 1 of the surge began on the eastern sector in July, 1993 and ended in July, 1994 after a powerful outburst of subglacial meltwater into Tsivat Lake basin on the north side of Weeping Peat Island. Within days, jokulhlaup discharge built a 1.5 km2 delta of ice blocks (25-30 m) buried in outwash. By late October 1994, discharge temporarily shifted to a vent on Weeping Peat Island, where a second smaller outburst dissected the island and built two new sandar. During phase 2, which began in spring 1995 and ended within five months, continuous discharge issued from several vents along the ice front on Weeping Peat Island before returining to the Tsivat Basin. Surge related changes include a five- to six-fold increase in meltwater turbidity; the redirection of supercooled water in two ice-contact lakes; and an increase in the rate of glaciolacustrine sedimentation. US Geological Survey aerial photos by Austin Post show large ice blocks in braided channels indicating excessive subglacial discharge in a similar position adjacent to Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge. During the subsequent three decades of retreat, the location of ice-marginal, subglacial discharge vents remained aligned on a linear trend that describes the position of a persistent subglacial conduit system. The presence of a major conduit system, possibly stabilized by subglacial bedrock topography, is suggested by: 1) high-level subglacial meltwater venting along the northern side of Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge, 2) persistent low-level discharge between surges, and 3) the recurrence of localizing meltwater outbursts associated with both phases of the 1993-1005 surge.

  19. Reassessing the role of milldams in Piedmont floodplain development and remobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Recent emphasis on milldams as a cause of colonial-era floodplain sediment deposits and source for modern remobilization has ignited debate in scientific and environmental policy forums, especially in the mid-Atlantic USA. Although milldams are regionally ubiquitous and visually striking, no investigation has demonstrated that they are a dominant driver of regional floodplain sediment accumulation and remobilization. Long-term analysis in Baltimore County, Maryland found that milldams were sufficient, but not necessary for historical sediment accumulation. We compared erosion from streams upstream and downstream of confirmed milldam locations, in paired segment comparisons with and without the influence of historical milldams, and pooled across 37 study segments. We found the scale of inquiry produced different interpretations regarding the role of milldams in regional erosion and sedimentation. Although local milldam sediment remobilization rates were 15% greater than those immediately downstream, neither paired nor pooled segment comparisons provided evidence that milldam deposits are contemporary dominant sources of sediment. Further comparison across drainage areas demonstrated that milldam deposits could raise local remobilization rates by augmenting sediment availability along supply-limited channels. We introduce a unifying conceptual model that explains apparently contradictory findings in the literature where, rather than the sole cause of legacy sediment deposits, some milldams are nonetheless responsible for local increases in sediment remobilization rates along portions of the stream network.

  20. The ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in Basso Monferrato (Piedmont, Italy

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    Allegro G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Carabid fauna of “Bosco Palli”, a relict Turkey oak wood in the hilly area of Basso Monferrato, is described. This wood covers an area of about 50 hectares divided in two separate core areas and is almost entirely surrounded by agricultural crops. A total of 25 Carabid species were recorded, of which only 11 are present in the central core areas and 23 in the peripheral ecotone areas. There are only very few species with strict forest attitude, but a prosperous population of Carabus italicus was recorded, located in a peripheral portion of the forest on moist and swampy soil. The poorness of this fauna and the scarcity of specialized forest species may be a consequence of the limited area of the wood, its fragmentation, the total isolation in an agricultural context and the repeated coppicing carried out up to about half of the past century.

  1. 77 FR 56809 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...-shave preparations, deodorants/anti-perspirants, bath salts, body wash/soaps, toners, cleaners, plastic travel containers, polymer bags, plastic packing, security tags, plastic lids/caps, bags and cases of... document), other bags/sacks, loofahs, tissue paper, paperboard/ corrugated wrappers and pads,...

  2. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution

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    José Manuel Direni Mancini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06% followed by Forcipomyia (26.94% and Atrichopogon (13.61%. Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%, while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  3. Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of the piedmont of the Yungas forests of Tucumán: ecology and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direni Mancini, José Manuel; Veggiani-Aybar, Cecilia Adriana; Fuenzalida, Ana Denise; Lizarralde de Grosso, Mercedes Sara; Quintana, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity. Monthly collection of specimens was performed from July 2008 to July 2009 using CDC miniature light traps deployed for two consecutive days. A total of 360 specimens were collected, being the most abundant Dasyhelea genus (48.06%) followed by Forcipomyia (26.94%) and Atrichopogon (13.61%). Bivariate analyses showed significant differences in the abundance of the genera at different sampling sites and climatic conditions, with the summer season and El Corralito site showing the greatest abundance of specimens. Accumulated rainfall was the variable that related the most to the abundance of Culicoides (10.56%), while temperature was the most closely related variable to the abundance of Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, and Atrichopogon.

  4. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    tool/expedient tool ratio of .8:1. The statistics of the distributions of tools were calculated as: Grid curaed tools expedient tools Size m v v/m m v... mortal . In Explorations In ethnoarchaeology, edited by Richard A. Gould, pp. 201-227. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Stephenson, L. W. 1912

  5. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes in a salami producing plant in Piedmont: use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to trace contaminations

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    Annalisa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to survive in different environments and establish persistent contaminations is an important issue for food producers. This study aimed to assess the environmental contamination level in an Italian salami producing plant and to identify possible sources of contamination using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE on L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from environmental (n=54 and meat samples (n=9 collected over 9 months. Detection of L. monocytogenes was performed using the UNI EN ISO 11290-1 procedure and every isolate was characterised with PFGE, using AscI and ApaI restriction enzymes. The environmental detection frequencies were constant both in the first (22% and the second (27% visit, thus suggesting the presence of strains adapted to the processing plant. Equipments can represent a reservoir of L. monocytogenes from which it can spread into the whole producing plant. The reservoir was documented by PFGE results which showed several persistent strains. Moreover, PFGE proved the cross-contamination between surfaces and semiprocessed products like pastes, which furthermore have been contaminated by L. monocytogenes in 100% of samples in the first two visits and in 33% in the last visit. This study gave evidence that detection methods and PFGE characterisation can be effective tools to detect possible sources and routes of contamination.

  6. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

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    T. Civera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  7. Early Alleghanian oblique dextral extension and magmatism along the Modoc fault zone, eastern Appalachian Piedmont, SC-GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, P.E. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Geology); Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Geological Sciences); Maher, H.D. Jr. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Geography and Geology); Wright, J. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Geology and Geophysics); Dallmeyer, R.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Modoc fault zone is a prominent zone of simple shear that has been mapped for 250 km from near Columbia, SC to the Ocmulgee River, in central GA. The steeply northwest-dipping fault zone is up to 5 km wide and contains variably mylonitic paragneiss and synkinematic sheets of mylonitic granite. Rotated tension gashes, reverse-slip-slip-crenulations, and asymmetric porphyroclasts in the fault zone are interpreted to indicate oblique dextral and normal movement. U/Pb zircon ages of 315--300 Ma yielded by some of these granite sheets are interpreted to date the time of movement on the Modoc fault zone, relatively early during the Alleghanian orogeny (ca 330--265Ma). Concurrent with movement along the Modoc fault zone, granite bodies (dated at 320--300 Ma) were intruded into both the hangingwall and the footwall sides of the fault. Cooling ages of ca 308 Ma (U/Pb monazite) and ca 305--288 Ma (40Ar/39Ar hornblende) from footwall rocks near the Savannah River indicate rapid cooling from temperatures above 700 starting with movement along the Modoc fault zone. Published geobarometry results suggest that footwall rocks were uplifted from depths of ca 29km and juxtaposed next to hangingwall rocks at depths of ca 11km by movement along the Modoc fault zone. Taken together, the crustal omission, uplift and rapid cooling of the footwall blocks, and the oblique normal sense of shear indicate at least a component of crustal extension along the Modoc fault zone. Intrusion of granite into and adjacent to the fault indicates magmatism accompanied movement on the fault at ca 315--300 Ma. Regardless of tectonic mechanism, extension associated with either crustal delamination or dextral transcurrent motion of accreted terranes, it is clear that crustal extension and magmatism was important during early phases of the Alleghanian orogeny in this part of the orogen, and it may have also been important elsewhere.

  8. Maternal Smoking and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Correlation with Low Birth Weight: A Turin (Piedmont Study

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    Mannocci Alice

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uvod. Med nosečnostjo kadi 15 % do 25 % žensk. Znanstveni dokazi kažejo, da izpostavljenost kajenju povzroča nižjo porodno težo. Cilj te študije je oceniti povezavo med kajenjem med nosečnostjo, socialnodemografskimi značilnostmi matere in nizko porodno težo. Metode. Podatki so bili pridobljeni iz 1572 vprašalnikov, ki so jih izpolnile vse ženske, ki so v obdobju od leta 2008 do leta 2010 rodile v učni bolnišnici za ginekologijo »S. Anna« v Torinu (Italija. Za oceno povezave med socialno-demografskimi značilnostmi in porodno težo je bila uporabljena multipla logistična analiza; sledil je postopni pristop z »vzvratnim izločanjem« in ocena ustreznosti modela s pomočjo Hosmer- Lemeshowega testa. Rezultati. Univariatna analiza je razkrila, da kajenje cigaret (17 %, nižja stopnja izobrazbe (13 % in ženski spol dojenčka (13 % predstavljajo dejavnik tveganja, saj povečujejo tveganje, da bo imel otrok nizko porodno težo. Analiza z logistično regresijo je pokazala, da sta gestacijska starost in kajenje matere statistično povezani spremenljivki. Zaključki. Rezultati potrjujejo, da se porodna teža povečuje sorazmerno z gestacijsko starostjo ter da kajenje matere in spol otroka (ženski povečujeta tveganje za nižjo porodno težo ob rojstvu. Logistična regresija dokazuje, da povezava med kajenjem matere in nizko porodno težo pomeni povečano tveganje za celotno populacijo (RO = 2,85, tako za novorojenčke moškega (RO = 3,45 kot tudi ženskega spola (RO = 2,44

  9. Atlantic Flyway review: Piedmont-Coastal Plain Region IV - Fall 1997: Robbins Nest, Laurel, MD (390-0765)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    1998-01-01

    The 25th year of fall banding at this back yard station atop the Patuxent River gorge between Laurel and the 1-95 bridge netted more birds of summer and winter resident species than migrants. Myrtle Warbler was the only one of the six commonest species captured that is primarily a transient here. My 5214 net-hours, my fourth highest, were 48% above the 24-year mean of 3512, but the only species to exceed their previous high were Carolina Chickadee and Magnolia Warbler. Part of the reason for my low catch per 100 net-hours in recent years is the dieoff of dogwood from anthracnose and destruction of the shrub layer in my mature woods by an overpopulation of deer. For the first time, deer destroyed three of my nets. We also had the driest summer in decades, which killed some of the shallow-rooted vegetation this year.The greatest declines from last year were in catbird (51 to 32), Hermit Thrush ( 27 to 12 ), and Blackand-white Warbler (11 to 3), and the greatest increases were in Myrtle Warbler (2 to 34), Carolina Chickadee (6 to 36), and Tufted Titmouse (10 to 31). The biggest changes from the mean of the first five years (1973-77) to the most recent five years (1993-97), not corrected for the 147% increase in net-hours, are increases in Rubythroated Hummingbird (1.2 to 7.6 ), Black-throated Blue Warbler (1.8 to 11.6), Common Yellowthroat (5.0 to 17.6), and House Finch (0.2 to 6.0), and decreases in Swainson's Thrush (26.6 to 17.2), Gray-cheeked/Bicknell's Thrush (9.4 to 3.8), Scarlet Tanager (6.6 to 2.2), and American Goldfinch (3.0 to 0.4). The oldest of my 39 returns were a six-year-old Gray Catbird and a five-year-old Carolina Chickadee. Two birds banded here during the fall migration of 1995 were found to the northeast of here in the summer of 1997: a Ruby-throated Hummingbird (8000-85102) in Philadelphia, PA, and a Hermit Thrush (1521-58503) at Wentworth, NH. A Savannah Sparrow was the 121st species banded on our suburban wooded hectare.

  10. Angelo Sismonda (1807–1878), pioneer of geological mapping in the Alps of Savoy and the Piedmont: a bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, John; Basaglia, Tullio; Hollier, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Angelo Sismonda (Ange Sismonda) was an Italian mineralogist and geologist based in Turin during the Risorgimento who produced pioneering maps of the Alps in the Kingdom of Sardinia. Well known during his lifetime, he is now mentioned only in passing by historians and no comprehensive bibliography of his work exists. To render his work more accessible, we present a short biography and a bibliography.

  11. Changes in flood risk impacted by river training – case study of piedmont section of the Vistula river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łajczak Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zmiany w zagrożeniu powodziowych powodowane przez regulację rzeki na przykładzie przedgórskiego odcinka Wisły. W pracy zanalizowano główne problemy związane z zagrożeniem powodziowym w dolinie przedgórskiego odcinka Wisły (południowa Polska. Ten odcinek rzeki podlega pracom regulacyjnym od połowy XIX wieku. Omówiono wiele problemów wpisujących się w główny nurt dyskusji na temat efektywności stosowanych metod regulacji rzek. Główną uwagę zwrócono na: (1 aktualny stan zagrożenia powodziowego, (2 wielkość odpływu rzeki, (3 zmiany w zagrożeniu powodziowym od początku prac regulacyjnych z uwzględnieniem zmian w geometrii koryta i zmian w wielkości odpływu rzeki odzwierciedlających efekty prac regulacyjnych. Za główną cechę hydrologiczną badanego odcinka Wisły należy uznać znaczny od zapoczątkowania prac regulacyjnych wzrost wielkości przepływu pełnokorytowego, który trwa nadal. Oznacza to, że zmniejsza się ilość wody w rzece, która podczas stanów wyższych od stanu pełnokorytowego może zatapiać strefę międzywala. Tą uwagę uznano za podstawę analizy zmian w zagrożeniu powodziowym w przedgórskim odcinku Wisły. Ocenę tych zmian w badanym odcinku rzeki nie można jednak uznać za jednoznaczną, gdyż niektóre zmiany w warunkach odpływu przyczyniają się do zmniejszenia ryzyka powodzi, podczas gdy inne są odpowiedzialne za jego zwiększenie. W pracy wykorzystano dane z ponad 100-letniego okresu udostępnione przez Państwową Służbę Hydrologiczną, uwzględniono również mapy opublikowane w dużej skali w ostatnich 230 latach, a także wyniki badań terenowych autora.

  12. 77 FR 2698 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, NC; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... FTZ 230's authorized subzones. In accordance with the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ... Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov or (202) 482-1346. Dated: January 11, 2012. Andrew...

  13. Organic-matter retention and macroinvertebrate utilization of seasonally inundated bryophytes in a mid-order Piedmont River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James; Pattillo, Meryom; Freeman, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased understanding of the role of bryophytes in supporting invertebrate biomass and for their influence on nutrient cycling and carbon balance in aquatic systems, but the structural and functional role of bryophytes growing in seasonally inundated habitats is substantially less studied. We conducted a study on the Middle Oconee River, near Athens, GA, to assess invertebrate abundance and organic-matter retention in seasonally inundated patches of the liverwort Porella pinnata, a species that tends to be submerged only when water levels in rivers are substantially above base flow. Aquatic invertebrate utilization of these seasonally inundated habitats has rarely been investigated. Macroinvertebrate biomass, insect density, and organic-matter content were significantly greater in patches of P. pinnata than on adjacent bare rock. Bryophyte biomass explained additional variation in organic matter, insect biomass, and density. The most abundant insects in P. pinnata patches were Dipterans and Plecopterans. Our results suggest an important structural role of seasonally inundated bryophyte habitats in riverine ecosystems.

  14. Record of Brandt’s bat Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piedmont (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Toffoli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.

  15. Impact of NPK treatments on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) yields for biofuel feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative ener...

  16. A microbial "bloom" at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Piedmont Basin (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalicchio, Marcello; Birgel, Daniel; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Lozar, Francesca; Liu, Xiaolei; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), a severe ecological crisis that occurred in the Mediterranean Basin about 6 myr ago, had drastic consequences for both freshwater and marine ecosystems (Roveri et al., 2014). The response of prokaryotes to the changing conditions at the MSC onset is virtually unknown. In a lipid biomarker study of sediments straddling the MSC onset from the Pollenzo section (NW Italy), we aim to evaluate the response of microbial communities at the transition from normal marine to extreme conditions. In this section, the advent of the MSC does not coincide with the deposition of gypsum; instead shales and intercalated carbonate-rich beds deposited. These deposits are considered as the deep water counterparts of gypsum layers that formed in the shallower parts of the basin (Dela Pierre et al., 2012). In both pre-MSC and MSC deposits, the molecular fossil inventory is sourced from all three domains of life and is mainly represented by isoprenoidal alcohols, fatty acids, sterols, long chain n-alkanes and n-alcohols. However, after the MSC onset, a sharp increase of the long chains n-alkanes, n-alcohols and fatty acids occurs, indicating a significant increase of terrigenous organic matter, most likely sourced by enhanced riverine runoff. Remarkably, this coincides with an increase of sterols (sitosterol and dinosterol), that are typically interpreted as markers of phytoplankton. The same strata contain filamentous fossils, which have been interpreted as remains of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (cf., Dela Pierre et al., 2012). The basal MSC deposits are also typified by an increase of isoprenoidal alcohols, including glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and diphytanyl glycerol diethers (DGD). Caldarchaeol and crenarchaeol are the overall most abundant GDGTs. Their almost equal distribution in pre-MSC deposits suggests that they derived from planktic Thaumarchaeota, which are abundant picoplanktonic organisms in modern oceans. In contrast, caldarchaeol predominates over crenarchaeol in the MSC deposits, indicating a change towards harsh environmental conditions. A prominent spread of δ13C values between caldarchaeol- and crenarchaeol-derived biphytanes (Δδ13C: 9) in the MSC deposits agrees with a profound modification of the archaeal community structure. This is further confirmed by the sharp increase of the DGD archaeol and the appearance of the DGD extended archaeol. The latter is only sourced by halophilic archaea, confirming an increase of seawater salinity after the MSC onset. In conclusion, this study reveals that lipid biomarkers are excellent recorders of the MSC onset. Moreover, they help to reconstruct the Messinian microbial ecosystems in the course of changing environmental conditions. References Dela Pierre, F., et al., 2012. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 344/345, 78-93. Roveri et al., 2014. Marine Geology 352, 25-58.

  17. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    pressed fire regimes historically may have supported communities domi- nated by prairie grasses, such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii...droughts, and natural and human-caused disturbances (e.g., floods, fires , grazing). Wetlands subject to seasonal hydrology include wet meadows, springs...extrapolated across lower elevation areas in the vicinity. This indicator does not include lichen trim lines which, due to slow regrowth, may reflect

  19. The Haw River Sites: Archaeological Investigations at Two Stratified Sites in the North Carolina Piedmont. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    fine-grained igneous rocks. The texture is known as felsitic ( Pough 1960:15). Rhyolites common to the Carolina Slate Belt are prime examples of felsic... Pough 1960:235). Of particular interest is the feldspathic sediment called graywacke, a matrix of clay minerals containing 104 abundant plagioclase

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s effort to assess the physical, chemical, and biological responses of streams to urbanization, 30 wadable streams were sampled near Atlanta, Ga., during 2002?2003. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural factors such as geology, altitude, and climate while representing a range of urban development. A multimetric urban intensity index was calculated using watershed land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables that are highly correlated with population density. The index was used to select sites along a gradient from low to high urban intensity. Response variables measured include stream hydrology and water temperature, instream habitat, field properties (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity), nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations, and characterization of algal, invertebrate and fish communities. In addition, semipermeablemembrane devices (SPMDs)?passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?were used to evaluate water-quality conditions during the 4 weeks prior to biological sampling. Changes in physical, chemical, and biological conditions were evaluated using both nonparametric correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and associated comparisons of dataset similarity matrices. Many of the commonly reported effects of watershed urbanization on streams were observed in this study, such as altered hydrology and increases in some chemical constituent levels. Analysis of water-chemistry data showed that specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and pesticides increased as urbanization increased. Nutrient concentrations were not directly correlated to increases in development, but were inversely correlated to percent forest in the watershed. Analyses of SPMD-derived data showed that bioassays and certain chemical constituents such as pyrene and benzophenanthrene, both PAHs found in coal tar, were strongly correlated with measures of watershed urbanization. Hydrologic variability metrics indicated that as urban development increased, streams became flashier, with characteristic high flows having shorter duration. The hydrologic effects associated with urbanization were greatest during the fall and least apparent during the winter. No correlations were observed between increasing urbanization and stream temperature or changes in stream habitat. Algal, invertebrate, and fish communities exhibited statistically significant changes as watersheds became increasingly urban, with the strongest responses observed in the invertebrate community followed by fishes, then algal diatom communities. Invertebrate communities were the most responsive to increasing urbanization with Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Tricoptera taxa, especially Plecoptera (stoneflies) responding negatively and most strongly to increasing urbanization. Invertebrate communities were influenced more significantly by water quality, although significant responses to altered hydrology also were noted. In terms of the fish community, the percentage of cyprinids present in the stream was the only Index of Biotic Integrity metric that responded negatively to increases in watershed urbanization. Fish community response to urbanization was intermediate relative to algae and invertebrates with respect to significant metric responses as well as the overall community response to increasing urbanization. Measures of hydrologic variability were the most influential environmental variables affecting the algal community. Although sites were originally chosen to represent a gradient of increasing urbanization, a cluster analysis performed on the component metrics of the urban index categorized sites into four distinct groups. Multivariate analysis based on nonmetric MDS and related analyses of data ma

  2. Above-ground sulfur cycling in adjacent coniferous and deciduous forest and watershed sulfur retention in the Georgia Piedmont, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellato, R.; Peters, N.E.; Meyers, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and above-ground cycling of sulfur (S) were evaluated in adjacent deciduous and coniferous forests at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), Georgia U.S.A. Total atmospheric S deposition (wet plus dry) was 12.9 and 12.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 for the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, from October 1987 through November 1989. Dry deposition contributes more than 40% to the total atmospheric S deposition, and SO2 is the major source (~55%) of total dry S deposition. Dry deposition to these canopies is similar to regional estimates suggesting that 60-km proximity to emission sources does not noticeably impact dry deposition at PMRW. Below-canopy S fluxes (throughfall plus stemflow) in each forest are 37% higher annually in the deciduous forest than in the coniferous forest. An excess in below-canopy S flux in the deciduous forest is attributed to leaching and higher dry deposition than in the coniferous forest. Total S deposition to the forest floor by throughfall, stemflow and litterfall was 2.4 and 2.8 times higher in the deciduous and coniferous forests, respectively, than annual S growth requirement for foliage and wood. Although A deposition exceeds growth requirement, more than 95% of the total atmospheric S deposition was retained by the watershed in 1988 and 1989. The S retention at PMRW is primarily due to SO2+4 adsorption by iron oxides and hydroxides in watershed soils. The S content in while oak and loblolly pine boles have increased more than 200% in the last 20 yr, possibly reflecting increases in emissions.

  3. Vincristine, doxorubicin and mitomycin (VAM) in patients with advanced breast cancer previously treated with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF). A clinical trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association (POA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, S K; Muss, H B; Westrick, M A; Cooper, M R; Jackson, D V; Richards, F C; White, D R; Stuart, J J; Christian, R M; Ramseur, W

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six evaluable patients with advanced breast cancer who had failed prior CMF therapy [15 (42%) as adjuvant treatment and 21 (58%) for advanced disease] were treated with a combination of vincristine, doxorubicin, and mitomycin (VAM). There was one CR and 10 PR, giving a response rate of 31% (P, 95% confidence interval, 15%-47%). Response was not significantly related to age, performance status, disease-free interval, dominant site of disease, number of sites of disease, or estrogen receptor status. The median duration of response was 5 months for patients attaining CR or PR and 4.6 months for patients with stable disease. The median survival for patients with CR or PR of 7.9 months was not better than for those with stable disease (8.0 months), but both groups had significantly longer survival than those with initial progression. Patients who received VAM after failing adjuvant CMF had a 53% response rate (8 of 15), as against a 14% response rate (3 of 21) in those failing CMF for advanced disease (P less than 0.05). In spite of this difference, the survival distributions for these two groups were not significantly different. Myelosuppression was moderate and no cardiac toxicity was seen. The addition of mitomycin to vincristine and doxorubicin in previously treated patients does not appear to improve the results obtained with vincristine and doxorubicin alone.

  4. Riesgos y vulnerabilidad del piedemente puentealtino: tres hipótesis de trabajo. / Risk and vulnerability of the piedmont in Puente Alto - Santiago de Chile: three hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteíza Diamante, Emiliano A.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objetivo plantear tres hipótesis en torno a las características del riesgo y la vulnerabilidad existente en el Piedemonte Puentealtino, acción que constituiría un marco general inicial para entrar a una discusión de zonificación y densificación de esta área al interior de la comuna, además de ser una base del proceso de Reformulación del Plan Regulador que su Municipio está llevando a cabo./ This article aims to propose three hypotheses about the characteristics of risk and vulnerability in the foothills of Puente Alto. Noted an initial framework for a discussion of zoning and densification of the area, as well as provide the basis for the reformulation of the Communal Regulating Plan.

  5. Estimation of thermal neutron absorption cross-section from K, U and Th concentrations for Miocene rocks from the Carpathian Piedmont in Poland using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loskiewicz, Jerzy E-mail: jerzy.loskiewicz@ifj.edu.pl; Swakon, Jan; Kulczykowska, Krystyna

    2000-06-01

    The radiometric K, U and Th concentrations and neutron absorption cross-section {sigma}{sub a} of rock samples obtained from coring are analysed. The cores are from well bores located in the Sucha-Jordanow region (Carpathian Mountains) and from gas producing Miocene formations in the Carpathian foothills. Correlation coefficients between the neutron absorption cross-section ({sigma}{sub a}) and K, U and Th concentrations are presented. Neural network representation of the function {sigma}{sub a}={integral}(K, U, Th) obtained for a region can later be used for {sigma}{sub a} estimation from spectrometric probe results in uncored wells.

  6. Food habits of the stone marten Martes foina in "La Mandria" Regional Park (Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied by the analysis of 215 scats gathered during 1990 and 1991 in "La Mandria" Regional Park (north-western Italy. The results were expressed as percentage frequency of occurrence [F% = (number of occurrences of each food/number of scats x 100] and relative percentage of frequency [Fr% = (number of occurrences of each food/total number of prey items x 100]. Mammals were the predominant food category in each season (annual mean in Fr% = 60.5 and were mainly represented by rodents (Fr% = 44.8 and lagomorphs (Fr% = 15.4. Myoxus glis was the most preyed species (Fr% = 15.7 and its use was higher in autumn than in other seasons. Vegetables, mainly Rosaceae and Vitis vinifera fruits, were an important food resource in summer (Fr% = 41.1 and in autumn (Fr% = 17.2. Birds integrated the stone marten's diet mainly in winter (Fr% = 22.6, while insects were scarcely consumed throughout the year (Fr% = 4.3. Riassunto Alimentazione della faina Martes foina nel Parco regionale "La Mandria" (Torino - La dieta della faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 215 feci raccolte negli anni 1990-91 nel Parco Regionale "La Mandria" (Italia nord occidentale. I risultati ottenuti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale [F% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero delle feci esaminate x 100] e frequenza relativa percentuale [Fr% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero totale di componenti alimentari rinvenute x 100]. I mammiferi, rappresentati soprattutto da roditori (Fr% = 44,8 e lagomorfi (Fr% = 15,4, sono risultati la categoria alimentare più importante in ogni stagione (media annuale della Fr% = 60,5. Myoxus glis è risultata la specie più predata con un consumo più elevato in autunno rispetto alle altre stagioni. I vegetali, rappresentati soprattutto da frutti delle Rosaceae e da Vitis vinifera, sono particolarmente importanti in estate (Fr% = 41,1 e secondariamente in autunno (Fr% = 17,2. Gli uccelli costituiscono una risorsa integrativa della dieta invernale (Fr% = 22,6, mentre gli insetti sono scarsamente consumati nel corso dell'anno (Fr% = 4,3.

  7. Earthquake Activity, Operation of State Seismic Network with 5 stations, 3-Piedmont 2-Coastal Plane, Published in 1970, Delaware Geological Survey.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Earthquake Activity dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 1970. It is described as 'Operation of State Seismic Network...

  8. Deglaciation of a large piedmont lobe glacier in comparison with a small mountain glacier – new insight from surface exposure dating. Two studies from SE Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne U. Reuther

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 10Be-Oberflächenaltersdatierungen von Moränenblöcken der Würm-Maximalvergletscherung und der Deglaziationzeit ergaben in zwei verschiedenen Regionen Süddeutschlands unterschiedliche Altersverteilungen trotz gleicher klimatischer Randbedingungen. Im Bayerischen Wald zeigen die Moränenalter eines kleinen Talgletschers eine präzise und konsistente spätwürmzeitliche Chronostratigraphie. Oberflächenexpositionsalter von Moränen des Isar-Loisach und Inngletschers in den Ostalpen weisen auf eine hochwürmzeitliche Moränenablagerung deutlich vor 18.0±1.9 ka und einer anschliessenden Moränenstabilisierung hin. Beide glaziale Systeme (Mittelgebirgs-Talgletscher und alpines Eisstromnetz erreichten ihre maximale Ausdehnung im Spätwürm (MIS 2. Trotz der weitgehenden Übereinstimmung war ihre Reaktionszeit auf Klimafluktuationen sehr unterschiedlich: der kleine Talgletscher reagierte empfindlicher auf klimatische Änderungen als das alpine Eisstromnetz. Ein synchrones Verhalten zeigten die Gletscher im Bayerischen Wald sowie in den Ostalpen erst im Spätglazial um 16–15 ka (H 1, als in beiden Gebieten Talgletscher existierten. Die unterschiedlichen Altersverteilungen der spätwürmzeitlichen Chronologien in den beiden Würmgletscher-Endmoränengebieten werden mit Unterschieden der Eisdynamik und der geomorphologischen Prozesse bei der Moränenstabilisierung sowie mit Phasen intensiver Hangprozesse infolge periglazialer Aktivität und Toteis-Tauens erklärt. Die Ergebnisse sind für Probennahmestrategien und Dateninterpretation von Moränen-Oberflächenaltern von großer Bedeutung.

  9. Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009: state of the art and its application in a local health unit in Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Paolucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the European Union has reinforced the concept of animal welfare throughout the food chain, from breeding to slaughtering. Studies and assessments of economic nature led to the adoption of Regulation EC 1099/2009 and at the end of 2014 this regulation will be applied to all the members involved in the food chain. For this reason several local health units organized different initiatives. The local health unit of Turin no. 4 (ASLTO4 has developed a project aimed to train food business operators (FBO to fulfill all the criteria developed in this Regulation. This initiative was divided into four steps: i communication to the companies about the criteria of the new regulation; ii a training course for official veterinarians; iii slaughterhouse audits in order to get information about animal welfare; iv and a training course for the personnel involved in slaughterhouses. The purpose of this paper was to report the results of the audits in order to identify critical points of structural, instrumental and documentary facilities. Then, the results can be compared with similar studies in order to develop common strategies and intervention areas.

  10. Analysis of Desert Shrubs along First-Order Channels on the Desert Piedmonts: Possible Indicators of Ecosystem Health and Historic Variation - (SEED Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The pavement-covered soils are largely devoid of vegetation. Vegetation along channels mainly consists of Larrea tridentata (creosotebush...Corvallis, Oregon). Water potential data was collected on cresostebush ( Larrea tridentata ), ironwood (Olneya tesota), and blue paloverde (Cercidium...L.H., R.P. Gibbens, and J.M. Lenz. 1998. Soil-induced variability in root systems of creosotebush ( Larrea tridentata ) and tarbush (Flourensia cernua

  11. Survey Design and Response Analysis: a Study on Happiness, Life Satisfaction and Well-being in Piedmont, a Region of Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maffioletti; Agata Maida; Francesco Scacciati

    2013-01-01

    In the literature of happiness economics individual subjective utility is measured by directly asking individuals to self-assess their level of utility, usually on a numerical scale, using various terms such as happiness, life satisfaction and well-being, most of the times taking for granted that they are synonymous. Despite the richness of happiness economics literature, several terminological and methodological issues still need to be investigated. This paper presents the results of a field...

  12. Archeological Test Excavations at The Lake Acworth Site (9Co45) and The Butler Creek (9Co46) Sites: Two Prehistric Settlements in the Piedmont Uplands, Allatoona Lake, Cobb County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-31

    the complicated stamped pottery can be aportioned in a manner reflective of the relative contributions of the purely Etjwah and purely Wilbanks types...edited by Stephen J. Williams, pp. 135-151. Harvard University, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology No. 58. Cambridge. Watson ...subjected to machine-assisted water separation in a scaled-down version of the Shell Mound Archeological Project (SMAP) flotation device described by Watson

  13. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LAS ENDOMICORRIZAS Y SIETE GRUPOS DE MICROORGANISMOS EN AGROSISTEMAS DEL PIEDEMONTE AMAZÓNICO, COLOMBIA Characterization of the Endomycorrhizal and Seven Groups of Microorganisms in Agro Systems of the Amazon Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ANTONIO FRANCO CASTRO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo caracterizó la estructura funcional, la diversidad de la comunidad de endomicorrizas y el tamaño poblacional de siete grupos funcionales de microorganismos en suelos bajo cuatro diferentes usos de este o agrosistemas (bosque, cultivo de caña, pastura, y cultivo de café, los cuales fueron ubicados en una unidad productiva de la zona rural de Florencia, Caquetá. A partir de muestras de suelo superficial (0-20 cm se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas del suelo, el tamaño de las poblaciones de siete grupos funcionales de microorganismos, la estructura de la comunidad de endomicorrizas (densidad de esporas, densidad de micelio total y su diversidad (índices de riqueza, dominancia y equidad. Se encontró que el cambio en la cobertura natural, por el uso del suelo, tiene consecuencias en el tamaño poblacional de ciertos grupos bacterianos, así como en la estructura funcional y la diversidad de las endomicorrizas. También fue posible determinar que la estructura poblacional de la microbiota del suelo es particular a cada cobertura vegetal y que el tamaño poblacional está relacionado con el contenido de nutrientes del suelo, el cual proviene en gran parte de la mineralización de la materia orgánica.This study characterized the functional structure, the diversity of the community of endomycorrhizae and population size of seven functional groups of microorganisms in soils under four different uses of land or agro systems (forest, cane, pasture, and cultivation of coffee, the which were located in a production unit in the rural area of Florencia-Caquetá. From samples of surface soil (0-20 cm were determined agro ecosystems soil physical and chemical properties, the size of populations seven functional groups of microorganisms, the structure of the community to endomycorrhizae (spore density, density mycelium total and diversity (richness, dominance, equity indices. It was found that the change in natural cover on the land use implications in population size of certain bacterial groups in the structure and functional diversity of endomycorrhizae. Was also be determined the population structure of soil microbiota is particular to each vegetation type and population size is strongly related to levels of soil nutrients, which come from the mineralization of organic matter.

  14. Application of SWMM Model in Urban Flood Control Calculation of City Built in Piedmont Plain of Southwest China%SWMM模型在西南地区山前平原城市防洪计算中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱靖; 刘俊; 崔韩; 周莨棋

    2013-01-01

    针对传统水文计算方法应用于山前平原型城市防洪计算中存在的不足,基于SWMM模型,结合西南地区快速的城市化进程与复杂的水文水力特性,建立了集防洪、排涝、排水于一体的水文水动力学模型,并深入研究了较大尺度范围下子流域的集总概化方法.结果表明,SWMM模型在西南地区具有良好的适用性,采用集总的子流域概化方法在满足计算精度的条件下可有效减少建模工作量,易于模型的推广应用.

  15. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  16. Creation of Regional Habitat Cover Maps: Application of the NE Terrestrial Habitat Classification System: Completion of Virginia & Maryland Piedmont and Coastal Plain to be consistent with rest of region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project completed the comprehensive wildlife habitat map of the eastern region, including all states from Maine to Virginia, west to New York, Pennsylvania and...

  17. Génesis de suelos en un sector del piedemonte aluvial del Chaco salteño Soil genesis in an alluvial piedmont in the Chaco region of Salta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Martín Moretti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la relación suelo-paisaje, las propiedades físico-químicas y la composición mineralógica de diferentes suelos dentro del cono aluvial del río Del Valle, en el borde occidental del Chaco salteño, en la provincia de Salta, Argentina. Se identificaron seis grupos de suelos con características bien definidas. Los Ustipsamentes y Haplustoles de textura gruesa a media se encuentran principalmente en cordones arenosos, vías de drenaje y planicies del sector proximal del cono; los Argiustoles y Haplustalfes de texturas medias se desarrollan mayormente en las planicies estabilizadas del sector intermedio; mientras que los Haplustertes de textura fina son característicos de los ambientes de bañados del sector intermedio y distal. Los análisis mineralógicos se llevaron a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X (DRX y medición de la Susceptibilidad Magnética (SM. La DRX del suelo total mostró variaciones en la proporción de cuarzo, feldespatos, muscovita y minerales accesorios entre los perfiles, reflejando la heterogeneidad de sus materiales parentales. La composición mineralógica de la fracción arcilla permitió diferenciar dos tipos de materiales originarios, posiblemente relacionados con distintas áreas de aporte: I uno rico en esmectitas e illitas donde se desarrollan el Ustipsament, los Haplustoles y el Haplustert; y II otro con menor proporción de minerales expansibles y dominancia de illita, correspondiente a los horizontes C del Argiustol y el Haplustalf. Por otra parte, las curvas de Susceptibilidad Magnética muestran tendencias opuestas del Vertisol respecto al Argiustol, el Haplustalf y el Haplustol típico, reflejando condiciones físico-químicas diferentes entre estos suelos, mientras que en el Entisol y los Haplustoles énticos, las curvas varían irregularmente de acuerdo con la heterogeneidad de las capas sedimentarias que los conforman. El presente trabajo resume nuevos resultados e interpretaciones acerca de la génesis, composición y distribución de los suelos para una región donde esta información es todavía escasa.The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil-landscape relationships and the physico-chemical and mineralogical composition of different soils within the alluvial fan of Del Valle river, in the western part of the Chaco region in the Salta Province, Argentina. Six groups of soils with distinct characteristics were identified. Medium to coarse-textured Ustipsamments and Haplustolls were found on elongated gently convex sandy accumulations, drainage networks and plains of the proximal section of the alluvial fan. The medium-textured Argiustolls and Haplustalfs are mainly developed on stabilized plains in the intermediate section, while fine-textured Haplusterts characterize swamp environments between intermediate and distal sections of the fan. Mineralogical analyses were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS measurements. The XRD on total soils samples showed variations in the proportion of quartz, feldspars, muscovite and accessory minerals among the profiles, reflecting the heterogeneity of their parent materials. Moreover, according to the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction, two types of parent materials, possibly related to different source areas, were distinguished: I one containing high proportions of smectite and illite, where Ustipsamments, Haplustolls and Haplusterts are developed; and II another one with a lower proportion of expansive minerals and dominance of illite, corresponding to the C horizons of Argiustolls and Haplustalfs. The Magnetic Susceptibility of the Vertisol showed an opposite trend to that of the Argiustoll, Haplustalf and Typic Haplustoll, reflecting different physical-chemical conditions between those soil types, while the MS of the Entisol and Entic Haplustolls varied irregularly with depth in accordance to the heterogeneity of their sedimentary layers. This study summarizes new results and interpretations about the origin, composition and distribution of soils in a region where this information is still scarce.

  18. Lavoisierite, Mn2+ 8[Al10(Mn3+Mg)][Si11P]O44(OH)12, a new mineral from Piedmont, Italy: the link between "ardennite" and sursassite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Paolo; Biagioni, Cristian; Pasero, Marco; Mellini, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The new mineral species lavoisierite, ideally Mn2+ 8[Al10(Mn3+Mg)][Si11P]O44(OH)12, has been discovered in piemontite-bearing micaschists belonging to the Piedmontese Nappe from Punta Gensane, Viù Valley, Western Alps, Italy. It occurs as yellow-orange acicular to prismatic-tabular crystals up to a few millimeters in length, with white streak and vitreous luster, elongated along [010] and flattened on {001}. Lavoisierite is associated with quartz, "mica," sursassite, piemontite, spessartine, braunite, and "tourmaline." Calculated density is 3.576 g cm-3. In plane-polarized light, it is transparent, pleochroic, with pale yellow parallel to [010] and yellow-orange normal to this direction; extinction is parallel and elongation is positive. Birefringence is moderate; the calculated average refraction index n is 1.750. Lavoisierite is orthorhombic, space group Pnmm, with a 8.6891(10), b 5.7755(3), c 36.9504(20) Å, V 1854.3(2) Å3, Z = 2. Calculated main diffraction lines of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [ d in Å, ( I), ( hkl); relative intensities are visually estimated]: 4.62 (m) (112), 2.931 (vs) (11 10), 2.765 (s) (11 11), 2.598 (s) (310), 2.448 (ms) (028). Chemical analyses by electron microprobe give (in wt%) P2O5 2.08, V2O5 0.37, SiO2 34.81, TiO2 0.13, Al2O3 22.92, Cr2O3 0.32, Fe2O3 0.86, Mn2O3 6.92, MnO 19.09, MgO 5.73, CaO 1.94, Na2O 0.01, H2O 5.44, sum 100.62 wt%. H2O content was calculated from structure refinement. The empirical formula, based on 56 anions, is (Mn{5.340/2+}Mg1.810Ca0.686Na0.006)Σ=7.852(Al8.921Mn{1.739/3+}Mg1.010Fe{0.214/3+}Cr0.084Ti0.032)Σ=12.000(Si11.496P0.582V0.081)Σ=12.159O43.995(OH)12.005. The crystal structure of lavoisierite was solved by direct methods and refined on the basis of 1743 observed reflections to R 1 = 4.6 %. The structure is characterized by columns of edge-sharing octahedra running along [010] and linked to each other by means of [SiO4], [Si2O7], and [Si3O10] groups. Lavoisierite, named after the French chemist and biologist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794), displays an unprecedented kind of structure, related to those of "ardennite" and sursassite.

  19. The Study on the DeveloPment, Utilization & Protection of Ground Water Resources of Piedmont Aggraded Valley Plain%山前冲积平原地下水开发利用及保护探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔波; 任召水; 辛武允; 李凤鸣

    2003-01-01

    本文以山东省宁阳县城东区地下水开发利用情况为例.科学分析了山前冲积平原大量开采地下水引起的区域地下水环境变化,并提出了遏制地下水环境恶化的措施,采取节流与补源并举,严格控制地下水超采.

  20. TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGY ANALYSIS OF PIEDMONT RIVERS OF THE MIDDLE MT.LONGMENSHAN BASED ON HACK PROFILE AND HYPSOMETRIC INTEGRAL%龙门山中段山前河流Hack剖面和面积-高程积分的构造地貌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国华; 李勇; 颜照坤; 闫亮; 李敬波; 梁明剑; 马超; 郑立龙

    2014-01-01

    2008年5月12日龙门山发生了8.0级特大地震,仅仅时隔5年,在2013年4月20日,龙门山构造带南段又发生了M7.0级地震,说明该区域构造运动频繁发生,也因此成为地质地貌学家研究构造—地貌—水系的理想场所.构造活动对河流的发育、形态(纵剖面形态、平面形态、三维地貌)等有重要影响.基于DEM数据,本文提取了龙门山中段山前地区的湔江(R1)、金河(R2)、绵远河(R3)、干河子(R4)和安昌河(R5)5条河流及其次流域,分别计算了5条河流的Hack剖面、河长坡降指标(SL参数)以及标准化坡降指标(SL/K)等构造地貌参数,并计算了这5条河流及其次流域的面积-高程积分值,对该地区的构造活动、地貌演化特征进行分析.研究表明:1)龙门山中段山前地区5条河流的Hack剖面皆呈上凸形态,表明龙门山中段山前地区处于构造抬升状态;2)该地区的SL参数主要反映的断裂构造活动信息,SL参数在映秀-北川断裂峰值最为明显,说明该地区该断裂的活动性最强;3)龙门山中段的5条河流面积-高程积分线接近凹形,该地区地貌演化整体上处于“壮年期”向“老年期”过渡阶段;4)龙门山中段山前地区构造活动性在空间上有差异性,该地区的中南段活动性较强,北段地区活动性较弱.

  1. Late Cenozoic uplift of the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Sedimentary evidence from piedmont basins of the West Kunlun Mountains%青藏高原西北缘晚新生代的隆升特征——来自西昆仑山前盆地的沉积学证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司家亮; 李海兵; Laurie BARRIER; Jerome VAN DER WOERD; 孙知明; 裴军令; 潘家伟

    2007-01-01

    对西昆仑北缘山前盆地新生代沉积特征的研究结果表明,沿西昆仑山前发育的各沉积序列的垂向特征相似:古新世-中新世早期为石膏层、含瓣腮化石的石灰岩和紫红色较细粒的碎屑岩沉积,指示了海相和海陆过渡相较平静的沉积环境;中新世晚期-上新世初期开始出现陆相磨拉石,指示了陆相非平静的沉积环境,砾石的直径由下至上呈增大趋势,可能反映了西昆仑山体不断隆升,其间相对稳定的层段可能是构造运动间歇期或平稳期的沉积,指示了脉动式的隆升模式;磨拉石底部砾石的成分以沉积岩为主,向上火成岩和变质岩砾石逐渐增多,表明剥蚀程度不断加深.根据磨拉石建造的特征,判断剥蚀量和剥蚀强度自西向东有减小和变弱的趋势,可能暗示了西昆仑山晚新生代隆升有自西向东由强变弱的过渡特征.该结论与本区构造地貌学的研究结果一致.

  2. The application of the apatite fission track dating to the geothermal history in the northern piedmont zone of the Turpan depression, Xinjiang%吐鲁番坳陷北部山前带地质热历史--磷灰石裂变径迹法研究实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金玮; 柳益群; 王成善

    2004-01-01

    笔者应用磷灰石裂变径迹法对吐鲁番坳陷北部山前带的地质热历史进行了综合研究.重点对恰1井、照2井、大步1井的裂变径迹测试结果进行研究,得出北部山前带总体上磷灰石裂变径迹表观年龄随温度增高而逐渐减小,北部山前带的地温梯度古高今低和东高西低的认识.研究结果表明,三叠纪、侏罗纪的烃源岩在侏罗纪开始成熟,两套烃源岩均在侏罗纪末期达生烃高峰,从而得出北部山前带可成为油气勘探可选区的结论.

  3. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  4. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gandy, M.D., a cardiologist and chief medical marketing officer with the Piedmont Heart Institute in Atlanta and a volunteer with the American Heart Association. High blood pressure , obesity and diabetes are the ...

  5. Forest volume and biomass estimation using small-footprint lidar-distributional parameters on a per-segment basis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed a lidar-based, object-oriented (segmentation) approach to forest volume and aboveground biomass modeling. The study area in the Piedmont physiographic region of Virginia is composed of temperate coniferous, deciduous, and mixed...

  6. For Men Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, A. Victor, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College has developed a course designed to help men take an objective look at themselves and their circumstances, develop an awareness of alternate points of view, and learn processes for goal setting and lifestyle planning. (DC)

  7. 76 FR 29006 - In the Matter of Certain Motion-Sensitive Sound Effects Devices and Image Display Devices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90025. Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications (USA), Inc., 3333 Piedmont Road, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30305. Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Nya Vattentornet SE-221, 88 Lund...

  8. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the...

  9. Variation in the structure, composition, and dynamics of a foundation tree species at multiple scales and gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuta, Arvind Aniel Rombawa

    2011-01-01

    Scientists and land managers often focus on the Southeastern Plains and Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States when considering the ecology, restoration, and management of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) communities and ecosystems. However, the range of this foundation tree species and its associated communities and ecosystems also extend into the Piedmont and Montane Uplands: the Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, North and South Carolina and Virginia; the Ridge and Valley of A...

  10. Anthropogenic disturbance and landscape patterns affect diversity patterns of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, K.O.; Munguia, P.; Mitchell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Measures of species diversity are valuable tools for assessing ecosystem health. However, most assessments have addressed individual sites or regional taxon pools, with few comparisons of differences in assemblage composition within or among regions. We examined the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on local richness (?? diversity) and species turnover (?? diversity) of benthic macroinvertebrates in small streams within and between 2 ecoregions (Northern Piedmont vs Southeastern Plains ecoregions) of the Patuxent River basin (Maryland, USA). Regional species pools did not differ between ecoregions (Piedmont = 166 taxa, Plains = 162 taxa); however, local richness was lower in the Plains (mean = 17.4 taxa/stream) compared to the Piedmont (mean = 22.2 taxa/stream). When streams were categorized into disturbance classes (low, medium, high), local richness did not differ among categories for either region. However, at the entire Patuxent scale, local richness tended to decrease with % impervious cover in a watershed. Variation in species composition, analyzed with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), differed significantly between Piedmont and Plains streams, and Plains streams had higher ?? diversity than Piedmont streams. When partitioned by disturbance category and region, ?? diversity differed only between the low-disturbance sites (Plains > Piedmont). Relationships between ?? diversity and environmental variables varied by region. ?? diversity was weakly negatively related to % row-crop cover in a watershed at the entire Patuxent scale. For the Piedmont region, ?? diversity tended to decrease with % forest, % pasture, and % row-crop cover in a watershed. Such negative relationships between ?? diversity and landuse variables indicate a possible homogenization of the assemblage. The incongruence between diversity measures and composition measures, together with differing effects of anthropogenic land use on ?? diversity in the 2 regions, emphasizes the need

  11. Phylogeography, phylodynamics and transmission chains of bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1f in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Caruso, Claudio; Masoero, Loretta; Moreno, Ana; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in Italy is characterized by high genetic diversity, with at least 20 subtypes. Subtype 1f is endemic in a restricted geographic area, meaning that it has local distribution. We investigated the population dynamics of BVDV-1f in Northern Italy and characterized the transmission chains of a subset of samples from Piedmont and Aosta Valley regions. A total of 51 samples from 1966 to 2013 were considered and 5' UTR sequences were used for phylogeography. A subset of 12 samples was selected for Npro gene sequencing and further characterization of the transmission chains using both molecular and epidemiological data. Phylogeography estimated the root of BVDV-1f tree in Veneto in 1965. Four significant subclades included sequences clustering by region: Lombardy (n=3), Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna (n=7), Piedmont (n=17), Piedmont and Aosta Valley (n=21). The Piedmont-only subclade has a ladder-like branching structure, while the Piedmont and Aosta Valley subclade has a nearly complete binary structure. In the subset, the outbreak reconstruction identified one sample from Piedmont as the most probable source of infection for the Aosta Valley cases. An ad hoc questionnaire submitted to public veterinarians revealed connections between sampled and non-sampled farms by means of trades, exhibitions and markets. According to the phylogeography, BVDV-1f moved westward, entering from Veneto, and spreading to Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna in the early 1990s, and finally to Piedmont and Aosta Valley in the first decade of 2000s. Both phylogeographic analyses on the whole dataset and on the selection of Npro dataset pointed out that subtype 1f entered Aosta Valley from Piedmont. The integration of molecular and epidemiological data revealed connections between farms, and such approach should be considered in any control plan. In Aosta Valley, the study showed that BVDV1f can be controlled only monitoring the introduction of cattle from Piedmont

  12. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-06-01

    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  13. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We provide an assessment of the introduction of experience rating for medical malpractice insurance using 2002-2009 inpatient discharge records data on deliveries from the Italian Region of Piedmont. Considering experience rating as an increase in medical malpractice pressure, we show that such i......We provide an assessment of the introduction of experience rating for medical malpractice insurance using 2002-2009 inpatient discharge records data on deliveries from the Italian Region of Piedmont. Considering experience rating as an increase in medical malpractice pressure, we show...... that such increase decreased the incidence of cesarean sections between 7 and 11.6% with no consequences on a broadly defined measure of complications. Our identification strategy exploits the territorial peculiarities of Piedmont: its 33 hospitals are distributed across 16 Courts' districts, 10 of which use...

  14. Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯希杰; 戴王强

    2004-01-01

    Lateral migration of fault activity in Weihe basin is a popular phenomenon and its characteristics are also typical.Taking the activity migrations of Wangshun Mountain piedmont fault toward Lishan piedmont fault and Weinan platform front fault, Dabaopi-Niujiaojian fault toward Shenyusi-Xiaojiazhai fault, among a serial of NE-trending faults from Baoji city to Jingyang County as examples, their migration time and process are analyzed and discussed in the present paper. It is useful for further understanding the structure development and physiognomy evolution history of Weihe basin.

  15. Trade Competition and Route Development in Georgia and the Carolinas, 1740-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David C.

    1998-01-01

    Employs a graphical analysis evaluating the evolution of the transportation network in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain sections of Georgia and the Carolinas. Concludes that transport expansion appears to support the general parameters of the ideal-typical sequence model and provides useful material for instruction related to the national standards…

  16. Program Evaluation of the Direct Instruction Reading Interventions: Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nita M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…

  17. Dschola – a Regional School Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pantò ; E. Lavagno

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDschola is a regional project (set up in Piedmont, Italy) aimed at stimulating greater attention to ICT, by involving students, teachers and families in partnership with schools. It involves 2.828 educational structures and 50.000 teachers. The Dschola school network consists at the

  18. Removing Chinese privet from riparian forests still benefits pollinators five years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Hudson; James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is an invasive shrub of the Southeastern U.S. that forms dense stands and limits biodiversity. It was removed from heavily infested riparian forests of the Georgia Piedmont in 2005 by mulching machine or chainsaw felling and subsequent herbicide application. Abundance and species richness of bees and butterflies...

  19. 75 FR 79364 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...): Piedmont Green Power LGIA Amendment Filing to be effective 9/23/2010. Filed Date: 12/02/2010. Accession.... Applicants: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. Description: Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii): Brookfield Energy Marketing Inc. Market-Based Rate Tariff to be effective 12...

  20. Reasoning: The Fourth 'R'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Curtis

    1978-01-01

    Discusses an experimental competency-based general education program developed at Piedmont Technical College, stressing two process skills of communication and reasoning. Definition of "reasoning" is discussed and content and method for teaching a reasoning-based program are presented. (DR)

  1. Wildfire mitigation strategies affect soil enzyme activity and soil organic carbon in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E.J. Boerner; T.A. Waldrop; V.B. Shelburne

    2006-01-01

    We quantified the effects of three wildfire hazard reduction treatments (prescribed fire, thinning from below, and the combination of fire and thinning), and passive management (control) on mineral soil organic C, and enzyme activity in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Soil organic C was reduced by thinning,...

  2. Dschola – a Regional School Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pantò ; E. Lavagno

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDschola is a regional project (set up in Piedmont, Italy) aimed at stimulating greater attention to ICT, by involving students, teachers and families in partnership with schools. It involves 2.828 educational structures and 50.000 teachers. The Dschola school network consists at the mo

  3. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    against the backgrounid of rapid growth following World War 11, and the ensuing * technological, economic, social, and political changes of that period...Arkosic Sandstone and Red Shale with Conglomerate Basaltic Rock - Diabase and Gabbro in Sills and Dikes Piedmont Plateau Phyllites - Fine Grained Mica...Epidote Amphibolite - Metamorphosed Gabbro Wissahicken Formation - Coarse Mica Schist and Mica Gneiss Massive to Gneissic Granitic Rocks COASTAL

  4. A One-Room School for Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauton, Jane T.; Foster, Donna H.

    Piedmont Technical College's (PTC's) (South Carolina) service area is mostly rural and contains widespread illiteracy, weak economies, sparse education funding, large high-risk populations, and poor educational aspirations and attainment. By 1998, in an effort to provide greater access to its rural population and improve retention efforts, PTC had…

  5. Dschola – a Regional School Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pantò ; E. Lavagno

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDschola is a regional project (set up in Piedmont, Italy) aimed at stimulating greater attention to ICT, by involving students, teachers and families in partnership with schools. It involves 2.828 educational structures and 50.000 teachers. The Dschola school network consists at the mo

  6. Educating Faculty Members on the Importance of Requiring High-Quality Information Resources at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Beth; Glauner, Dana; Lefoe, Grant; Henry, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the South Piedmont Community College librarians educated faculty members about how they guide student use of the library and how it is advantageous for them to require high-quality resources for student papers. As documented by observations at SPCC and in the library literature, students use the tools they know to find…

  7. Shaw Air Force Base Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    condensate Piedmont three-awned grass ─ SC Sandridges Carex decomposita Cypress-knee sedge ─ SC Swamps and lake margins on floating logs Carya...Cypress-knee Sedge G3 Corya myrlstlciformis Nutmeg Hickory G4 Chomaedophne colyculato leatherleaf GS Cyperus Ieconte/ Leccnte Flatsedge G4

  8. Evolution of soil, ecosystem, and critical zone research at the USDA FS Calhoun Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel deB. Richter; Allan R. Bacon; Sharon A. Billings; Dan Binkley; Marilyn Buford; Mac Callaham; Amy E. Curry; Ryan L. Fimmen; A. Stuart Grandy; Paul R. Heine; Michael Hofmockel; Jason A. Jackson; Elisabeth LeMaster; Jianwei Li; Daniel Markewitz; Megan L. Mobley; Mary W. Morrison; Michael S. Strickland; Thomas Waldrop; Carol G. Wells

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Calhoun Experimental Forest was organized in 1947 on the southern Piedmont to engage in research that today is called restoration ecology, to improve soils, forests, and watersheds in a region that had been severely degraded by nearly 150 years farming. Today, this 2,050-ha research forest is managed by the Sumter...

  9. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  10. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  11. Fernbank Forest Birds in the Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    Provided is a listing of the common nesting birds and the neotropical migrant birds with nesting records in the approximate 65 acres of Fernbank Forest which is a preserve of mature urban hardwoods and pines within 10 miles of downtown Atlanta and a relic of what was once a large, uninterrupted tract of the Piedmont forest. (JJK)

  12. The Relationship of Teachers' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy and Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Danielle Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation was designed to describe the relationship of collective teacher efficacy to the phases of professional learning communities (PLC) in a rural school district in the southern piedmont region of North Carolina. Limited research exists in the area of collective teacher efficacy and its relationship to professional learning…

  13. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identied by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identication...... by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision making rather than by patient cream skimming....

  14. A Regional Study of Attitudes toward Public Schools, Private Schools and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John H.; Woodson, Marvin C., Jr.

    A questionnaire survey of 982 people in 4 shopping malls in the Piedmont region of South Carolina sought to assess public attitudes about the quality of public and private schools, proposed federal tuition tax credit legislation, tax support for private schools, and outcomes should tuition tax credits be adopted. Respondents were asked to "grade"…

  15. Spectral reflectance and soil morphology characteristics of Santa Rita Experimental Range soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Karim Batchily; Donald F. Post; R. B. Bryant; Donald J. Breckenfeld

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) soils are mostly transported alluvial sediments that occur on the piedmont slope flanking the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. The major geomorphic land forms are alluvial fans or fan terraces, but there are also areas of residual soils formed on granite and limestone bedrock, basin floor, stream terraces, and flood plains. The...

  16. Restoring longleaf pine forest ecosystems in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; E. E. Johnson

    2002-01-01

    Longleafpine (Pinus palustris) forests were historically one of the most extensive ecosystems in North America, covering 38 million ha along the coastal plain from Texas to Virginia and extending into central Florida and the Piedmont and mountains of Alabama and Georgia. Throughout its domain. longleaf pine occurred in forests, woodlands and savannas...

  17. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and Patriot Rail Corp. (Patriot... within a corporate family. PRL proposes to restructure its corporate family by converting two of its...) will become Piedmont & Northern Railway, LLC (PNRLLC). PRL directly controls noncarrier PRH, which...

  18. Best management practices for erosion control from bladed skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Wade; W. Michael Aust; M. Chad Bolding; William A. Lakel III

    2012-01-01

    Sediment from forest operations is primarily associated with roads and skid trails. We evaluated five skid trail closure treatments applied to bladed skid trails in the Virginia Piedmont. Closure treatments were Waterbars, Seed, Mulch, Pine slash, and Hardwood slash. Sediment traps were used to collect monthly sediment samples for one year. The Mulch, Pine slash, and...

  19. Growing Embedded Librarians Like Kudzu: How the Embedded Extension Service Creates More Embedded Librarians without Creating New Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrain, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In an era of exploding online enrollment and tight budgets, Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC) struggles to meet the needs of online students. CPCC librarians went one step towards solving that problem in 2009-2010 by launching an embedded librarian program. CPCC's program became so successful that it struggled to meet demand. In 2013, CPCC…

  20. Runoff phosphorus in a small rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia with no history of broiler litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastures are sources of phosphorus (P) into water sources and can contribute to eutrophication and impairment. Close to 4 million ha of land in the Southern Coastal Plain and the Southern Piedmont in eastern USA is used for pasture and hay production. We present an 11-yr (1999 to 2009) of dissolved ...

  1. Collaboration: Rethinking Roles and Strengthening Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrain, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration among librarians and faculty when designing courses can offer a new model of embedded librarianship that allows better scalability and opportunities for more authentic assessment. This column looks at one example at Central Piedmont Community College in Charlotte, North Carolina.

  2. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  3. Educating Faculty Members on the Importance of Requiring High-Quality Information Resources at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Beth; Glauner, Dana; Lefoe, Grant; Henry, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the South Piedmont Community College librarians educated faculty members about how they guide student use of the library and how it is advantageous for them to require high-quality resources for student papers. As documented by observations at SPCC and in the library literature, students use the tools they know to find…

  4. 76 FR 56760 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ....; Henry Medical Center, Inc.; Piedmont Healthcare, Inc. 20111184 G Hechos con Amor S.A. de C.V.; Avomex, Inc.; Hechos con Amor S.A. de C.V. 20111185 G Grupo Kuo, S.A.B. de C.V.; Avomex, Inc.; Grupo Kuo,...

  5. An Archaeological Survey of Certain Lands Adjacent to the Galisteo Dam, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-12

    precipitous escarp- ment of uplifted Jurassic formations fronting the Santa Fe piedmont slope. From the heights of this escarpment, elevation drops rapidly...of the area to be affected by the Galisteo Dam for the Laboratory of Anthropology, Museum of New Mexico, and the U.S. National Park Service. Several

  6. Old-Time Teaching in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle; Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Yamamoto, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    This is the story of three professors who found collective success in certain old-time approaches to teaching. Using three different first-person perspectives from Professors Burg, Piedmont, and Kamke, we examine some of the key components of such teaching orientation that may be helpful for professors navigating increased enrollments, while…

  7. Bootlegging Literacy Sponsorship, Brewing up Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Tracey Hammler

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how community literacy programs factor into broader economies of literacy development. The author analyzes two Appalachian community literacy projects, Shirley Brice Heath's ethnographic project in the Carolina Piedmont and Highlander Research and Education Center's organizing efforts with the Appalachian People's Movement, to…

  8. Characterization of the environmental biophysical units of the Glacís de Buenavista, Morelos, by means of a geomorphogenetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Martínez García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of applying a morphogenetic geomorphologic approach, the environmental biophysical units (EBU of the Glacís of Buenavista volcanic-piedmont were delineated and characterized. The study area belongs to the Colotepec River Basin in the State of Morelos, Central Mexico. The criteria applied to delineate EBU were, in the first phase an analytic geomorphologic procedure and in the second phase, a synthetic one. The thematic maps of geology, climatology, edaphology, hydrology, and land use/cover were used. In addition, it was included the basic information of the EBU delineation process within a GIS and a CAD environment. A description of the 65 EBU units of the Glacis of Buenavista volcanic-piedmont is included. The study area (20,272 ha was classified in seven categories according with its relief type, origin, lithology-age and geometric class of relief in: 1. Mountain-slopes of pyroclastic flows of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 2. Hillslopes of pyroclastic flows of Plio- Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 3. General piedmonts of pyroclastic flows of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 4. Summit interfluvial surfaces with adjacent barrancos of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 5. Local piedmont of Quaternary accumulative alluvial exogenous origin; 6. Alluvial plains of Quaternary accumulative exogenous origin; and, 7. Barranco´s hillslopes of denudational exogenous origin of Quaternary (Holocene with marginal accumulative alluvial plains. The biophysical characteristics of the EBU and the present environmental situation of the study area were synthesised.

  9. PAH EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...

  10. Victims Deserve More: The Building of a Forensics Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lili K.

    2007-01-01

    Because victims deserve more, The American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College was created to link cutting-edge forensics research to its field applications. It does this by enhancing the knowledge, skill, and ability levels of crime scene investigators, thereby increasing the likelihood that truth will be revealed…

  11. Setting new standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiamberti, A. [AEM, Turin (Italy); Peri, G.; Valagussa, C. [Alpina, Milan (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    The Pont Ventoux-Susa hydroelectric project, now under construction in Piedmont, is the first major project of its kind in Italy to have an Environmental Impact Assessment. On the eve of the ICOLD meeting in Italy this month, the authors kick off Water Power`s Europe feature with a look at progress on the scheme to date. (UK)

  12. Land changes and their driving forces in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, D.E.; Auch, R.F.; Headley, R.; Taylor, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The ecoregions of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge provide a continuum of land cover from the Atlantic Ocean to the highest mountains in the East. From 1973 to 2000, each ecoregion had a unique mosaic of land covers and land cover changes. The forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains provided amenity lands. The Piedmont forested area declined, while the developed area increased. The Southeastern Plains became a commercial forest region, and most agricultural lands that changed became forested. Forests in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain declined, and development related to recreation and retirement increased. The most important drivers of land conversion were associated with commercial forestry, competition between forest and agriculture, and economic and population growth. These and other drivers were modified by each ecoregion's unique suitability and land use legacies with the result that the same drivers often produced different land changes in different ecoregions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  13. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identified by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identification...... by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision making rather than by patient cream skimming.Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identified...... that these results are robust to the different methodologies and can be explained by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision making rather than by patient cream skimming....

  14. Utilization of EREP data in geological evaluation, regional planning, forest management, and water management in North Carolina. [emphasizing Davidson and Durham Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery was evaluated, compiling vegetational and land use information in conjunction with a potential state park site fin along the Eno River in Durham County. Preliminary evaluation indicates that accuracy of identification was at the 90% level. Attempts at distinguishing between rock types in the Piedmont have proved generally unsuccessful, and recognition of linear features seems the best geologic use which the imagery can be put. The study concentrated on the High Rock Lake area of Davidson County. A study evaluating Skylab photographs for land use mapping in urban and rural areas of Piedmont North Carolina shows that S190A and S190B as well as U-2 imagery have almost the same accuracy when the interpretations are assessed with the square grid sampling method, even though the S190B imagery basically has a greater resolution.

  15. Characterization of SWAT hydrologic parameter sensitivity and behavior across spatial and temporal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J. M.; Martin, K. L.; Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic models reflect our understanding of factors that regulate stream discharge and range from simple empirical models to highly complex process-based models. Sensitivity analysis is a commonly used tool to detect the parameters that significantly impact model results. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) analysis of patterns in parameter sensitivity could be used to better understand variation in controls on hydrologic behavior within and across a mountain-piedmont-coastal gradient, and (2) shifts in parameter significance among wet, dry, and average precipitation years could reveal differing sensitivities to variation in precipitation. To test our hypotheses, we applied the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to several small headwater sub-watersheds in the Yadkin-Pee Dee basin, located in North and South Carolina, USA. In global sensitivity analyses, we found that main channel routing and curve number for surface runoff parameters were the most significant parameters across all of the study watersheds. Parameters influence on hydrologic behavior varied across the physiographic gradient as well. Soil parameters were more sensitive in the Mountains, while the surface runoff lag coefficient and the plant uptake compensation factor were significant in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds. The groundwater revap coefficient was significant only in the Piedmont watersheds. We also found noticeable shifts in the behavioral ranges of parameters along the geographical gradient, including surface runoff, main channel routing and soil related parameters. There were also inter-annual variations across the dry, wet, and normal water yield years at the study watersheds. Mountain watersheds exhibited noticeable temporal variation in the behavior of parameters driving evapotranspiration, main channel routing, and soil properties. Two Piedmont watersheds had different temporal variations in parameter behavior, which might be due to the difference in landuse

  16. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Route Air Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-31

    MUNICIPAL) FM -FEDERAL EXPRESS ........................... DOMESTIC .02 02 JACKSONVILLE/CAMP LEEUNE N 0.00 ( ALBERT J ELLIS) PI . PIEDMONT AVIATION...FM -FEDERAL EXPRESS ................ DOMESTIC. CESSNA404 1 1 ALL TYPES .. 1 1 1 1 100.00 JACKSONILLE/CAMP WEUNE ( ALBERT J ELS...com m O I MAL-- caMu * CESSA 404. 2 2 ALL TYPES . 628 1 629 643 627 97.51 GILLETTE (CAMP9ELL) ............................... AP- ASPEN AIRWAYS

  17. Problèmes de pollution phosphatée de l'eau d'irrigation en zones aval d'oasis : le cas de la quatrième zone agricole irriguée de l'oasis du rio Mendoza, Argentine

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, Emilie; Morabito, José; Salatino, Santa E.

    2008-01-01

    By deriving water from the Mendoza River, fed by snow and Andean glacier ice melt, the Huarpe Indians created a piedmont oasis in the middle of Cuyo desert in Argentina. The oasis, later developed by the first Spanish settlers and generations of immigrants mostly of European descent, has become very important within the country's agricultural and agribusiness sector.At present, although agriculture has priority in the use of the available water because of its economic importance, it faces str...

  18. A Novel Bacteroidetes Symbiont Is Localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the Insect Vector of Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera

    OpenAIRE

    Marzorati, Massimo; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Palermo, Simona; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Balloi, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Clementi, Emanuela; Corona, Silvia; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease that afflicts several wine production areas in Europe, from Portugal to Serbia. FD is caused by a bacterium, “Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis,” which is spread throughout the vineyards by a leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus (Cicadellidae). After collection of S. titanus specimens from FD-contaminated vineyards in three different areas in the Piedmont region of Italy, we performed a survey to characterize the bacterial microflora associated with this in...

  19. La préparation du terrain et le contrôle de la végétation adventice affectent la productivité à long terme de Pinus taeda dans les stations des Piémonts du sud et des plaines côtières des États-Unis d'Amérique

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dehai; Kane, Michael; Borders, Bruce E.; Harrison, Mike; Rheney, John W.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A site preparation study was established in 1986 to evaluate the effect of different site preparation treatments on growth and yield of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the southern United States. Site preparation treatments included: (1) burn only, (2) chop-burn, (3) shear-pile-disk, (4) chop-herbicide-burn, (5) herbicide-burn, and (6) herbicide-burn-herbicide.* The data from the available 19 installations a...

  20. Petrology and Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Arc Plutons Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, SRS, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maryak, M.

    1998-10-21

    In this report is presented first a brief review of the regional geologic setting of the Savannah River Site, descriptions of the plutonic rock units sampled here, whole rock geochemical data on the plutonic igneous rocks, and finally, a discussion of how the crystalline basement rocks of the Savannah River Site formed and how they may correlate with other terranes exposed in the Piedmont of the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia.

  1. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The Knoxville 1°x 2° quadrangle spans the Southern Blue Ridge physiographic province at its widest point from eastern Tennessee across western North Carolina to the northwest corner of South Carolina. The quadrangle also contains small parts of the Valley and Ridge province in Tennessee and the Piedmont province in North and South Carolina. Bedrock in the Valley and Ridge consists of unmetamorphosed, folded and thrust-faulted Paleozoic miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cambrian to Mississippian. The Blue Ridge is a complex of stacked thrust sheets divided into three parts: (1) a west flank underlain by rocks of the Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group and slightly metamorphosed Late Proterozoic Ocoee Supergroup west of the Greenbrier fault; (2) a central part containing crystalline basement of Middle Proterozoic age (Grenville), Ocoee Supergroup rocks east of the Greenbrier fault, and rocks of the Murphy belt; and (3) an east flank containing the Helen, Tallulah Falls, and Richard Russell thrust sheets and the amphibolitic basement complex. All of the east flank thrust sheets contain polydeformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks of mostly Proterozoic age. The Blue Ridge is separated by the Brevard fault zone from a large area of rocks of the Inner Piedmont to the east, which contains the Six Mile thrust sheet and the ChaugaWalhalla thrust complex. All of these rocks are also polydeformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Inner Piedmont rocks in this area occupy both the Piedmont and part of the Blue Ridge physiographic provinces.

  2. 77 FR 3098 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ..., NDB/DME; Sec. 97.29 ILS, ILS/DME, MLS, MLS/DME, MLS/RNAV; Sec. 97.31 RADAR SIAPs; Sec. 97.33 RNAV... ILS OR LOC RWY 5L, ILS RWY 5L (CAT II), ILS RWY 5L (CAT III), Orig 9-Feb-12 NC Greensboro Piedmont Triad Intl. 1/0286 12/9/11 ILS OR LOC RWY 23R, Orig 9-Feb-12 WI Madison Blackhawk Airfield.. 1/0691...

  3. General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    LLWS AND IFR CONDS. NON MSL HGTS DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG . . SYNOPSIS...HI PRES RDG OVR SWRN VA-SERN NC BY 13Z OVR SERN VA- CNTRL NC. QUASI STNR FNT...SCT120 BKN CI. 06Z SRN PTN BKN150 TOP FL250. OTLK...VFR 10Z XTRM SRN PTN MVFR CIG SHRASN. PIEDMONT...SCT-BKN CI. 03Z SCT150 BKN CI. OTLK...VFR. CSTL

  4. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  5. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  6. The geology and chronology of the Acheulean deposits in the Mieso area (East-Central Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Barfod, Dan N; McHenry, Lindsay J; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the Quaternary sequence of the Mieso area of Central-East Ethiopia, located in the piedmont between the SE Ethiopian Escarpment and the Main Ethiopian Rift-Afar Rift transition sector.In this region, a piedmont alluvial plain is terraced at þ25 m above the two main fluvial courses, the Mieso and Yabdo Rivers. The piedmont sedimentary sequence is divided into three stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. Mieso Units I and II contain late Acheulean assemblages and a weakly consolidated alluvial sequence, consisting mainly of fine sediments with buried soils and, to a lesser degree, conglomerates. Palaeo-wetland areas were common in the alluvial plain, represented by patches of tufas, stromatolites and clays. At present, the piedmont alluvial surface is preserved mainly on a dark brown soil formed at the top of Unit II. Unit III corresponds to a fluvial deposit overlying Unit II, and is defined by sands, silty clays and gravels, including several Later Stone Age (LSA) occurrences. Three fine-grained tephra levels are interbedded in Unit I (tuffs TBI and TA) and II (tuff CB), and are usually spatially-constrained and reworked. Argon/argon (40Ar/39Ar) dating from tuff TA, an ash deposit preserved in a palustrine environment, yielded an age of 0.212 ± 0.016 Ma (millions of years ago). This date places thetop of Unit I in the late Middle Pleistocene, with Acheulean sites below and above tuff TA. Regional correlations tentatively place the base of Unit I around the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary, Unit II inthe late Middle Pleistocene and within the Late Pleistocene, and the LSA occurrences of Unit III in the LatePleistoceneeHolocene.

  7. Hydrogeochemical modeling of groundwater chemical environmental evolution in Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永海; 沈照理; 钟佐燊

    1997-01-01

    Using the hydrogeochemical modeling method, the groundwater chemical environmental problems of the Hebei Plain which involve increasing of hardness and total dissolved solids in piedmont area and mixing of saline water with fresh water in middle-eastern area are studied. The water-rock interactions and mass transfer along a ground-water flow path and in mixing processes are calculated. Thus the evolution mechanisms of the groundwater chemical environment are brought to light.

  8. Alluvial fan flooding in the Department of Pocito, Province of San Juan, Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LauraPatriciaPerucca; JuanParedes

    2004-01-01

    The study consists of the identification of landforms subject to alluvial fan flooding in active sectors of the Zonda range piedmont. In the Department of Pocito, located about 5 km southwest of San Juan City, a series of alluvial fans have been identified. These alluvial fans are located downstream of the natural drainage basins covering an area of approximately 130 km2 towards the eastern slopes of the Zonda range at a median elevation of 2,000 m a.s.l.

  9. Initial Response of Pine Seedlings and Weeds to Dried Sewage Sludge in Rehabilitation of an Eroded Forest Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Berry

    1977-01-01

    Dried sewage sludge was applied at rates of 0, 17, 34, and 69 metric tons/ha on a badly eroded forest site in the Piedmont region of northeast Georgia. Production of weed bio mass varied directly with amount of sludge applied. Heigh growth for both shortleafand loblolly pine seedlings appeared to be greater on plots receiving 17 metric tons of sludge/ha, bu differences...

  10. Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Annegret; Balestrini, Raffaella; Coutinho, Pedro; Jaillon, Olivier; Percudani, Riccardo; Porcel, Bettina; Rubini, Andrea; Amicucci, Antonella; Amselem, Joelle; Anthouard, Véronique; Arcioni, Sergio; Artiguenave, François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ballario, Paola; Bolchi, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    The Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) and the Piedmont white truffle dominate today’s truffle market. The hypogeous fruiting body of T. melanosporum is a gastronomic delicacy produced by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont endemic to calcareous soils in southern Europe. The worldwide demand for this truffle has fuelled intense efforts at cultivation. Identification of processes that condition and trigger fruit body and symbiosis formation, ultimately leading to efficient crop produc...

  11. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance for Proposed Flood Control Measures at Cramerton, Gaston County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-28

    6,000 Stanley Lecroy Kirk 17,000 E Palmer 1 8,000 - - - - L Hardaway 9,000 c E Clovis 10,000 Figure . Western Piedmont Cultural Sequence (after Coe:120-4...of i-ost.oid O’. Cultura aate’rial density in the s=r2eJ and deflated sample area is 0.35 piecei1.0 szuare meter. Anite quartz ncdules w€ere eroded

  12. Territorial Analysis for the Implementation of Geothermal Heat Pumps in the Province of Cuneo (NW Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs) strongly depends on the site-specific parameters of the ground, which should therefore be mapped for the rational planning of shallow geothermal installations. In this paper, a case study is presented for the potentiality assessment of low enthalpy geothermal energy in the Province of Cuneo, a district of 6900 km2 in Piedmont, NW Italy. The available information on the geology, stratigraphy, hydrogeology, climate etc. were processed and mapped, a...

  13. Deformation patterns of the Carboniferous, illustrated by the example of the Harpstedt district in Northern Germany; Deformationsstile des Karbon am Beispiel des Gebietes Harpstedt, Norddeutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, H. von [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The Carboniferous basin of North West Germany is part of the piedmont basin north of the Variscides stretching from Ireland and England to France, Germany, and Poland. In the West German part of the piedmont basin, the Prepermian Jurassic and Cretacious took part in the development of the Lower Saxon basin and tectogenic. This results in a highly complex seismic deformation picture. For example, in the Harz mountains, deformations of the former piedmont basin are developed in the Culm facies, but the further direction of deformation remains unclear. Hydrocabon explorations in the North West German basin also developed the Prepermian underground strata. 3D seismic exploration provided a three-dimensional image of the region. A 3D seismic measurement made aAt the southern edge of Pompeckj's block was evaluated in order to obtain information on the deformation pattern and its interdependence with a Variscan piedmont basin deformation. [German] Das Nordwestdeutsche Karbonbecken ist Teil des noerdlich des variszischen Orogens vorgelagerten Vorlandbeckens. Dieses Becken erstreckt sich von Irland und England ueber Frankreich, Deutschland bis nach Polen. Im westdeutschen Teil des Vorlandbeckens wird das praepermische Stockwerk im Jura und in der Kreide in die Entwicklung des Niedersaechsischen Beckens und des Niedersaechsischen Tektogens einbezogen. Hierdurch werden aeltere Deformationen ueberpraegt und die seismische Abbildung so komplex, dass kaum noch Aussagen ueber einen frueheren Deformationszustand gemacht werden koennen. Im Harz ist die Deformationen des ehemaligen Vortiefenbeckens z.B. in der Kulmfazies aufgeschlossen. Der weitere Verlauf der Deformation in Richtung Vorland ist jedoch unklar. Durch die Kohlenwasserstoffexploration im Nordwestdeutschen Becken wurde auch der praepermische Untergrund erschlossen. Die 3D-Seismik ermoeglicht es, sich ein dreidimensionales Bild dieses Gebietes zu verschaffen. Am suedlichen Rand der Pompeckjschen Scholle wurde eine

  14. Mountain species in the flora of the Sopotnia Wielka creek (Western Beskids, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoszek Wacław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of mountain species occurrence in the Sopotnia Wielka creek, in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts (Western Carpathians, Poland. The list contains 55 plant species, which represent the whole altitudinal spectrum from piedmont to alpine zones (Viola biflora, Mutellina purpurea. The species inhabit mostly moist and wet communities along creek. They represent mainly the Alpic-Central-European distributional type. Three species are endemics for the Carpathians: Aconitum firmum subsp. firmum, Crocus scepusiensis, Dentaria glandulosa.

  15. Evaluación económica de la producción de cítricos cultivados en el Piedemonte del Departamento del Meta durante 12 años

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mateus C; Xiomara Pulido C; Albert Gutiérrez; Javier O. Orduz-Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    An economic analysis of twelve years of production costs and income is presented for well drained high terrace soils of the piedmont of Meta department on orchards 12 years of Minneola tangelo, Valenciaorange, Arrayana tangerine for 8 years of Tahiti lime (due to premature death of plants by citrus tristeza virus). The plants were established in 1997 in the La Libertad research center of Corpoica and followed the recommendations developed by Corpoica for citrus crops. The information is pres...

  16. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  17. Soil Weathering as an Engine for Manganese Contamination of Well Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillispie, Elizabeth C; Austin, Robert E; Rivera, Nelson A; Bolich, Rick; Duckworth, Owen W; Bradley, Phil; Amoozegar, Aziz; Hesterberg, Dean; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2016-09-20

    Manganese (Mn) contamination of well water is recognized as an environmental health concern. In the southeastern Piedmont region of the United States, well water Mn concentrations can be >2 orders of magnitude above health limits, but the specific sources and causes of elevated Mn in groundwater are generally unknown. Here, using field, laboratory, spectroscopic, and geospatial analyses, we propose that natural pedogenetic and hydrogeochemical processes couple to export Mn from the near-surface to fractured-bedrock aquifers within the Piedmont. Dissolved Mn concentrations are greatest just below the water table and decrease with depth. Solid-phase concentration, chemical extraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy data show that secondary Mn oxides accumulate near the water table within the chemically weathering saprolite, whereas less-reactive, primary Mn-bearing minerals dominate Mn speciation within the physically weathered transition zone and bedrock. Mass-balance calculations indicate soil weathering has depleted over 40% of the original solid-phase Mn from the near-surface, and hydrologic gradients provide a driving force for downward delivery of Mn. Overall, we estimate that >1 million people in the southeastern Piedmont consume well water containing Mn at concentrations exceeding recommended standards, and collectively, these results suggest that integrated soil-bedrock-system analyses are needed to predict and manage Mn in drinking-water wells.

  18. The geochemical transformation of soils by agriculture and its dependence on soil erosion: An application of the geochemical mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyungsoo; Fisher, Beth; Ji, Junling; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2015-07-15

    Agricultural activities alter elemental budgets of soils and thus their long-term geochemical development and suitability for food production. This study examined the utility of a geochemical mass balance approach that has been frequently used for understanding geochemical aspect of soil formation, but has not previously been applied to agricultural settings. Protected forest served as a reference to quantify the cumulative fluxes of Ca, P, K, and Pb at a nearby tilled crop land. This comparison was made at two sites with contrasting erosional environments: relatively flat Coastal Plain in Delaware vs. hilly Piedmont in Pennsylvania. Mass balance calculations suggested that liming not only replenished the Ca lost prior to agricultural practice but also added substantial surplus at both sites. At the relatively slowly eroding Coastal Plain site, the agricultural soil exhibited enrichment of P and less depletion of K, while both elements were depleted in the forest soil. At the rapidly eroding Piedmont site, erosion inhibited P enrichment. In similar, agricultural Pb contamination appeared to have resulted in Pb enrichment in the relatively slowly eroding Coastal Plain agricultural soil, while not in the rapidly eroding Piedmont soils. We conclude that agricultural practices transform soils into a new geochemical state where current levels of Ca, P, and Pb exceed those provided by the local soil minerals, but such impacts are significantly offset by soil erosion.

  19. Geologic Map of the Needles 7.5' Quadrangle, California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    The Needles 7.5' quadrangle straddles the Colorado River in the southern part of the Mohave Valley, in Mohave County, Arizona, and San Bernardino County, California. The quadrangle contains part of the Havasu National Wildlife Refuge, sections of the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation, most of the city of Needles, and several major interstate highways and railroads. The quadrangle is underlain by structurally undeformed sediments of Pliocene and younger age that were deposited by the Colorado River, as well as alluvial fan deposits on the piedmonts that flank the Black Mountains (in Arizona) and the Sacramento Mountains (in California). Multiple cycles of aggradation of the Colorado River, each followed by episodes of downcutting, are recorded by Pliocene through historic deposits on the piedmonts that border the floodplain. Regionally, the complex stratigraphy related to the Colorado River has been the subject of geologic interest for over 150 years. The California and Arizona piedmont portions of the Needles quadrangle expose a subset of this incompletely understood stratigraphic record. Thus, the stratigraphic sequence presented on this map is a version of the stratigraphy of the Colorado River as interpreted locally. The deposits in the recently active Colorado River valley floor support riparian habitat and irrigated agriculture. The distributions of sand-rich channel deposits and mud-rich floodplain deposits in the valley are mapped on the basis of the history of the movement of the Colorado River in the quadrangle, which has been documented in sequential aerial photographs since 1937 and maps dating to 1857.

  20. Recent ground fissures in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Kuan; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Ground fissures are a geological hazard with complex formation mechanisms. Increasing amounts of human activity have created more ground fissures, which can destroy buildings and threaten human security. Some ground fissures indicate potentially devastating earthquakes, so we must pay attention to these hazards. This paper documents recently discovered ground fissures in the Hetao basin. These ground fissures are located along the frontal margins of the terraces of the Sertengshan piedmont fault. These fissures are 600-1600 m long, 5-50 cm wide, and at most 1 m deep. These ground fissures emerged after 2010 and ruptured newly constructed roads and field ridges. The deep geodynamic mechanisms within this extensional environment, which is dominated by NE-SW principal compressive shear, involve N-S tensile stress, which has produced continuous subsidence in the Hetao basin and continuous activity along the Sertengshan piedmont fault since the late Quaternary. Trenches across the ground fissures reveal that the fissures are the latest manifestation of the activity of preexisting faults and are the result of creep-slip movement along the faults. The groundwater level in the Hetao basin has been dropping since the 1960s because of overexploitation, resulting in subsidence. When the tensile stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength of the strata, the strata rupture along preexisting faults, producing ground fissures. Thus, the Sertengshan piedmont fault planes are the structural foundation of the ground fissures, and groundwater extraction induces the development of ground fissures.

  1. Surface rupture zone of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江娃利; 邓起东; 徐锡伟; 谢新生

    2004-01-01

    Based on the latest displacement of Huoshan piedmont fault, Mianshan west-side fault and Taigu fault obtained from the beginning of 1990's up to the present, the characteristics of distribution and displacement of surface rupture zone of the 1303 Hongtong M = 8 earthquake, Shanxi Province are synthesized and discussed in the paper. If Taigu fault, Mianshan west-side fault and Huoshan piedmont fault were contemporarily active during the 1303 Hongtong M = 8 earthquake, the surface rupture zone would be 160 km long and could be divided into 3 segments, that is, the 50-km-long Huoshan piedmont fault segment, 35-km-long Mianshan west-side fault segment and 70-km-long Taigu fault segment, respectively. Among them, there exist 4 km and 8 km step regions. The surface rupture zone exhibits right-lateral features. The displacements of northern and central segments are respectively 6~7 m and the southern segment has the maximum displacement of 10 m. The single basin-boundary fault of Shanxi fault-depression system usually corresponds to M ≈ 7 earthquake, while this great earthquake (M = 8) broke through the obstacle between two basins. It shows that the surface rupture scale of great earthquake is changeable.

  2. Organ and tissue donation in migrants: advanced course for cross-cultural mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, R; Guermani, A; Grosso, M; Fossarello, L; Fontaneto, C; Casciola, A; Donadio, P P

    2013-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2010 in Piedmont (Italy Northern Region) 1556 brain-death situations were reported, including 113 (7.3%) in migrants as potential organ and tissue donors. The health staff often has to face migrants, who show great cultural differences and language difficulties. The Molinette Hospital Customer Care Service, the Piedmont Regional Tissue and Organ Procurement Coordination Agency (RPC), and the Cross-Cultural Mediators Association (CMA) organized a special course for intercultural mediators, to decrease misunderstandings between the health staff and the migrants' families and to improve professional communication. In 2011, 28 cultural-linguistic mediators representing different groups of migrants in Piemonte took part in a specific course. Over a 5 month period they were informed about emotional and communicative aspects, proper to the moment of death, as well as organ donation as an intercultural field, the professional role of the mediator, the clinical and forensic aspects of brain death and donation, and the psychological aspects of organ donation. The course was organized by cultural-linguistic mediators of the CMA, the staff of the RPC and the teachers at Turin University. The list of the 21 mediators who passed the final exam was given to organ and tissue donation hospital co-ordinators in Piedmont, so that if necessary, they could obtain the cooperation of these qualified people.

  3. Electrical conductivity structure of southeastern North America: Implications for lithospheric architecture and Appalachian topographic rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first three-dimensional view of the lithospheric electrical conductivity structure beneath southeastern North America. By inverting EarthScope long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data, we obtain an electrical conductivity image that provides new insights into both the architecture of the Appalachian Orogen and the cryptic post-rifting geodynamic history of the southeastern United States. Our inverse solutions reveal several elongate electrically conductive features that we interpret as major terrane sutures within the Appalachian Orogen. Most significantly, we resolve a highly electrically resistive layer that extends to mantle depths beneath the modern Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. As high resistivity values in mantle minerals require cold mantle temperatures, the MT data indicate that the sub-Piedmont thermal lithosphere must extend to greater than 200 km depth. This firm bound conflicts with conclusions from seismic results. The boundary between the anomalously thick, resistive sub-Piedmont lithosphere and the relatively thin, moderately conductive sub-Appalachian lithosphere corresponds within resolution to the modern Appalachian topographic escarpment. This newly recognized contrast in lithospheric properties likely has important implications for Appalachian topographic rejuvenation.

  4. Deformation and incision of the western margin of the Central Andean Plateau, S. Peru and N. Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildgen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The western margin of the Central Andean Plateau in southern Peru and northern Chile hosts a rich geologic and geomorphic record of crustal deformation and river incision that developed during a period of regional plateau uplift. Significant growth of topography likely occurred in the western Central Andes starting at ca. 30 Ma, when the regionally extensive silts and sandstones of the Moquegua and Azapa Group sediments gave way to coarse sandstones and conglomerates. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, 3D thermal modeling, and infilling volcanic flows show that a subsequent major phase of canyon incision started in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon (southern Peru) between 11 and 8 Ma, with ca. 2-km of incision occurring between ca. 11 and 5 Ma. Surface uplift coeval with this incision has been documented in northern Chile, where rotated forearc basin deposits reveal 1 to 2 km of differential uplift between the Coastal Cordillera and the plateau margin that started after 11 to 10 Ma. In contrast with the 11 to 8 Ma onset of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon, the currently 1-km-high coastal/piedmont region appears not to have been affected by incision until after 5 Ma, as documented by the 50-km-wide alluvial and colluvial plain that remained occupied by rivers until at least 5 Ma. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology pointing to a final 1-km of incision in the middle reaches of Ocoña Canyon after ca. 5 Ma is supported by apatite 4He/3He thermochonometry, which documents the passage of a km-scale knickpoint through the same region between ca. 7 and 4 Ma. Although river incision provides only a minimum time constraint for the start of surface uplift, the broadly coincident start of incision with the rotation of forearc basin deposits in northern Chile implies a close temporal coupling between the start of surface uplift and the onset of incision in Ocoña Canyon. Furthermore, the delayed incision of the coastal/piedmont region until after 5 Ma shows

  5. Geologic Map of the Kings Mountain and Grover Quadrangles, Cleveland and Gaston Counties, North Carolina, and Cherokee and York Counties, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map of the Kings Mountain and Grover 7.5-min quadrangles, N.C.-S.C., straddles a regional geological boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The Kings Mountain sequence (informal name) on the western flank of the Carolina terrane in this area includes the Neoproterozoic Battleground and Blacksburg Formations. The Battleground Formation has a lower part consisting of metavolcanic rocks and interlayered schist and an upper part consisting of quartz-sericite phyllite and schist interlayered with quartz-pebble metaconglomerate, aluminous quartzite, micaceous quartzite, manganiferous rock, and metavolcanic rocks. The Blacks-burg Formation consists of phyllitic metasiltstone interlayered with thinner units of marble, laminated micaceous quartzite, hornblende gneiss, and amphibolite. Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont terrane include muscovite-biotite gneiss, muscovite schist, and amphibolite. The Kings Mountain sequence has been intruded by metatonalite and metatrondhjemite (Neoproterozoic), metagabbro and metadiorite (Paleozoic?), and the High Shoals Granite (Pennsylvanian). Layered metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont in this area have been intruded by the Toluca Granite (Ordovician?), the Cherryville Granite and associated pegmatite (Mississippian), and spodumene pegmatite (Mississippian). Diabase dikes (early Jurassic) are locally present throughout the area. Ductile fault zones of regional scale include the Kings Mountain and Kings Creek shear zones. In this area, the Kings Mountain shear zone forms the boundary between the Inner Piedmont and Carolina terranes, and the Kings Creek shear zone separates the Battleground Formation from the Blacksburg Formation. Structural styles change across the Kings Mountain shear zone from steeply dipping layers, foliations, and folds on the southeast to gently and moderately dipping layers, foliations, and recumbent folds on the northwest. Mineral assemblages in the Kings Mountain

  6. Winter Activity of Coastal Plain Populations of Bat Species Affected by White-Nose Syndrome and Wind Energy Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, John F; Larsen, Angela L; Homyack, Jessica A; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C

    2016-01-01

    Across the entire distribution of a species, populations may have variable responses to environmental perturbations. Many bat species experience mortality in large portions of their range during hibernation and along migratory paths to and from wintering grounds, from White-nose syndrome (WNS) and wind energy development, respectively. In some areas, warm temperatures may allow bats to remain active through winter, thus decreasing their susceptibility to WNS and/or mortality associated with migration to wintering grounds. These areas could act as a refugia and be important for the persistence of local populations. To determine if warmer temperatures affect bat activity, we compared year-round activity of bat populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, USA, two regions that differ in winter temperature. We established six recording stations, four along a 295-kilometer north-south transect in the Coastal Plain, and two in the Piedmont of North Carolina. We recorded bat activity over two years. We supplemented our recordings with mist-net data. Although bat activity was lower during winter at all sites, the odds of recording a bat during winter were higher at Coastal Plain sites when compared with Piedmont sites. Further, bats in the Piedmont had a lower level of winter activity compared to summer activity than bats in the Coastal Plain that had more similar levels of activity in the winter and summer. We found high bat species richness on the Coastal Plain in winter, with winter-active species including those known to hibernate throughout most of their range and others known to be long distance migrants. In particular, two species impacted by WNS, the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) and tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), were present year round in the Coastal Plain. The tricolored bat was also present year-round in the Piedmont. In the Coastal Plain, the long distance migratory hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) was active in the

  7. Integrating seismic reflection and geological data and interpretations across an internal basement massif: The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; Hatcher, R.D.; Stephenson, W.J.; Hooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window exposes 1.1 Ga Grenvillian basement and its metasedimentary Paleozoic(?) cover through the allochthonous Inner Piedmont. The issue of whether the crustal block inside the window was either transported above the master Appalachian (late Alleghanian) de??collement or is an autochthonous block that was overridden by the de??collement has been debated for some time. New detrital zircon geochronologic data from the cover rocks inside the window suggest this crustal block was derived from Gondwana but docked with Laurentia before the Alleghanian event. Reprocessed deep seismic reflection data from west-central Georgia (pre- and poststack noise reduction, amplitude variation analysis, and prestack depth migration) indicate that a significant band of subhorizontal reflections occurs almost continuously beneath the window collinear with the originally recognized de??collement reflections north of the window. A marked variation in the de??collement image, from strong and coherent north of the window to more diffuse directly beneath the window, is likely a partial consequence of the different geology between the Inner Piedmont and the window. The more diffuse image beneath the window may also result from imaging problems related to changes in topography and fold of cover (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). Two alternative tectonic models for the Pine Mountain window can partially account for the observed variation in the de??collement reflectivity. (1) The Pine Mountain block could be truncated below by a relatively smooth continuation of the de??collement. The window would thus expose an allochthonous basement duplex or horse-block thrust upward from the south along the Late Proterozoic rifted continental margin. (2) The window represents localized exhumation of autochthonous basement and cover along a zone of distributed intrabasement shearing directly beneath the window. Either model is viable if only reflector geometry is

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  9. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, mineral-occurrence, mineral-resource potential, and mineral-production maps of the Charlotte 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gair, Jacob Eugene; Goldsmith, Richard; Daniels, D.L.; Griffitts, W.R.; DeYoung, J.H.; Lee, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This Circular and the folio of separately published maps described herein are part of a series of reports compiled under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program ICUSMAP). The folio on the Charlotte 1 degree ? 2 degree quadrangle, North Carolina and South Carolina, includes (1) a geologic map; (2) four geophysical maps; (3) geochemical maps for metamorphic heavy minerals, copper, lead and artifacts, zinc, gold, tin, beryllium, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum, titanium, cobalt, lithium, barium, antimony-arsenic-bismuth-cadmium, thorium-cerium-monazite, and limonite; (4) mineral-occurrence maps for kyanite-sillimanite-lithium-mica-feldspar-copper-lead-zinc, gold-quartz-barite-fluorite, iron-thorium-tin-niobium, and construction materials-gemstones; (5) mineral-resource potential maps for copper-lead-zinc-combined base metals, gold, tin-tungsten, beryllium-molybdenum-niobium, lithium-kyanite- sillimanitebarite, thorium (monazite)-uranium, and construction materials; and (6) mineral-production maps. The Charlotte quadrangle is mainly within the Piedmont physiographic province and extends from near the Coastal Plain on the southeast into the Blue Ridge province on the northwest for a short distance. Parts of six lithotectonic belts are present--the Blue Ridge, the Inner Piedmont, the Kings Mountain belt, the Charlotte belt, the Carolina slate belt, and the Wadesboro basin. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are present and range in age from Proterozoic to Mesozoic; alluvial sediments of Quaternary age occur along rivers and larger streams. Rocks of the Blue Ridge include Middle Proterozoic granitoid gneiss intruded by Late Proterozoic granite; Late Proterozoic paragneiss, schist, and other metasedimentary and metavolcaniclastic rocks (Ashe and Grandfather Mountain Formations); Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian metasedimentary rocks (Chilhowee Group); and Early Cambrian sedimentary rocks (Shady Dolomite). Paleozoic granites intrude the

  10. Response of Groundwater to Climate Change under Extreme Climate Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Jincui Wang; Jihong Jing; Jichao Sun

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the water shortage areas of China. Lack of water resources restricted the economic and social development of North China area and resulted in deterio-ration of ecosystem and natural environment. Influenced by the climate change and human activities, the water circulation of NCP was largely changed and the crisis of water resources was aggravated. Therefore, it is important to study the features of the extreme climate and the response mechanism of groundwater to climate change. We analyzed the trend of climate change and extreme climate features in the past 60 years based on the monitoring data of meteorological stations. And then the response characteristics of groundwater to climate change were discussed. The average temperature of NCP was in an obviously upward trend. The overall precipitation variation was in a downward trend. The cli-mate change in this area showed a warming-drying trend. The intensity of extreme precipitation dis-played a trend of declining and then increasing from north to south as well as declining from eastern coastal plain to the piedmont plain. Grey correlation degree analysis indicated that groundwater depth had a close relationship with precipitation and human activities in NCP. The response of groundwater level to precipitation differed from the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain to the coastal plain. The response was more obvious in the coastal plain than the piedmont alluvial-pluvial plain and the middle plain. The precipitation influenced the groundwater depth both directly and indirectly. Under the condition of extreme precipitation, the impact would aggravate, in the forms of rapid or lag raise of groundwater levels.

  11. Fire Weather Index application in north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Piedmont region is located in North-Western Italy and is surrounded by the alpine chain and by the Appennines. The region is covered by a wide extension of forests, mainly in its mountain areas (the forests cover 36% of the regional territory. Forested areas are interested by wildfire events. In the period 1997–2005 Piedmont was interested by an average 387 forest fires per year, covering an average 1926 ha of forest per year. Meteorological conditions like long periods without precipitation contribute to create favourable conditions to forest fire development, while the fire propagation is made easier by the foehn winds, frequently interesting the region in winter and spring particularly. The meteorological danger index FWI (Fire Weather Index was developed by Van Wagner (1987 for the Canadian Forestry Service, providing a complete description of the behaviour of the different forest components in response to the changing weather conditions. We applied the FWI to the Piedmont region on warning areas previously defined for fire management purposes. The meteorological data-set is based on the data of the very-dense non-GTS network of weather stations managed by Arpa Piemonte. The thresholds for the definition of a danger scenarios system were defined comparing historical FWI data with fires occurred on a 5 years period. The implementation of a prognostic FWI prediction system is planned for the early 2008, involving the use of good forecasts of weather parameters at the station locations obtained by the Multimodel SuperEnsemble post-processing technique.

  12. Integrated Methodologies (SWOT, TOWS, LCA for Improving Production Chains and Environmental Sustainability of Kiwifruit and Baby Kiwi in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baudino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s kiwifruit growers are considered to be world-leading players of the past 20 years. However, with this success come its challenges. In the last five years, a bacterial canker of kiwifruit known as Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa has caused a dramatic reduction in the size of the areas cultivated, leading to several experienced Piedmontese Actinidia deliciosa growers beginning to cultivate the A. arguta. To better understand the potential for replacing the common kiwifruit in Italy’s Piedmont region with plantations of A. arguta and to attain a systematic approach and support for decision situations; we assessed the environmental impact of the two production chains (field and storage from a technical-operational perspective. The assessment was conducted through interviews with producers, field and warehouse technicians and sales managers in order to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the two systems. The work presented below considers the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method for the field system (two different phases of the plantation and the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis for the entire supply chain (field and warehouse management. Finally, a TOWS analysis (Threats, Opportunities, Weakness, Strengths integrated the results of both LCA and SWOT analyses and permitted to highlight the development strategies for A. arguta in Piedmont. The total orchard cycle for A. arguta presents an impact of 0.14 kg CO2 eq (GWP and for A. deliciosa an impact of 0.11 kg CO2 eq (GWP. Based on the synthesis of results from our TOWS analysis, we identified the following development strategies to help to shape the future A. arguta supply chain in Piedmont: Large-scale oriented; Berry fruits oriented; Export and organic oriented and Niche oriented.

  13. Quantitative morphology of bedrock fault surfaces and identification of paleo-earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honglin; Wei, Zhanyu; Densmore, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of morphologic characteristics of bedrock fault surfaces may be a useful approach to study faulting history and identify paleo-earthquakes. It is an effective complement to trenching techniques, especially to identify paleo-earthquakes in a bedrock area where trenching technique cannot be applied. In this paper, we calculate the 2D fractal dimension of three bedrock fault surfaces on the Huoshan piedmont fault in the Shanxi Graben, China using the isotropic empirical variogram. We show that the fractal dimension varies systematically with height above the base of the fault surface exposures, indicating a segmentation of the fault surface morphology. We interpret this segmentation as being due to different exposure duration of parallel fault surface bands, caused by periodical earthquakes, and discontinuous weathering. We take the average of fractal dimensions of each band as a characteristic value to describe its surface morphology, which can be used to estimate the exposure duration of the fault surface band and then the occurrence time of the earthquake that exposed the band. Combined with previous trenching results, we fit an empirical relationship between the exposure duration and the morphological characteristic value on the fault: D = 0.049 T + 2.246. The average width of those fault surface bands can also be regarded as an approximate vertical coseismic displacement of characteristic earthquake similar to the Hongdong M8 earthquake of 1303. Based on the segmentation of quantitative morphology of the three fault surfaces on the Huoshan piedmont fault, we identify three earthquake events. The coseismic vertical displacement of the characteristic earthquake on the Huoshan piedmont fault is estimated to be 3-4 m, the average width of these fault surface bands. Gaps with a width of 0.1-0.3 m between two adjacent bands, in which the fractal value increases gradually with fault surface height, are inferred to be caused by weathering

  14. The origins of the plebs Sanctae Agathae. Inscriptions lost and rediscovered on the history of Santhià in the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aimone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two fragments of white marble are embedded in the apsis’ wall outside the parish church of St. Agatha in Santhià (near Vercelli, in Piedmont: the first one is engraved with the final part of a dedicatory inscription to a martyr by a clergyman named Vvalpertus (or Alpertus; the second one is a part of a small pillar or a lintel coming from a presbytery enclosure, and is decorated with a motif of intertwined gallons. The inscription stayed in the middle of a pluteus bordered by a carved frame, of which only a part of the lower band survives: the letters and the style of the decorations allow a chronology within the 8th century, while the fragment of pillar is to be traced back to a period between the 8th and the first half of the 9th. Of special interest are the Lombard onomastic of the dedicator and, in the final surviving text, the “signature” of a sculptor, which is present in a second inscription of Lombard age found in Piedmont, adorned with carved decorations as well. The analysis of these artefacts - hitherto unpublished - offered the opportunity to restudy two other inscriptions once existing in the church of St. Agatha, long lost and of uncertain authenticity: all these data allow various deductions about the history of Santhià over the centuries of the early Middle ages, the presence of a clergy in the countryside of the diocese of Vercelli, and the work of sculptors and engravers active between the 8th and 9th century in an area between Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Provence, labelled in the past under the unifying name of “bottega delle Alpi Marittime”.

  15. Study of diseases of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy. First isolation of the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A

    1999-02-01

    The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels.

  16. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy) surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on s...

  17. The Greenland ice sheet - a model for its culmination and decay during and after the last glacial maximum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Hansen, Louise

    1996-01-01

    LGM, only southern Greenland (south of lat. 69°-72°N) saw a major expansion of the ice sheet with thick cover over the present coastline and onto the shelf. In the north, outlet glaciers filled fjord basins, including the Nares Strait between Canada and Greenland, and piedmont glaciers descended from...... coastal mountains onto the coastline, but the glaciers did not cover the shelf. Break up probably began after c. 15 ka, and took place in two discrete steps. First, the shelf and major inlets were cleared of marine based ice. There was little thinning of the ice on land, and in the northern parts...

  18. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Using inpatient discharge records from the Italian region of Piedmont, we estimate the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure brought about by experience-rated liability insurance on obstetric practices. Our identification strategy exploits the exogenous location of public hospitals in court...... districts with and without schedules for noneconomic damages. We perform difference-in-differences analysis on the entire sample and on a subsample which only considers the nearest hospitals in the neighborhood of court district boundaries. We find that the increase in medical malpractice pressure...

  19. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). Diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in ...

  20. Dermatosis caused by Corythuca ciliata (Say, 1932) (Heteroptera, Tingidae). diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Bertero, M

    2013-03-01

    The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining subjects who visit or live near wooded areas which are infested.

  1. Science.gov (United States)

    BERTERO, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present article discusses three cases of human infestation by Corythuca ciliata (Lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. The cases were all in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. It can be concluded that the Lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining subjects who visit or live near wooded areas which are infested. PMID:24397008

  2. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identied by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identication...... in the probability of performing a C-section from 2.3 to 3.7 percentage points (7% to 11.6% at the mean value of C-section) with no consequences for a broadly defined measure of complications or neonatal outcomes. We show that these results are robust to the different methodologies and can be explained...

  3. Actions and tools for the conservation and valorisation of rural architecture and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bosia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The valorisation of the traditional architecture is a key strategy to improve the economic development of rural areas. The activities of some G.A.L. (Local Action Group of Piedmont Region included the creation of guides focused on the refurbishment of the rural architecture, improving also the energy efficiency of buildings. The paper describes the targets, the methodology and the main results concerning the adoption of the guides and outline a monitoring project, aimed to assess strengths, weakness and opportunities, in order to improve the overall effectiveness of the measures and investments.

  4. Report on repetition analyses for pesticide residues: 1988-1995; Rapporto sulle revisioni di analisi per residui di antiparassitari-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Muccio, A.; Attard Barbini, D.; De Merulis, G.; Vergori, L.; Girolimetti, S.; Sernicola, L.; Dommarco, R. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1995-12-01

    From 1988 to 1995, 1,254 analyses were carried out on samples of fruits (61%), vegetables (29%), cereals and derived products (3%). The analyses were for 80 different pesticides, of which 51% were fungicides, 31% insecticides, 8% diphenylamine and ethoxiquin (post-harvest antioxidans agents for protection of fruits), and 5% antigermogliants and herbicides. Regions that mostly contributed with samples were: Emilia-Romagna (35%), Piedmont (15%), Liguria (11%), Tuscany (10%). Global rate of confirmation between first analysis and repetition analysis was 64% for all the samples analysed.

  5. The Andean orogenic front at Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras, Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos H.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Diederix, Hans; Cortés, José M.

    2000-07-01

    The Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras (Mendoza Province, Argentina, 32°15'S-32°45'S) presents one of the clearest and most continuous exposures of the Quaternary thrust front of the Precordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. It is characterized by an east-verging thrust that breaks the surface and causes Neogene sedimentary rocks to override Quaternary alluvial conglomerates. Monoclinal folds and progressive unconformities are characteristic of deformation in the upper part of the alluvial cover, indicating synchronous development of sedimentation and thrusting during the Quaternary. South of this range, ongoing deformation is by gentle warping of the piedmont alluvial plain, hiding blind thrusts at depth.

  6. Biodisponibilité du nickel dans les sols ferrallitiques ferritiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Effets toxiques de Ni sur le développement et la physiologie du maïs

    OpenAIRE

    L'HUILLIER, LAURENT

    1994-01-01

    Nickel mobility and bio-availability have been characterized in Oxisols (sols ferrallitiques ferritiques) in New Caledonia. It turns out that they are higher in plains when comparing to piedmonts. This difference could be the result of Ni bound to goethite in plain soils.Furthermore, the upper critical Ni concentration in the plant and in solution have been established. Maize growth is significantly reduced with 12 +- 3 µg Ni. g-1 DW in the shoots when their height is 75 cm at the level of th...

  7. LANDSAT landcover information applied to regional planning decisions. [Prince Edward County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Land cover information derived from LANDSAT is being utilized by Piedmont Planning District Commission located in the State of Virginia. Progress to date is reported on a level one land cover classification map being produced with nine categories. The nine categories of classification are defined. The computer compatible tape selection is presented. Two unsupervised classifications were done, with 50 and 70 classes respectively. Twenty-eight spectral classes were developed using the supervised technique, employing actual ground truth training sites. The accuracy of the unsupervised classifications are estimated through comparison with local county statistics and with an actual pixel count of LANDSAT information compared to ground truth.

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  9. The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) as an environmental bioindicator species of heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, Mauro; Quatto, Piero; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to examine the possible presence of lead and cadmium in the liver and kidneys of hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Liver and kidneys of hooded crow carcasses were collected in Province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy) in order to detect lead and cadmium content. Significant differences were found in lead and cadmium levels between areas of intensive cultivation versus areas where meadows are prevalent. Moreover, age greatly influenced the burden of heavy metals, while sex did not seem to affect the level of contamination. The source of contamination may be phosphate fertilizers used for intensive cultivation in the study area.

  10. Salmonella bongori 48:z35:– The first Italian case of human infection outside Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bellio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella bongori 48:z35:– is considered endemic to Sicily (Italy due to its epidemiological peculiarity. To our knowledge, no previous cases of human infection caused by S. bongori 48:z35:– have ever been reported in mainland Italy. Here we describe the isolation of S. bongori 48:z35:– from a 1-year-old symptomatic child in northwest Italy (Piedmont Region. The strain showed no antimicrobial resistance. Reporting of S. bongori 48:z35:– in a previously safe area is important to identify epidemiological changes.

  11. [Enterobiasis in pediatric subjects in north-western Italy: a study of home remedies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Montù, D; Raineri, G

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the most common home remedies in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy currently used in the treatment of pediatric enterobiasis, commonly known as pinworm infection. The remedies in question, typically based on popular beliefs and as such are nearly useless, were noted through interviews with subjects who had come to the local Hygiene and Public Health Services offices for information about pinworm prevention and treatment. Analysis of replies by the subjects clearly indicates that local families are ill-prepared to recognize the symptoms this parasitic infection; often it is confused with pediatric ketosis, therefore leading to inappropriate treatment which at times may be potentially harmful to the patient.

  12. Il Piemonte: dalla tradizione dei “beni culturali e ambientali” al paesaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cassatella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the Seventies, the Piedmont Region has got a careful legislation about the “cultural and environmental goods”. The approach to the landscape traditionally pays much attention to the conservation issues, minor to pro-active policies and planning strategies. The new Regional Landscape Plan (although, not approved shows signals of a new approach and introduces new topics, such as identity and scenic perception, the project of a multifunctional ecological network and the proposal for “integrated territorial projects”. A new law for the landscape gives a financial instrument to the programme of landscape enhancement.

  13. Metropolitan Washington Airport Investment Requirements,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    play an important part of this a check of schedules at various airports and other studies have provided a dwell time for each size aircraft. 2/ I... Auto Parking $1,000/Space $5,000/Space Y$ 83/L.F. - Two lane (25 fo ot total width) @ $30.00/S.Y. $167/L.F. = Four lane (50 foot total width) @ $30.00...Allegheny, American, Eastern, Northwest, TransWorld and United comprise the Main Terminal airline tenants with Braniff, Delta, National and Piedmont

  14. Dynamic behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley icefield system during a surge, and other measurements of Alaskan glaciers with ERS SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Craig S.; Fatland, Dennis R.; Voronina, Vera A.; Ahlnaes, Kristina; Troshina, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was employed for the measurement of the dynamics of the Bagley icefield during a major surge in 1993-1994, the measurement of ice velocities on the Malaspina piedmont glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for mapping the snow lines and the position of the terminus of Nabesna glacier on Mount Wrangell (a 4317 m andesitic shield volcano) in the heavily glacierized Saint Elias and Wrangell Mountains of Alaska. An overview and summary of results is given. The methods used include interferometry, cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery.

  15. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska as seen from STS-66 Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Malaspina Glacier can be seen in this north-northeastern photograph taken in November, 1994. The glacier, located in the south shore of Alaska is a classic example of a piedmont glacier lying along the foot of a mountain range. The principal source of ice for the glacier is provided by the Seward Ice Field to the north (top portion of the view) which flows through three narrow outlets onto the coastal plain. The glacier moves in surges that rush earlier-formed moraines outward into the expanding concentric patterns along the flanks of the ice mass.

  16. Native and alien squirrels in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy there are four species of squirrels: the native red squirrel and other three species recently introduced. The red squirrel is present in the Italian peninsula with three subspecies, and is missing only in Salento, and Italian islands. This species is common on Alps and Apennines, while in the plains it is declining because of the habitat loss. Competition with the grey squirrel and habitat fragmentation are considered the major threats to the survival of the red squirrel. The grey squirrel is present in Piedmont and Liguria. A study on the Piedmontese colony showed that the red squirrel is disappearing from the area colonised by the grey squirrel and the damage due to bark-stripping and feeding is considerable. Free-ranging populations of the Siberian chipmunk live in Belluno, Verona, and Rome, but records of single animals were reported for other areas. The Finlayson's squirrel is present with a small nucleus in an urban area of Piedmont. Here, the impact of this species on the vegetation appears dramatic. The eradication of the grey squirrel is a priority for the conservation of the red squirrel, but control plans for the other introduced species are also needed.

  17. Direct gain, insulated storage collector, demonstration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, M.E.

    1983-12-31

    A home was constructed to demonstrate to housing professionals and individuals how well a home with passive solar design elements will function in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The 1600 square foot wood framed house was designed to have broad market appeal. There are a number of passive solar design elements utilized, as well as close attention paid to details of thermally efficient construction. Enough glass is on the south side of the living area to provide sufficient heat on sunny days. Over half of the south glass is in the basement where there is thermal mass in the form of 55 gallon water drums and a thick concrete floor. They store the heat absorbed from the sun. This heat then radiates into the rest of the house at night. Having the thermal mass separated from the living space greatly reduces the problem of morning thermal lag, which is often seen in water wall homes. Temperature data were recorded to establish the thermal performance of the house. The quality of temperature control with this design has proven to be viable and cost effective for this region. These data, along with the concepts of solar design for the Piedmont region of North Carolina, have been presented to both individuals and housing professionals. Educational brochures were prepared and distributed, slide lectures given, group and individual consultations provided, and numerous site visits conducted.

  18. A subdued topography among the high relief, tectonic-active island ---registered middle to late Pleistocene climatic changes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, P.; Chen, B.

    2003-12-01

    The island of Taiwan is geographically in the frontal zone of the Asian monsoon region, and is geologically located in the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian plate. A Holocene uplifting rate of up to 10mm/yr in the eastern coast has been documented in this high relief mountainous island, and active folds and thrusts are common. When tracing the rivers backward to the mountain, one often encounters a subdued topography, covered by primary lateritic soil, above the higher river terrace and below the rugged mountains, and is referred to as lateritic highland (LH) by a previous author. Studies in paleoclimatology and geomorphology enable us to refine the possible age and origin of this remarkable topography. The penultimate glacial-interglacial cycle and the last interglacial period should be the major interval for the development of lateritic highland. LH may be looked upon as a reference surface for studying the dynamic evolution of the tectonic landscape of Taiwan. It shows that the lower uplifting rate is the most important factor for the preservation of the LH topography in this island. Based on the morphology of LH, different deformation styles are recognized in north and south Chiayi (near tropic of cancer), in western Taiwan. To the north, platforms originating from piedmont LH are well developed, whereas to the south, platforms and piedmont LH are hardly visible. This contrast is probably due to a lithological variance between them.

  19. [Environmental hygiene of the surgery suites for the control of surgical wound infection: Italian legislation and international guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, L; Castella, A; Di Legami, V; Pastorino, F; Farina, E C; Argentero, P A; Zotti, C M

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the study is to describe the application of surgical site infection (SSI) control procedures in general surgery operating rooms of Piedmont region hospitals. A specific data collection form was designed to record information. 54 questionnaires were compiled. Piedmont legislation related to operating rooms' equipment is obeyed in more than 90% of hospitals. Nevertheless, there are some critical aspects than could be risk factors for SSI or that are not useful in order to prevent them: use of UV radiation (11.3%), use of tacky mats at the entrance of the operating room (5.7%), special cleaning of operating rooms after contaminated or dirty operations (73.6%) and routine environmental sampling (10%) that is strongly recommended by ISPESL guideline in disagreement with international recommendations. Steam autoclave is used for surgical instruments sterilization by 100% of hospitals, but only 50% of them performs an annual validation of both autoclave performance and sterilization procedures. The study gave useful information in order to promote some structural modifications and personnel education for efficacious SSI prevention and control.

  20. Groundwater recharge at five representative sites in the Hebei Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaohui; Jin, Menggui; van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Wang, Bingguo

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are essential for effective management of groundwater, especially when supplies are limited such as in many arid and semiarid areas. In the Hebei Plain, China, water shortage is increasingly restricting socioeconomic development, especially for agriculture, which heavily relies on groundwater. Human activities have greatly changed groundwater recharge there during the past several decades. To obtain better estimates of recharge in the plain, five representative sites were selected to investigate the effects of irrigation and water table depth on groundwater recharge. At each site, a one-dimensional unsaturated flow model (Hydrus-1D) was calibrated using field data of climate, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. A sensitivity analysis of evapotranspirative fluxes and various soil hydraulic parameters confirmed that fine-textured surface soils generally generate less recharge. Model calculations showed that recharge on average is about 175 mm/year in the piedmont plain to the west, and 133 mm/year in both the central alluvial and lacustrine plains and the coastal plain to the east. Temporal and spatial variations in the recharge processes were significant in response to rainfall and irrigation. Peak time-lags between infiltration (rainfall plus irrigation) and recharge were 18 to 35 days in the piedmont plain and 3 to 5 days in the central alluvial and lacustrine plains, but only 1 or 2 days in the coastal plain. This implies that different time-lags corresponding to different water table depths must be considered when estimating or modeling groundwater recharge.

  1. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  2. 华北平原地下水动态变化%Shallow groundwater dynamics in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕琴; 宋献方; 王勤学; 肖国强; 刘昌明; 柳鉴容

    2009-01-01

    The groundwater level of 39 observation wells including 35 unconfined wells and 4 confined wells from 2004 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) was monitored using automatic groundwater monitoring data loggers KADEC-MIZU Ⅱ of Japan. The automatic groundwater sensors were installed for the corporation project between China and Japan. Combined with the monitoring results from 2004 to 2006 with the major factors affecting the dynamic patterns of groundwater, such as topography and landform, depth of groundwater level, exploitation or discharge extent, rivers and lakes, the dynamic regions of NCP groundwater were gotten. According to the dynamic features of groundwater in NCP, six dynamic patterns of ground-water level were identified, including discharge pattern in the piedmont plain, lateral re-charge-runoff-discharge pattern in the piedmont plain, recharge-discharge pattern in the central channel zone, precipitation infiltration-evaporation pattern in the shallow groundwater region of the central plain, lateral recharge-evaporation pattern in the recharge-affected area along the Yellow River and infiltration-discharge-evaporation pattern in the littoral plain. Based on this, the groundwater fluctuation features of various dynamic patterns were inter-preted and the influencing factors of different dynamic patterns were compared.

  3. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  5. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  6. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  7. Inferring the population structure and demographic history of the tick, Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, Tonya R; Lydy, Shari L; Dasch, Gregory A; Real, Leslie A

    2006-06-01

    A hierarchial population genetic study was conducted on 703 individual Amblyomma americanum from nine populations in Georgia, U.S.A. Populations were sampled from the Coastal Plain, midland Piedmont region, and the upper Piedmont region. Twenty-nine distinct haplotypes were found. A minimum spanning tree was constructed that indicated these haplotypes comprised two lineages, the root of which was distinctly star-like. The majority of the variation found was among ticks within each population, indicating high amounts of gene flow and little genetic differentiation between the three regions. An overall F(ST) value of 0.006 supported the lack of genetic structuring between collection sites in Georgia. Mantel regression analysis revealed no isolation by distance. Signatures of population expansion were detected in the shapes of the mismatch distribution and tests of neutrality. The absence of genetic differentiation combined with the rejection of the null model of isolation by distance may indicate recent range expansion in Georgia or insufficient time to reach an equilibrium where genetic drift may have affected allele frequencies. Alternatively, the high degree of panmixia found within A. americanum in Georgia may be due to bird-mediated dispersal of ticks increasing the genetic similarity between geographically separated populations.

  8. Estimating seed and pollen movement in a monoecious plant: a hierarchical Bayesian approach integrating genetic and ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Clark, James S

    2011-03-01

    The scale of seed and pollen movement in plants has a critical influence on population dynamics and interspecific interactions, as well as on their capacity to respond to environmental change through migration or local adaptation. However, dispersal can be challenging to quantify. Here, we present a Bayesian model that integrates genetic and ecological data to simultaneously estimate effective seed and pollen dispersal parameters and the parentage of sampled seedlings. This model is the first developed for monoecious plants that accounts for genotyping error and treats dispersal from within and beyond a plot in a fully consistent manner. The flexible Bayesian framework allows the incorporation of a variety of ecological variables, including individual variation in seed production, as well as multiple sources of uncertainty. We illustrate the method using data from a mixed population of red oak (Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Q. falcata) in the NC piedmont. For simulated test data sets, the model successfully recovered the simulated dispersal parameters and pedigrees. Pollen dispersal in the example population was extensive, with an average father-mother distance of 178 m. Estimated seed dispersal distances at the piedmont site were substantially longer than previous estimates based on seed-trap data (average 128 m vs. 9.3 m), suggesting that, under some circumstances, oaks may be less dispersal-limited than is commonly thought, with a greater potential for range shifts in response to climate change.

  9. Evolution of Groundwater Major Components in the Hebei Plain:Evidences from 30-Year Monitoring Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhong Zhan; Huaming Guo; Yu Wang; Ruimin Li; Chuntang Hou; Jingli Shao; Yali Cui

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water source in the Hebei Plain. Evolution of groundwater chemistry can not only provide scientific data for sustainable usage of groundwater resources, but also help us in better understanding hydrogeochemical processes in aquifers. Spatial distribution and tem-poral evolution were analyzed on basis of monitoring data between 1975 and 2005. Results showed that major components in groundwater had increasing trends since 1970s. Major components in shallow groundwater increased more than those in deep one. In shallow groundwater of piedmont alluvial fan-recharge zone, concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, SO42- had great increasing trends, while other major components increased by less than 30%. There were great increasing trends in Na+, Cl-, SO42-concen-trations in deep groundwater of central alluvial plain-intermediate zone, while other major components increased by no more than 20%. Deep groundwater from coast plain-discharge zone and piedmont al-luvial fan-recharge zone showed no significant variations in major ion concentrations. In shallow groundwater, dissolution, evaporation and human activities played a major role in the increase in major components. However, groundwater mixture resulting from deep groundwater exploitation was be-lieved to be the major factors for the increases in major components in deep groundwater of central al-luvial plain-intermediate zone.

  10. Implementation of Forestry Best Management Practices on Biomass and Conventional Harvesting Operations in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Barrett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Logging residues are often utilized as a Best Management Practice (BMP for stabilizing bare soil on forest harvesting operations. As utilization of woody biomass increases, concern has developed regarding availability of residues for implementing BMPs. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF inspects all logging operations in Virginia and randomly selects a portion of harvests for more intensive audits. The VDOF BMP audit process intensively evaluates implementation of BMPs in seven categories (84 specific BMPs on 240 sites per year. This research analyzed three years of audit data (2010–2012 to quantify differences in BMP implementation between biomass and conventional harvesting operations. Among 720 audited tracts, 97 were biomass harvests, with 88 occurring in the Piedmont region. Only the streamside management zone (SMZ category had significant implementation percentage differences between biomass (83.1% and conventional harvests (91.4% (p = 0.0007 in the Piedmont. Specific areas where biomass harvesting operations had lower implementation were generally not related to a lack of residues available for implementing BMPs, but rather were from a lack of appropriate SMZs, overharvesting within SMZs, or inadequate construction of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings. Existing BMP recommendations already address these areas and better implementation would have negated these issues.

  11. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  12. Charles Darwin and the firstscientific observations on the patagonian shingle formation (Rodados Patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available TheRodados Patagónicos is one of the most intriguing lithostratigraphic unitsin the Late Cenozoic of Patagonia. Charles Darwin named these gravels as the "PatagonianShingle Formation", when he discovered them during his trip toPatagonia on board HMS Beagle in 1832. According to the prevailing paradigm ofthe time, he assigned these deposits to a giant transgression during the GreatUniversal Déluge epoch, considering that their formation was related to waveaction along the beach in ancient times. The name of Rodados Patagónicos,as they are generally known in the Argentine geological literature, is usuallyconfusing since it has been applied to a wide number of geological units ofmultiple origin and age. Many authors have discussed the nature and origin ofthese gravels, considering them to have been formed by piedmont, alluvial,colluvial, glaciofluvial, and/or marine processes. Today, it is accepted thatthe term Rodados Patagónicos includes gravel deposits of varied nature and age,perhaps with a prevalence of piedmont genesis in northern Patagonia andglaciofluvial dynamics in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

  13. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  14. Modificações texturais de tomates heterozigotos no loco alcobaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILAS BOAS EDUARDO VALÉRIO DE BARROS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as modificações ocorridas durante o amadurecimento de três pares de híbridos de tomates do grupo multilocular, quase isogênicos, à exceção do loco alcobaça. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Lavras, em delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os pares de híbridos (Stevens x Flora Dade e Stevens x TOM-559; Piedmont x Flora Dade e Piedmont x TOM-559; NC-8276 x Flora Dade e NC-8276 x TOM-559 foram avaliados em quatro estádios de amadurecimento (breaker, rosa, vermelho-claro e vermelho, em quatro repetições. Os híbridos cujo genitor comum foi Flora Dade corresponderam ao genótipo normal (+/+, enquanto os híbridos heterozigotos alcobaça (+/alc foram provenientes do genitor comum TOM-559. A textura não foi afetada pelo alelo alcobaça nos estádios predeterminados de amadurecimento. Já a porcentagem de solubilização das substâncias pécticas, bem como a atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase, foram influenciadas pelo alelo alcobaça, que determinou a sua contenção. O amadurecimento dos tomates (+/+ e (+/alc foi marcado por intenso amaciamento, acompanhado por incremento na atividade da poligalacturonase e solubilização das substâncias pécticas.

  15. Pollen-mediated gene dispersal within continuous and fragmented populations of a forest understorey species, Trillium cuneatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Eva; Hamrick, J L; Smouse, P E; Dyer, R J

    2006-07-01

    Pollen movement plays a critical role in the distribution of genetic variation within and among plant populations. Direct measures of pollen movement in the large, continuous populations that characterize many herbaceous plant species are often technically difficult and biologically unreliable. Here, we studied contemporary pollen movement in four large populations of Trillium cuneatum. Three populations, located in the Georgia Piedmont, are exposed to strong anthropogenic disturbances, while the fourth population, located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, is relatively undisturbed. Using the recently developed TwoGener analysis, we extracted estimates of the effective number of pollen donors (N(ep)), effective mating neighbourhood size (A(ep)) and the average distance of pollen movement (delta) for each population. We extended the TwoGener method by developing inference on the paternal gametic contribution to the embryo in situations where offspring genotypes are inferred from seeds and elaiosomes of species with bisporic megagametogenesis. Our estimates indicate that maternal plants do not sample pollen randomly from a global pool; rather, pollen movement in all four populations is highly restricted. Although the effective number of pollen donors per maternal plant is low (1.22-1.66) and pollen movement is highly localized in all populations, N(ep) in the disturbed Piedmont populations is higher and there is more pollen movement than in the mountains. The distance pollen moves is greater in disturbed sites and fragmented populations, possibly due to edge effects in Trillium habitats.

  16. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  17. Site vegetation report: Terrestrial vegetation survey (1993--1995) for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (EcMP) was designed to investigate the long-term ecological trends in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) (DOE 1993). Field sampling was conducted during 1993, 1994, and 1995, until the program was terminated in late 1995. This report presents the terrestrial vegetation data that were gathered by the EcMP. The site is located on the Colorado Piedmont, east of the Front Range, between Boulder and Golden, approximately 25 km (16 miles) northwest of Denver. The topography and proximity of the Site to the mountain front result in an interesting mixture of prairie and mountain plant species. The Site is one of the few large, relatively undisturbed areas of its kind that remains along the Colorado Piedmont. Until 1989, the primary mission of the Site was the production of nuclear weapons components (DOE 1993). After production ceased, Site personnel shifted their focus to cleanup and closure.

  18. Identifying long-term empirical relationships between storm characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashie, Arik M.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow aquifers are an important source of water resources and provide base flow to streams; yet actual rates of groundwater recharge are difficult to estimate. While climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, the resulting impact on groundwater recharge remains poorly understood. We quantify empirical relations between precipitation characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge for a wide variety of geographic and land use types across North Carolina. We extract storm duration, magnitude, average rate, and hourly weighted intensity from long-term precipitation records over periods of 12-35 years at 10 locations. Using time series of water table fluctuations from nearby monitoring wells, we estimate relative recharge to precipitation ratios (RPR) to identify statistical trends. Increased RPR correlates with increased storm duration, whereas RPR decreases with increasing magnitude, average rate, and intensity of precipitation. Agricultural and urban areas exhibit the greatest decrease in RPR due to increasing storm magnitude, average rate, and intensity, while naturally vegetated areas exhibit a larger increase in RPR with increased storm duration. Though RPR is generally higher during the winter than the summer, this seasonal effect is magnified in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions. These statistical trends provide valuable insights into the likely consequences of climate and land use change for water resources in subtropical climates. If, as predicted, growing seasons lengthen and the intensity of storms increases with a warming climate, decreased recharge in Appalachia, the Piedmont, and rapidly growing urban areas of the American Southeast could further limit groundwater availability.

  19. Identifying long term empirical relationships between storm characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashie, Arik; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-01-01

    Shallow aquifers are an important source of water resources and provide base flow to streams; yet actual rates of groundwater recharge are difficult to estimate. While climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, the resulting impact on groundwater recharge remains poorly understood. We quantify empirical relations between precipitation characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge for a wide variety of geographic and land use types across North Carolina. We extract storm duration, magnitude, average rate, and hourly weighted intensity from long-term precipitation records over periods of 12–35 years at 10 locations. Using time series of water table fluctuations from nearby monitoring wells, we estimate relative recharge to precipitation ratios (RPR) to identify statistical trends. Increased RPR correlates with increased storm duration, whereas RPR decreases with increasing magnitude, average rate, and intensity of precipitation. Agricultural and urban areas exhibit the greatest decrease in RPR due to increasing storm magnitude, average rate, and intensity, while naturally vegetated areas exhibit a larger increase in RPR with increased storm duration. Though RPR is generally higher during the winter than the summer, this seasonal effect is magnified in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions. These statistical trends provide valuable insights into the likely consequences of climate and land use change for water resources in subtropical climates. If, as predicted, growing seasons lengthen and the intensity of storms increases with a warming climate, decreased recharge in Appalachia, the Piedmont, and rapidly growing urban areas of the American Southeast could further limit groundwater availability.

  20. Advancements in understanding the aeromagnetic expressions of basin-margin faults—An example from San Luis Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V. J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets. Advancements in aeromagnetic acquisition technology over the past few decades have led to greater resolution of shallow geologic sources with low magnetization, such as intrasedimentary faults and paleochannels. Detection and mapping of intrasedimentary faults in particular can be important for understanding the overall structural setting of an area, even if exploration targets are much deeper. Aeromagnetic methods are especially useful for mapping structures in mountain-piedmont areas at the margins of structural basins, where mineral exploration and seismic-hazard studies may be focused, and where logistical or data-quality issues encumber seismic methods. Understanding if the sources of aeromagnetic anomalies in this context originate from sedimentary units or bedrock is important for evaluating basin structure and/or depth to shallow exploration targets.

  1. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1979-03-01

    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of Washington, D.C., and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul McKelvey

    1964-01-01

    The area of this report includes 436 square miles centered about the District of Columbia. The area contains parts of two distinctly different physiographic provinces-the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. The Fall Line, which separates the Piedmont province on the west from the Coastal Plain Province on the east, bisects the area diagonally from northeast to southwest. Northwest of the Fall Line, deeply weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks are exposed ; to the southeast, these rocks are covered by Coastal Plain sediments; the nonconformity between crystalline rock and sediments dips southeast at an average rate of about 125 feet per mile. The rocks of the Piedmont include: (1) schist, phyllite, and quartzite of the Wissahickon Formation; (2) altered mafic rocks such as greenstone and serpentine; (3) the Laurel Gneiss of Chapman, 1942, and the Sykesville Formation of Jonas, 1928--both probably derived from the Wissahickon ; and (4) later granitic intrusive rocks. Lying upon this basement of hard rocks east of the Fall Line are the generally unconsolidated sediments of the Coastal Plain, which include gravel, sand, and clay, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Recent. These sediments measure only a few inches at their western extremity but thicken to 1,800 feet at the southeast corner of the mapped area. Owing to the great diversity in the geology of the two provinces, the waterbearing characteristics of the rocks also vary greatly. In the Piedmont, ground water occurs under unconfined or water-table conditions in openings and fissures in the hard rocks or in the residual weathered blanket that overlies them. In the Coastal Plain, the shallow wells tap unconfined water, but beneath the upper clay layers the water is contained in the sand and gravel under artesian pressure and must be recovered by deep drilled wells. Wells are of three types--drilled, bored, and dug. Drilled wells furnish a permanent water supply and are the least subject to pollution when properly

  3. Using Tracer Tests to Estimate Vertical Recharge and Evaluate Influencing Factors for Irrigated Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D.; Jin, M.; Brusseau, M.; Ma, B.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimation of vertical groundwater recharge is critical for (semi) arid regions, especially in places such as the North China Plain where vertical recharge comprises the largest portion of recharge. Tracer tests were used to estimate vertical recharge beneath agricultural systems irrigated by groundwater, and to help delineate factors that influence recharge. Bromide solution was applied to trace infiltration in the vadose zone beneath irrigated agricultural fields (rotated winter wheat and summer maize, orchards, and cotton) and non-irrigated woodlands at both piedmont plain (Shijiazhaung) and alluvial and lacustrine plains (Hengshui) in the North China Plain. The tracer tests lasted for more than two years, and were conducted at a total of 37 sites. Tracer solution was injected into the subsurface at a depth of 1.2 m before the rainy season. Soil samples were then collected periodically to observe bromide transport and estimate recharge rates at the point-scale. For these experiments, the only irrigation the fields received was that applied by the landowners. In addition to these tests, a controlled irrigation experiment was conducted at a single wheat and maize site. The results showed that recharge rates were lower for the alluvial and lacustrine plains sites, which comprise finer-textured soils than those present in the piedmont plain. Specifically, the recharge rate ranged between 56-466 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 110-564 mm/a beneath orchard, and 0-21 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.17 for the piedmont plain sites, while the recharge rate ranged between 26-165 mm/a beneath wheat-maize, 6-40 mm/a beneath orchard, 87-319 mm/a beneath cotton, and 0-32 mm/a beneath woodlands with an average recharge coefficient of 0.10 for the alluvial and lacustrine plain sites. Irrigation provided the primary contribution to recharge, with precipitation providing a minor contribution. The results of both the uncontrolled and controlled

  4. A fully coupled transient thermomechanical ice-flow/permafrost model of the Rhine Glacier, Switzerland: effects of permafrost on basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Zwinger, T.; Haeberli, W.; Fischer, U. H.

    2016-12-01

    The safe disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories requires their containment and isolation for up to one million years. Over that time period, the performance of the repositories in mid- and high-latitude regions can be impacted by future ice-age conditions which may cause deep glacial erosion, permafrost development, and changes in groundwater fluxes. In Switzerland, repositories are planned in the northern Swiss lowlands near the marginal zone of the former Rhine Glacier that repeatedly formed two extensive piedmont lobes (the Rhine and Linth lobes) over the Swiss Plateau. There, overdeepenings formed by glacial erosion indicate that the glacier was warm-based. Yet the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred under cold conditions: central Europe experienced extremely cold and dry conditions caused by the penetration of winter sea ice to low latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean and the corresponding closure of the primary humidity source north of the Alps. At the LGM, flat and extended lobes of large piedmont glaciers spreading out over much of the Swiss Plateau were polythermal, characterized by low driving stresses (typically around 30 kPa) and surrounded by continuous periglacial permafrost up to 150 m thick. Subsurface temperatures and groundwater flow conditions were strongly influenced by the presence of extended surface and subsurface ice. Using numerical models we explore the effects of permafrost on basal conditions of the piedmont lobes during the build-up of the Rhine Glacier. We apply a two-dimensional transient fully coupled thermomechanical full stress ice-flow and permafrost model along a flowline characterizing the Rhine lobe. The energy equation is solved in both ice and rock and permafrost is modeled using an effective heat capacity formulation to account for phase transitions. Transient effects during ice advances and permafrost build-up up to the LGM are resolved by modeling the full glacial cycle using reconstructed temperature

  5. Compliance with clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer treatment: a population-based study of quality-of-care indicators in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacerdote Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been documented that variations exist in breast cancer treatment despite wide dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of regional guidelines (Piedmont guidelines, PGL for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment on quality-of-care indicators in the Northwestern Italian region of Piedmont. Methods We included two samples of women aged 50–69 years with incident breast cancer treated in Piedmont before and after the introduction of PGL: 600 in 2002 (pre-PGL and 621 in 2004 (post-PGL. Patients were randomly selected among all incident breast cancer cases identified through the hospital discharge records database. We extracted clinical data on breast cancer cases from medical charts and ascertained vital status through linkage with town offices. We assessed compliance with 14 quality-of-care indicators from PGL recommendations, before and after their introduction in clinical practice. Results Among patients with invasive lesions, 77.1% (N = 368 and 77.5% (N = 383 in the pre-PGL and post-PGL groups, respectively, received breast conservative surgery (BCS as a first-line treatment. Following BCS, 87.7% received radiotherapy in 2002, compared to 87.9% in 2004. Of all patients at medium-to-high risk of distant metastasis, 65.5% (N = 268 and 63.6% (N = 252 received chemotherapy in 2002 and in 2004, respectively. Among the 117 patients with invasive lesions and negative estrogen receptor status in 2002, hormonal therapy was prescribed in 23 of them (19.6%. The incorrect prescription of hormonal therapy decreased to 10.8% (N = 10 among the 92 estrogen receptor-negative patients in 2004 (p Compliance with PGL recommendations was already high in the pre-PGL group, although some quality-of-care indicators did not reach the standard. In the pre/post analysis, 8 out of 14 quality-of-care indicators showed an improvement from 2002 to 2004, but only 4 out of 14

  6. Deformation during terrane accretion in the Saint Elias orogen, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, R.L.; Pavlis, T.L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of southern Alaska and adjacent Canada is a complex belt of mountains formed by collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane into the transition zone from transform faulting to subduction in the northeast Pacific. The orogen is an active analog for tectonic processes that formed much of the North American Cordillera, and is also an important site to study (1) the relationships between climate and tectonics, and (2) structures that generate large- to great-magnitude earthquakes. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin of southern Alaska. Interaction between the Yakutat terrane and the North American and Pacific plates causes significant differences in the style of deformation within the terrane. Deformation in the eastern part of the terrane is caused by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by reverse faulting beneath the coastal mountains, but there is little deformation immediately offshore. The central part of the orogen is marked by thrusting of the Yakutat terrane beneath the North American plate along the Chugach-Saint Elias fault and development of a wide, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. Strike-slip faulting in this segment may he localized in the hanging wall of the Chugach-Saint Elias fault, or dissipated by thrust faulting beneath a north-northeast-trending belt of active deformation that cuts obliquely across the eastern end of the fold-and-thrust belt. Superimposed folds with complex shapes and plunging hinge lines accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen, where the sedimentary cover of the Yakutat terrane is accreted into the upper plate of the Aleutian subduction zone. These three structural segments are separated by transverse tectonic boundaries that cut across the Yakutat terrane and also coincide with the courses of piedmont glaciers that flow from

  7. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater

  8. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  9. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  10. Strategic environmental assessment implementation of transport and mobility plans. The case of Italian regions and provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Montis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport and mobility plans imply strategies and actions that affect the environment. The European Union has introduced in 2001 the strategic environmental assessment (SEA to take into account and mitigate adverse environmental effects in planning and decision-making. SEA limited implementation has attracted the interest of many scholars that have sought methods able to assess the quality of SEA processes by identifying vices and virtues in practice. In this paper, we measure the quality of eight SEAs for transport and mobility plans of regional and provincial administrations of Italy. Results show that the overall quality level of SEA reports is only barely sufficient, Abruzzo is among the virtuous and Piedmont among the critical administrations. We also stress that the determination of impact significance has received the worse quality score. We finally compare our results to other Italian and British homologous cases finding interesting and generally confirmative evidences.

  11. MORPHOSTRUCTURE OF THE KODAR-UDOKAN SECTION OF THE BAIKAL RIFT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Lukashov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphostructure of the region is a natural result of active geodynamics in the eastern Stanovoe Upland. Extreme seismic conditions become apparent in rare devastating earthquakes (up to 10-11 in the Mercally scale, as well as in frequent slight ones. Seismic events affect topography and produce seismic deformations of different scale and morphology. Areal disturbances (like the New Namarakit Lake in the South-Muya Mountains origin and, more often, local deformations (like destructions of the Kodar ridge rocky saddles or clamms [gorges] opening are evident. Using morphotectonic analysis methods the morphostructural scheme of the Kodar-Udocan section of the Baikal rift zone (perhaps pull-apart basin is done. In our model piedmont and mountain territories are divided in five level groups of blocks. Neotectonic movements’ amplitude is estimated at 5000 m.

  12. Romans and Ostrogoths between integration and separation. The contribution of archeology to a historical debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aimone

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with issues of integration between the Roman population and new immigrants, known from the sources with the collective name of “Ostrogoths”, in the Italian kingdom of Theoderic. Earlier scholarship has focused mostly on the written sources, leading to conflicting conclusions. In this study the material evidence takes the forefront as main data to reconstruct trends of contacts and acculturation among natives and immigrants. The survey of the extant sites showing the possible presence of Ostrogothic groups around the end of the fifth century CE is here limited to modern Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. The emerging picture is quite complex:  while it is possible to identify interrelations and exchanges between the two groups at different levels of the social life, there are also clear signs of exclusions and separation attesting to a social and economic milieu in rapid transformation.

  13. Extreme flood events in the Bolivian Amazon wetlands

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    A. Ovando

    2016-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results showed that large floods are the result of the superimposition of flood waves from major sub-basins of the region. As a previous study suggested, the dynamics of the floods are controlled by an exogenous process, created by the flood wave originating in the Andes piedmont that travels through the Mamoré River; and by an endogenous process, which is the runoff originating in the Llanos. Our study showed that the first process is evident only at the initial phase of the floods, and although important for attenuating the rising flood wave, it is of lesser importance compared to the endogenous process. We conclude that the endogenous process controls the magnitude and duration of major floods.

  14. Design and methods of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA), 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste; Van Metre, Peter C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Button, Daniel T.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Qi, Sharon L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-07-15

    During 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain regions of the southeastern United States. This Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) simultaneously characterized watershed and stream-reach water-quality stressors along with instream biological conditions, in order to better understand regional stressor-effects relations. The goal of SESQA is to provide communities and policymakers with information about those human and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on stream quality across the region. The SESQA design focused on hydrologic alteration and urbanization because of their importance as ecological stressors of particular concern to Southeast region resource managers.

  15. Collaboration across clinical silos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, M Jane

    2013-01-01

    We face significant challenges to healthcare integration as well as tremendous opportunities to advance healthcare reform as we endeavor to provide a coordinated continuum of high-value services to defined populations for which we are clinically and fiscally accountable. As we move away from fee-for-service and poorly coordinated care toward value-based and bundled care, systems such as UnityPoint Health and clinical entities such as Piedmont Heart are leading the way, breaking down their clinical silos, improving value and access, and gaining patient loyalty. Evidence points us to sound principles that can inform the clinical integration process. Health systems must reinvent themselves, reengineer clinical operations, and streamline processes, all of which require collaboration across traditional silos, both inside our organizations and outside into our wider communities, to ensure that our patients receive the safe, high-value care they deserve.

  16. Direct access to physical therapy for the patient with musculoskeletal disorders, a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Leonardo; Maselli, Filippo; Viceconti, Antonello; Gianola, Silvia; Ciuro, Aldo

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] To present legislation comparing direct and referred access-or other measures-to physical therapy. The focus is on the management of the most burdensome musculoskeletal disorders in terms of regulations, costs, effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness. [Methods] Main biomedical databases and gray literature were searched ranging from a global scenario to the analysis of targeted geographical areas and specifically Italy and the Region Piedmont. [Results] legislation on Direct Access highlights inconsistencies among the countries belonging to World Confederation for Physical Therapy. Direct Access could be an effective, safe and efficient organization model for the management of patients with musculoskeletal diseases and seems to be more effective safer and cost effective. [Conclusion] Direct Access is a virtuous model which can help improve the global quality of physical therapy services. Further studies are required to confirm this approach and determine whether the findings of the present overview can be replicated in different countries and healthcare systems.

  17. Valutazione dei benefici per un sistema di trasporto locale nell’ambito del turismo culturale

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    Marina Bravi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need for an efficient Transport System (TS is widely recognized as an important factor of a successful program of tourism development, but little work has been made to investigate the impact of TS on Cultural Heritage Tourism (CHT. This is one of the most recognized and investigated forms of tourism but, unfortunately, there is a fragmentation in the research field that does not allow a full comprehension of existing relationships between TS, CHT, and tourist experience. In this light, the work tries to evaluate the economic impact of the on-site vs. long-distance transports, in a scenario where tourism public policies are not adequately developed. The analysis is based on CHT access data and economic information on travel costs managed with the help of a large data set coming from the Cultural Observatory of Piedmont Region (Italy.

  18. Modelling of karst structures by geophysical methods. An example: the doline of S. Pietro dei Monti (Western Liguria

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    M. Gambetta

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated geophysical investigations of karst structures were carried out in Liguria and Piedmont (NW Italy; this paper refers to the S. Pietro dei Monti doline, in the karst area of Mt. Carmo (Savona. The techniques used in the integrated study were magnetics, electromagnetics and seismic refraction. The target was to identify, without drilling, the nature of the doline, for example if it is of dissolution or collapse type. A preliminary susceptibility sampling of the outcrop and topsoil and the diffuse fractures with a probable water seepage suggested magnetics and VLF electromagnetics. Such methods applied in an area with an extremely low cultural noise allowed modelling of the buried structure of the doline.

  19. River systems: basin-scale responses to human and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverrell, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Geomorphological processes at a drainage basin scale operate on a continuum over environments from hillslope, piedmont, lowland alluvial to estuarine zones. During the Anthropocene the depositional or landform record typical reflects the cumulative effects of climate or extreme event forcing and conditioning by human-mediated landscape change, though tectonic and basin morphometry are other actors impacting on long-term landscape evolution. The sediment conveyer or cascade behaviour of the fluvial system, with spatially and temporally variable patterns of sediment delivery and storage punctuated by cycles of (dis)connectivity between depocenters, moderates the sediment and morphological regime. The well resolved and dated archives of change preserved in hillslope, alluvial and lacustrine sediment-landform assemblages offer some prospect for disentangling this integrated array of conditioning factors to better understand cause and effect. This paper explores these issues using several landform and sediment archives from the northwest British Isles.

  20. A new species of Chaetostoma Tschudi (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Colombia with a definition of the C. anale species group

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    Gustavo A. Ballen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaetostoma formosae sp. nov. is described from piedmont tributaries of the upper río Meta on the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of an elongate unbranched anal-fin ray with two posterior dermal ridges in mature males, the presence of strongly recurved cheek odontodes, the presence of a parieto-supraoccipital dermal keel, the posterior margin of the pelvic-fin strongly projected and angulate in shape in mature males, and by details of coloration. The new species belongs to an informal monophyletic group herein called the Chaetostoma anale species group, along with two additional species, C. anale and C. jegui, from Colombia and Brazil respectively, based on an apomorphic modification of the anal fin in mature males.

  1. Peligro de aluviones en el departamento Pocito, provincia de San Juan Alluvial hazard in the department of Pocito, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Perucca

    2005-03-01

    materials from the outcrops. Most of the piedmont is practically barren of vegetation, so superficial runoff is very rapid.The extent of active areas on the Zonda piedmont have been determined from geomorphology study of aerial photographs and topography. The active areas are inset at lower relative elevations in relations to adjacent ancient piedmont surfaces. In the floodplain, where the urban and rural areas are located, historical floods have been confined to number 13 and 15 streets, that are oriented parallel the downslope direction of the piedmont, with a west-east trend. During rainfalls these streets have been transformed in natural riverbeds that flow through the populated areas, influencing the path of the floods and limiting damages to structures. But streets and irrigation channels with a north-south trending are affected and damage. In this work, an evaluation of hydrologic aspects of torrential La Lechuza creek basin is made. This stream cause the largest of damages in the department.The establishment of a prediction and warning system, public education and structural measures are means to minimize alluvial plain flooding at Pocito department.

  2. Strategie istituzionali e mediazioni notarili nella documentazione dei comuni subalpini. Percorsi di ricerca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olivieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the studies about the processes that in Northern-central Italy led to the formation of a “communal documentary system” during 12-14th century, this paper suggests an alternative search path directed to an examination of some of the greatest documentary evidences and of their mutual relations. It particularly focuses on the formation of the libri iurium and on the changes brought by the communal institutions in the traditional patterns of notarial documentation. Through the analysis of a document relating to an agreement between Asti and Chieri, two Piedmont communal towns, we'll give a concrete example of this study approach, showing a complex set of problems that can be conceptually distinguished but that appear strictly connected in the thick contexture of the written document.

  3. Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution. Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated. Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in

  4. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  5. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  6. La pianificazione paesaggistica in Piemonte. Approfondimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi La Riccia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a systematic deep examination about the situation of landscape planning in Piedmont. This research is structured on the analysis and interpretation of legislative and planning instruments, by two fundamental approaches. On the one hand, there are the modalities by which landscape enters the regional legislation. On the other hand the research focuses on regional landscape planning instruments, like the Regional Territorial Plan (1997 and the new Regional Landscape Plan (2009, suggesting a comparison between cognitive, strategic and regulative dimensions. Finally, we find an in-depth examination about the question concerning landscape authorization, the sub-delegation to local authorities and main issues on implementation of regional strategies, public participation, the role on local identities and the methodology of identification of landscapes.

  7. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identified by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identification...... in the probability of performing a C-section from 2.3 to 3.7 percentage points (7% to 11.6% at the mean value of C-section) with no consequences for a broadly defined measure of complications or neonatal outcomes. We show that these results are robust to the different methodologies and can be explained...... by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identification strategy exploits the exogenous location of public hospitals in court districts with and without schedules for noneconomic damages. We perform difference-in-differences and difference-in-discontinuities analyses. We find...

  8. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  9. Planetary science: are there active glaciers on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Alan R; Montgomery, David R; Mushkin, Amit

    2005-12-08

    Head et al. interpret spectacular images from the Mars Express high-resolution stereo camera as evidence of geologically recent rock glaciers in Tharsis and of a piedmont ('hourglass') glacier at the base of a 3-km-high massif east of Hellas. They attribute growth of the low-latitude glaciers to snowfall during periods of increased spin-axis obliquity. The age of the hourglass glacier, considered to be inactive and slowly shrinking beneath a debris cover in the absence of modern snowfall, is estimated to be more than 40 Myr. Although we agree that the maximum glacier extent was climatically controlled, we find evidence in the images to support local augmentation of accumulation from snowfall through a mechanism that does not require climate change on Mars.

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of fluconazole and voriconazole against non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Fucale, Giacomo; Allizond, Valeria; Banche, Giuliana; Barbui, Anna; Li Vigni, Nicolò; Newell, Vance A; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Tullio, Vivian

    2015-10-01

    The risk of opportunistic infections caused by non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi is increasingly common, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Appropriate first-line therapy has not been defined and standardized, mainly due to the low number of cases reported. To improve empirical treatment guidelines, we describe the susceptibility profile to fluconazole and voriconazole of 176 non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi collected from hospitals in Piedmont, North West Italy from January 2009 to December 2013. The results showed that most isolates are susceptible to voriconazole (94%), but less susceptible to fluconazole (78%), suggesting that voriconazole could be used as first-line therapy in infections caused by these fungi.

  11. [Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia.

  12. Monazite deposits of the southeastern Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertie, John Beaver

    1953-01-01

    Monazite, a phosphate of the rare earths, is the principal mineral from which the cerium earths and thorium are obtained. Fluviatile monazite placers were mined in the Piedmont province of North and South Carolina from 1887 to 1911, and again intermittently from 1915 to 1917; but the principal sources In recent years have been the beach placers of India and Brazil. In 1946, an embargo was placed on the exportation of Indian monazite, and the Brazilian production has not increased materially to replace this loss. Accordingly monazite in recent years has become a scarce commodity. The principal domestic sources from which monazite may be recovered commercially are in Idaho and in the Piedmont province of the southeastern States. Some monazite is now being produced in Idaho, and a small output is being recovered as a byproduct of heavy mineral mining in Florida. The southeastern placers were not exhausted by the earlier mining and new deposits have been discovered; but production from this region awaits adequate exploration. The country rock of the southeastern Piedmont province is a complex assemblage of metamorphic and igneous rocks. The monazite occurs in two belts. A western belt has been traced from east-central Virginia for 600 miles southwestward into Alabama; and an eastern belt has been traced from the vicinity of Fredericksburg, Va., south-southwestward for 200 miles into North Carolina. Monazite-bearing rocks near. Rion, S. C., appear to indicate a southwestward continuation of the eastern belt. The western, or principal belt, includes the placers that were formerly mined in North and South Carolina. These placers were sampled, and the monazite was separated from the best of the samples, for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The tabulated results show a mean tenor, in the headwater placers of highest grade, of 8.4 pounds of monazite to the cubic yard. Farther downstream where mining must be done to obtain larger yardages, the tenor will be much lower

  13. Disponibilité du nickel le long d'une toposéquence de sols développés sur roches ultramafiques de Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Becquer,Thierry; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Pétard, Jean

    1995-01-01

    Les quantités de nickel facilement disponible extrait par KCl M et DTPA 0,005 M + CaCl2 0,01 M à pH 5,3 ont été déterminées dans deux types de sols oxydiques d'une toposéquence sur péridotites. Le premier appartient à un faciès de piedmont, le second à un faciès alluvio-colluvial. Il s'avère que les quantités de Ni extraites sont pratiquement nulles dans le premier type de sol, tandis qu'elles atteignent 120 microg/g de sol (NiDTPA) dans le second. Cette plus grande disponibilité dans le seco...

  14. Climate-related change of snow contribution in the development of dangerous hydrological phenomenon on rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Semenov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under current climate change the amount of snow plays a fundamental role in occurrence of hazardous hydrological events causing a steady growth in frequency of hazardous snow melt floods in mountain and piedmont areas in the south of Siberia and the Urals and coastal areas of the Far East. For these areas as well as for the Caucasus the following is also typical: greater influence of snow on occurrence of hazardous snow-rainfall floods, higher frequency of hazardous snowfalls and avalanching. Small amount of snow is one of the factors causing higher frequency of extreme lacks of water in summer low water periods on rivers of Asian Russia. On rivers of European Russia increased frequency of thaws and longer periods of snow melt reduce flood risk and enhance the role of snow in feeding underground waters to impede the growth in frequency of extreme lacks of water during low water periods.

  15. The Southeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Journey, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. The goal of the Southeast Stream Quality Assessment (SESQA) is to characterize multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life—contaminants, nutrients, sediment, and streamflow alteration—and the relation of these stressors to ecological conditions in streams throughout the region. Findings will provide communities and policymakers with information on which human and environmental factors are the most critical in controlling stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve stream quality. The SESQA study will be the second regional study by the NAWQA program, and it will be of similar design and scope as the Midwest Stream Quality Assessment conducted in 2013 (Van Metre and others, 2012).

  16. Engagement with beauty: appreciating natural, artistic, and moral beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Solom, Rebecca C; Frost, Nellie K; Parsons, Lucas; Davidson, John

    2008-05-01

    The Engagement With Beauty Scale (EBS), designed from the aesthetics of I. Kant (1790/1987), G. W. F. Hegel (ca. 1835/1993), and T. Aquinas (ca. 1260/1947) and the psychological work of J. Haidt (J. Haidt & D. Keltner, 2004), measures engagement with natural, artistic, and moral beauty. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors describe scale construction, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and temporal stability. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors also establish concurrent validity with the Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence subscale of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test (P. C. Watkins, K. Woodward, T. Stone, & R. L. Kolts, 2003), and the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (R. L. Piedmont, 2004). In Study 3, the authors used the EBS Artistic Beauty subscale to differentiate students engaged in the arts from those who were not.

  17. Open Innovation as Business Model Game-changer in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaur, Aakanksha; Osella, Michele; Ferro, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    strategies influence public sector business models. This study seeks to understand this interdependency. Building upon an action research study on crowdsourcing related to policies around telemedicine conducted in the Piedmont region of Italy, this paper highlights how public sector business models could......Organizations are increasingly looking to tap into external knowledge sources through open innovation initiatives. Most public sector agencies are in the early stages of adoption of open innovation and are in the process of defining relevant issues. Once such issue concerns how open innovation...... be better aligned with open innovation strategies (in our case crowdsourcing). Our results indicate that in adopting a crowd-based open innovation strategy, the content, structure and governance dimensions of public sector business model need to be aligned accordingly. The content of the business model...

  18. Giuseppe Garibaldi and Sweden: Between Solidarity and Scandinavism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Quirico

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The book entitled Scandinavia: Her Fears and Her Hopes, written in French, was published on February 29, 1856, in Paris, where representatives of the European Powers were discussing peace negotiations with Russia ensuing the end of the Crimean War. The author, Gustaf Lallerstedt, a moderate liberal, a diplomat, and majority shareholder of the liberal newspaper "Aftonbladet", was first in outlining a parallelism between the proactive role played by Piedmont in Italy's unification and the similar one that Sweden, in his opinion, ought to take upon herself vis-à-vis Scandinavian unity. Lallerstedt's aim was also to warn the European nations against the Russian threat; in this perspective, strengthening the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway (established in 1814 could provide an effective remedy.

  19. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota.

  20. The contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals in soils of the southern Cis-Ural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asylbaev, I. G.; Khabirov, I. K.

    2016-01-01

    The contents and distribution patterns of alkali and alkaline earth metals in soils and rocks of the southern Cis-Ural region were studied. A database on the contents of these metals was developed, the soils were classified with respect to their provision with these metals, and corresponding schematic maps showing their distribution in soils of the region were compiled. It was found that the contents of these metals decrease from east to west (from the Yuryuzan-Aisk Piedmont Plain to the Ufa Plateau and to the Belebeevsk Upland), and their distribution patterns change. Among alkali metals, the highest accumulation in the soils is typical of potassium, sodium, and cesium; among alkaline earth metals, of strontium and barium.

  1. Ecological state of River Po from source to Verrua Savoia. Preliminary report; Classificazione dello stato ecologico del bacino del Po dalle sorgenti a Verrua Savoia. Indagine preliminare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defilippi, A. [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Regione Piemonte, Dipartimento di Ivrea, Ivrea (Italy); Occelli, C. [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Regione Piemonte, Dipartimento di Torino, Turin (Italy); Tentindo, C. [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Regione Piemonte, Dipartimento di Cuneo, Cuneo (Italy); Bonadio, C.; Crivellaro, G.; Passarino, G. [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Regione Piemonte, Dipartimento di Grugliasco, Grugliasco, Turin (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    In the context of a project about the realization of archives including all of the proper data to describe the quality of superficial waters and the elements that can affect it, a first experimentation of quality index estimated by D. Lgs. n. 152/99, mod. by D. Lgs. n. 258/00, has been applied to analytical data obtained for some Piedmont watercourses. [Italian] Nell'ambito di un progetto dedicato alla realizzazione di un archivio unico comprensivo di tutti i dati atti a descrivere la qualita' delle acque superficiali e gli elementi che su di essa possono influire, si e' attuata una prima sperimentazione dell'applicazione degli indici di qualita' previsti dal D. Lgs. n. 152/99, mod. dal D. Lgs. n. 258/00, ai dati analitici rilevati nell'anno 1999 su alcuni corpi idrici piemontesi.

  2. Correlation between river slope and meandering variability (obtained by DGPS data) and morphotectonics for two Andean tributaries of the Amazon river: the case of Beni (Bolivia) and Napo (Ecuador-Peru) rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrel, L.; Darrozes, J.; Guyot, J.; Christophoul, F.; Bondoux, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Beni river drains a catchment area of 282 000 km2 of which 40 percent are located in the Cordillera of the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes, and the rest in the Amazonian plain : the studied reaches runs from Guanay (Andean Piedmont) to Riberalta (junction with Madre de Dios river) that represents a distance by the river of 1055 km. The Napo river starts in the Ecuadorian Andes and leaves Ecuador in Nuevo Rocafuerte (27 400 km2) and enters in Peru until its junction with the Amazon river : the studied section runs from Misahualli (Andean Piedmont) to this junction, that represents a distance by the river of 995 km. The GPS data were acquired using a mobile GPS embarked on a boat and 4 fixed bases located along the Beni river, 6 along the Napo river and the two rivers profile calculated from post-treated differential GPS solutions. For the Beni river, two sectors were identified: - the upstream sector (~230 km) between Guanay (414 m) and 50 km downstream Rurrenabaque (245 m) is located in Andean Piedmont, which consists in a series of thrusts associated with anticlines and synclines (the subandean zone), and presents slope values range between 135 cm/km and 10 cm/km and an average index of sinuosity (IS) of 1.29, - the downstream sector (~ 820 km) which runs in Amazonian plain (until Riberalta -165 m-), is characterized by an average slope of 8 cm/km and an average IS of 2.06 (this sector is much more homogeneous and the Beni river shows a meandering channel). For the Napo River, three sectors were identified: - the first sector (~140 km) between Misahualli (401 m) and Coca (265 m), is located in Andean Piedmont (subandean zone) and presents slope values range between 170 cm/km and 30 cm/km and an average IS of 1.6, - the second sector (~250 km) between Coca (when the Napo river enters in the Amazonian plain) and Nuevo Rocafuerte (190 m), presents slope values range between 30 cm/km and 20 cm/km and an average IS of 1.2, and a convex-up shape profile corresponding to

  3. Evaluation and targeting of geothermal energy resources in the southeastern United States. Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III; Krishna Sinha, A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in the evaluation of low-temperature geothermal resources in the eastern United States utilizing geological, geochemical, and geophysical data is reported. Primary programmatic emphasis is now being placed on the confirmation of radiogenic resources beneath sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Collation of existing gravity and magnetic data available for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is complete, and modeling of selected negative gravity anomalies of the Cuffytown Creek (Edgefield) pluton, S.C., the Rolesville batholith, N.C., and the Petersburg granite, Va., is in progress. Maps showing the distribution of gravity stations for the states of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were prepared. A reconnaissance geologic map is being prepared of the Raleigh belt and Carolina slate belt rocks. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of the Rolesville batholith to the surrounding country rocks, and to provide a geologic base for the geophysical interpretation of Piedmont stratigraphy underlying Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments to the east.

  4. [Effect of landscape change on the structure of the sting-less bee community (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Meta, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Palacios, Eliana; Parra-H, Alejandro

    2008-09-01

    Stingless bees represent one of the most diversified components of the natural Apoidea fauna of pollinators in the tropics. They use diverse kinds of substrates and inhabit varied habitats. Some species are typical for some natural either artificial place. The landscape alteration were this group of bees nests, has and important impact on the natural composition of its community structure, fact which is reflected in the nest density. We analyzed the structure composition of the stingless bees' community in three environments in the Colombian Ilanos piedmont, an important region that represents the transition between Andean ecosystems and a savannah that is seriously threatened by cattle practices. We made systematic samples in secondary forest, agro-ecosystems and urban areas, recording the presence of 204 nests from 11 genera (24 species). The nest density per landscape was heterogeneous and never higher than 16 nests/Ha. We observed two nesting patterns and an effect of sampling criterion on the measured biodiversity.

  5. Genetic and environmental effects on morphology and asexual reproduction in the moss, Bryum bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A.J. (Ithaca College, NY (USA))

    A distinctive form of Bryum bicolor, characterized by stoutly excurrent costae and abundant asexual gemmae, occurs on heavy metal-contaminated tailings of the Conrad Hill Mine in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Plants from two mine site populations, plus two other populations from Richmond, Virginia, were grown on three types of soil in order to determine the degree to which morphological traits, including the number of gemmae per plant, can be modified by substrate. All populations grew equally well in the mine soil, and there was no evidence that plants from the mine site populations were physiologically adapted for growth on the contaminated tailings. Leaf dimensions, costa length, and number of gemmae per stem were strongly influenced by substrate, although some differences between populations were maintained under experimental conditions. Populations also differed in the efficacy with which plants regenerated from gametophytic fragments.

  6. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sourcesof production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

    2006-07-01

    We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to imageground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal fieldduring different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elasticinversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March,1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this timeperiod were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within thevalley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence andsubsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressureand volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localizedupflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdownwithin the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our resultsalso suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in theshallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont faultzones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears tobe controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament ofas yet unknown origin.

  7. Involuntary psychiatric admissions: A retrospective study of 460 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zeppegno

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We collected the data relating to involuntary hospital treatment (IHT in the University Psychiatric Ward at Novara Hospital between 1991 and 2002, and compared them with those relating to Piedmont and the whole of Italy. Methods: The data were collected from the ward medical records. Results: IHT was much more frequent among young male schizophrenics living with their families of origin. Most of the subjects were not working at the time of admission. There was a statistically significant correlation between male gender and the risk of being admitted for a period of less than 12 days. The risk of being admitted for more than 12 days significantly correlated with the province of birth and residence, as well as with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis. Conclusions: Schizophrenia is the diagnosis that is most frequently associated with IHT.

  8. 6th Regional Symposium of the International Fossil Algae Associaton, Milano, July 1-5, 2009. Abstracts and Field trip guide-book.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Benzoni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 6th Regional Symposium of the IFAA held in Milano, from 1 to 5 July 2009, follows the 5th Regional meeting in Ferrara (2005 and the 9th International Symposium held in Zagreb (2007. The Symposium was jointly organized by the University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Geological Sciences and Geotechnologies, and by the University of Genova, Dip.Te.Ris. Geologists and paleontologists of the University of Genova have been studying coralline-rich outcrops of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin since the end of the XIX Century (G. Rovereto, M. Airoldi, S. Conti, V.I. Mastrorilli, producing the scientific descriptions of dozens of new species, the types of which are housed in the Genova Dip.Te.Ris.This volume represetn the abstract book and the field trip guide book edited for the symposium.

  9. On the way of Friuli "yellow villages": the use of a calcareous-dolomitic sandstone in the surroundings of the quarrying area through the centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The role of local stone building material in cultural and technological heritage is based on the definition of the area of use, as related to ancient transportation networks, allowing the movement of heavy blocks from the quarries to the building sites. It is the case of the result of several surveys carried out for the detection of the architectural elements, dating from Middle Age to 20th century, made of a yellowish calcareous-dolomitic sandstone, which have been found, hidden among renovated buildings and new construction, in Friuli region (NE Italy). on the way between the quarrying piedmont western area and the towns of Udine and Spilimbergo. Starting from the definition of the quarrying area, the contribution give notice of such architectural elements (frames, columns, …), both in vernacular architecture and in relevant buildings, putting in evidence the period of their realisation and their technological features.

  10. Headcount 2010: the multiplication of the grey squirrel populations introduced to Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of non-native animal species is an important cause of loss of biodiversity, for this reason their population control has received a lot of attention in the scientific literature. While the number of introduced species of many taxa is constantly growing, the eradication of new populations (“a posteriori” action and the regulation of the trade of live animals and plants (“a priori” strategies is proceeding slowly. Tree squirrels as a taxon and grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis in particular are among the most successful invasive alien species. Here we present the current situation (October 2010 of the grey squirrel in Italy. The grey squirrel was first reported in Piedmont in an area around the Stupinigi forests in 1948. Subsequent major introductions were reported in Genova-Nervi (1966 and the Ticino Valley Regional Park in Lombardy (1999. In 2010, there were 24 areas with a (meta population or nucleus of grey squirrels: 23 of these were in the three regions most affected by the invasive species Piedmont, Lombardy and Liguria. The number of known areas with grey squirrel presence has strongly increased in the last years. With the exception of the Genova-Nervi population, there is a lack of detailed knowledge on grey squirrel distribution and population size in areas where animals are now known or believed to be present. We underline the necessity to introduce immediately a ban on grey squirrel trade and, preferably, to all invasive species of the Sciuridae family, and to start immediate control or eradication actions.

  11. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  12. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  13. A heterogeneity test for fine-scale genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smouse, Peter E; Peakall, Rod; Gonzales, Eva

    2008-07-01

    For organisms with limited vagility and/or occupying patchy habitats, we often encounter nonrandom patterns of genetic affinity over relatively small spatial scales, labelled fine-scale genetic structure. Both the extent and decay rate of that pattern can be expected to depend on numerous interesting demographic, ecological, historical, and mating system factors, and it would be useful to be able to compare different situations. There is, however, no heterogeneity test currently available for fine-scale genetic structure that would provide us with any guidance on whether the differences we encounter are statistically credible. Here, we develop a general nonparametric heterogeneity test, elaborating on standard autocorrelation methods for pairs of individuals. We first develop a 'pooled within-population' correlogram, where the distance classes (lags) can be defined as functions of distance. Using that pooled correlogram as our null-hypothesis reference frame, we then develop a heterogeneity test of the autocorrelations among different populations, lag-by-lag. From these single-lag tests, we construct an analogous test of heterogeneity for multilag correlograms. We illustrate with a pair of biological examples, one involving the Australian bush rat, the other involving toadshade trillium. The Australian bush rat has limited vagility, and sometimes occupies patchy habitat. We show that the autocorrelation pattern diverges somewhat between continuous and patchy habitat types. For toadshade trillium, clonal replication in Piedmont populations substantially increases autocorrelation for short lags, but clonal replication is less pronounced in mountain populations. Removal of clonal replicates reduces the autocorrelation for short lags and reverses the sign of the difference between mountain and Piedmont correlograms.

  14. Glacial advances and ESR chronology of the Pochengzi Glaciation,Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Pochengzi Glaciation is a typical glaciation in Quaternary in the Tianshan Mountains. The glacial landforms comprise several integrated end moraines, like a fan spreading from the north to the south at the mouth of the Muzhaerte River valley and on the piedmont on the southeastern slope of the Tumur Peak, the largest center of modern glaciation in the Tianshan Mountains. The landforms recorded a complex history of the ancient glacier change and contained considerable information of the glacial landscape evolution, and dating these landforms helps us understand the temporal and spatial shifts of the past cryosphere in this valley and reconstruct the paleoenvironment in this region. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of the glacial tills in the upper stratum from a well-exposed section, end moraines, and associated outwashes was carried out using Ge centers in quartz grains, which are sensitive to the sunlight and grinding. The results could be divided into three clusters, 13.6–25.3, 39.5–40.4 and 64.2–71.7 ka. Based on the principle of geomorphology and stratigraphy and the available paleoen- vironmental data from northwestern China, the end moraines were determined to deposit in the Last Glaciation. The landforms and the three clusters of ages demonstrate that at least three large glacial advances occurred during the Pochengzi Glaciation, which are corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stage 4 (MIS4), MIS3b and MIS2. The landforms also indicate that the gla- ciers were compound valley glacier in MIS2 and MIS3b and piedmont glacier in MIS4, and the ancient Muzhaerte glacier were 94, 95 and 99 km at their maximum extensions in these three glacial advances.

  15. S-wave velocity structure and site effect parameters derived from microtremor arrays in the Western Plain of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Te; Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Huang, Jyun-Yan; Chang, Shun-Chiang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 45 sites in the Western Plain of Taiwan. The arrays were approximately 30 m or 60 m in radius, depending on the site. The maximum-likelihood frequency-wavenumber method was adopted to obtain the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves, and then a genetic algorithm technique based on an inversion scheme of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves' dispersion curves was applied to calculate a preliminary S-wave velocity (Vs) profile at each site. Because a layer of thick sediment covers the bedrock in the Western Plain of Taiwan, microtremor arrays in this size range cannot estimate the structure of the entire sediment. Therefore, this study implemented further inversion of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of the microtremors to estimate the deeper structures up to the bedrock of Vs greater than 1000 m/s. Previously logged velocity profiles for different depths at or near our study sites were collected and compared with the Vs profiles derived from our microtremor array measurements; the results were found to be highly comparable. Therefore, we could delineate the depth distributions for the layer depths for Vs = 600 m/s and 1000 m/s in this region. The depth for Vs = 600 m/s is approximately 50 m in the piedmont area and approximately 300 m at the coastline; moreover, the depths for Vs = 1000 m/s increase from 200 m in the piedmont area to approximately 1000 m at the coastline. The depths for Vs = 1.0 km/s (Z1.0), which is an important parameter that accounts for the basin effect in recent ground motion prediction equations, are consequently available at the study sites. The distribution of Z1.0 as a function of Vs30 indicates higher similarity to that in Japan than in the San Francisco Bay area.

  16. Sediment transport and deposition in Lakes Marion and Moultrie, South Carolina, 1942-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.G.; Cooney, T.W.; Harvey, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Lakes Marion and Moultrie, two large reservoirs in the South Carolina Coastal Plain, receive large inflows of sediment from the Santee River. The average rate of sediment deposition for both lakes during the period 1942-85 was about 0.06 inch per year, or about 800 acre-feet per year. The rate during 1983-85 was about 0.037 inch per year, or about 490 acre-feet per year, reflecting the decreasing trend in sediment inflow. This is a reversal of a trend toward increasing suspended- sediment concentrations in streams that were caused by farming practices in the southern Piedmont from about 1800 to about 1920. Only a small part of the eroded sediment has been carried out of the Piedmont, but the remaining sediment is becoming less available for transport. Sediment deposition is concentrated in several areas of upper Lake Marion where the velocity of the incoming water decreases significantly. Beds of aquatic macrophytes appear to encourage deposition which, in turn, creates favorable habitat for the plants. The rate of sediment accumulation in Lakes Marion and Moultrie averaged 650,000 tons per year during 1983-85, reflecting a trap efficiency of 79 percent of the total sediment inflow of 825,000 tons per year. Thickness of post-impoundment sediment varies from about 11 feet near the mouth of the Santee River in Lake Marion to 0 feet in Lake Moultrie near Bonneau. Sediments in Lake Marion tend to have finer texture and higher contents of organic matter, nutrients, and trace metals than those in Lake Moultrie.

  17. Calving Theory and the Thinning, Retreat, and Disarticulation of Bear Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.

    2007-12-01

    Bear Glacier, with an area of ~225 km2, is a 25-km long valley glacier located in the southern Kenai Mountains. When first mapped in 1909, it had a piedmont lobe with an area of >30 km2. By the mid- 1980s, the terminus had retreated from 1-3 km, thinned by >150 m, and was actively calving small icebergs into an ice-marginal lake. Through the end of the 20th century, the piedmont lobe continued to thin and narrow. Active calving decreased and then ceased as the thickness of the thinning glacier approached Tnb, the thickness of neutral buoyancy (the floatation thickness). As thinning continued, much of the terminus began to float. Passive calving, characterized by the release of large tabular icebergs from Bear's low gradient, low elevation terminus, became the dominant retreat process. Between 2000 and 2007, part of the terminus retreated about 3.6 km. Now, 0.5 km-long icebergs frequently separate from Bear's western terminus. An August 2006 bathymetric survey identified many locations with depths >75 m in Bear Glacier's ice-marginal lake. Calving theory can be used to explain much of Bear's observed behavior. Current calving theory suggests that active calving is initiated when a glacier terminus thins to a critical thickness, (i.e. Tnb plus an additional but limited thickness of ice such as 50 m [Tnb+ 50 m]). The thinning of Bear Glacier during much of the 20th century resulted in it approaching this thickness. In a freshwater lake with a depth of ~75 m, active calving would be initiated when Tnb + 50 m was about 120 m, continuing as the glacier thinned to icebergs began to be produced through passive calving (disarticulation), generally separating along former crevasse scars and fractures. These are the condition that resulted in the catastrophic retreat that characterizes Bear Glacier's 21st century behavior.

  18. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  19. Eskers and other evidence of wet-based glaciation in Phlegra Montes, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Colman; Balme, Matt

    2016-04-01

    Although glacial landsystems produced under warm/wet based conditions are very common on Earth, glaciological and landform evidence indicates that glaciation on Mars during the Amazonian period (3 Ga to present) has been characterised by cold/dry based glaciers, consistent with the prevailing cold, hyperarid conditions. However, this presentation describes a system of sinuous ridges, interpreted as eskers (1), emerging from the degraded piedmont terminus of a Late Amazonian (˜150 Ma) glacier in the southern Phlegra Montes region of Mars. This is probably the first identification of martian eskers that can be directly linked to their parent glacier. Together with their contextual landform assemblage, the eskers are indicative of glacial melting and subglacial meltwater routing but the confinement of the system to a well-defined, regionally significant graben, and the absence of eskers elsewhere in the region, suggests that melting was a response to locally enhanced geothermal heat flux, rather than regional, climate-induced warming. Now, however, new observations reveal the presence of many assemblages of glacial abrasion forms and associated channels that could be evidence of more widespread wet-based glaciation in Phlegra Montes, including the collapse of several distinct ice domes. This landform assemblage has not been described in other glaciated, mid-latitude regions of the martian northern hemisphere. Moreover, Phlegra Montes are flanked by lowlands displaying evidence of extensive volcanism, including contact between plains lava and piedmont glacial ice. These observations suggest that the glaciation of Phlegra Montes might have been strongly conditioned by both volcanism and more restricted forms of ground-heating. These are important new insights both to the forcing of glacial dynamic and melting behaviour on Mars by factors other than climate and to the production of liquid water on Mars during the Late Amazonian. (1) Gallagher, C. and Balme, M. (2015

  20. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  1. Biomass supply chain management in North Carolina (part 1: predictive model for cropland conversion to biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Caffrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in biomass cultivation requires detailed analysis of spatial production potential of possible biorefinery locations, with emphasis on feedstock production cost minimization. Integrated assessment of publicly available spatial data on current crop production, soil type, and yield potential, coupled with techno-economic production cost estimates, can support a functional method for rapid analysis of potential biorefinery sites. A novel predictive model was developed to determine cropland conversion using a probabilistic profit based equation for multiple biomass crops: giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, and sorghum (with either canola or barley as a winter crop. The three primary regions of North Carolina (Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain were used as a case study and with a single parameter uncertainty analysis was completed. According to the model, the county chosen to represent the Coastal Plain (Duplin County had the largest potential acreage that would be converted (15,071 ha, 7.1% total land, 9.3% of cropland primarily to sorghum with canola as a winter crop. Large portions were also predicted to convert to giant reed and switchgrass, depending on the price and yield parameters used. The Piedmont (Granville County, 7697 ha, 5.5% total land, 6.9% cropland and Mountain (Henderson County, 2117 ha, 2.2% total land, 2.3% cropland regions were predicted to convert primarily to switchgrass acreage for biomass production, with much less available biomass overall compared to the Coastal Plain. This model provided meaningful insight into regional cropping systems and feedstock availability, allowing for improved business planning in designated regions. Determination of cropland conversion is imperative to develop realistic biomass logistical operations, which in conjunction can assist with rapid determination of profitable biomass availability. After this rapid analysis method is conducted in-depth on-ground biorefinery

  2. Inter-relationship between shallow and deep aquifers under the influence of deep groundwater exploitation in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; Love, Andrew J.

    2017-04-01

    In the North China Plain (NCP), the interaction between shallow and deep groundwater flow systems enhanced by groundwater extraction has been investigated using multi-isotopic and chemical tracers for understanding the mechanism of salt water transport, which has long been one of the major regional environmental hydrogeological problems in NCP. Information about the problem will be determined using multiple lines of evidence, including field surveys of drilling and water sampling, as well as laboratory experiments and physical and numerical simulations. A conceptual model of groundwater flow system along WE cross-section from piedmont area to coastal region (Shijiazhuang-Hengshui-Cangzhou) has been developed and verified by geochemical modeling. A combined hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigation using ion relationships such as Cl/Br ratios, and environment isotopes (δ 18O, δ 2H, δ 34SSO4-δ 18OSO4, δ 15NNO_3-δ 18ONO_3, δ 13C and 87Sr/86Sr) was reviewed and carried for determining the sources of aquifer recharge, the origin of solutes and the mixing processes in groundwater flow system under the anthropogenic pumping and pollution. Results indicate that hydrochemistry of groundwater is characterized by mixing between end-members coming directly from Piedmont recharge areas, saline groundwater formed during geohistorical transgression in the shallow aquifers of central plain, and to groundwater circulating in a deeply buried Quaternary sediments. We also reviewed the groundwater age (tritium contents, 14C ages, 3H-3He ages, basin-scale flow modeling ages of groundwater) to recognize the local distributed recharge in this strongly exploited aquifer system. Finally, combined with the 1-D Cl transport modeling for the pore water of clay-rich aquitard, we reveal that salt transport in the aquitard is primarily controlled by vertical diffusion on million years' time scale, and the observed the salinized groundwater in deep aquifer may be caused by passing

  3. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaodong; Lindsey, David A.; Lai, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2 Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ≤ 0.15 Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology.

  4. Wetland influences on mercury transport and bioaccumulation in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentzel, Jane L

    2009-02-01

    There are three distinct geological provinces in South Carolina (SC), with the blue ridge/piedmont regions in the west/central portion of the state and the coastal plain region in the central/eastern region of the state. Samples were collected along this gradient to identify potential factors contributing to the concentrations of total Hg and total organic carbon (TOC) throughout the state. Overall, there is a gradient across the state, with water column concentrations of total Hg (9-53 pM) and TOC (80-2721 microM) increasing as one moves from the blue ridge/piedmont region to the coastal floodplain region. Total Hg at all sites in SC is significantly (R2=0.78; Pmercury is associated with organic matter in water bodies throughout the state. A study of mercury speciation within the coastal plain Waccamaw River indicates that concentrations of total Hg range from 10-68 pM and methyl Hg concentrations range from 1-7 pM. Watershed transport efficiencies for coastal floodplain rivers sampled in this study range from 32-72% for total Hg and 78-477% for methyl Hg. The coastal plain sites are located in watersheds that contain a significantly (Privers. There is a significant correlation between mean fish Hg concentrations in largemouth bass from each watershed and percent wetland area in each watershed (R2=0.66; P=0.003). This correlation explains 66% of the variance in the data and suggests that increasing percentages of wetland area contribute to fish Hg concentrations in SC coastal plain rivers.

  5. Flood susceptibility assessment in a highly urbanized alluvial fan: the case study of Sala Consilina (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Santangelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the risk assessment to alluvial fan flooding at the piedmont zone of carbonate massifs of the southern Apennines chain (southern Italy. These areas are prime spots for urban development and are generally considered to be safer than the valley floors. As a result, villages and towns have been built on alluvial fans which, during intense storms, may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes.

    The study area is located at the foothills of the Maddalena mountains, an elongated NW-SE trending ridge which bounds to the east the wide intermontane basin of Vallo di Diano. The area comprises a wide detrital talus (bajada made up by coalescent alluvial fans, ranging in age from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. Historical analysis was carried out to ascertain the state of activity of the fans and to identify and map the zones most hit by past flooding. According to the information gathered, the Sala Consilina fans would appear prone to debris flows; in the past these processes have produced extensive damage and loss of life in the urban area. The watershed basins feeding the fans have very low response times and may produce debris flow events with high magnitudes. Taking into account the historical damage, the fan surface morphology, and the present urban development (street orientation and hydraulic network, the piedmont area was zoned and various susceptibility classes were detected. These results may represent a useful tool for studies aiming at territorial hazard mapping and civil protection interventions.

  6. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  7. Fostering a regional vision on river systems by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Piegay, H.; Demarchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    River classification and the derived knowledge about river systems have been relying until recently on discontinuous field campaigns and visual interpretation of aerial images. For this reason, building a regional vision on river systems based on a systematic and coherent set of hydromorphological indicators was, and still is, a research challenge. Remote sensing data, since some years, offer notable opportunities to shift this paradigm offering an unprecedented amount of spatially distributed data over large scales, such as regional. Here, we have implemented a river characterization framework based on color infrared orthophotos at 40 cm and a LIDAR derived DTM at 5 m acquired simultaneously in 2009-2010 for all Piedmont Region Italy (25400 kmq). 1500 km of river systems have been characterized in terms typology, geometry and topography of hydromorphological features. The framework delineates the valley bottom of each river course, and maps by a semi-automated procedure water channels, unvegetated and vegetated sediment bars, islands, and riparian corridors. Using a range of statistical techniques the river systems have been segmented and classified with an objective, quantitative, and then repeatable approach. Such regional database enhances our ability to address a number of research and management challenges, such as: i) quantify shape and topography of channel forms for different river functional types, and investigate their relationships with potential drivers like hydrology, geology, land use and historical contingency; ii) localize most degraded and better functioning river stretches so to prioritize finer scale monitoring and set quantifiable restoration targets; iii) provide indication for future RS acquisition campaigns so to start monitoring river processes at the regional scale. The Piedmont Region in Italy is here used as a laboratory of concrete examples and analyses to discuss our current ability to answer to these challenges in river science.

  8. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  9. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  10. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with Multimodel SuperEnsemble

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    D. Cane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with Regional Climate Models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors where compared with observations, due to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and limitations in their physical parametrization.

    Therefore the aim of this work is reducing these model biases using a specific post processing statistic technique to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area.

    For our purposes we use a selection of RCMs runs from the ENSEMBLES project, carefully chosen in order to maximise the variety of leading Global Climate Models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observation for the Greater Alpine Area are extracted from the European dataset E-OBS produced by the project ENSEMBLES with an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (1957–present were carefully gridded on a 14-km grid over Piedmont Region with an Optimal Interpolation technique.

    Hence, we applied the Multimodel SuperEnsemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period.

    We propose also the first application to RCMS of a brand new probabilistic Multimodel SuperEnsemble Dressing technique to estimate precipitation fields, already applied successfully to weather forecast models, with careful description of precipitation Probability Density Functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique reduces the strong precipitation overestimation by RCMs over the alpine chain and reproduces well the monthly behaviour of precipitation in the control period.

  11. Regional climate models downscaling in the Alpine area with multimodel superensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cane

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The climatic scenarios show a strong signal of warming in the Alpine area already for the mid-XXI century. The climate simulations, however, even when obtained with regional climate models (RCMs, are affected by strong errors when compared with observations, due both to their difficulties in representing the complex orography of the Alps and to limitations in their physical parametrization. Therefore, the aim of this work is to reduce these model biases by using a specific post processing statistic technique, in order to obtain a more suitable projection of climate change scenarios in the Alpine area. For our purposes we used a selection of regional climate models (RCMs runs which were developed in the framework of the ENSEMBLES project. They were carefully chosen with the aim to maximise the variety of leading global climate models and of the RCMs themselves, calculated on the SRES scenario A1B. The reference observations for the greater Alpine area were extracted from the European dataset E-OBS (produced by the ENSEMBLES project, which have an available resolution of 25 km. For the study area of Piedmont daily temperature and precipitation observations (covering the period from 1957 to the present were carefully gridded on a 14 km grid over Piedmont region through the use of an optimal interpolation technique. Hence, we applied the multimodel superensemble technique to temperature fields, reducing the high biases of RCMs temperature field compared to observations in the control period. We also proposed the application of a brand new probabilistic multimodel superensemble dressing technique, already applied to weather forecast models successfully, to RCMS: the aim was to estimate precipitation fields, with careful description of precipitation probability density functions conditioned to the model outputs. This technique allowed for reducing the strong precipitation overestimation, arising from the use of RCMs, over the Alpine chain and to

  12. Rapid urban growth, land-use changes and air pollution in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.; Ihl, M.; Rivera, A.; Zalazar, P.; Azocar, P. [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Departamento de Geografia

    1999-10-01

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the topoclimatic and environmental geography of the basin where Santiago - one of the most polluted Latin American city - is located. In the first part, land-use change is analysed looking at the climatic transformation caused by the rapid transit from natural semiarid surface to urban areas. In the second part, seasonal weather and daily cycles of slope winds and the available ventilation are described trying to relate those patterns with the spatial distribution of air pollution. A combination of meteorological, geographical and cultural factors explain extreme air pollution events: meteorologically, Santiago is under permanent subsidence inversion layers. Geographically, the city is located in a closed basin surrounded by mountains. Culturally, the urban area has the highest population concentration (40% of the national total), industries (near 70% of the total) and vehicles, which are the main sources of smog. The urban and suburban transport system is based on a large number of buses (diesel) and private cars, both experiencing a rapid growth from the past few years. The city and specially the transport system generates high emissions of pollutant, but the natural semiarid deforested soils and slopes are also important sources. The local wind system can explain the differential spatial distribution on the concentration of air pollutants in the city and its periphery. In winter (rain season) concentrations of particulate matter are higher at the centre and the SW part of the city. The Andean piedmont area (E part of the city) shows minimum values, suggesting major ventilation effects of slope and valley winds. Ozone exceeds air quality standards in summer (dry season) at all sites in the centre and periphery. However, the O{sub 3}-concentrations are higher on preferred residential areas located at the piedmont area (E part of the city), suggesting air pollution transport effects. Currently, there is no

  13. Northward expansion of the invasive Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the eastern United States is constrained by winter soil temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R J; Labadie, P E; Silverman, J

    2010-10-01

    The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has been evident in the North Carolina Piedmont, United States for 90 yr but has failed to spread further north. We investigated the mechanisms preventing this expansion. The Argentine ant ceases foraging at temperatures below 5°C and we hypothesized that winter soil temperatures at higher latitudes restricted foraging long enough to cause colony starvation. We tested if the Argentine ant could successfully feed at temperatures below 5°C and found that colonies would starve. We subjected Argentine ant nests to a range of sub- and above-freezing temperatures and measured worker mortality at various time intervals. We found that Argentine ant colonies will collapse after 8.5 d at 5°C. Argentine ants can escape ambient cold temperatures by moving nests into the soil column. We tested how deeply into the soil Argentine ant queens and workers need to move to survive winter in North Carolina. Soil temperatures in the North Carolina Piedmont do not fall below 5°C for longer than nine consecutive days; therefore, Argentine ant colonies need only to retreat a few centimeters into the soil column to escape unsuitable temperatures. Winter soil temperature data from four climate stations situated from latitudes 35°, the current Eastern United States latitudinal limit for Argentine ant population expansion, to 39° were searched for periods where soil temperatures would have led to colony extirpation. North of their current distributions, extended periods of soil temperatures below 5°C regularly occur, preventing Argentine ant colonies from persisting.

  14. Long Term Empirical Relations between Storm Characteristics and Episodic Groundwater Recharge across Geographic and Land-Use Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashie, A.; Mirus, B. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow aquifers are an important water resource and provide baseflow to streams, yet estimating rates of groundwater recharge is difficult. While climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, the resulting impact on recharge remains poorly understood. We quantify empirical relations between precipitation characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge for a wide variety of geographic and land-use types across North Carolina. We extract storm duration, magnitude, average rate, and storm intensity from precipitation records over periods of twelve to thirty-five years at ten locations, for a total of 3,544 individual storm events. Using time-series of water-table fluctuations from nearby monitoring wells, we estimate relative recharge to precipitation ratios (RPR) to identify statistical trends. RPR increases with increased storm duration, whereas RPR decreases with increasing magnitude, average rate, and intensity. Agricultural and urban areas exhibit the greatest decrease in RPR due to increasing storm magnitude, average rate, and intensity, while naturally vegetated areas exhibit a larger increase in RPR with increased storm duration. Though RPR is generally higher during the winter than the summer, this seasonal effect is magnified in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions. These statistical trends provide valuable insights into the likely consequences of climate and land-use change for water resources in humid, subtropical climates in the American southeast. If, as predicted, growing seasons lengthen and the intensity of storms increases with a warming climate, decreased recharge in Appalachia, the Piedmont, and rapidly growing urban areas in the region would further limit groundwater availability.

  15. Magnetostratigraphic Record of the Early Evolution of the Southwestern Tian Shan Foreland Basin (Ulugqat Area), Interactions with Pamir Indentation and India-Asia Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Tian Shan range is an inherited intracontinental structure reactivated by the far-field effects of India-Asia collision. A growing body of thermochronology and magnetostratigraphy datasets shows the range grew through several tectonic pulses since ~25 Ma, however the early Cenozoic history remains poorly constrained. Particularly enigmatic is the time-lag between the Eocene India-Asia collision and the Miocene onset of Tian Shan exhumation. This peculiar period is potentially recorded along the southwestern Tian Shan piedmont. There, recently dated late Eocene marine deposits of the proto-Paratethys epicontinental sea transition to continental foreland basin sediments of unknown age. We provide magnetostratigraphic dating of these continental sediments from the 1700-m-thick Mine section integrated with previously published detrital apatite fission track and U/Pb zircon ages. The most likely correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale indicates an age span from 20.8 to 13.3 Ma with a marked accumulation rate increase at 19-18 Ma. This implies the entire Oligocene period is missing between the last marine and first continental sediments, as suggested by previous southwestern Tian Shan results. This differs from the southwestern Tarim basin where Eocene marine deposits are continuously overlain by late Eocene-Oligocene continental sediments. This supports a simple evolution model of the western Tarim basin with Eocene-Oligocene foreland basin activation to the south related to northward thrusting of the Kunlun Shan, followed by early Miocene activation of northern foreland basin related to overthrusting of the south Tian Shan. Our data also support southward propagation of the Tian Shan piedmont from 20-18 Ma that may relate to motion on the Talas Fergana Fault. The coeval activation of a major right-lateral strike-slip system allowing indentation of the Pamir Salient into the Tarim basin, suggest far-field deformation from the India-Asia collision zone

  16. Fire history of dark needle coniferous forests in Pechora-Ilych nature reserve since second half of XIX century to present time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleynikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the vegetation cover current state in any area should start from detailed investigation of its land-use history. Historic factors are of particular importance for forest ecosystems of protected nature areas as usually they are regarded as models and their history is neglected. The article describes fire history of the piedmont area of Pechora-Ilych biosphere nature reserve based on high resolution remote sensing data analysis and historical records. Such method allows reconstruction of forest fires back to 150 years ago. Field research of the tree stands age structure is needed to reveal older fires. 89 burns of 78 893 ha total area were detected, which is 11 % of the piedmont area of the reserve. The burns are distributed unevenly across the area: 76 % are in the Ilych river basin and the rest are in the Pechora river basin. All burns are classified into 4 types according to the periods during which they happened. Burned areas in both river basins changed during these periods: major part of the forest cover in the Ilych basin was damaged before the reserve was established, in the Pechora river basin -in the first decade after its foundation. Only 20 burns are precisely dated out of 73 burns happened in the XX century. Causes are also not determined for all fires. Probably both natural (lightning and anthropogenic factors caused fires. Known anthropogenic fires are allocated to settlements and floating rivers and cover huge areas (thousands and tens of thousands hectares. Natural fires are at distant watershed areas and are significantly smaller (tens and hundreds hectares.

  17. Structure, outcrop, and subcrop of the bedrock aquifers along the western margin of the Denver Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Van Slyke, George D.; Graham, Glenn

    1998-01-01

    Severe and prolonged droughts between 1961 and 1988, combined with increased demands for freshwater supplies in the United States, have resulted in a critical need to assess the potential for development of ground- and surface-water supplies. Rapid industrial growth and urban expansion have caused existing freshwater supplies to be used at or near maximum capacity. Begun in 1978, the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a systematic effort to study a number of the Nation's most important aquifer systems, which, in aggregate, underlie much of the country and represent an important component of the Nation's total water supply. The broad objective for each of the 28 studies in the program is to assemble geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information, to analyze and develop an understanding of the system, and to develop predictive capabilities that will contribute to the effective management of the system.In 1988, as part of the RASA Program, the USGS began a 6-year study of the ground-water resources of parts of 11 States in the Eastern United States (Swain and others, 1991). The study was designated the Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (APRASA). The APRASA team investigated ground-water resources primarily in the unglaciated part of the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, the New England, and the Piedmont Physiographic Provinces (fig. 1). For the purposes of this report, the small area in the New England Physiographic Province that is within the study area in New Jersey and Pennsylvania was considered part of the Piedmont Physiographic Province. The results of the APRASA are contained in about 50 reports and abstracts, including reports on simulation of ground-water flow in three type areas, this atlas, and chapters in Professional Paper 1422. These chapters include the summary (Chapter A), descriptions of recharge rates and surface- and ground-water relations (Chapter B

  18. 桥古1井快速钻进PDC钻头优化设计与效果分析%Design Optimization and Effect Analysis of Fast Drilling PDC Bit for Well QG-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平

    2012-01-01

    为了提高桥古1井山前构造地层中的钻进速度,对拟用于该井的PDC钻头进行了优化设计.在详细分析该井的地层特点以及邻近区块相似层位井段钻头使用资料的基础上,提出了针对性的优化方案,采用了力平衡布齿设计、等切削轮廓、CFD优化水力结构等现代PDC钻头设计技术,对常规PDC钻头在山前构造中易磨损、易泥包、机械钻速慢等缺陷进行了设计改进.所设计的钻头在桥古1井共使用了2只,使用井段为2 075.12~4 959.00 m,总进尺2 883.88 m,纯钻时间519.2 h,平均钻速5.55 m/h,比设计预期的3.50 m/h提高了58.57%,比预计的工期缩短了30 d.桥古1井的钻井实践表明,提出的钻头选型和优化设计方案可行,同时为山前构造地层优快钻井积累了宝贵经验.%In order to improve the drilling speed of Well QG~1 in the piedmont structural formation, the design of PDC bits was optimized. Based on careful analysis of the formation characteristics and bit data of similar layers in adjacent blocks, pertinent optimization scheme was put forward, which used modern PDC bit design methods such as force balance of cutters arrangement design,equal cutting profile,and CFD optimization of hydraulic structure,Defects of conventional PDC bit in piedmont structure such as easy abrasion, easy balling,slow drilling speed were modified. Two such designed bits altogether were used in Well QG-1 ,to drill from 2 075. 12 m to 4 959. 00 m. With a total footage of 2 883. 88 m,the net drilling time of 519. 2 h,the average drilling speed was 5. 55 m/h, which is 58. 57% faster than the expected design of 3. 50 m/h, resulting in a reduction of drilling time of 30 d. Drilling in Well QG~1 showed the methods of bit selection and design optimization were feasible,at the same time precious experience for piedmont formation drilling was accumulated.

  19. Las altas superficies del interfluvio de los ríos Manzanares-Jarama al NE de Madrid (España. Caracterización geomorfológico y edáfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zazo, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern piedmont of the Madrid's basin was formed during the Upper Aragonian and it constitutes a substrate of arkosic nature which currently is going through a dissection process. In the area of Madrid it persist remainings of altipain which is interpreted as morphologic references near the culmination of its sedimentary fill-up. The soils which appear over these surfaces are not comparable which those developed over other peninsular piedmonts. Although these soils are supposed to have a high leve1 of evolution, as a consequence of the antiquity of the surfaces, present a high dependence from the lithologic nature of the geological substrate independently if it is Tertiary or Quaternary. In this manner present a texture generally sandy and their more common characteristic, the occurrence of textura1 contrasts between horizons, is a direct consequence of the original stratigrafical arrangement of the sediment. The repetition in depth of the illuvial horizons is due to the existence of deposition sequences of the geological material. The gain in clay which forms the thick and dense clay skin in these horizons, as well as their mineralogical homogeneity, imply a certain previous soil genesis, to that other developed over the high piedmont surfaces. The order of al1 these soils is Haploxeralf (Soil Taxonomy or Luvisol (FAO. The fact that these soils are not considered «palexeralf» only responds to the rigidity of the normative imposed by the classification, which specify a minimum thickness for the argillic horizon. The truth is that these soils are complex andlor polycyclic worked out over paleosoils intrasedimentary of Neogene age.El piedemonte septentrional de la Cuenca de Madrid se ha construido durante el Aragoniense superior y constituye un sustrato de naturaleza arcósica que se encuentra actualmente en proceso de disección. En la zona madrileña permanecen restos de altiplanicies que se interpretan como referencias morfol

  20. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    and basins in the Park exhibit an east-west physiographic grain controlled by left-lateral fault zones that form a sinistral domain within the broad zone of dextral shear along the transform boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Geologic and geophysical evidence reveal that movement on the sinistral faults zones has resulted in left steps along the zones, resulting in the development of sub-basins beneath Pinto Basin and Shavers and Chuckwalla Valleys. The sinistral fault zones connect the Mojave Desert dextral faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone to the north and east with the Coachella Valley strands of the southern San Andreas Fault Zone to the west.Quaternary surficial deposits accumulated in alluvial washes and playas and lakes along the valley floors; in alluvial fans, washes, and sheet wash aprons along piedmonts flanking the mountain ranges; and in eolian dunes and sand sheets that span the transition from valley floor to piedmont slope. Sequences of Quaternary pediments are planed into piedmonts flanking valley-floor and upland basins, each pediment in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial surficial deposits.

  1. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population

  2. Impact assessment of agricultural activities on regional groundwater in the piedment of Taihang Mountain%太行山前平原农业活动对地下水影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中培; 王富强; 于福荣

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater used for agricultural accounted for over 70% of the total groundwater consumption in the piedmont of Taihang Mountain. So in order to better guarantee groundwater security and food security, it is very important to study the relationship between agricultural activities and regional groundwater. Based on water consumption characteristics, this paper first determined the influence indexes of agricultural activities on regional groundwater. These indexes included effective irrigated area, quantity of precipitation which can be used for agriculture, wheat area, maize area and vegetables area. Then it combined Projection Pursuit Classification Model and MapGIS platform as a new method to evaluate the impact of agricultural activities. Finally, it divided the piedmont of Taihang Mountain into five zones according to influence degree. They were restricted effecting zone, severe effecting zone, normal effeeting zone and small effecting zone.%太行山前平原农业用水是地下水消耗的主体,研究农业活动对区域地下水的影响对促进地下水安全和粮食安全具有重要意义。本文在分析太行山前平原用水特征的基础上,确定有效灌溉面积,满足作物需水的有效降水量,以及主要耗水型作物小麦、玉米和蔬菜种植面积作为反映农业活动对地下水影响的指标要素,运用投影寻踪评价模型和MapGIS技术进行影响程度的评价并进行等级划分,最终根据农业活动对地下水影响程度将太行山前平原分为影响制约区、影响较大区、影响一般区和影响较小区四种类型区。

  3. «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze e la pittura murale a olio in Piemonte nel Trecento / «Ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores». Giorgio da Firenze and the oil mural painting in Piemonte in the 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Oderzo Gabrieli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Il periferico Piemonte ospita dalla fine del Settecento un erudito dibattito su di una serie di documenti che testimoniano l’uso dell’olio in pittura murale da parte di un pittore toscano, Giorgio degli Agli, artista di corte dei Savoia tra il 1314 ed il 1348. L’analisi dei ricettari e dei trattati di tecnica artistica medievale rivela quanto fosse nota la possibilità di una pittura a olio o totalmente a tempera su muro, dalla Schedula di Teophilus fino al Manoscritto di Strasburgo. I documenti d’archivio inglesi trecenteschi confermano le quantità e i prezzi pagati nelle attestazioni piemontesi, sia per i pigmenti che per i leganti, dove uova, colla e olio sono ad faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recenti campagne analitiche infine hanno permesso di riconoscere la presenza di leganti di natura organica tra i diversi strati della pellicola pittorica, rivelando una tradizione tecnica tutta oltralpina (a partire dal cantiere assisiate; fra questi, Jean de Grandson, collaboratore e allievo di Giorgio, nel ciclo della Camera Domini del Castello di Chillon (1342-1343 dipinge su muro proprio come se si trattasse di una tavola.   To the late eighteenth century, the peripheral Piedmont hosts a scholarly debate on a series of documents which demonstrate the use of oil in mural painting by a Tuscan painter, Giorgio degli Agli, court artist of the Savoy between 1314 and 1348. The analysis of medieval technique treaties reveals how was known the use of oil or tempera on wall painting, from the Schedule of Theophilus to the Manuscript in Strasbourg. The English fourteenth archive documents confirm the quantities and prices paid claims in Piedmont, both for the pigments to the medium, where eggs, glue and oil are used at faciendum et distrenpandum colores. Recent analytical campaigns finally made it possible to recognize the presence of organic media between the different film layers of paintings, revealing a whole transalpine technical tradition

  4. Mass balances and dynamic changes of the Bering, Malaspina, and Icy Bay glacier systems of Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald R.

    The Bering and the Malaspina Glacier systems of south-central Alaska, U.S.A., and southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, in the Saint Elias Mountains constitute the two largest temperate surge-type piedmont glaciers on Earth. This is largest region of glaciers and icefields in continental North America. Determining and understanding the causes of wastage of these two glaciers is important to understanding the linkages of glacier mass balance to climate change, glacier dynamics, and the contributions of the glaciers of northwestern North America to rising sea level. Presented are the first detailed estimate of the net mass balances of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems, the effects of glacier dynamics on their accumulation areas, and the wastage of the tidewater glaciers of Icy Bay. The combined wastage of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems from 1972 to 2003, 254 +/- 16 km 3 water equivalent over a glacier area of 7734 km2, is equivalent to an area-average mass balance of -1.06 +/- 0.07 m/y over that time period. This represents a contribution to global sea-level rise of 0.70 +/- 0.05 mm, 0.023 +/- 0.002 mm/yr from 1972 to 2003. This is roughly 0.8% of the modern sea-level rise as estimated from tide-gauges and satellites, and roughly 9% of the contribution from non-polar glaciers and ice caps. Glacier wastage has been caused by climate warming (negative mass balance) superimposed on the effects of glacier dynamics. Near-concurrent surge of the three largest glaciers of the Malaspina Glacier piedmont were observed during 1999 to 2002. In addition, the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, whose retreat since 1910 was interrupted in 1964 by a major surge, also surged during 1999 to 2002. These four surges have occurred roughly 23 years after the 1976/77 shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its current warm-wet phase. Despite the increase of high-elevation snow accumulation observed on Mt. Logan, the accumulation areas of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems

  5. Evaluación de la recarga natural al acuífero de la cuenca superior del arroyo Napostá Grande, provincia de Buenos Aires Natural recharge evaluation of the aquifer in the upper Arroyo Napostá Grande basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Carrica

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca superior del arroyo Napostá Grande constituye un área de interés para la explotación del recurso hídrico subterráneo como fuente alternativa de abastecimiento de agua a núcleos urbanos de la región entre los que se encuentra la ciudad de Bahía Blanca. El acuífero freático del sector recibe recarga directa de la lluvia a través de la zona no saturada, recarga localizada en el piedemonte serrano y, en mucha menor cuantía, la indirecta por almacenamiento de banco durante las crecidas del arroyo. El objetivo del estudio es determinar cuantitativamente el valor de la recarga y cuales de los mencionados mecanismos son los más importantes, mediante el empleo de distintos métodos: balances hidrológicos diarios a escala de cuenca (programa Visual Balan y de suelo (programa Balshort, balance de cloruros entre el agua de lluvia y el agua de la capa freática y análisis de la curva de recesión de hidrogramas fluviales. Se concluye que la recarga pluvial, localizada en el piedemonte serrano, es la principal fuente de alimentación del acuífero y que, según el método de estimación empleado, la recarga total al acuífero se cifra entre un 7 y un 9% de la precipitación anual media.The upper river basin of Napostá Grande creek constitutes an area of interest for ground water exploitation as an alternative source of water supply to Bahía Blanca city and other urban nuclei of the region. The phreatic aquifer in this area receives direct rain recharge through the unsaturated zone, recharge located in the piedmont area and indirect recharge from bank storage during the streamflow peak in smaller quantity. The objective of the study is to determine quantitatively the recharge and the ranking of the mentioned mechanisms through different methods: daily hydrologic balance both on basin scale (Visual Balan program and soil (Balshort program; chloride balance between rainwater and groundwater and analysis of the hydrograph recession

  6. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  7. Automatic identification and placement of measurement stations for hydrological discharge simulations at basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, P. R.; Ceppi, A.; Cancarè, F.; Ravazzani, G.; Mancini, M.; Sciuto, D.

    2012-04-01

    In the past 15 years hydroinformatics has substantially increased the use of computational intelligence techniques for water distribution network, modelling, and prediction purposes. An application of these technologies is proposed in this study as an advanced algorithm tool to analyze a hydro-meteorological dataset, establishing a skill for numerical modelling, data collection, processing and quality checking. Accurate forecasts of hydro-meteorological events are important to prevent and mitigate the effect of dangerous events such as floods or drought. To achieve these objectives, Politecnico di Milano developed a distributed physically based rainfall-runoff model (FEST-WB), which is daily used to generate runoff simulations and hydrological forecasts for nowcasting monitoring and as a civil-protection tool. It takes, as input, a set of observed meteorological data (solar radiation, precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity) collected by the ARPAP (Environment Protection Regional Agency of Piedmont) hydro-meteorological station network and MeteoSwiss, and it provides, as output, discharge forecasts in various hydrological basins. Although, the performance capability of the model dramatically depends on the model itself, it is a known fact that the choice of right measurement sites play a very crucial role in building quality models; on the other hand, reducing the amount of stations reduce their deployment and maintenance costs. The aim of this study is to apply a set of optimization algorithms in order to identify the minimum number and position of weather stations able to provide correct predictions. This analysis is focused on the Toce river basin, an Alpine watershed, located in North-West of Italy, but the methodology can be extended to other Piedmont areas. The whole set of measured data M are taken as input to provide a set of Pareto-optimal solutions. The configuration is described with a boolean vector where true indicates that the

  8. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  9. 太行山前严重缺水地区地下水勘查实践——以灵寿县丘陵区为例%Groundwater Exploration in Serious Water Shortage Area of Taihang Piedmont——A Case Study in the Hilly Area of Lingshou County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振兴; 李向全; 侯新伟; 刘玲霞; 刘德玉

    2012-01-01

    The hilly area in Lingshou County is a typical water shortage area in the Taihang piedmont The exploitation wells were successfully constructed in this area according to the methods of hydrogeological survey,geophysical survey.and drilling, and then the allowable groundwater withdrawal was determined using the pumping tests. In order to find the karst-fractured groundwater in the metamorphic rock area of the Taihang piedmont,the geological conditions are needed to be analyzed to determine the water-erodible rock layers,the topographic conditions are evaluated to explore the large catchment area,and the water storage spaces formed by the changes of lithological conditions are also considered. In addition, the hydrogeological investigations combined with the advanced geophysical and drilling processes are effective groundwater exploration techniques. Groundwater exploration in the hilly area of Lingshou County has a strong practical significance for finding groundwater in the metamorphic rock area.%灵寿县丘陵区是太行山前典型的缺水地区,通过水文地质调查、物探、钻探等综合勘探手段,成功施工了探采结合井,并通过抽水试验评估了可开采量.通过本次地下水勘查,表明在太行山前变质岩分布区找寻岩溶裂隙水,需要充分分析地质条件找寻可溶蚀性岩层,结合地形地貌重点勘查具有较大汇水面积地段,同时考虑岩性变化界线形成的储水空间.此外,采用水文地质详查结合先进的物探钻探工艺是一种有效的地下水勘查技术方法.灵寿丘陵区的地下水勘查具有很强的实践意义,为此类变质岩分布区地下水找寻起到了示范作用.

  10. The distribution and composition of REE-bearing minerals in placers of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton; Shah, Anjana K.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) resources are currently of great interest because of their importance as raw materials for high-technology manufacturing. The REE-phosphates monazite (light REE enriched) and xenotime (heavy REE enriched) resist weathering and can accumulate in placer deposits as part of the heavy mineral assemblage. The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the southeastern United States are known to host heavy mineral deposits with economic concentrations of zircon, ilmenite and rutile. This study provides a perspective on the distribution and composition of REE phosphate minerals in the region. The elemental chemistry and mineralogy of sands and associated heavy-mineral assemblages from new and archived sediment samples across the coastal plains are examined, along with phase-specific compositions of monazite, xenotime and zircon. Both monazite and xenotime are present across the coastal plains. The phase-specific compositions allow monazite content to be estimated using La as a geochemical proxy. Similarly, both Y and Yb are geochemical proxies for xenotime, but their additional presence in zircon and monazite require a correction to prevent overestimation of xenotime content. Applying this correction, maps of monazite and xenotime content across the coastal plains were generated using sample coverage from the National Geochemical Database (NGS) and National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). The NGS and NURE approach of sampling stream sediments in small watersheds links samples to nearby lithologies. The results show an approximately 40 km-wide band of primarily Cretaceous, marine sediments bordering the Piedmont province from North Carolina to Alabama in which monazite and xenotime content are relatively high (up to 4.4 wt. % in < 150 μm bulk sediment). Strong correlations between concentrations of the two phases were found, with estimated monazite:xenotime ratios ranging approximately 6:1 to 12:1 depending upon the dataset analyzed. From a resource

  11. Rare earth mineral potential in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain from integrated geophysical, geochemical, and geological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bern, Carleton; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Daniels, David L.; Benzel, William M.; Budahn, James R.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Karst, Adam; Davis, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We combined geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and geological data to evaluate the regional presence of rare earth element (REE)−bearing minerals in heavy mineral sand deposits of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also analyzed regional differences in these data to determine probable sedimentary provenance. Analyses of heavy mineral separates covering the region show strong correlations between thorium, monazite, and xenotime, suggesting that radiometric equivalent thorium (eTh) can be used as a geophysical proxy for those REE-bearing minerals. Airborne radiometric data collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program cover the southeastern United States with line spacing varying from ∼2 to 10 km. These data show eTh highs over Cretaceous and Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments from the Cape Fear arch in North Carolina to eastern Alabama; these highs decrease with distance from the Piedmont. Quaternary sediments along the modern coasts show weaker eTh anomalies, except near coast-parallel ridges from South Carolina to northern Florida. Prominent eTh anomalies are also observed over large riverbeds and their floodplains, even north of the Cape Fear arch where surrounding areas are relatively low. These variations were verified using ground geophysical measurements and sample analyses, indicating that radiometric methods are a useful exploration tool at varying scales. Further analyses of heavy mineral separates showed regional differences, not only in concentrations of monazite, but also of rutile and staurolite, and in magnetic susceptibility. The combined properties suggest the presence of subregions where heavy mineral sediments are primarily sourced from high-grade metamorphic, low-grade metamorphic, or igneous terrains, or where they represent a mixing of these sources. Comparisons between interpreted sources of heavy mineral sands near the Fall Line and igneous and metamorphic Piedmont and Blue Ridge units showed a strong

  12. Sedimentary Microfacies and Evolution of the Lower Karamay Formation in mid and east of 7th Block, Karamay Oilfield%克拉玛依油田七中东区克下组沉积微相及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张代燕; 彭军; 王子强

    2012-01-01

    In mid and east of 7th block.Karamay Oilfield,the sedimentary characteristics of the Lower Karamay Formation were not recognized clearly, which impressed exploiting the remaining oil and deploying the plan. Through the analysis of depositional environment, core facies and electrofacies,it is concluded that piedmont pluvial fades were developed during the deposition of the Lower Karamay Formation. On the basis of this area, four subfacies were divided(the inner belt of root fan, the outer belt of root fan, middle fan and fan edge).In bottom section of formation, the glutenite of root fan is dominant in the facies distribution of plane; In middle section, the glutenite of middle fan interbed mudstone is dominant; In top section, the mudstone intersperse with glutenite is predominant. Based on the piedmont pluvial facies, eight microfacies were divided(the gravel of channel flow, the gravel of laminar flow, sheetflood sand, sheetflood fine grain, braided channel, runoff channel, overflow sand and overflow fine grain). And the characteristics of petrology, construction, structure and electric were described. The distribution of facies in plane and certical evolution were indicated, and the sedimentary model of the area was established.%通过对区域地质背景、岩心相、测井相分析,并结合分析化验等资料,认为克拉玛依油田七中、东区克下组沉积相为山麓-洪积相.将本区划分为扇根内带、扇根外带、扇中和扇缘4个亚相.从下到上,克下组沉积相平面分布从以扇根砂砾岩为主,演化为以扇中砂砾岩与泥岩互层为主,最终转变为扇缘泥岩夹少量砂砾岩.划分了槽流砾石体、片流砂砾体、漫洪砂体、漫洪细粒沉积、辫流水道、径流水道、漫流砂体和漫流细粒共8个沉积微相,描述了各微相岩石学特征、结构特征、构造特征和电性特征,指出沉积相平面展布及垂向演化特征,建立了研究区沉积模式.

  13. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, Jerry M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States); Clark, James S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Mohan, Jacqueline [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  14. Spatial Variability Some Physical and Chemical Prpperties Soil surface In Dasht-e-Tabriz Different Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughifar, Hamed; Asghar Jafarzadeh, Ali; Torabi, Hosien; Aliasgharzad, Naser; Toomanian, Norair

    2010-05-01

    Spatial distribution of soil properties at the field and watershed scale(region scale) affect yield potential, hydrologic responses , and transport of herbicides and No3 to surface or groundwater.The present study aim was to evaluate some physical and chemical properties spatial variability and frequency distribution within and between landforms of Dash-e-Tabriz in the northwest of Iran.For this evaluation 98 samples from soils surface of layer according to grid sampling design and with 500-1000 meters distance based on soils variability were selected and analysed.Landforms were hill, piedmont plain, plain, river alluvial plain and lowland.The study of soil variables frequency distribution showed that Bd, CEC, Caco3, pH,clay and silt follow normal distribution ,which to study their variation one can use parametric statistical method.Variables such as MWD, N(total), SAR, EC, P(available) and sand showed log-normal distribution,that for their variation study,should first be transformed to a logarithmic scale.The variables frequency distribution increase within landforms,which in lowland, hill, and river alluvial plain they showed normal distribution and only EC in piedmont plain and sand, OC and N(total) in plain had log-normal distributions.The results indicate significantly differences of soil properties distribution among landforms,which clay ,pH, EC ,SAR and MWD, CEC, Bd, N(total), OC, P(available), sand, silt were strongly and moderately spatial dependent respectively and Caco3 had no spatial dependence and it is following nugget model.These results indicate that strong spatial dependence due to the effects of intrinsic factors such as parent material, relief and soil types. Also soil properties variations result from variation in depositional environments and or differences in pedogenic or hydrologic processes for different landform positions,and so it can be affected by the flood irrigation,fertilizeir addition,high watertable level or agriculture practices

  15. Populations of larvae of Anopheles spp. in natural breeding sites in Western Venezuela, an area of refractory malaria População de larvas de Anopheles spp. em criadouros naturais em área de malária refratária da Venezuela Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rojas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been un dertaken into on the diversity and relative abundance of larvae of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus spp. in 22 permanent or temporary pools in an area of 70 km² in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuela Andes, between the mountains and the plains, an area in which malaria is refractory and A. nuñeztovari is present. Twelve species were identified, the most frequent, abundant and sympatric being A. triannulatus, A. albitarsis, A. nuñeztovari, A. oswaldoi and A. strodei. The samples from the permanent pools showed greater diversity of species and greater numbers of larvae than the samples from the temporary pools. The existence of the same larval associations in pools of other localities in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuelan Andes suggests the possibility of the making an ecological map of the breeding sites of A. nuñeztovari and for these anophelines in a region extending for 430 km.Tem-se estudado a diversidade e a riqueza de larvas de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus spp. em 22 postos permanentes e temporais em área de 70 km² ao pé da Cordilheira Andina Oriental da Venezuela, em região de malária refratária. Foram identificadas 12 espécies, sendo as mais freqüentes, abundantes e simpátricas as A. triannulatus, A. albitarsis, A. nuñeztovari, A. oswaldoi y A. strodei. Foi maior o número de espécies e de larvas por amostra nos postos permanentes do que nos temporais. A existência das mesmas associações larvais, em postos de outras localidades, ao pé da Cordilheira Andina Oriental da Venezuela, baseia-se no ponto de vista de que é possível fazer-se um mapa ecológico dos criadouros dessas espécies de Anopheles em região de 430 km de extensão.

  16. Resource consumption and healthcare costs of acute coronary syndrome: a retrospective observational administrative database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeri, Alessandro; Gnavi, Roberto; Dalmasso, Marco; Rusciani, Raffaella; Giammaria, Massimo; Anselmino, Monica; Roggeri, Daniela Paola

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate resource consumption and direct healthcare costs of patients with a first hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 2008 in the Piedmont Region, Italy. Subjects hospitalized with a first episode of ACS in 2008 were selected from the regional hospital discharge database. All hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, and outpatient episodes of care in the 12 months following discharge were considered to estimate resource consumption and direct healthcare costs from the Piedmont Regional Health Service perspective. The analysis was carried out separately for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and unstable angina (UA) populations. In the accrual period, 7765 subjects (1.75‰ of the total population) were hospitalized for ACS (64.2% men). The average age was 66.5 for men and 75.4 for women. The average in-hospital mortality was 6.5% (n = 508). The total ACS population was classified as: STEMI 45.2%, NSTEMI 29.4%, and UA 25.4%. The average yearly costs per patient alive at the end of follow-up (n = 6851) were 14,160.8&OV0556; (18,678.7 USD): 83.9% for inpatient admissions [11,881.2&OV0556; (15,671.8 USD)], 9.3% for drugs [1311.6&OV0556; (1730.1 USD)], 5.0% for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and outpatient visits [708.2&OV0556; (934.1 USD)], and 1.8% for 1-day hospital stays [259.8&OV0556; (342.7 USD)]. The average yearly direct healthcare costs by ACS event were 14,984.5&OV0556; (19,765.2 USD) for STEMI, 14,554.1&OV0556; (19,197.4 USD) for NSTEMI, and 12,481.5&OV0556; (16,463.6 USD) for UA. In each subpopulation, costs were significantly higher for men than for women. ACS imposes a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality and generates major public health service costs.

  17. Structure and Tectonics of the Saint Elias Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, R. L.; Pavlis, T. L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.; Picornell, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of western Canada and southern Alaska is a complex mountain belt formed by transform faulting and subduction between the Pacific and North American plates, and collision of the Yakutat terrane. The orogen is segmented into three regions of different structural style caused by lateral variations in transpression and processes of terrane accretion. Deformation is strain and displacement partitioned throughout the orogen; transcurrent motion is focused along discrete strike-slip faults, and shortening is distributed among reverse faults and folds with sub-horizontal axes. Plunging folds accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen. Segment boundaries extend across the Yakutat terrane where they coincide with the courses of huge piedmont glaciers that flow from the topographic backbone of the range onto the coastal plain. The eastern segment is marked by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by a narrow belt of reverse faulting where the transpression ratio is 0.4:1 shortening to dextral shear. The transpression ratio is 1.7:1 in the central part of the orogen where a broad thin-skinned fold and thrust belt deforms the Yakutat terrane south of the Chugach-Saint Elias (CSE) suture. Dextral shearing is accommodated by strike-slip faulting beneath the Seward and Bagley glaciers in the hanging wall of the CSE suture, and partly by reverse faulting along a structural belt that cuts across the Yakutat terrane along the western edge of the Malaspina Glacier and links to the Pamplona fold and thrust belt offshore. Deformation along this segment boundary is probably also driven by vertical axis bending of the Yakutat microplate during collision. Subduction & accretion in the western segment of the orogen causes re-folding of previously formed structures when they are emplaced into the upper plate of the Alaska-Aleutian mega-thrust. Second phase folds plunge at moderate to steep angles and

  18. Evolution of an Interbasin Mountain-Block Extensional Accommodation Zone Within the Central Colorado Rio Grande Rift, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S. A.; Caine, J. S.; Fridrich, C.; Hudson, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of extensional strain transfer and accommodation in continental rifts has grown considerably, but few studied transfer zones exhibit high internal topographic and structural relief. In the Rio Grande rift of Colorado the WNW-trending northern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Range separates the opposite-tilted Upper Arkansas River (UAR) and San Luis half grabens. We have investigated the development and role of faults flanking this "Poncha" intrarift mountain block in transferring extension between rift basins, mountain block surface uplift, and landscape evolution. The topographically rugged Poncha block consists of Proterozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks overlain on its west and southwest flanks by 34.5-33-Ma volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits of the Mio-Pliocene Dry Union Formation. Similar Dry Union sediments underlie a moderately elevated, strongly dissected older piedmont along the northern front of the mountain block. All of these units are tilted 10-35º to the W and SW. A WNW-trending, right-stepping fault system > 25 km in length separates the piedmont and UAR basin from the steep northern Poncha mountain front. Slip measurements along this fault system, cutting deposits as young as ~200 ka, indicate dextral-normal oblique movement. The NNW-striking, down-to-E southern Sawatch range-front fault system forms the western terminus of the Poncha block where it juxtaposes Dry Union deposits against Sawatch Proterozoic basement rocks. Gently tilted proximal diamicton and alluvial deposits on the downthrown blocks of both range-front faults likely mark Plio-Pleistocene(?) mountain block uplift. Arrays of NNW- to WNW-striking faults cutting volcanic and Dry Union units on the flanks of the Poncha block commonly have normal-oblique slip, with greater tendency for dextral strike-slip components on WNW-striking faults. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the volcanic rocks detect no significant vertical-axis rotation that accompanied oblique

  19. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Sanchez Reservoir Quadrangle and Eastern Part of the Garcia Quadrangle, Costilla County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    This geologic map is based entirely on new mapping by Thompson and Machette, whereas the geophysical data and interpretations were supplied by Drenth. The map area includes most of San Pedro Mesa, a basalt covered mesa that is uplifted as a horst between the Southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone (on the west) and the San Luis fault zone on the east. The map also includes most of the Sanchez graben, a deep structural basin that lies between the San Luis fault zone (on the west) and the Central Sangre de Cristo fault zone on the east. The oldest rocks in the map area are Proterozoic granites and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, which are only exposed in a small hill on the west-central part of the mesa. The low hills that rise above San Pedro mesa are comprised of middle(?) Miocene volcanic rocks that are undated, but possibly correlative with mapped rocks to the east of Sanchez Reservoir. The bulk of the map area is comprised of the Servilleta Basalt, a regional series of flood basalts of Pliocene age. The west, north, and northeast margins of the mesa are covered by extensive landslide deposits that rest on poorly exposed sediment of the Santa Fe Group. Rare exposures of the sediment are comprised of siltstones, sandstones, and minor fluvial conglomerates. Most of the low ground surrounding the mesa is covered by surficial deposits of Quaternary age. The piedmont alluvium is subdivided into three Pleistocene units, and three Holocene units. The oldest Pleistocene gravel (unit Qao) forms an extensive coalesced alluvial fan and piedmont surface that is known as the Costilla Plains. This surface extends west from San Pedro Mesa to the Rio Grande. The primary geologic hazards in the map are are from earthquakes and landslides. There are three major fault zones in the area (as discussed above), and they all show evidence for late Pleistocene to possible Holocene movement. Two generations of landslides are mapped (younger and older), and both may have seismogenic origins.

  20. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.

    2016-12-01

    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows