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Sample records for phytoseiulus persimilis raised

  1. Phenomenon of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1994-01-01

    An unknown microorganism occurring in a predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was described by the author in 1977 as a new species Rickettsiella phytoseiuli. Some new results on the relation between this agent and its hosts are presented in this paper.

  2. Comparison of thermal activity thresholds of the spider mite predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Megan R; Bale, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    The lower and upper thermal activity thresholds of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared with those of its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of the alternative commercially available control agents for T. urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Adult female P. macropilis retained ambulatory function (CTmin) and movement of appendages (chill coma) at significantly lower temperatures (8.2 and 0.4 °C, respectively) than that of P. persimilis (11.1 and 3.3 °C) and T. urticae (10.6 and 10.3 °C). As the temperature was raised, P. macropilis ceased walking (CTmax) and entered heat coma (42.7 and 43.6 °C), beyond the upper locomotory limits of P. persimilis (40.0 and 41.1 °C), but before T. urticae (47.3 and 48.7 °C). Walking speeds were investigated and P. persimilis was found to have significantly faster ambulation than P. macropilis and T. urticae across a range of temperatures. The lower thermal activity threshold data indicate that P. macropilis will make an effective biological control agent in temperate climates.

  3. Negative evidence of Wolbachia in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enigl, M; Zchori-Fein, E; Schausberger, P

    2005-01-01

    The cytoplasmically inherited bacterium Wolbachia is widespread in arthropod species and has been repeatedly detected in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Our original goal was to assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in P. persimilis and the potential fitness consequences for this host. To accomplish that goal, seven P. persimilis strains were obtained from Europe, Africa and the USA and reared on the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae as prey. After preliminary results showed that the T. urticae used was infected with Wolbachia, the minimum starvation time of the predators to prevent false positive results from undigested prey was determined. We tested DNA samples by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) after starving the predators or feeding them Wolbachia-free T. urticae for various periods. Those experiments showed that Wolbachia could not be detected after 16 h at 25 degrees C and 48 h at 20 degrees C. To verify the results of the PCR analyses, we furthermore conducted crossing experiments with antibiotic-treated and untreated individuals. No indications of Wolbachia effects were recorded. Additionally, we screened live eggs of four of the seven strains reared in our laboratory and alcohol samples of 10 other P. persimilis strains for the occurrence of Wolbachia by PCR, none of which tested positive. Synthesis of our study and previous reports suggests that infection of P. persimilis with Wolbachia is extremely rare and of minor importance. We discuss the significance of our findings for future studies on the presence of Wolbachia in predaceous arthropods.

  4. Morphological and molecular diagnostics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okassa, Mireille; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Kreiter, Serge

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on the diagnostics of two natural enemy species, belonging to the genus Phytoseiulus in the family Phytoseiidae (sub-family Amblyseiinae): P. macropilis and P. persimilis. These two species are of primary importance in biological control all over the world. However, they are morphologically very similar and specific diagnostics is difficult. This study utilizes mitochondrial molecular markers (12S rRNA and Cytb mtDNA) to differentiate these two species. Morphological analyses showed significant differences between P. persimilis and P. macropilis for 17 morphological characters of the 32 considered. However, despite these significant differences, the ranges of all characters overlap. Only the serration of the macroseta on the basitarsus (StIV) allows the differentiation between P. persimilis and P. macropilis. Despite these small morphological differences, molecular results, for both mitochondrial DNA fragments considered (rRNA and Cytb mtDNA), showed a clear delineation between the specimens of P. macropilis and P. persimilis. This study emphasizes (i) that only one morphological character (serration of the seta StIV) clearly separates these two species, and (ii) the usefulness of an automatical molecular and simple diagnostic tool for accurate differentiation of the two species and ensure the morphological diagnostics. Further studies are proposed, including more DNA sequences especially for P. macropilis.

  5. Antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, R; Ando, T; Miyahara, A; Kimura, H; Ito, G; Uesato, N; Ino, Y; Iwaki, M

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to D. farinaes major allergen's, Der fI and Der fII. These results suggest that P. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust mites.

  6. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; de Bruijn, P.J.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The

  7. Potential long-term storage of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the ability to store mass-reared natural enemies during periods or seasons of low demand is a critical need of the biocontrol industry. We tested the hypothesis that cryoprotectant or carbohydrate molecules can enhance long-term cold storage of a predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis At...

  8. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; Wadman, W.J.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a

  9. Population dynamics of interacting predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, held on detached bean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Blümel, S; Schausberger, P

    2001-01-01

    The success of combined release of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus in suppression of spider mites may be related to the effects of the interactions between the two predators on their population dynamics. We studied population growth and persistence of the specialist P persimilis and the generalist N. californicus reared singly versus reared in combination after simultaneous and successive predator introductions on detached bean leaf arenas with abundant prey, Tetranychus urticae. and with diminishing prey. When reared singly with abundant prey, either predator population persisted at high densities to the end of the experiment. In every predator combination system with abundant prey and various initial predator:predator ratios N. californicus displaced P persimilis. When held singly with diminishing prey, the population of P. persimilis grew initially faster than the population of N. californicus but both species reached similar population peaks. Irrespective whether reared singly or in combination. N. californicus persisted three to five times longer after prey depletion than did P. persimilis. Regarding the crucial interactions in the predator combination systems, we conclude that intraguild predation was a stronger force than food competition and finally resulted in the displacement of P. persimilis. Previous studies showed that intraguild predation between the specialist P. persimilis and the generalist N. californicus is strongly asymmetric favoring the generalist. We discuss the implications of potential interactions between P. persimilis and N. californicus to biological control of spider mites.

  10. How does Phytoseiulus Persimilis find its prey when foraging within a bean plant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemek, R.; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Ru°z¿ic¿kova´, S

    The role of herbivore-induced volatile substances in prey-finding by phytoseiid mites has been repeatedly documented using an olfactometer. The objective of the present paper is to test the hypothesis that movement by Phytoseiulus persimilis is affected by these volatiles even on plants. Two series...... was on the leaf surface since it was attracted to the spider mite patch, at least over a distance of 1 cm. These results thus demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles can be utilized by P. persimilis during search for prey also under conditions that mimic natural situations better than an olfactometer does....

  11. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites......Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites...

  12. Effects of Beauveria bassiana on predation and behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengyong; Xing, Zhenlong; Sun, Weinan; Xu, Xuenong; Meng, Ruixia; Lei, Zhongren

    2018-03-01

    Determination of intraguild interactions between entomopathogens and predators is important when attempting to use a combination of these two natural enemy groups for biological control of their shared arthropod pest species. This study assessed the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation and associated behavior of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, against Tetranychus urticae. The functional response tests showed that P. persimilis exhibited a Holling type II response on the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, when treated with either a B. bassiana or Tween-80 suspension. There were no significant differences between the treatments in the number of T. urticae consumed. The laboratory choice test indicated that P. persimilis displayed a significant avoidance response to B. bassiana on bean leaves immediately following spray application. They also spent significantly longer time in self-grooming behavior on leaf disks sprayed with fungal conidia than on discs treated with Tween-80. There were no significant differences in the predation rates on T. urticae eggs between the different treatments. The potted plant investigations indicated that P. persimilis showed significant aversion behavior to the initial fungal spray, but gradually dispersed over the entire bean plants. Observations using scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal conidia were attached to the body of P. persimilis after mounting the leaf disk treated with B. bassiana, which would account for its varied behavioral responses. Our study suggests that fungal spray did not affect the predation capability of P. persimilis and poses a negligible risk to their behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of Beauveria bassiana on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis in suppression of Tetranychus urticae in young clementine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Carbonell, Emilio A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae is one of the most damaging tetranychid mites affecting clementine orchards in Spain, where natural control is insufficient. Furthermore, in clementine nurseries, tender foliage is highly susceptible to attack and natural enemies are almost always absent. Therefore, acaricides are often used indiscriminately. Alternative control measures are necessary, both in commercial orchards and clementine nurseries. In order to assess the efficacy of inoculative releases of N. californicus and P. persimilis to reduce T. urticae populations in young Spanish clementine plants, a semi-field experiment was conducted and repeated in three seasons (spring, summer and autumn). Phytoseiulus persimilis was highly effective in reducing both T. urticae infestations and the damage level inflicted on plants at both release rates evaluated (40 and 80 phytoseiids/plant) and all three periods considered. By contrast, N. californicus demonstrated low performance under certain conditions. The results of this study could be adapted and transferred to nurseries and young citrus plantations.

  15. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  16. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanas, V; Enigl, M; Walzer, A; Schausberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number of prey needed to produce an egg, and (3) the ratio between eggs laid and spider mites left when a gravid P. persimilis female leaves a patch. Experiments (1) and (2) were the pre-requirements to assess the fitness costs associated with staying or leaving a prey patch. Immature P. persimilis needed at least 7 and on average 14+/-3.6 (SD) T. urticae eggs to reach adulthood. Gravid females needed at least 5 and on average 8.5+/-3.1 (SD) T. urticae eggs to produce an egg. Most females left the initial patch before spider mite extinction, leaving prey for progeny to develop to adulthood. Females placed in a low density patch left 5.6+/-6.1 (SD) eggs per egg laid, whereas those placed in a high density patch left 15.8+/-13.7 (SD) eggs per egg laid. The three experiments in concert suggest that gravid P. persimilis females are able to balance the trade off between optimal foraging and optimal oviposition and adjust patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

  17. Intraguild interactions between the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ibrahim; Janssen, Arne; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    Species at the same trophic level may interact through competition for food, but can also interact through intraguild predation. Intraguild predation is widespread at the second and third trophic level and the effects may cascade down to the plant level. The effects of intraguild predation can be modified by antipredator behaviour in the intraguild prey. We studied intraguild predation and antipredator behaviour in two species of predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, which are both used for control of the two-spotted spider mite in greenhouse and outdoor crops. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we assessed in particular whether each of the two predators avoids odours emanating from prey patches occupied by the heterospecific predator. Furthermore, we measured the occurrence and rate of intraguild predation of different developmental stages of P. persimilis and N. californicus on bean leaves in absence or in presence of the shared prey. Neither of the two predator species avoided prey patches with the heterospecific competitor, both when inexperienced with the other predator and when experienced with prey patches occupied by the heterospecific predator. Intraguild experiments showed that N. californicus is a potential intraguild predator of P. persimilis. However, P. persimilis did not suffer much from intraguild predation as long as the shared prey was present. This is probably because N. californicus prefers to feed on two-spotted spider mites rather than on its intraguild prey.

  18. Electron microscopic study of developmental stages of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Gamasoidea:Phytoseiidae) mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1988-01-01

    Rickettsiella phytoseiuli was found in great amounts in all tissues except of the nervous system of adult Phytoseiulus persimilis mites. Six morphologically different stages (dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles) of R. phytoseiuli were detected. No rickettsiae were seen in the larvae and in phase 1 and 2 nymphae of these mites.

  19. PCR-based identification of the pathogenic bacterium, Acaricomes phytoseiuli, in the biological control agent Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Schütte, C.; Stouthamer, R.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis is an important biological control agent of herbivorous spider mites. This species is also intensively used in the study of tritrophic effects of plant volatiles in interactions involving plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies. Recently, a novel

  20. State-dependent and odour-mediated anemotatic responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Roessingh, P.

    2004-01-01

    Anemotaxis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (both well-fed and starved), has previously been studied on a wire grid under slight turbulent airflow conditions yielding weak, yet distinct, gradients in wind speed and odour concentration (Sabelis and Van der Weel 1993). Such conditions

  1. The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, David J; Fenlon, John S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. This paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. The use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure has on predation to be incorporated into the assay. Control assays were also used (without predators) to estimate natural losses of prey. The data were analysed using a binomial model, with the use of Abbot's formula to correct for the losses in the controls. A combined equation to describe the effect of temperature and prey density on the predation rate of Phytoseiulus persimilis was derived. The results showed that more prey are eaten as the temperature increases from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, but the number of prey eaten then declines at 30 degrees C, although not to the levels seen at 20 degrees C. The implication of these results for biological control in ornamental crops, where the temperature can often exceed 30 degrees C, is discussed.

  2. Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, A; Talebi, K

    2003-01-01

    Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

  3. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  4. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves...

  5. Development and pathology of two undescribed species of microsporidia infecting the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjøornson, S; Keddie, B A

    2000-11-01

    Two undescribed species of microsporidia were found in mass-reared Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot from two commercial sources during a routine examination of these predators for pathogens. Both microsporidian species were described from specimens that had been prepared for transmission electron microscopy; live specimens were unavailable for examination. One microsporidium, identified as Species A, was described from two specimens obtained from a commercial insectary in North America. All observed stages of this microsporidium were uninucleate. Rounded-to-ovoid schizonts appeared to develop in direct contact with the cytoplasm of lyrate organ cells (ovarian tissue). Mature spores of Species A were elongate-ovoid and measured 2.88 x 1.21 microm. A polar filament coiled 7 to 10 times in the posterior half of the spore. Sporoblasts and spores were observed in the cytoplasm of cells of numerous tissues and in developing eggs within gravid females. A second species, identified as Species B, was described from five specimens obtained from a commercial source in Israel. All observed stages of this microsporidium were uninucleate. Schizonts of Species B were observed within the cytoplasm of cecal wall cells and within the nuclei of lyrate organ cells. Mature spores were ovoid and measured 2.65 x 1.21 microm. A polar filament coiled 3 to 4 times in the posterior half of the spore. Densely packed ribosomes often concealed the polar filament and other internal spore characteristics. Spores were observed in the cytoplasm of cells of numerous tissues and occasionally within the nuclei of lyrate organ cells. Numerous spores and presporal stages were observed within the ovary and developing eggs. The development and pathology of Species A and B were compared to those of Microsporidium phytoseiuli Bjøornson, Steiner and Keddie, a microsporidium previously described from P. persimilis obtained from a commercial source in Europe. The occurrence of three species of

  6. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Wadman, Wytse J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. The receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfactory lobe just ventral of the first pedal ganglion. We have made a 3D reconstruction of the caudal half of the olfactory lobe in adult females. The glomerular organization as well as the glomerular innervation appears conserved across different individuals. The adult females have, by approximation, a 1:1 ratio of olfactory receptor cells to olfactory glomeruli.

  7. Balancing in- and out-breeding by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Demet; Schausberger, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In- and out-breeding depressions are commonly observed phenomena in sexually reproducing organisms with a patchy distribution pattern, and spatial segmentation and/or isolation of groups. At the genetic level, inbreeding depression is due to increased homozygosity, whereas outbreeding depression is due to inferior genetic compatibility of mates. Optimal outbreeding theory suggests that intermediate levels of mate relatedness should provide for the highest fitness gains. Here, we assessed the fitness consequences of genetic relatedness between mates in plant-inhabiting predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis, which are obligatory sexually reproducing but haplo-diploid. Both females and males arise from fertilized eggs but males lose the paternal chromosome set during embryogenesis, dubbed pseudo-arrhenotoky. Phytoseiulus persimilis are highly efficacious in reducing crop-damaging spider mite populations and widely used in biological control. Using iso-female lines of two populations, from Sicily and Greece, we assessed the fecundity of females, and sex ratio of their offspring, that mated with either a sibling, a male from the same population or a male from the other population. Additionally, we recorded mating latency and duration. Females mating with a male from the same population produced more eggs, with a lower female bias, over a longer time than females mating with a sibling or with a male from the other population. Mating latency was unaffected by mate relatedness; mating duration was disproportionally long in sibling couples, likely indicating female reluctance to mate and sub-optimal spermatophore transfer. Our study provides a rare example of in- and out-breeding depression in a haplo-diploid arthropod, supporting the optimal outbreeding theory.

  8. Disease prevalence and transmission of Microsporidium phytoseiuli infecting the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson, S; Keddie, B A

    2001-02-01

    Isolated colonies of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were used to gain information regarding prevalence and transmission of Microsporidium phytoseiuli. Two colonies of P. persimilis were reared on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)-infested bean plants in isolated cages. Disease prevalence of predators from Colony 1 remained relatively low (between 0 and 15%) over 57 weeks of observation whereas disease prevalence of predators from Colony 2 increased over 3 months (from 12 to 100%). Disease prevalence among predators from Colony 1 had increased to 100% 2 months after weekly sampling had ceased for this colony and periodic sampling confirmed that disease prevalence among individuals of both colonies remained at 100%. Microsporidian spores were not detected in randomly chosen samples of T. urticae prey mites that were removed and examined biweekly during this period. Although numerous microsporidian spores were observed in smear preparations of fecal pellets examined by light microscopy, spores were not observed on leaf surfaces or predator feces when examined by SEM. The latter appeared as intact aggregates composed of numerous dumbbell-shaped crystals and it is unlikely that spores are liberated from intact fecal pellets onto leaf surfaces. Vertical transmission of M. phytoseiuli was 100%; horizontal transmission was low (14.3%) and occurred only when immature P. persimilis were permitted to develop in contact with infected immature and adult predators. The mean number of eggs produced per mated pair was highest when uninfected females were mated with uninfected males (63.2 eggs per mated pair). Although mean egg production decreased when one or both parents were infected, not all differences were significant. Male predatory mites did not contribute to infection of their progeny. Results suggest that routine examination of P. persimilis for microsporidian spores is essential for the management of M. phytoseiuli within P. persimilis colonies. Low disease

  9. Phytoseiulus persimilis response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a function of mite-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C; Nechols, James R; Loughin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uses plant volatiles (i.e., airborne chemicals) triggered by feeding of their herbivorous prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), to help locate prey patches. The olfactory response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants varies in direct relation to the population growth pattern of T. urticae on the plant; P. persimilis responds to plants until the spider mite population feeding on a plant collapses, after which infested plants do not attract predators. It has been suggested that this represents an early enemy-free period for T. urticae before the next generation of females is produced. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind the diminished response of predators is due to extensive leaf damage caused by T. urticae feeding, which reduces the production of volatiles irrespective of the collapse of T. urticae population on the plant. To test this hypothesis we investigated how the response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants is affected by: 1) initial density of T. urticae, 2) duration of infestation, and 3) corresponding leaf damage due to T. urticae feeding. Specifically, we assessed the response of P. persimilis to plants infested with two T. urticae densities (20 or 40 per plant) after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 days. We also measured leaf damage on these plants. We found that predator response to T. urticae-infested plants can be quantified as a function of mite-days, which is a cumulative measure of the standing adult female mite population sampled and summed over time. That is, response to volatiles increased with increasing numbers of T. urticae per plant or with the length of time plant was infested by T. urticae, at least as long at the leaves were green. Predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only 20 spider mites. This suggests that the enemy-free period might only provide a limited window of opportunity for T. urticae

  10. CRITERIOS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE Phytoseiulus persimilis (PARASITIFORMES: PHYTOSEIIDAE BAJO CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Alberto Daza Vallejos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El ácaro depredador Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido usado con éxito para el control del ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae, el cual constituye  una de las plagas mas importantes en los cultivos de rosa de la Sabana de Bogotá. En Colombia esta estrategia de control se ha visto limitada por la falta de disponibilidad de los depredadores en el comercio del producto. En el presente trabajo se proponen criterios para estandarizar las bases para la producción de P. persimilis en plantas de frijol infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae de diferentes tiempos de desarrollo, utilizando una proporción constante de depredadores liberados. Se encontró que plantas infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae por más de tres semanas permiten obtener mayores incrementos de población de los depredadores y que aproximadamente a los 25 días después de realizada la liberación, de los depredadores en las plantas infestadas, se obtienen los mayores poblaciones del depredador en estado de ninfa y adulto para cosechar, y usar como estrategia de control en los cultivos.

  11. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-01

    Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.

  12. Plant architecture and prey distribution influence foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement, number, and size of plant parts may influence predator foraging behavior, either directly, by altering the rate or pattern of predator movement, or, indirectly, by affecting the distribution and abundance of prey. We report on the effects of both plant architecture and prey distribution on foraging by the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plants differed in leaf number (2- or 6-leafed), and there were associated differences in leaf size, plant height, and relative proportions of plant parts; but all had the same total surface area. The prey, the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were distributed either on the basal leaf or on all leaves. The effect of plant architecture on predator foraging behavior varied depending on prey distribution. The dimensions of individual plant parts affected time allocated to moving and feeding, but they did not appear to influence the frequency with which predators moved among different plant parts. Overall, P. persimilis moved less, and fed upon prey longer, on 6-leafed plants with prey on all leaves than on plants representing other treatment combinations. Our findings suggest that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution should be considered, along with other factors such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles, in augmentative biological control programs.

  13. Birefringent Crystals and Abdominal Discoloration in the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1997-03-01

    In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory

  14. Maternal manipulation of hatching asynchrony limits sibling cannibalism in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, P; Hoffmann, D

    2008-11-01

    1. Sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. Therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. One way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence hatching asynchrony between nearby laid eggs. This has rarely been tested experimentally. 2. We examined the ability of ovipositing females of the cannibalistic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to influence the occurrence of sibling cannibalism among offspring by manipulating hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs. 3. In the first experiment, we assessed the occurrence of sibling cannibalism in relation to the hatching interval (24 h and 48 h) between nearby laid eggs. In the second experiment, we tested whether ovipositing females discriminate sites containing young (24-h old) and old (48-h old) eggs, fresh and old traces (metabolic waste products and possibly pheromones) left by the same female (24 h and 48 h ago), or young eggs plus fresh female traces and old eggs plus old female traces. Both experiments were conducted with and without prey. 4. Without prey, siblings were more likely to cannibalize each other if the hatching interval between nearby laid eggs was short (24 h). Cannibalism occurred less often when senior siblings (protonymphs) experienced a delay in the opportunity to cannibalize junior siblings (larvae). 5. Independent of prey availability, females preferentially added new eggs to sites containing old eggs plus old female traces but did neither distinguish between young and old eggs presented without own traces nor between fresh and old traces presented without eggs. 6. We discuss cue perception and use by P. persimilis females and contrast the outcome of our experiments and theoretical predictions of sibling cannibalism. We conclude that P. persimilis mothers increase hatching asynchrony of nearby laid eggs to prevent

  15. Air temperature optimisation for humidity-controlled cold storage of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, H; Ragusa, S

    2008-06-01

    Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (Acaridoil 13SL) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. A residue of 1.3 mg/cm(2) of pesticide solution was harmless for Ph. persimilis eggs, while a moderate mortality of eggs and of larvae from treated eggs of T. urticae, was observed (53.8%). The pesticide also caused a delay in the postembryonic development of the tetranychid. Moreover, 83.4% mortality was reported for treated females tetranychids and only 24.0% for Ph. persimilis females. The pesticide influenced negatively the population growth of T. urticae which showed a very low rate of increase (r(i)=0.07), compared to that obtained in the control (r(i)=0.68). The pesticide did not affect negatively the reproductive potential of Ph. persimilis (r(i)=0.54 and r(i)=0.57 for test and control, respectively). These results suggest a considerable acaricidal activity of potassium salts of fatty acids and caraway oil on T. urticae and a good selectivity on Ph. persimilis.

  17. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The predatory mites respond to numerous structurally different compounds. However, typical spider-mite induced plant compounds do not attract more predatory mites than plant compounds not associated with prey. Because the mites are sensitive to many compounds, components of odor mixtures may affect each other's perception. Although the response to pure compounds has been well documented, little is known how interactions among compounds affect the response to odor mixtures. We assessed the relation between the mites' responses elicited by simple mixtures of two compounds and by the single components of these mixtures. The preference for the mixture was compared to predictions under three conceptual models, each based on one of the following assumptions: (1) the responses elicited by each of the individual components can be added to each other; (2) they can be averaged; or (3) one response overshadows the other. The observed response differed significantly from the response predicted under the additive response, average response, and overshadowing response model in 52, 36, and 32% of the experimental tests, respectively. Moreover, the behavioral responses elicited by individual compounds and their binary mixtures were determined as a function of the odor concentration. The relative contribution of each component to the behavioral response elicited by the mixture varied with the odor concentration, even though the ratio of both compounds in the mixture was kept constant. Our experiments revealed that compounds that elicited no response had an effect on the response elicited by binary mixtures that they were part of. The results are not consistent with the hypothesis that P

  18. The role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Jetske G; Dicke, Marcel

    2004-02-01

    Many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. These plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. It is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. We studied the role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis by using a Y-tube olfactometer. MeSA is one of the compounds released by lima bean, infested with Tetranychus urticae--a prey species of the predatory mite. MeSA attracted satiated predatory mites in a dose-dependent way with optimum attraction at a dose of 0.2 microg. Predatory mites did not discriminate between a prey-induced lima bean volatile blend (that contains MeSA) and a prey-induced volatile blend to which an extra amount of synthetic MeSA had been added. However, they preferred a MeSA-containing volatile blend (induced by T. urticae) to an otherwise similar but MeSA-free blend (induced by jasmonic acid). Adding synthetic MeSA to the MeSA-free blend significantly increased the mites' choice for this odor, suggesting an important role for MeSA. This study is a new step toward unraveling the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in the foraging behavior of predatory arthropods.

  19. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, C E M; van Beek, T A; Dicke, M

    2002-12-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. The predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. No differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were found for predatory mites reared on spider mites on the different test plants or on lima bean. Thus, experience with the spider mite-induced plant volatiles did not affect the predatory mites. Jasmonic acid was applied to ginkgo leaves to induce a mimic of a spider mite-induced volatile blend, because the spider mites did not survive when incubated on ginkgo. The volatile blend induced in ginkgo by jasmonic acid was slightly attractive to predatory mites. Plants with a high degree of direct defence were thought to invest less in indirect defence than plants with a low degree of direct defence. However, plants that had a strong direct defence such as ginkgo and sweet pepper, did emit induced volatiles that attracted the predatory mite. This indicates that a combination of direct and indirect defence is to some extent compatible in plant species.

  20. Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, Rüdiger; Schumann, Peter; Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain CSCT, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family Micrococcaceae. Nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as Renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), Arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and Arthrobacter russicus (94.6%). Although the predominant fatty acids (anteiso C15:0), cell-wall sugars (galactose, glucose) and polar lipids (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol) are in accordance with those of members of the genus Arthrobacter, strain CSCT can be distinguished from members of the genus Arthrobacter by biochemical tests, the absence of a rod-coccus life cycle and the occurrence of the partially saturated menaquinone MK-10(H2) as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content is 57.7 mol%. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic differences from other species of the Micrococcaceae, a novel genus and species are proposed, Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is CSCT (=DSM 14247T=CCUG 49701T).

  1. Effects of Euseius stipulatus on establishment and efficacy in spider mite suppression of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis in clementine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Hoffmann, Daniela; Schausberger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is one of the most problematic phytophagous pests in Spanish clementine orchards. The most abundant predatory mites in this ecosystem are Euseius stipulatus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. Euseius stipulatus is dominant but poorly adapted to utilize T. urticae as prey. It mainly persists on pollen and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. A recent study suggested that the more efficacious T. urticae predators P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by lethal and non-lethal intraguild interactions with E. stipulatus. Here, we investigated the potential of N. californicus and P. persimilis to colonize and thrive on young clementine trees infested by T. urticae in presence and absence of E. stipulatus. Presence of E. stipulatus interfered with establishment and abundance of P. persimilis and negatively affected the efficacy of N. californicus in T. urticae suppression. In contrast, the abundance of E. stipulatus was not affected by introduction of a second predator. Trait-mediated effects of E. stipulatus changing P. persimilis and N. californicus behavior and/or life history were the most likely explanations for these outcomes. We conclude that superiority of E. stipulatus in intraguild interactions may indeed contribute to the currently observed predator species composition and abundance, rendering natural control of T. urticae in Spanish clementine orchards unsatisfactory. Nonetheless, stronger reduction of T. urticae and/or plant damage in the predator combination treatments as compared to E. stipulatus alone indicates the possibility to improve T. urticae control via repeated releases of N. californicus and/or P. persimilis.

  2. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  3. Tri-trophic level Impact of Host Plant Linamarin and Lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae (Mesostigmata: Tetranychidae) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Prostigmata: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of Phaseolus lunatus L. on the second and third trophic levels was studied in Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Chemical analyzes showed that the content of linamarin was higher in termin...

  4. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nachman, G.; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2003), s. 35-68 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Biological control * bottom-up factor * Phytoseiulus persimilis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.497, year: 2003

  5. Etoxazole resistance in predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis A.-H. (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Cross-resistance, inheritance and biochemical resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz Salman, Sibel; Aydınlı, Fatma; Ay, Recep

    2015-07-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis of the family Phytoseiidae is an effective predatory mite species that is used to control pest mites. The LC50 and LC60 values of etoxazole were determined on P. persimilis using a leaf-disc method and spraying tower. A laboratory selection population designated ETO6 was found to have a 111.63-fold resistance to etoxazole following 6 selection cycles. This population developed low cross-resistance to spinosad, spiromesifen, acetamiprid, indoxacarb, chlorantraniliprole, milbemectin and moderate cross-resistance to deltamethrin. PBO, IBP and DEM synergised resistance 3.17-, 2.85- and 3.60-fold respectively. Crossing experiments revealed that etoxazole resistance in the ETO6 population was an intermediately dominant and polygenic. In addition, detoxifying enzyme activities were increased 2.71-fold for esterase, 3.09-fold for glutathione S-transferase (GST) and 2.76-fold for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) in the ETO6 population. Selection for etoxazole under laboratory conditions resulted in the development of etoxazole resistance in the predatory mite P. persimilis that are resistant to pesticides are considered valuable for use in resistance management programmes within integrated pest control strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of plant species on a mite pest (Tetranychus utricae) and its predator (Phytoseiulus persimilis): implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; de Courcy Williams, M

    1999-06-01

    The influence of plant species on the population dynamics of the spider mite pest, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was examined as a prerequisite to effective biological control on ornamental nursery stock. Experiments have been done to investigate how the development, fecundity and movement of T. urticae, and the movement of P. persimilis were affected by plant species. A novel experimental method, which incorporates plant structure, was used to investigate the functional response of P. persimilis. Development times for T. urticae were consistent with published data and did not differ with plant species in a biologically meaningful way. Plant species was shown to have a major influence on fecundity (P < 0.001) and movement of the pest mite (P < 0.01), but no influence on the movement of the predator. The movement of both pest and predator was shown to be related to the density of the adult pest mites on the plant (P < 0.001). Plant structure affected the functional response, particularly in relation to the ability of the predator to locate prey at low densities. The impact of these findings on the effective use of biological control on ornamental nursery stock is discussed.

  7. Mitochondrial genome analysis of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and a revisit of the Metaseiulus occidentalis mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this study we sequenced and analysed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Chilean predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Chelicerata: Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). The 16 199 bp genome (79.8% AT) contains the standard set of 13 protein-coding and 24 RNA genes. Compared with the ancestral arthropod mtDNA pattern, the gene order is extremely reshuffled (35 genes changed position) and represents a novel arrangement within the arthropods. This is probably related to the presence of several large noncoding regions in the genome. In contrast with the mt genome of the closely related species Metaseiulus occidentalis (Phytoseiidae: Typhlodrominae) - which was reported to be unusually large (24 961 bp), to lack nad6 and nad3 protein-coding genes, and to contain 22 tRNAs without T-arms - the genome of P. persimilis has all the features of a standard metazoan mt genome. Consequently, we performed additional experiments on the M. occidentalis mt genome. Our preliminary restriction digests and Southern hybridization data revealed that this genome is smaller than previously reported. In addition, we cloned nad3 in M. occidentalis and positioned this gene between nad4L and 12S-rRNA on the mt genome. Finally, we report that at least 15 of the 22 tRNAs in the M. occidentalis mt genome can be folded into canonical cloverleaf structures similar to their counterparts in P. persimilis.

  8. Effect of different times of cold storage on some parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias henriot) and Neoseiulus californicus. (Parasitiformes: phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Pena, Adriana; Nino, Pilar; Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus are used in programs of mass rearing for the control of phytofagous mites. the effect on survival, longevity, predator capacity and fecundity of this predators was studied after storage them to a temperature of 8 Celsius degrade and relative humidity of 85+/-5 % during different periods of time (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 35 days). During the time of evaluation the predators were individualized and kept at 25 Celsius degrade of temperature and relative humidity of 85+/-5 %. the survival, longevity predator capacity and fecundity presented during all the time of evaluation of P. persimilis displayed a decrease after being stored during 21 or more days, the same happened to the survival and consumption of N. californicus sp. however, the longevity and oviposition during all time of evaluation for N. californicus was reduced after storing them for 28 or more days. Daily consumption and daily fecundity of both predators had no effect, except on daily consumption of eggs for P. persimilis and daily consumption of nymphs for N. californicus after storing them for 35 days.

  9. Pre-adult development of Phytoseiulus persimilis on diets of Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus lintearius: implications for the biological control of Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie T; Ireson, John E; Allen, Geoff R

    2009-02-01

    Predation by the phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, is considered a major threat to the effectiveness of biological control of gorse, Ulex europaeus, using Tetranychus lintearius. To assess this threat and to determine if the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations, its development and predator : prey generation time ratios were assessed. The pre-adult mortality and development time of two populations of P. persimilis fed on two diets, T. urticae and T. lintearius, were determined at two temperatures, 14 and 24 degrees C. There were no significant differences in either mortality or development time between the two populations of P. persimilis at these temperatures. There is therefore no evidence that the two tested populations of P. persimilis are behaving as different strains. Similarly, diet had no significant effect on either mortality or development time at these temperatures. At 14 degrees C the mortality of P. persimilis was significantly higher and development was significantly longer than at 24 degrees C. Using pre-adult development as a surrogate for generation times, predator : prey generation time ratios were calculated between P. persimilis and both T. urticae and T. lintearius using data from this and other studies. The predator : prey generation time ratios between P. persimilis and T. lintearius were lower than those between P. persimilis and T. urticae. These results indicate that the impact of P. persimilis on T. lintearius populations is likely to be comparable to its impact on T. urticae populations. This provides further evidence that predation by P. persimilis is having a deleterious effect on T. lintearius populations and therefore reducing its effectiveness as a biological control agent for gorse.

  10. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 1. Symptoms in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Kleijn, Prisca W; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. We hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. Here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (NR) population) with mated females of other populations that are strongly attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (responding populations). The most apparent characteristic of the NR population was the presence of numerous dorso-ventrally flattened females (76% of all females). These females had a normal size after mating but shrank during adulthood. Independent of their age, shrunken females did not reproduce and died a few days after shrinking. In addition to these profound differences in short term performance, females from the NR-population showed behavioral changes, including a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, a higher tendency to leave a prey-patch and a lower predation rate. Moreover, about half of the live females of the NR-population carried birefringent dumbbell-shaped crystals in the legs whereas live females of a responding population carried crystals only in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules and the rectum. The symptom 'crystals in the legs' was correlated with low reproduction. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of these crystals revealed that they contain calcium and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Crystals with comparable elemental compositions and the same characteristic concentric layering are well known in insects, where they are thought to play a major role in detoxification of calcium and heavy metals, and in storage of phosphorus. The fraction of predators carrying a white spot in the distal part of the opisthosoma, due to accumulation of excretory

  11. Effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium muscariumon the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis as a non-target organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donka, András; Sermann, Helga; Büttner, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    In biological control, different benefit organisms have to combine for an effective management. If entomopathogenic fungi will be integrated, than it has to be considered also the effect on non-target organisms Like beneficial arthropods. Because of the high importance of predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in biological control it was to determine side effects of Leconicillium muscarium on this species. In two standardised biotests in petri dish and on plants (P. vulgaris) individuals were dipped in suspension or set down on leafs after spraying with L. muscarium at different spore density. Results indicate pathogenicity for the predatory mite in principle. But the dimension of infection risk decrease, all the more conditions approach to practical sequence. Under practical conditions on plants and in practical relevant concentration of 10(6) and 10(7) sp./ml no risk is to expect on the plant.

  12. Process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, S; Nakamura, M; Nagahama, Y; Amano, H

    2000-01-01

    The process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. After insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. Two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. After the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. The egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into the oviduct, where the eggshell was formed. When the eggshell was complete, and while embryogenesis proceeded, the egg was deposited. In the meantime some ova began to expand sequentially and two joining pronuclei appeared in expanding eggs. The joining pronuclei in the first egg proved male diploidy. This is additional evidence of pseudo-arrhenotoky in this phytoseiid mite species, since the first eggs developed into males.

  13. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Kleespies, Regina G; Poitevin, Olivier; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a greater tendency to leave prey patches carrying ample prey. Moreover, predators may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption and have a low excretion rate. Here, we satisfy Koch's postulates for a strain of Acaricomes phytoseiuli (DSM 14247) that was isolated from symptomatic female P. persimilis of the NR-population. Adult female P. persimilis were either exposed to a bacterial inoculum suspension (treatment) or to sterile distilled water (control) for a period of 3 days. Control and treated predators were examined for the occurrence of six symptoms characteristic for the NR-syndrome and the presence of A. phytoseiuli after inoculation. The latter was done by re-isolation of A. phytoseiuli from individual predators and predator feces placed on nutrient agar, by PCR-based identification and by histopathological studies of individual predators. The NR-syndrome was clearly induced in those predators that had been exposed to the bacterial inoculum (incubation time=2-5 days, fraction shrunken females=80%), whereas predators exposed to water did not show the NR-syndrome. A. phytoseiuli was never isolated from control predators whereas it could be re-isolated from 60% of the treated predators (N=37) and from feces of 41% of treated predators (N=17). Only one day after exposure A. phytoseiuli could not be re-isolated from treated predators and their feces. Light and electron microscope studies of predators exposed to A. phytoseiuli revealed striking bacterial accumulations in the lumen of the alimentary tract together with extreme degeneration of its epithelium. In addition, bacterial foci also occurred in the fat body. These phenomena

  14. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: The first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Fenlon, J S

    2001-02-01

    The functional response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was examined on three plant species. Experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. The results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the predatory ability of P. persimilis on the three plant species. Fewer eggs were eaten on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. 'Autumnal Blue', the plant species with hairy leaves, and greater numbers of prey consumed on Choisya ternata, a species with smooth leaves. However, similarly few eggs were eaten on the smooth, but waxy leaved Euonymus japonicus as on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, demonstrating that morphological characters of leaves other than the possession of hairs and trichomes may affect the rates of predation. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, predator and prey, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.

  16. Testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator Phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kiffnie M; Opit, George P; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2006-01-01

    The compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium Pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'Amethyst 96.' Plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. There were three treatment variables, each at two levels: predators (released or not), spray application (water or Conserve SC at 2 ml/3.79 l), and timing of spray (1 day before or after predators were released). Twospotted spider mite populations then were sampled twice each week over a three-week period. The application or timing of spinosad had no effect on the ability of the predator to reduce the population of spider mites. Spider mite populations in the no-predator treatment continued to expand over the course of the experiment, while those in the predator-release treatment declined. We conclude that P. persimilis can be used in conjunction with spinosad on ivy geraniums without causing obvious detrimental effects to this predator or leading to a reduction in biological control.

  17. Comparison of single and combination treatments of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Acramite (bifenazate) for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E; Kelts, Crystal; Rondon, Silvia I; Francis, Roger R

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of combining releases of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite (TSSM) (Tetranychus urticae Koch) in strawberries. In the greenhouse experiment, a combination treatment of P. persimilis and N. californicus was compared with single treatments of each species, Acramite application, and untreated control. All treatments significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control. Field studies employed two approaches: one investigating the same five treatments as the greenhouse experiment and a second, comparing combination treatments of P. persimilis/N. californicus, Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis to single treatments of each and to control plots. Among the combination treatments, the P. persimilis/N. californicus treatment significantly reduced TSSM numbers compared with the control, but was not as effective as N. californicus alone during the 2003-2004 field season. Also, combination treatments of Acramite/N. californicus, and Acramite/P. persimilis significantly reduced TSSM populations compared with the control. These findings indicate that all three combination treatments are promising options for TSSM control in strawberries for growers in northern Florida and other strawberry producing areas of the world.

  18. Tri-trophic level impact of host plant linamarin and lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan Alfredo

    2010-12-01

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of lima beans, Phaseolus lunatus L., on the second and third trophic levels was studied in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. The content of linamarin was higher in terminal trifoliate leaves (435.5 ppm) than in primary leaves (142.1 ppm) of Henderson bush lima beans. However, linamarin concentrations were reversed at the second trophic level showing higher concentrations in spider mites feeding on primary leaves (429.8 ppm) than those feeding on terminal trifoliate leaves (298.2 ppm). Concentrations of linamarin in the predatory mites were 18.4 and 71.9 ppm when feeding on spider mites grown on primary and terminal leaves, respectively. The concentration of lotaustralin in primary lima bean leaves was 103.12 ppm, and in spider mites feeding on these leaves was 175.0 ppm. Lotaustralin was absent in lima bean terminal trifoliate leaves and in mites feeding on these leaves. Fecundity of spider mites feeding on lima bean leaves (primary or trifoliate) was not significantly different from mites feeding on red bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., primary leaves. However, the progeny sex ratio (in females per male) of spider mites feeding on lima bean leaves was significantly lower than progeny of spider mites feeding on red bean leaves (control). Fecundity and progeny sex ratio of P. persimilis were both significantly affected by the concentration of linamarin present in the prey. Changes in concentration of linamarin in living tissue across the three trophic levels are discussed.

  19. Sublethal effects of fenpyroximate and pyridaben on two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus womersleyi and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Minsik; Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Key-Il; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Cho, Kijong

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the sublethal effects of fenpyroximate and pyridaben on life-table parameters of two predatory mites species, Neoseiulus (= Amblyseius) womersleyi and Phytoseiulus persimilis. In these assays, young adult females were treated with three sublethal concentrations of each acaricide. The life-table parameters were calculated at each acaricide concentration, and compared using bootstrap procedures. For each acaricide, the LC(50) estimates for both species were similar, yet the two species exhibited completely different susceptibility when the population growth rate was used as the endpoint. Exposure to both acaricides reduced the net reproduction rate (R (o)) in a concentration-dependent manner and their EC(50)s were equivalent to less than LC(7). Two different scales of population-level endpoints were estimated to compare the total effect between the species and treatments: the first endpoint values were based on the net reproductive rate (fecundity λ) and the second endpoint values incorporated the mean egg hatchability into the net reproductive rate (vitality λ). The fecundity λ decreased in a concentration-dependent manner for both acaricide treatments, but the vitality λ decreased abruptly after treatment of N. womersleyi with pyridaben. The change in the patterns of λ revealed that the acaricide effects at the population level strongly depended on the life-history characteristics of the predatory mite species and the chemical mode of action. When the total effects of the two acaricides on N. womersleyi and P. persimilis were considered, fenpyroximate was found to be the most compatible acaricide for the augmentative release of N. womersleyi after treatment.

  20. Innate responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to a herbivore-induced plant volatile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2011-01-01

    The responses of the predatory mite P. persimilis to herbivore-induced plant volatiles are at least partly genetically determined. Thus, there is potential for the evolution of this behaviour by natural selection. We tested whether distinct predator genotypes with contrasting responses to a specific

  1. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  2. Alternating temperatures affect life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their prey Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may

  3. State-dependent and odour-mediated anemotactic responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tilborg, Merijn; Sabelis, Maurice W; Roessingh, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Anemotaxis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (both well-fed and starved), has previously been studied on a wire grid under slight turbulent airflow conditions yielding weak, yet distinct, gradients in wind speed and odour concentration (Sabelis and Van der Weel 1993). Such conditions might have critically influenced the outcome of the study. We repeated these experiments, under laminar airflow conditions on a flat surface in a wind tunnel, thereby avoiding variation in wind speed and odour concentration. Treatments for starved and well-fed mites were (1) still-air without herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) (well-fed mites only), (2) an HIPV-free air stream, and (3) an air stream with HIPV (originating from Lima bean plants infested by two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae). Well-fed mites oriented in random directions in still-air without HIPV. In an air stream, starved mites always oriented upwind, whether plant odours were present or not. Well-fed mites oriented downwind in an HIPV-free air stream, but in random directions in an air stream with HIPV. Only under the last treatment our results differed from those of Sabelis and Van der Weel (1993).

  4. The effect of indoxacarb and five other insecticides on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Amblyseius fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanian, Noubar J; Akalach, Mohammed

    2006-04-01

    A laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, S-kinoprene and dimethoate to Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say). Amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in North American apple orchards. The other two beneficials are widely used in greenhouses to manage various arthropod pests infesting vegetable and ornamental crops. Indoxacarb is a slow-acting insecticide, so toxicity data were recorded 7 days post-treatment when the data had stabilised. It showed no toxicity to O. insidiosus nymphs or to A. fallacis or P. persimilis adults. The LC50 values for O. insidiosus nymphs and P. persimilis could not be estimated with their associated confidence limits, because the g values were greater than 0.5 and under such circumstances the lethal concentration would lie outside the limits. The LC50 for A. fallacis was 7.6x the label rate. The fecundity of P. persimilis was reduced by 26.7%. The eclosion of treated eggs from both species of beneficial mites was not affected adversely. Among the other pest control products, S-kinoprene and endosulfan affected adversely at least one species of the predators, whereas dimethoate, abamectin and insecticidal soap were very toxic to all three beneficials. Indoxacarb should be evaluated as a pest control product in IPM programmes. Copyright (c) 2006 Crown in the right of Canada.

  5. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  6. Toxicity of thiamethoxam to Tetranychus urticae Koch and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) through different routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo; Tirello, Paola; Ortiz, Paulina Bermudez

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects on T. urticae were higher when residual and contaminated food exposures were considered. The total effect was higher than 90% where contaminated food exposure was involved. On P. persimilis, the total effect was higher in residual and contaminated prey exposures compared with topical exposure, and all combinations of routes of exposure attained a total effect higher than 90%. Thiamethoxam was found to be toxic to T. urticae and P. persimilis; however, the impact of the insecticide depended on the routes of exposure and their combinations. Lethal and sublethal effects occurred in residual and contaminated food exposures, while only sublethal effects occurred in topical exposure of predators and prey. The toxicity of thiamethoxam on prey and predator increased with the number of exposure routes involved. By limiting exposure to thiamethoxam to ingestion of contaminated food only, the impact of the pesticide was more favourable to P. persimilis than to its prey. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparative toxicity of pesticides in three phytoseiid mites with different life-style occurring in citrus: Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

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    Argolo, Poliane Sá; Jacas, Josep A; Urbaneja, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and augmentative biological control strategies have been developed to take full advantage of the natural enemies that occur in Spanish citrus orchards. Among them, the predatory mites Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis play an important role in the biological control of tetranychid mites. However, these predatory mites are often affected by pesticides and information about the side-effects of these products against these beneficial arthropods is essential to guarantee their efficacy. The side-effects of some pesticides remain unknown and the primary aim of this study was to fill this gap. We have further used this information and that collected from other sources to compare the response of these three mite species to pesticides. Based on this information, E. stipulatus has the most tolerant species, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis. Therefore, using E. stipulatus as an indicator species in citrus may have led to the paradox of selecting presumed selective pesticides resulting in excessive impact on N. californicus and, especially on P. persimilis. Because these two latter species are considered key for the biological control of T. urticae in citrus, especially clementines, in Spain, we propose to use P. persimilis as the relevant indicator of such effects on predacious mites occurring in citrus instead of E. stipulatus. This change could have a dramatic impact on the satisfactory control of tetranychid mites in citrus in the near future.

  8. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 2. Disease transmission by adult females.

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    Schütte, Conny; Poitevin, Olivier; Negash, Tesfaye; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption, and have a lower excretion rate. We hypothesized earlier that this characteristic syndrome, called non-responding (=NR-) syndrome, is caused by a pathogen infecting P. persimilis. To further support this hypothesis we here study several transmission modes of the factor causing the NR-syndrome. In all tests we measured size, short-term fecundity, mortality, predator position, response to plant odors and crystal location, thus including 6 of the 9 symptoms known yet. No evidence was found for vertical transmission from parent to offspring. Eggs from symptomatic females of the NR-population mated by males of the NR-population gave rise to normal-sized, well performing predators, when they had been surface sterilized or transferred to a new leaf. However, such eggs gave rise to shrunken females (17%) when left on the leaf where they had been laid. In the latter case transmission via products deposited on the leaf by the mothers was possible. We therefore tested several modes of horizontal transmission by exposing females of a commercial population that never showed the NR-syndrome (=R1-population) to products related to the symptomatic NR-population. No evidence was found for transmission via food or via squashed adult females. However, symptoms were induced in adult females of the R1-population after a 3-day exposure to a live adult female of the NR-population (incubation period=3-7 days, fraction shrunken females=53%) and after a 1-day exposure to feces and

  9. Ultrastructure and Pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. Infecting the Predatory Mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

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    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1996-11-01

    Ultrastructure and pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. infecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Infected mites showed no gross, external symptoms. All observed stages of the parasite had unpaired nuclei. Schizonts were commonly observed within nuclei of digestive cells of the ventriculus and within the cytoplasm of cells lining the cecal wall and in muscle tissue underlying it. Sporoblasts and spores occurred in the nuclei and cytoplasm of digestive cells within the ventriculus, in cortical regions of the sub- and supraesophageal ganglia, within the cecal wall and muscle tissue, and in parenchyma cells underlying the cuticle. Mature spores were also observed in developing eggs within gravid females. These were broad- to elongate-ovoid, measured 4.33 ± 0.35 x 1.27 ± 0.15 &mgr;m (electron micrographs), 5.37 ± 0.46 x 2.22 ± 0.17 &mgr;m (fixed and stained), and 5.88 ± 0.34 x 2.22 ± 0.19 &mgr;m (fresh) and had an isolfilar polar filament coiled 12 to 15 times within the posterior two-thirds. Within cells, individual spores appeared to be in direct contact with host cytoplasm, while groups of spores were infrequently observed within interfacial envelopes. Groups of 4, 8, to more than 16 spores were observed by light microscopy, while 8 was the maximum observed by electron microscopy. No spores were observed in Tetranychus urticae, a mite used as food during this study.

  10. Innate responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to a herbivore-induced plant volatile.

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    Sznajder, B; Sabelis, M W; Egas, M

    2011-06-01

    The responses of the predatory mite P. persimilis to herbivore-induced plant volatiles are at least partly genetically determined. Thus, there is potential for the evolution of this behaviour by natural selection. We tested whether distinct predator genotypes with contrasting responses to a specific herbivore-induced plant volatile, i.e. methyl salicylate (MeSa), could be found in a base population collected in the field (Sicily). To this end, we imposed purifying selection on individuals within iso-female lines of P. persimilis such that the lines were propagated only via the individual that showed either a preference or avoidance of MeSa. The responses of the lines were characterized as the mean proportion of individuals choosing MeSa when given a choice between MeSa and clean air. Significant variation in predator responses was detected among iso-female lines, thus confirming the presence of a genetic component for this behaviour. Nevertheless, we did not find a significant difference in the response to MeSa between the lines that were selected to avoid MeSa and the lines selected to prefer MeSa. Instead, in the course of selection the lines selected to avoid MeSa shifted their mean response towards a preference for MeSa. An inverse, albeit weaker, shift was detected for the lines selected to prefer MeSa. We discuss the factors that may have caused the apparent lack of a response to selection within iso-female line in this study and propose experimental approaches that address them.

  11. Comparison of cultivars of ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii on production of spider mite-induced volatiles, and their attractiveness to the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

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    Krips, O E; Willems, P E; Gols, R; Posthumus, M A; Gort, G; Dicke, M

    2001-07-01

    We investigated whether volatiles produced by spider mite-damaged plants of four gerbera cultivars differ in attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites, and how the mite-induced odor blends differ in chemical composition. The gerbera cultivars differed in resistance, as expressed in terms of spider mite intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). In order of increasing resistance these were Sirtaki, Rondena, Fame, and Bianca. To correct for differences in damage inflicted on the cultivars, we developed a method to compare the attractiveness of the blends, based on the assumption that a larger amount of spider mite damage leads to higher attraction of P persimilis. Spider mite-induced volatiles of cultivars Rondena and Bianca were preferred over those of cultivar Sirtaki. Spider mite-induced volatiles of cultivars Sirtaki and Fame did not differ in attractiveness to P. persimilis. Sirtaki plants had a lower relative production of terpenes than the other three cultivars. This was attributed to a low production of cis-alpha-bergamotene, trans-alpha-bergamotene, trans-beta-bergamotene, and (E)-beta-farnesene. The emission of (E)-beta-ocimene and linalool was lower in Sirtaki and Fame leaves than in Bianca and Rondena. The importance of these chemical differences in the differential attraction of predatory mites is discussed.

  12. Social familiarity governs prey patch-exploitation, -leaving and inter-patch distribution of the group-living predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

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    Zach, Gernot J; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression.

  13. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

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    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of bottom-up (plant condition) and top-down (predatory mites) factors on the dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), a series of experiments were conducted in which spider mites and predatory mites were released on bean plants. Plants inoculated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult female T. urticae were either left untreated or were inoculated with 3 or 5 adult female predators (Phytoseiulus persimilis) one week after the introduction of spider mites. Plant area, densities of T. urticae and P. persimilis, and plant injury were assessed by weekly sampling. Data were analysed by a combination of statistical methods and a tri-trophic mechanistic simulation model partly parameterised from the current experiments and partly from previous data. The results showed a clear effect of predators on the density of spider mites and on the plant injury they cause. Plant injury increased with the initial number of spider mites and decreased with the initial number of predators. Extinction of T. urticae, followed by extinction of P. persimilis, was the most likely outcome for most initial combinations of prey and predators. Eggs constituted a relatively smaller part of the prey population as plant injury increased and of the predator population as prey density decreased. We did not find statistical evidence of P. persimilis having preference for feeding on T. urticae eggs. The simulation model demonstrated that bottom-up and top-down factors interact synergistically to reduce the density of spider mites. This may have important implications for biological control of spider mites by means of predatory mites.

  14. Social familiarity governs prey patch-exploitation, -leaving and inter-patch distribution of the group-living predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

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    Gernot J Zach

    Full Text Available In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups.Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1 groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2 groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles.We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression.

  15. Side Effects of Four Acaricides on the Predatory Mites of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Sibel YORULMAZ SALMAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study determined the side effects of four acaricides of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on the predator mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Acaricide concentrations were prepared as a two times the field application dose (2T, field application dose (T, and half of the field application dose (T/2 and were then applied on eggs, nymphs and adults of the P. persimilis and N. californicus. The side effects of the acaricidesapplied to the predator mites were determined three, five and seven days afterthe application. While all doses of acequinocyl and etoxazole showed a higher toxic effect on N.californicus eggs, it was found that bifenazate and milbemectin caused similar effects on both predator mite eggs. Furthermore, it was found that the toxic effects of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on nymphs and adults of the predator miteswere high seventh day after the application. The results of the study showed that four acaracides frequently used against to pest mites, should be used more carefully in the agricultural areas.

  16. The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

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    Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A

    2009-08-01

    Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.

  17. Intraguild interactions between Euseius stipulatus and the candidate biocontrol agents of Tetranychus urticae in Spanish clementine orchards: Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Urbaneja, Alberto; Schausberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Spanish clementine orchards are frequently infested by the two-spotted spider mte Tetranychus urticae. Natural control of T. urticae is insufficient despite the presence of Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis. The phytoseiid community is dominated by the generalist Euseius stipulatus which is poorly adapted to exploit T. urticae. Having the intention to promote biological control of T. urticae by augmentative releases we were interested whether P. persimilis and N. californicus are negatively affected by intraguild (IG) interactions with E. stipulatus. Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, we assessed female aggressiveness (quantified as combination of attack probability and latency) in IG predation on larvae. Secondly, we measured mortality, escaping rate and developmental time of immature IG prey in presence and absence of an adult IG predator female. Euseius stipulatus appeared the strongest IG opponent but microhabitat structure modulated the IG interactions and the advantage of E. stipulatus was partially offset when spider mite webbing was present. Implications of these IG interactions for natural and biological control of T. urticae in clementine orchards are discussed.

  18. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. The effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation model that averages the predation rates over all the local populations inhabiting the individual leaves. The empirical predation rates were compared with predictions assuming random predator search and/or an even distribution of prey. The analysis clearly shows that the ability of the predators to search non-randomly increases their predation rate. On the other hand, the prey may gain if it adopts a more even distribution when its density is low and a more patchy distribution when density increases. Mutual interference between searching predators reduces the predation rate, but the effect is negligible. The stage-specific functional response model was compared with two simpler models without explicit stage structure. Both unstructured models yielded predictions that were quite similar to those of the stage-structured model.

  19. EFECTO DE DIFERENTES TIEMPOS DE ALMACENAMIENTO EN FRÍO SOBRE ALGUNOS PARAMETROS DE Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot Y Neoseiulus californicus (PARASITIFORMES: PHYTOSEIIDAE

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    Adriana De la Peña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los ácaros depredadores Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot y Neoseiulus californicus son controladores importantes de ácaros fitófagos utilizados en programas de producción masiva. El efecto sobre la sobrevivencia, longevidad, capacidad depredadora y fecundidad de estos depredadores fue estudiado después de almacenarlos a una temperatura de 8ºC y humedad relativa de 85+/-5% durante diferentes tiempos (siete, 14, 21, 28 y 35 días y comparado con depredadores no almacenados. Durante el tiempo de evaluación los depredadores fueron individualizados y mantenidos a una temperatura de 25°C y humedad relativa de 85+/-5%. La sobrevivencia, longevidad, capacidad depredadora y fecundidad presentada durante todo el periodo de evaluación de P. persimilis presento una disminución después de ser almacenados por 21 o mas días, al igual que la sobrevivencia y el consumo de presas de N. californicus Sin embargo, la longevidad y oviposición durante todo el periodo de evaluación para N. californicus se afecto después de ser almacenado por 28 o mas días. El consumo diario y fecundidad diaria de ambos depredadores no presentaron efecto con excepción del consumo diario de huevos por P. persimilis y el consumo diario de ninfas por N. californicus después de ser almacenados por 35 días. El efecto sobre el consumo y fecundidad es debido posiblemente al efecto que se presenta sobre la sobrevivencia y longevidad de ambos depredadores.

  20. Influence de l'usage préventif des pesticides sur les acariens Tetranychus urticae et Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae présents en cultures de fraisiers du Nord du Maroc

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    Lagziri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of previous pesticide use on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae from strawberry crops in the north of Morocco. Description of the subject. Effects of recommended doses of five common pesticides in the strawberries of Loukkos area (Morocco were tested on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of one avermectin miticide (abamectin, two pyrethrinoid insecticide-acaricides (bifenthrin and lambda-cyalothrin, and two fungicides: firstly, mancozeb, which belongs to the dithiocarbamates family of chemicals and secondly, hexaconazole, of the triazole family. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test in laboratory conditions the effect of five pesticides on the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae and its predatory mite, P. persimilis. The five pesticides tested were those most frequently applied for at least two years on strawberries at the experimental site. Method. Bioassays were performed with populations of mites originating from different plots with various crop protection backgrounds. The first group of plots had been repeatedly treated with the five tested pesticides during a two-year period, the second group had been moderately treated, and the third had been treated once with the tested pesticides. Results. Our results showed that the tested pesticides provided effective control of T. urticae but that they were not compatible with use on the predatory mite P. persimilis, as these particular mites did not usually come into contact with these products. On the other hand, in plots where pesticides had been used for a long time, the susceptibility of P. persimilis populations to these products was significantly reduced. Conclusions. If the tested pesticides are to be considered for integrated pest control programs in plots where they have been used for a long time and where P

  1. Criterios para la liberación de Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae en cultivo de rosa

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    Hilarión Alejandra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido utilizado en programas de manejo integrado de plagas como alternativa al uso de acaricidas para el manejo de Tetranychus urticae. Los daños ocasionados por T. urticae generan un costo de manejo cercano a los 4.500 dólares por hectárea, esta cifra corresponde aproximadamente al 30% del costo de los plaguicidas (Ceniflores, 2008. La implementación de esta estrategia de manejo debe considerar criterios de liberación basados en los niveles de población de T. urticae del cultivo, estimados a partir de una metodología de muestreo apropiada. En el presente trabajo, se propuso una metodología para estimar el nivel de infestación de T. urticae, para conocer la cantidad de P. persimilis a liberar en el cultivo de rosa y se evaluó la efectividad del control ejercido por P. persimilis. En el área experimental se tomaron 81 cuadros, en cada uno de ellos se muestrearon al azar tres plantas de rosa y se contó el número de individuos en tres hojas de cada tercio de la planta. Así mismo, se determinó el número óptimo de muestras para un muestreo bietápico. Se tuvo en cuenta la respuesta funcional como criterio de liberación de P. persimilis. La población de T. urticae estimada después de la liberación se dividió entre la población previa a la liberación para obtener un índice de control, el cual se comparó entre las estrategias de manejo. Con el control biológico se obtuvo una mayor reducción de la población de la plaga y una menor fluctuación de esta a través del tiempo.

  2. Whole genome amplification of Chelex-extracted DNA from a single mite: a method for studying genetics of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakandla, Bhanu; Park, Yoonseong; Margolies, David

    2006-01-01

    We developed and optimized a method using Chelex DNA extraction followed by whole genome amplification (WGA) to overcome problems conducting molecular genetic studies due to the limited amount of DNA obtainable from individual small organisms such as predatory mites. The DNA from a single mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henrot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), isolated in Chelex suspension was subjected to WGA. More than 1000-fold amplification of the DNA was achieved using as little as 0.03 ng genomic DNA template. The DNA obtained by the WGA was used for polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. From WGA DNA, nuclear DNA intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 and a mitochondrial DNA 12S marker were tested in three different geographical populations of the predatory mite: California, the Netherlands, and Sicily. We found a total of four different alleles of the 12S in the Sicilian population, but no polymorphism was identified in the ITS marker. The combination of Chelex DNA extraction and WGA is thus shown to be a simple and robust technique for examining molecular markers for multiple loci by using individual mites. We conclude that the methods, Chelex extraction of DNA followed by WGA, provide a large quantity of DNA template that can be used for multiple PCR reactions useful for genetic studies requiring the genotypes of individual mites.

  3. Toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus.

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    Ochiai, Noriaki; Mizuno, Masayuki; Mimori, Norihiko; Miyake, Toshihiko; Dekeyser, Mark; Canlas, Liza Jara; Takeda, Makio

    2007-01-01

    Bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by Uniroyal Chemical (now Chemtura Corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. Its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. Bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri. Acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. No cross-resistance was found to mites resistant to several other classes of acaricides, such as tebufenpyrad, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide and dicofol. Bifenazate remained effective for a long time with only about a 10% loss of efficacy on T. urticae after 1 month of application in the field. All stages of development of the predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, survived treatment by both bifenazate and diazene. When adult females of the two predatory mite species were treated with either bifenazate or diazene, they showed a normal level of fecundity and predatory activity in the laboratory, effectively suppressing spider mite population growth. Even when the predators were fed spider mite eggs that had been treated previously with bifenazate, they survived. These findings indicate that bifenazate is a very useful acaricide giving high efficacy, long-lasting activity and excellent selectivity for spider mites. It is, therefore, concluded that bifenazate is an ideal compound for controlling these pest mites.

  4. Genetic variation in jasmonic acid- and spider mite-induced plant volatile emission of cucumber accessions and attraction of the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappers, Iris F; Verstappen, Francel W A; Luckerhoff, Ludo L P; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-05-01

    Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) respond to spider-mite (Tetranychus urticae) damage with the release of specific volatiles that are exploited by predatory mites, the natural enemies of the spider mites, to locate their prey. The production of volatiles also can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid. We analyzed volatile emissions from 15 cucumber accessions upon herbivory by spider mites and upon exposure to jasmonic acid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Upon induction, cucumber plants emitted over 24 different compounds, and the blend of induced volatiles consisted predominantly of terpenoids. The total amount of volatiles was higher in plants treated with jasmonic acid than in those infested with spider mites, with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and (E)-beta-ocimene as the most abundant compounds in all accessions in both treatments. Significant variation among the accessions was found for the 24 major volatile compounds. The accessions differed strongly in total amount of volatiles emitted, and displayed very different odor profiles. Principal component analysis performed on the relative quantities of particular compounds within the blend revealed clusters of highly correlated volatiles, which is suggestive of common metabolic pathways. A number of cucumber accessions also were tested for their attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites. Differences in the attraction of predatory mites by the various accessions correlated to differences in the individual chemical profiles of these accessions. The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents.

  5. Phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Courcy Williams, Michael E; Kravar-Garde, Lidija; Fenlon, John S; Sunderland, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. The shape of the response differed for Phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. Fitted response curves showed that I. degenerans, N. cucumeris, N. californicus and P. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of persimilis egg duration was significantly longer at 60 and 70% than for either 82 or 90% RH. No effect of relative humidity was found on the mean life span of adult females when food was available continuously to the mites. N. californicus lived significantly longer (58 days after the first egg was laid) than the other species. No significant difference was observed in mean life span between adult females of I. degenerans and N. cucumeris (25 and 28 days respectively). The mean life span of adult female P. persimilis (19 days) was significantly shorter than the other species. In the absence of both food and water, the survival of adult female mites was reduced to 2-4 days. Survival time was at least doubled when free water was available in the absence of food. Mean survival of adult female mites with water but without food was 10 days for N. cucumeris, 18 days for N. californicus, 6 days for P. persimilis and 4 days for I. degenerans. Survival of adult female N. cucumeris and N. californicus was increased significantly, to 20 and 22 days respectively, when fungal hyphae were present along with water but in the absence of other food.

  6. The effect of genetically enriched (E)-β-ocimene and the role of floral scent in the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatile blends of torenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Takeshi; Nishihara, Masahiro; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-03-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit mixtures of volatiles (herbivore-induced plant volatiles, HIPVs) that can attract predators of the herbivores. Although the composition of HIPVs should be critical for the attraction, most studies of transgenic plant-emitted volatiles have simply addressed the effect of trans-volatiles without embedding in other endogenous plant volatiles. We investigated the abilities of transgenic wishbone flower plants (Torenia hybrida and Torenia fournieri) infested with spider mites, emitting a trans-volatile ((E)-β-ocimene) in the presence or absence of endogenous volatiles (natural HIPVs and/or floral volatiles), to attract predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis). In both olfactory- and glasshouse-based assays, P. persimilis females were attracted to natural HIPVs from infested wildtype (wt) plants of T. hybrida but not to those of T. fournieri. The trans-volatile enhanced the ability to attract P. persimilis only when added to an active HIPV blend from the infested transgenic T. hybrida plants, in comparison with the attraction by infested wt plants. Intriguingly, floral volatiles abolished the enhanced attractive ability of T. hybrida transformants, although floral volatiles themselves did not elicit any attraction or avoidance behavior. Predator responses to trans-volatiles were found to depend on various background volatiles (e.g. natural HIPVs and floral volatiles) endogenously emitted by the transgenic plants. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Behavioural response of Phytoseiulus persimilisin inert materials for technical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorf, Dennis; Sermann, Helga; Katz, Peter; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    A large scale application of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot for use in the biological control of spider mites in the field requires testing the behaviour of Phytoseiulus persimilis in inert materials, like millet pelts and Vermiculite (1-3 mm). In laboratory studies, the distribution of the individuals in such materials, the time of remaining in the material were proved. To examine the abiotic influences on the time of remaining in the material, the dampness of the materials was varied (0%, 5% and 10%). Moreover, the influence of attitude of materials was tested. The time of emigration from the material was noted for each individual. Emigration from all dry materials was completed 15 minutes at the latest after set up of the mites. The increase of dampness had an obvious effect on the time of remaining in the material. In this respect the material millet pelts showed the most favourable effect with 10% dampness. Increasing attitude of material the mobility of predatory mites will be influenced negatively above 75 cm. Up to 50 cm, mites have not a problem to move in the material and the time of remaining can be prolonged considerably.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON THE PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF P. PERSIMILIS, N. CALIFORNICUS AND N. FALLACIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vangansbeke, D; Verhoeven, R; De Clercq, P; Tirry, L; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in temperature and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two temperature regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant temperature) and DIF15 (variable temperature with day-night difference of 15°C). At mean temperatures of 25°C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean temperatures of 15°C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15°C and 25°C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean temperature of 25°C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that variable greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency

  9. Intraguild interactions between the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakmak, I.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Species at the same trophic level may interact through competition for food, but can also interact through intraguild predation. Intraguild predation is widespread at the second and third trophic level and the effects may cascade down to the plant level. The effects of intraguild predation

  10. The response of Phytoseiulus persimilis to spider mite-induced volatiles from gerbera: influence of starvation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krips, O.E.; Willems, P.E.I.; Gols, R.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    1999-01-01

    When leaves of the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii are damaged by the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, they produce many volatile compounds in large quantities. Undamaged gerbera leaves produce only a few volatiles in very small quantities. In the headspace of spider mite-damaged gerbera leaves

  11. Information use by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a specialised natural enemy of herbivorous spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.G.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plants can respond to infestation by herbivores with the emission of specific herbivore-induced plant volatiles. Many carnivorous arthropods that feed on herbivorous prey use these volatiles to locate their prey. Despite the growing amount of research papers on the interactions in tritrophic

  12. Crecimiento en poblaciones de Artemia franciscana y A. persimilis (Crustacea, Anostraca en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el crecimiento individual expresado en largo total, de dos poblaciones de A. franciscana (Utah, Estados Unidos, y Yape, Chile y A. persimilis (Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina cultivadas a partir de quistes bajo condiciones controladas (24°C, agua de mar 35 g/l, alimentación con Chaetoceros calcitrans. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en todos los estadios analizados entre las poblaciones de A. franciscana de Utah y A. persimilis, mientras que entre A. persimilis y A. franciscana de Yape, hubo similitudes sólo en dos estadios, y A. franciscana de Utah y Yape registraron similar tamaño corporal para todos los estadios analizados. Las adaptaciones a los hábitats podrían explicar estos resultados.Growth (length, was compared in A. franciscana populations from Utah, United States of America, and Yape, Chile, and A. persimilis (population from Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina, cultured under controlled conditions (24°C, seawater 35 g/l, feeding with Chaetoceros calcitrans. There were significant differences among all stages of A. franciscana (Utah and A. persimilis, whereas we found significantly differences only in two stages of A. persimilis and A. franciscana (Yape; both A. franciscana had similar total lengths in all stages analyzed. Habitat adaptations could explain these results.

  13. Altered host plant preference of Tetranychus urticae and prey preference of its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) on transgenic Cry3Bb-eggplants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková-Rovenská, Gabriela; Zemek, Rostislav; Schmidt, J. E. U.; Hilbeck, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2005), s. 293-300 ISSN 1049-9644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * mites * Solanum melongena Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2005

  14. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  15. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  16. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  17. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  18. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  19. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  20. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  1. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  2. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  3. Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis factors conferring hybrid male sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Bennett, Sarah M; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-10-27

    The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed "mule-like", to roughly 250 kilobases.

  4. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  5. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  6. Ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Paulus, H F; Schausberger, P

    2004-12-01

    In greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (both Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on F. occidentalis by P. persimilis and N. californicus. Here, it was tested whether the relevance of these factors changes during predator ontogeny. First, the predator (protonymphs and adult females of P. persimilis and N. californicus): prey (F. occidentalis first instars) body size ratios were measured. Second, the aggressiveness of P. persimilis and N. californicus towards F. occidentalis was assessed. Third, survival, development and oviposition of P. persimilis and N. californicus with F. occidentalis prey was determined. The body size ranking was P. persimilis females > N. californicus females > P. persimilis protonymphs > N. californicus protonymphs. Neoseiulus californicus females were the most aggressive predators, followed by highly aggressive N. californicus protonymphs and moderately aggressive P. persimilis protonymphs. Phytoseiulus persimilis females did not attack thrips. Frankliniella occidentalis larvae are an alternative prey for juvenile N. californicus and P. persimilis, enabling them to reach adulthood. Females of N. californicus but not P. persimilis sustained egg production with thrips prey. Within the guild studied here, N. californicus females are the most harmful predators for F. occidentalis larvae, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis juveniles. Phytoseiulus persimilis females are harmless to F. occidentalis.

  7. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  8. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  9. Fluctuación y distribución espacio-temporal de Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae y de Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae en el cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae en Ucayali, Perú Fluctuation and temporal-spatial distribution of Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae and Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae on camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae in Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae es una plaga importante en el cultivo de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la fluctuación y la distribución espacio-temporal de T. cognata y de su controlador biológico Ocyptamus persimilis (Curran, 1930 (Diptera, Syrphidae, entre enero a noviembre del 2004 en los caseríos San Juan y Padre Bernardo, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El número de ninfas y adultos de T. cognata fue mayor en la época lluviosa que en la seca, pero no en el número de huevos, ni en el número de colonias. Los huevos, ninfas y adultos prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. La excepción fue la presencia de huevos en el caserío San Juan que no mostró preferencias por ninguno de los tercios. No se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de infestación por T. cognata entre ambos caseríos y entre la época seca y lluviosa. En O. persimilis, no se encontró diferencias en el número de huevos, larvas y pupas entre la época seca y lluviosa. Se observó que los huevos, larvas y pupas prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. Ambas especies, T. cognata y O. persimilis presentaron un patrón de distribución espacial - temporal agregado. Se encontró una relación directa entre el número de colonias de T. cognata y O. persimilis. Sin embargo, el número de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. cognata no se encontraron correlacionados con el número de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. persimilis.Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, is a main pest on camu-camu culture Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the fluctuation and spatial and temporal distribution of T

  10. Feeding the insect industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  11. Arthropods in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vi...

  12. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  13. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  15. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  16. effect of a microbial-based acaricidal product on spotted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the direct and residual effects of two miticides (abamectin and bifenthrin) at several doses in geometric progression. Firstly, the direct efficacy of the two acaricides was evaluated against T. urticae and P. persimilis. Abamectin had high ...

  17. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  18. Raising the Bar for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal; Doctor, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the emergence of a broad consensus on raising the standards for entering the teaching profession. The NEA, AFT, and Council of Chief State School Officers all have said they want higher entry standards. Such an exam would be modeled after other professions and is a potential game changer. If sufficiently rigorous, the exam…

  19. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  20. The genetics of hybrid male sterility between the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana: dominant sterility alleles in collinear autosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-05-01

    F(1) hybrid male sterility is thought to result from interactions between loci on the X chromosome and dominant-acting loci on the autosomes. While X-linked loci that contribute to hybrid male sterility have been precisely localized in many animal taxa, their dominant autosomal interactors have been more difficult to localize precisely and/or have been shown to be of relatively smaller effect. Here, we identified and mapped at least four dominant autosomal factors contributing to hybrid male sterility in the allopatric species pair Drosophila persimilis and D. pseudoobscura bogotana. Using these results, we tested predictions of reduced recombination models of speciation. Consistent with these models, three of the four QTL associated with hybrid male sterility occur in collinear (uninverted) regions of these genomes. Furthermore, these QTL do not contribute significantly to hybrid male sterility in crosses between the sympatric species D. persimilis and D. pseudoobscura pseudoobscura. The autosomal loci identified in this study provide the basis for introgression mapping and, ultimately, for molecular cloning of interacting genes that contribute to F(1) hybrid sterility.

  1. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  2. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  4. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  5. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  6. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  7. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  8. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  9. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with

  10. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  11. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  12. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  13. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  14. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  15. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  16. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  17. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  18. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  19. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  20. Herbivory induces systemic production of plant volatiles that attract predators of the herbivore: extraction of endogenous elicitor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Baarlen, van P.; Wessels, R.; Dijkman, H.

    1993-01-01

    It was previously shown that in response to infestation by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), lima bean plants produce a volatile herbivoreinduced synomone that attracts phytoseiid mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) that are predators of the spider mites. The production of predator-attracting

  1. Identification of volatiles that are used in discrimination between plants infested with prey or nonprey herbivores by a predatory mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.G.; Posthumus, M.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Carnivorous arthropods can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their herbivorous prey. In the field, carnivores are confronted with information from plants infested with herbivores that may differ in their suitability as prey. Discrimination by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

  2. Variation in herbivory-induced volatiles among cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) varieties has consequences for the attraction of carnivorous natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.F.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to herbivory by arthropods, plants emit herbivory-induced volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the inducing herbivores. Here, we compared the attractiveness of eight cucumber varieties (Cucumis sativus L.) to Phytoseiulus persimilis predatory mites after infestation of the

  3. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  4. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  5. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  6. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  7. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  8. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  9. Evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed.

  10. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  11. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  12. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  13. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  14. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  15. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  16. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  18. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  19. Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Bertrand M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees. (EV)

  20. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  1. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  2. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  3. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  4. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  5. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  6. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow......-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt...

  7. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  8. Sex-specific developmental plasticity of generalist and specialist predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to food stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We studied developmental plasticity under food stress in three female-biased size dimorphic predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni. All three species prey on two-spotted spider mites but differ in the degree of adaptation to this prey. Phytoseiulus persimilis is a specialized spider mite predator, N. californicus is a generalist with a preference for spider mites, and A. andersoni is a broad generalist. Immature predators were offered prey patches of varying density and their survival chances, dispersal tendencies, age and size at maturity measured. Amblyseius andersoni dispersed earlier from and had lower survival chances in low density prey patches than N. californicus and P. persimilis. Age at maturity was not affected by prey density in the generalist A. andersoni, whereas both the specialist P. persimilis and the generalist N. californicus accelerated development at low prey densities. Species-specific plasticity in age at maturity reflects opposite survival strategies when confronted with limited prey: to prematurely leave and search for other food (A. andersoni) or to stay and accelerate development (P. persimilis, N. californicus). In all species, size at maturity was more plastic in females than males, indicating that males incur higher fitness costs from deviations from optimal body size.

  9. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  10. Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into account. The implications of ...

  11. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  12. VOWEL RAISING IN AKAN REDUPLICATION Kwesi Adomako1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current paper, we provide an alternative analysis to this overgeneralized claim by providing data from the Twi (Asante) dialect to argue for the presence and productivity of the raising of both the low and the mid vowels within diverse phonological contexts. In these contexts, the stem/base-final low vowel /a/ in the CVa.

  13. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  14. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with short-term...

  15. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  16. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  17. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  18. Raising Quality and Achievement. A College Guide to Benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jane

    This booklet introduces the principles and practices of benchmarking as a way of raising quality and achievement at further education colleges in Britain. Section 1 defines the concept of benchmarking. Section 2 explains what benchmarking is not and the steps that should be taken before benchmarking is initiated. The following aspects and…

  19. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  20. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  1. Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

    Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

  2. Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement. Item Number 39-0464

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement (RSRA) project is to build capacity at the state, district, school, and classroom levels to improve student achievement to meet the goals of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. This checklist highlights some of the opportunities and support…

  3. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  4. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  5. Predation-related odours reduce oviposition in a herbivorous mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    When adult females of the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, were exposed to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, they laid fewer eggs than females that had not been exposed to P. persimilis when transferred onto a new leaf patch. However, when T. urticae females were exposed to either products of P. persimilis or artificially damaged conspecific eggs on a leaf patch, the number of T. urticae eggs on a new leaf patch did not differ significantly from the control. The reduced oviposition was neither due to the feeding activity on the leaf patch with P. persimilis nor to that on the new leaf patch. There was also no significant difference between the number of T. urticae eggs produced on a new leaf patch following exposure to the odours of a neighbouring leaf patch where there had previously been either P. persimilis or T. urticae adults. However, female T. urticae that had been exposed to odours from neighbouring leaf patches on which both T. urticae and P. persimilis had been placed produced significantly fewer eggs on a new leaf patch than those that had not been exposed to such odours. Neither odours from neighbouring intact leaf patches on which T. urticae eggs were preyed on by P. persimilis, nor odours from a neighbouring Parafilm patch on which T. urticae was preyed on by P. persimilis affected the oviposition of T. urticae. These data suggest that the presence of T. urticae, P. persimilis and a leaf patch are needed for the emission of odours to reduce oviposition in T. urticae.

  6. Raise driving: A new drill and fire method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, U [Bergbau A.G. Niederrhein, Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.). Werksdirektion Osterfeld; Ulrich, E [Bergbau A.G. Niederrhein, Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Planung

    1979-06-01

    Three-compartment raises have long been driven by conventional upraising. The system had inherent drawbacks, notably roof control, ventilation and dirt removal which held back any further development of the method as such. At Osterfeld colliery the single-compartment pilot shaft method has been used for the first time in the Ruhr to produce a staple shaft column. The idea behind the operation was to apply to coalmining a method which had until then been confined to ore mining and tunnelling. The experience gained during this venture is important from the point of view of further developments in raise drivage and offers facts and figures on the productivity, economics and safety aspects of the pilot shaft method.

  7. Problems raised by corrosion in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot, R.; Boutonnet, G.; Perrot, M.; Blum, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    In the uranium ore processing industry, materials which resist both mechanical abrasion and corrosion in an acid medium are required. Different typical cases are examined. For the reprocessing of irradiated fuels, two processes are possible: the conventional wet process, of the Purex type, and the fluoride volatilization process. In the latter case, the problems raised by fluoride corrosion in the presence of fission products is examined. The other parts of the fuel cycle are examined in the same manner [fr

  8. Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

  9. Aspects of the reproductive biology of hatchery-raised Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fecundity of four batch weights (10 samples each) of gravid Clarias gariepinus weighing 60 ± 0.17159 g 125 ± 0.15092 g 250 ±0.20683 g and 500 ± 0.15670 g raised from the hatchery was investigated The paired ovary of each fish was dissected out, weighed (g) and its length measured(mm). Each paired ovary was ...

  10. Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Hernanadez-Cata

    2001-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa's long-term growth performance will need to improve significantly for the region to visibly reduce poverty and raise the standard of living to an acceptable level. Appropriate actions will also be needed to ensure that an adequate share of the growing income is devoted to reducing poverty. The key policy question for these countries and their development partners is how ...

  11. Raising Awareness of Conveyed Personality In Social Media Traces

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Bin; Gou, Liang; Xu, Anbang; Mahmud, Jalal; Cosley, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Users' persistent social media contents like posts on Facebook Timeline are presented as an "exhibition" about the person to others, and managing these exhibitional contents for impression management needs intentional and manual efforts. To raise awareness of and facilitate impression management around past contents, we developed a prototype called PersonalityInsight. The system employs computational psycho-linguistic analysis to help users visualize the way their past text posts might convey...

  12. Raising students’ awareness with respect to choice of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    is a pedagogical tool which raises students’ awareness with respect to the necessity of employing scientific and researched based material. The tool is not only used in the theoretical setting but also in clinical practice. Students and clinical advisors evaluate the relevance of the pedagogical tool via...... questionnaires. The data will be analyzed and form the basis for further innovative teaching developments promoting the theory-clinical connection in the learning environment. Keywords: literature, education, pedagogical tool, theory-practice connection....

  13. A SERIOUS GAME RAISING AWARENESS AND EXPERIENCE OF DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Plechawska-Wojcik, Malgorzata; Rybka, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the idea and gameplay of the serious game dedicated for both, patients suffering from depression to help them in the fight against disease and healthy individuals to raise their awareness about depression disease and increase their level of knowledge about it. Serious games are gaining more and more popularity nowadays. Using games for purpose different than only pure entertainment is the idea of serious game. On the market there are available several computer game solu...

  14. Raising consciousness about the nuclear threat through music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerleider, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of music, in particular topical collaborative group song writing, as a tool for raising consciousness about the threat of nuclear war. Consciousness raising is one way to overcome the phenomenon of denial and to increase discussion and social action in response to the nuclear threat. This dissertation measures the impact of a group song writing workshop on developing critical problem-solving in adult groups; it reviews how music is applied in psychological research and clinical work, has been used historically as a tool in social-change movements in America, and is used in the contemporary field of peace education. The perspectives of several theorists who discuss the potential of music to contribute to social change are presented. It is concluded that consciousness about the nuclear threat - in terms of naming and analyzing - can be raised by working with music's potential for developing affective, expressive, and collaborative capabilities in individuals and groups. Potential applications of the group song writing workshop are in schools, with peace organizations, music groups, and in relation to other social issues.

  15. Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Jahangir Hossain, M; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

  16. Critics raise moral objections to Federal AIDS education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-28

    Lawmakers and a handful of government employees have objected to the Federal government's programs to educate its employees about AIDS. At the June 22, 1995 hearing of the civil service subcommittee of the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee, protests were raised on religious or moral grounds. Thomas Herron, a supervisory logistics manager at the Naval Air Technical Services Facility in Philadelphia found the training to be against the principles of his faith. Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-Calif) said his office was flooded with calls and letters from employees who raised concern that the training is being used to advance a redefinition of the family and is a blatant pro-homosexual agenda. Robert L. Maginnis, policy analyst for the conservative Family Research Council, faulted the training, saying it does little to change behavior that puts people at risk for HIV infection. Clinton administration officials testified at the meeting that the program is necessary to ensure both the safety of the workforce and employees' freedom from discrimination and harassment. Individual departments and agencies are responsible for developing their own AIDS training programs. According to Alan Heuerman, associate director for human resource systems service with the Office of Personnel Management, relatively few objections have been raised about the training.

  17. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: experiences of eight organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Demand for stakeholder involvement has become imperative in the field of radioactive waste management. Providing for fair and competent stakeholder involvement, however, raises several questions of practice, for example: How to address issues raised by stakeholders? How to take stakeholders' views into consideration if they are divergent or conflicting? This paper reviews eight case studies prepared for the Topical Session on Addressing Issues Raised by Stakeholders, aimed at analysing the impacts of stakeholder involvement on decisions in RWM organisations. The studies outline the experiences of the following organisations: Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC); Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO); Nuclear Waste Management Organisation of Japan (NUMO); Posiva, Finland; Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, Czech Republic (RAWRA); Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI); United Kingdom Environment Agency; United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Case study reports are included in the Annex of this volume. The paper outlines the main trends and lessons learned from the above case studies. The first section focuses on impacts of stakeholder involvement on specific RWM decisions regarding policy and process. Examples presented in the second section illustrate how stakeholders' concerns may influence general decision-making practices and organisational behaviour. In the third section various approaches to handling divergent stakeholder views are introduced. The paper concludes with recommendations extracted and derived from the eight reports. (author)

  18. Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeongsoo

    2014-01-01

    For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as

  19. PATHOGENESIS OF OPTIC DISC EDEMA IN RAISED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure was first described in 1853. Ever since, there has been a plethora of controversial hypotheses to explain its pathogenesis. I have explored the subject comprehensively by doing basic, experimental and clinical studies. My objective was to investigate the fundamentals of the subject, to test the validity of the previous theories, and finally, based on all these studies, to find a logical explanation for the pathogenesis. My studies included the following issues pertinent to the pathogenesis of optic disc edema in raised intracranial pressure: the anatomy and blood supply of the optic nerve, the roles of the sheath of the optic nerve, of the centripetal flow of fluids along the optic nerve, of compression of the central retinal vein, and of acute intracranial hypertension and its associated effects. I found that, contrary to some previous claims, an acute rise of intracranial pressure was not quickly followed by production of optic disc edema. Then, in rhesus monkeys, I produced experimentally chronic intracranial hypertension by slowly increasing in size space-occupying lesions, in different parts of the brain. Those produced raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and optic disc edema, identical to those seen in patients with elevated CSFP. Having achieved that, I investigated various aspects of optic disc edema by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography and fluorescein fundus angiography, and light microscopic, electron microscopic, horseradish peroxidase and axoplasmic transport studies, and evaluated the effect of opening the sheath of the optic nerve on the optic disc edema. This latter study showed that opening the sheath resulted in resolution of optic disc edema on the side of the sheath fenestration, in spite of high intracranial CSFP, proving that a rise of CSFP in the sheath was the essential pre-requisite for the development of optic disc edema. I also investigated optic disc edema with

  20. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  1. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .

  2. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  3. Issues Raised in Relation to Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Nirex has undertaken various consultations with different stakeholders to identify their issues and concerns about radioactive waste management in general and specific aspects of Nirex's work. This paper will outline what dialogue techniques Nirex has undertaken and the issues and concerns that people have raised during the events. It will outline some of the work that Nirex is undertaking to address stakeholders' issues and concerns. Nirex has used a variety of dialogue techniques co-ordinated under the Nirex Involvement Programme to engage with stakeholders about the work we undertake. We are now trying to address the issues, concerns, scenarios and questions raised in our work programme. Key lessons that we have learned in undertaking the dialogues include: The importance of appropriate facilitation and organisation of meetings; The need for a clear purpose for meetings; Being flexible to the needs of the attendees and the issues they raise; Providing feedback to those who participate and following up issues. Through engaging with the public Nirex has learned that: Radioactive waste is not an everyday concern for people; The public can, will and want to engage with the issue of radioactive waste management. This includes engaging with the ethical debate. To facilitate this Nirex and others need to: Provide information in a neutral form outlining the pros and cons and including various people's opinions; Use proactive techniques to allow access and space for people to discuss the issues; Demonstrate how people's opinions have been taken into account. People understand the issues very differently to the way institutions understand them. There is a need for institutions to learn to understand public concerns and the ways in which the public understand issues, as well as for the public to understand the institutional positions better. We are using these insights to develop our future work in this area

  4. Picture Book on Raising Children's Awareness Against Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Christy, Evelyn; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2015-01-01

    One of the common problems leading to the sexual abuse is that the child is not aware about it. This project aims to raise children's awareness against sexual abuse through picture book. This picture book use realistic fiction as the genre of my picture book. The purpose is to make the children familiar with the story and can relate it to their life. This picture book uses the narrative theory as the framework of the story. The narrative story is consist of abstract, orientation, complication...

  5. Service use and unmet service needs in grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Most in-depth studies of grandparents raising grandchildren use samples recruited from service providers, so little is known about those who do not use formal services. A sample of 200 grandparents registered with a public school district completed a survey on service use and unmet service needs. Of the 131 who did not use services, 82 reported unmet service needs, and 49 reported no needs. Those with unmet needs were younger, more likely to be Native Hawaiian, and less likely to receive public assistance. These findings indicate that some grandparents are falling through the cracks of the service provision network.

  6. Raising the efficiency of open-throttle liquefiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, N.D.; Merkel', N.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper makes a comparative thermodynamic analysis of certain open-throttle liquefier schemes that operate with multicomponent cryogenic agents. The most promising routes for implementing their advantages are determined. It is found that the correct choice of flow diagram and complex parameter optimization can raise the relative available energy (mass profile characteristics) of open-throttle liquefiers with mixtures to at least four times that of nitrogen installation. The most economical scheme is one that involves mixing the components in feedback, followed by double throttling of nitrogen

  7. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  8. Tenneco raises $75 million for independents' E and P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    Tenneco Gas's ventures group, Houston, has raised $75 million to invest in gas exploration and production by independent operations on the U.S. Gulf Coast. Institutional investors committed $50 million to the fund and a group of industrial investors $25 million. Tenneco the the fund will expand to accommodate additional investors through this year. This paper reports that the company's ventures group is evaluating acquisition and drilling opportunities with independents. Ventures group capital will be invested in independent exploratory, development, and producing properties

  9. Fund-raising strategies for the allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornesky, R A; Anderson, J A

    1987-05-01

    Academic units of allied health (eg, schools and colleges of allied health) are relatively new to institutions of higher education. As a result, the academic units lack prestige with private funding sources. This article describes a development model for raising private contributions emphasizing allied health academic units. The roles of the academic department, development advisory committee, and faculty in developing the mission statement, needs, objectives, and case statement for the department are described. How the department chairperson, faculty, dean, and advisory committee members interact with the staff from a development office in identifying, cultivating, and soliciting private support are explained.

  10. Leaseback: An alternative source to raise company working capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušević Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description, regulatory framework and the manner of implementation of the leaseback as an alternative manner of raising working capital for companies with a large number and type of users. Leaseback has experienced an explosive growth in Europe, in the first decade of this century, especially during the years of economic prosperity. The value of leaseback in Europe has grown from 6.9 billion EUR in 2004, up to 46 billion EUR in 2007, i.e. during the four years the value was increased for 567%. Leaseback has shown itself to be, according to the analyses made, an 'ideal' manner of financing based on sale-and-leaseback of real estate. Capital that is 'immobilised' on long-term basis, through the leaseback regains its quality of capital ready to be engaged in current activities, i.e. projects and programmes of companies that are making high earnings. The objective of this work is to draw the attention, on the basis of a comprehensive theoretical presentation, empirical analyses and positive world practices, to this, in our business circumstances, a completely novel manner of financing, in the context of raising additional working capital through the inflow of both the domestic and of the foreign capital in Serbia. In order to achieve full implementation of this type of financing, it is necessary to overcome a number of constraints and provide regulatory framework, developed investment funds for investment in real estate, and a properly set in place cadastre register.

  11. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  12. [Hematopoietic cells raising with plerixafor in non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lozano, Uendy; Tripp-Villanueva, Francisco; Ramírez-Alvarado, Aline; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Limón-Flores, Alejandro; Kramis-Cerezo, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    bone marrow autologous transplantation (BMAT) has proven benefits in patients treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Plerixafor is an inhibitor of CXCR4 receptor. The aim was to report the raise of hematopoietic cells with plerixafor in patients with NHL. patient 1 with follicular NHL, GI, intermediate FLIPI, CD20+, CD45+, BCL-2+, who reached complete response after three chemotherapy regimes. Mobilization failed after use of filgrastim (G-CSF) alone and G-CSF + cyclophosphamide. A new attempt was made with G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF, 10 μg/kg for 7 days + plerixafor, 240 μg/kg in days 4 to 7). Patient 2 with follicular NHL and CD20+ reached complete remission with MINE after therapeutic failure with other regimes, but develops severe marrow toxicity. Mobilization was supported with G-CSF 10 μg/kg/d + plerixafor in days 4 and 5. In case one, proper cell counts where obtained after three aphaeresis. In the second case, two harvests add of 2.7 × 106/kg were obtained. plerixafor raised the hematopoietic stem cells in peripheral blood and improves mobilization of proper cell population.

  13. Carbon dioxide emission from raised bog surface after peat extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbiak Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on CO2 emission from a raised bog after completion of peat extraction was performed in 2011–2013. CO2 emissions were determined by the chamber method. Twenty years after the termination of peat extraction, the bog surface was almost entirely devoid of plants. CO2 emission from the bog varied depending on temperature and water conditions and was 418 mg·m−2·h−1 on average during the research period. CO2 losses on the raised bog were on average 19.7 Mg·ha−1·year−1 during the research period which corresponded to a carbon loss of 5.37 Mg·ha−1·year−1 or mineralisation of 9.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of organic mass of 56% carbon content. It is possible to reduce organic mass losses and CO2 emission to the atmosphere from the bog surface after peat extraction has been terminated by reconstruction of initial water conditions, i.e. retaining a high ground water level and restoration of aquatic plant communities.

  14. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

  15. RAISING YOUNG LEARNERS‟ AWARENESS OF GRAMMAR THROUGH CREATIVE LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murni Wahyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in foreign language teaching have shown the need to reconsider the role of grammar. It is argued that grammar understanding can promote more precise use of the foreign language. This belief has led to an increased interest in grammar teaching, including grammar teaching for young learners. In teaching English to young learners, activities that can promote grammar awareness are needed. The activities should be presented in context to make sure that the meaning is clear. The activities should also be creatively designed in order to challenge students‘ motivation and involvement. Grammar activities presented creatively in meaningful contexts are useful for noticing the language patterns. This paper focuses on the changing status of grammar, the importance of grammar in the young learner classroom, and how to raise grammar awareness through creative language activities. It also reports the result of a small-scale study on implementing grammarawareness activities for teaching English to Elementary School students.

  16. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baowei; Feng Shoujia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects: effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  17. Raise the management level of EPC contracting in six aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baowei; Feng Shoujia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power construction develops rapidly today and EPC contracting for nuclear power projects, as a strategic decision of CNNC, has become a tendency. The target of engineering management can be smoothly realized or achieved by doing a good job in the following six aspects:effective communication between divisions of project department, high-degree consistency of managerial concepts for project management staff, clear objective for different divisions in the project department, presence of rules to be observed in construction management work, avoidance of human-initiated errors in the project, and clear distinction of management control concept. It is hoped that, through exchange and practice, management procedures and consciousness for EPC contracting can be further standardized and thus the level of management for EPC contracting will be raised finally. (authors)

  18. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  19. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  20. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  1. Prospects of Foreign Capital Raising for Russian Power Grid Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Shvets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The power sector reform in Russia saw capital raising as one of the key objectives. Additional investments are necessary, in particular, for renovation of fixed assets which are ca. 70% worn out. The official Strategy for the development of the Russian power grid also provides for privatization of certain companies and foreign investors are considered among others as the target audience. Upon prospective privatization the sector is expected not only to experience a certain increase in capital expenditures, but also to benefit from foreign expertise and efficiency enhancement. At the moment, however, the privatization plans are hard to implement due to a number of obstacles. Prospective investors are mostly concerned about the lack of transparent regulation and clear development strategy of the industry. This is particularly relevant to the tariff system, which has been continuously altered in recent years. This might be explained by the need of the state support by other sectors, which is often provided at the expense of the power industry. Furthermore, the prospects of foreign capital raising are negatively influenced by the conflict in Ukraine and the corresponding negative perception of potential investors. The above factors result in the decrease in value of power grid companies as well as in the lack of visibility regarding the prospects of the sector development. Privatization thus becomes unreasonable both for the state and prospective investors. At the same time, despite the sector specifics, there are precedents of successful sale of power grid assets to private investors by international peers. Particularly, Vatenfall and Forum have recently closed relevant transactions, nothing to say about the power grid sector of Brazil, majorly controlled by private owners. Transparent regulation, clear pricing rules and well-balanced economic policy are, indeed, indispensable prerequisites for successful privatization. Those might back up a

  2. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Raising the acceptance of the AP2-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trbojevic, D.

    1989-01-01

    The 120 GeV Main Ring proton beam collides with the target at the end of the AP-1 line and creates antiprotons and other secondary particles. The AP-2 line transfers the negative particles from the target to the Debuncher. To provide a bigger antiproton stack size in the Accumulator, both the Debuncher as well as the AP-2 line acceptance have to be raised. This is a proposal for the improvement of the AP-2 line acceptance. The first part of the memo presents an acceptance examination of the existing AP-2 line by computer simulation, while the second presents a short proposal for aperture corrections. The computer program TURTLE was used to trace antiprotons through the AP-2 line without taking into account other negative charged particles. Betatron functions were obtained from the output of the SYNCH computer program. The SYNCH program was also used to check the dispersion match between the AP-2 line and the Debuncher. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. [Multiple pregnancies prevalence: its raise on last decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ricardo Jorge Hernández; Torres, Mauro Ochoa; Santos, Roberto Flores; Flores, Raúl Cortés; Sánchez, Gerardo Forsbasch

    2008-09-01

    Multiple pregnancies prevalence has been increasing in last decade, which have also increased the requirements of neonatal intensive care units and all problems related to premature neonate or low birth weight. Prevalence rate of twin (18 to 26 in 1,000 births), and triple pregnancies (0.37 to 1.74 in 1,000 births) have raised too, perhaps due to assisted reproductive techniques. To know incidence of multiple pregnancies at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad no. 23, from Institute Mexicano del Seguro Social. Retrospective and descriptive study. We review the files of multiple pregnancies from 1972 to 2006 to estimate its rate and change every five and ten years. We registered 9,055 twin pregnancies during the period, with a rate of 7.1 to 14.4 in 1,000 (63% of increase in the last decade [12.6 in 1,000 births] compared with the previous decade [7.7 in 1,000 births]; p < 0.005). Pregnancies with three or more fetuses were 202, with 191 triplets, 13 with four, three with five, and one with six products (646 newborns). Incidence of multiple pregnancies with four or more products has also increased in last decade: 230 times higher than two decades before. Multiple pregnancies rate has increased in last decade: 63% in twin pregnancies, 217% in triplets, and 230 times more than expected in four or more products pregnancies.

  6. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  7. Motor neurone disease presenting with raised serum Troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Jonathan P

    2015-05-01

    Myocardial damage indicated by a rise in cardiac Troponin may not necessarily be due to a cardiac event. Many diseases such as sepsis, pulmonary embolism, heart and renal failure can also be associated with an elevated cardiac Troponin level. This brief report discusses the rare event of a patient with motor neurone disease, where the possible diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction arose due to an elevated cardiac Troponin. A 69-year-old gentleman presented with a history of a central chest ache of mild intensity, lasting a total of 2 h prior to complete resolution. Multiple cardiac Troponin assays were elevated, and echocardiography did not show any acute changes of myocardial damage. His electrocardiogram was also normal. This patient's raised cardiac Troponin was therefore explained on the basis of his active motor neurone disease. This rare case outlines the importance of considering motor neurone disease as a cause of elevated cardiac Troponin in the absence of clinical evidence of an acute coronary event. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Parental Stress in Raising a Child with Disabilities in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Mehrotra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Purpose: To determine the parenting stress and its determinants among parents of children with disabling conditions in India.Methods: The Parenting Stress Index – short form and a few open ended questions were administered to a convenience sample of sixty-six patient families in July, 2009 in the cities of New Delhi and Faridabad regions of Northern India through six non- governmental organizations (NGOs that serve children with disabling conditions. Results: Female sex of the child was associated with higher stress related to failure of the child to meet parent’s expectations and to satisfy the parents in their parenting role. Parents engaged in more lucrative and prestigious occupations had more stress than parents engaged in less prestigious and lucrative occupations irrespective of their income. Many parents reported receiving little support from their extended families in taking care of their child. Religion was found to be a common coping resource used by the parents.Conclusion and Implications: Higher parenting stress in parents of girls raises the possibility of abuse and neglect. Little support from informal family resources underscores the need for developing formal resources for supporting the parents. The specific resources of parenting stress among parents of different socioeconomic status should be explored in future studies so that appropriate interventions can be planned.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.119

  9. Implications of raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gonzalez-Rozada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess how raising cigarette excise taxes in Peru might impact cigarette consumption, and to determine if higher taxes would be regressive. Methods Total demand price elasticity was estimated by income groups using two datasets: quarterly time-series data from 1993 – 2012 and data from a cross-sectional survey of income and expenses conducted in 2008 – 2009 . A functional form of the cigarette demand in Peru was specified using the quarterly data set, and the demand price elasticity was estimated for the short and long run. Using the second data set and Deaton methodology, the implementation of elasticity estimation and by groups’ elasticity was done in a two-step procedure. Results Demand price elasticity was −0.7, implying that a 10% price increase via a new tax would reduce consumption by 7%. Demand price elasticity estimations by income group suggested that poorer families are not more price sensitive than richer ones, which implies that increasing cigarette taxes could be regressive. Conclusions Increasing cigarette taxes is the most efficient policy for inducing a reduction in smoking. However, in the case of Peru, an increase in cigarette taxes could be regressive.

  10. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  11. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  12. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  13. Raising Awareness of Urban Environment Development in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Maja

    2016-12-01

    educate children, toddlers, pupils, students, about the importance of urban environment development and create a positive learning environment, where children are able to develop as residents with a great understanding of the potential of the environment they live in. The paper explores the importance of raising awareness of the urban environment in primary schools from the theoretical, analytical and practical point of views. In the paper, we will examine whether primary schools in the city of Maribor, Slovenia educate children about their urban environment, if they are creating positive learning environments, where children can develop into proud citizens aware of the significance of the urban environment and its consequences for the quality of their lives. Further on, the curricula in chosen primary schools in Maribor is going to be analyzed. With the survey, we will try to identify the degree of children’s awareness of their surrounding urban environment, the information they receive about their environment, and their attitude towards it. And finally, what is most important, we will try to show the extreme significance of the learning environment and the curricula for raising the awareness of the environment and growing into responsible adults who will also act responsibly towards their urban environments.

  14. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  15. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the 4-H name and emblem on, or associated with, products, and services...

  16. Raising Awareness on Heat Related Mortality in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, J.; Burkart, K.; Nissan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme heat is the leading cause of weather-related deaths in the United States and Europe, and was responsible for four of the ten deadliest natural disasters worldwide in 2015. Near the tropics, where hot weather is considered the norm, perceived heat risk is often low, but recent heat waves in South Asia have caught the attention of the health community, policy-makers and the public. In a recent collaboration between the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, Columbia University and BBC Media Action the effects of extreme heat in Bangladesh were analyzed and the findings were subsequently used as a basis to raise awareness about the impacts of extreme heat on the most vulnerable, to the general public. Analysis of excess heat in Bangladesh between 2003 and 2007 showed that heatwaves occur between April and June with most extreme heat events occurring in May. Between 2003 and 2007 it is estimated that an average of 1500 people died per year due to heatwaves lasting three days or longer, with an eight-day heatwave in 2005 resulting in a minimum of 3,800 excess deaths. Utilizing these findings BBC Media Action launched an online communications campaign in May 2017 ultimately reaching approximately 3.9 million people with information on reducing the impacts of extreme heat. This presentation will highlight key findings from the study of heat related mortality in Bangladesh as well as highlight the benefit of collaboration between scientists and communicators for increasing awareness about the effects of extreme heat on the most vulnerable.

  17. Raising H2 and Fuel Cell Awareness in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Patrick R. [Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, Elyria, OH (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition was tasked with raising the awareness and understanding of Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen economy. This was done by increasing the understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies among state and local governments using a target of more than 10% compared to 2004 baseline. We were also to target key populations by 20 percent compared to 2004 baseline. There are many barriers to an educated fuel cell population, including: a)Lack of Readily Available, Objective and Technical Accurate Information b)Mixed Messages c)Disconnect Between Hydrogen Information and Dissemination Networks d)Lack of Educated Trainers and Training Opportunities e)Regional Differences f)Difficulty of Measuring Success The approach we used for all the Community Leaders Forums were presentations by the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition in conjunction with regional leaders. The presentations were followed by question and answers periods followed up by informal discussions on Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy. This project held a total of 53 events with the following breakdown: From Aug 2009 through June 2010, the Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition held 19 community leaders forums and educated over 845 individuals, both from the State of Ohio and across the country: From July 2010 to June 2011 the OFCC held 23 community forum events and educated 915 individuals; From August 2011 to June 2012 there were 11 community forums educating 670 individuals. This report details each of those events, their date, location, purpose, and pertinent details to this report. In summary, as you see the Community Leader Forums have been very successful over the period of the grant with over 2,000 people being drawn to the forums. As always, we followed up the forums with a survey and the survey results were very positive in that the participants had a significant increase in knowledge and awareness of Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy.

  18. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Woollard

    Full Text Available Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin, a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  19. The nanotechnological inventions raise competitive ability of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of the nanotechnological inventions is given. The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields as they allow us: to obtain high strength and durability of surfaces of the details, to provide different materials with hydrophil properties, to increase efficiency of transformation of light energy into electrical one etc., and in general – to raise competitive ability of the products. For example, the method of production of solar element and a unit of solar elements (RU 2532137 comprises following stages: formation of pn-transfer in semiconductor base plate, formation of passivating layer on the light-receptive surface and/or non light-receptive surface of semiconductor base plate and formation of power robbing electrodes on the light-receptive surface and non light-receptive. A film of aluminium oxide is formed as passivating layer, its thickness is up to 40 nm, and lectrode is formed by baking conductive paste under the temperature 500–900ͦͦ°C for 1 second – 30 inutes with formation of sintered product. The sintered product penetrates through passivating layer setting electric contact between electrode and base plate. The formation of aluminium ide with specified thickness on the surface of base plate makes it possible to achieve good passivating characteristics and good electric contact between silica and electrode only by eans of baking conductive paste, that is standard technology. Moreover the baking stage which was necessary to get the effect of film passivation for aluminium oxide in the past now can be cancelled to decrease costs. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193; fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures

  20. Critical phases in the raise and peel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, D. A. C.; Alcaraz, F. C.

    2018-05-01

    The raise and peel model (RPM) is a nonlocal stochastic model describing the space and time fluctuations of an evolving one dimensional interface. Its relevant parameter u is the ratio between the rates of local adsorption and nonlocal desorption processes (avalanches) The model at u  =  1 is the first example of a conformally invariant stochastic model. For small values u    u 0 it is critical. Although previous studies indicate that u 0  =  1, a determination of u 0 with a reasonable precision is still missing. By calculating numerically the structure function of the height profiles in the reciprocal space we confirm with good precision that indeed u 0  =  1. We establish that at the conformal invariant point u  =  1 the RPM has a roughening transition with dynamical and roughness critical exponents z  =  1 and , respectively. For u  >  1 the model is critical with a u-dependent dynamical critical exponent that tends towards zero as . However at 1/u  =  0 the RPM is exactly mapped into the totally asymmetric exclusion problem. This last model is known to be noncritical (critical) for open (periodic) boundary conditions. Our numerical studies indicate that the RPM as , due to its nonlocal dynamical processes, has the same large-distance physics no matter what boundary condition we chose. For u  >  1, our numerical analysis shows that in contrast to previous predictions, the region is composed of two distinct critical phases. For the height profiles are rough (), and for the height profiles are flat at large distances (). We also observed that in both critical phases (u  >  1) the RPM at short length scales, has an effective behavior in the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang critical universality class, that is not the true behavior of the system at large length scales.

  1. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  2. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137 Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137 Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m -2 . In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137 Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137 Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr -1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137 Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr -1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137 Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq -1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137 Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m 2 kg -1 DM at the low pine site.

  3. Interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Máirín; Comber, Harry; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corrigan, Mark A; Fitzgerald, Eileen; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Maura G; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-10

    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women globally. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are key to better outcomes. Since many women will discover a breast cancer symptom themselves, it is important that they are breast cancer aware i.e. have the knowledge, skills and confidence to detect breast changes and present promptly to a healthcare professional. To assess the effectiveness of interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register (searched 25 January 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 27 January 2016), MEDLINE OvidSP (2008 to 27 January 2016), Embase (Embase.com, 2008 to 27 January 2016), the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov (searched 27 Feburary 2016). We also searched the reference lists of identified articles and reviews and the grey literature for conference proceedings and published abstracts. No language restriction was applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on interventions for raising women's breast cancer awareness i.e. knowledge of potential breast cancer symptoms/changes and the confidence to look at and feel their breasts, using any means of delivery, i.e. one-to-one/group/mass media campaign(s). Two authors selected studies, independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We reported the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD) for continuous outcomes. Since it was not possible to combine data from included studies due to their heterogeneity, we present a narrative synthesis. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE methods. We included two RCTs involving 997 women: one RCT (867 women) randomised women to receive either a written booklet

  4. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    -guided detection of the sentinel node. At present, a multitude of studies are conducted in a variety of tumors and sites, aiming at further refinements of the technique or at clinical evaluation in comparison with established lympadenectomy. The results may well change many aspects of our operative strategy in the near future. However, assuming a technically optimized procedure, will this solve the underlying tumor biological and clinical problem with respect to the necessity and efficacy of a regional lymph node dissection in node-positive cases? This is not the case; moreover, there are additional questions raised and left unanswered so far. Without any doubt, the rate of unnecessary diagnostic lymph node dissections can be considerably reduced as soon as the sentinel node concept is sufficiently validated for general use outside clinical trials. This would be a clear step forward. It is undetermined, however, how far a cancer patient with a positive sentinel node-thus already proven lymphatic metastases-would still profit from a more or less extensive lymph node dissection. It might be sufficient to use the staging information obtained through the sentinel node's status alone to decide upon adjuvant therapies. A further aspect arises from the possibility for investigating this single and supposedly most representative lymph node in far more detail than it would be possible for the large number of nodes previously sampled in conventional lymphatic dissections. This more extensive work-up may include serial sectioning, immunological and molecular techniques to enhance the sensitivity for micrometastases detection. However, very little is known about the true prognostic significance of such conventionally occult micrometastases, and even less experience exists as to the value of adjuvant therapies in those cases. Thus, while the sentinel node procedure will probably enable a more precise though less invasive lymphatic staging of malignant disease, it raises a number of important

  5. The "Geoparks" as a way to raise geoconservation in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya; Kazakova, Julia; Abdov, Nurlan

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the nine largest countries of the world and not only has significant mineral resources but rich geological heritage. However, to date geology is considered only as a way to search for minerals due to the established traditions. Faced with a geologist, we usually ask: "What are you looking for?". But the man with the hammer must answer the more important question - about the future of the Planet and Humanity. But it is necessary to save and to study the stone chronicle page for this. Only history of the Earth, recorded in the annals of rock sheets, gives a scientific answer on the fate of Planet and Mankind, and allows realistically assess the risk of disasters, floods, global warming, etc. During 20 years we are trying to give a push to protection and use of geological heritage of Kazakhstan. In our country this new direction gets accustomed with large labor. The spread of the world experience on geoconservation, the databases created of the geological heritage of Kazakhstan, numerous performances in the scientific press and the media has not lead to real steps to preserve and use geodiversity in our country. Today we are trying to raise the idea of geoconservation in Kazakhstan based on Geoparks. A project "Geological study of the geoparks development in Kazakhstan" is developed. 12 representative areas were selected on a background of the database that includes 500 sites of geological heritage, embracing a large variety of geological processes in all regions of Kazakhstan. On October 31st, 2012 in Astana the "Kazakh Geographical Society" held an international conference including "Geoparks" section. At the conference reports of all the regions of Kazakhstan representatives were presented, as well as European countries with extensive experience in geoconservation and geoparks creation (Portugal, Bulgaria, Turkey). The conference was supported by UNESCO. Album "Millions of years before the Silk Road", which represents the future Kazakhstan

  6. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  7. Seismic monitoring experiment of raise boring in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M. [AaF-Consult Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-01-15

    In Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy has operated a local seismic network since February 2002. The purpose of the microearthquake measurements at Olkiluoto is to improve understanding of the structure, behaviour and long term stability of the bedrock. The studies include both tectonic and excavation-induced microearthquakes. An additional task of monitoring is related to safeguarding of ONKALO. The possibility to excavate an illegal access to ONKALO has been concerned when the safeguards are discussed. Therefore all recorded explosions in the Olkiluoto area and in ONKALO are located. If a concentration of explosions is observed, the origin of that is found out. Also a concept of hidden illegal explosions, detonated at the same time as the real excavation blasts, has been examined. According to the experience gained in Olkiluoto, it can be concluded that, as long the seismic network is in operation and the results are analysed by a skilled person, it is practically impossible to do illegal undetected excavation by blasting within the Olkiluoto seismic network area. In this report a possibility of seismic monitoring of undeclared excavation done by tunnel boring machine (TBM) has been investigated. In the earlier investigations the instruments were at the ground surface and the sensors were triaxial short period (1 Hz) geophones or broadband geophones. The characteristics (frequency content, polarity and amplitude) of the continuous seismic vibration generated by TMB were studied. The onset time of the seismic signal were not distinguished. Altogether 16 new 10 kHz accelerometers were installed in boreholes inside ONKALO March 2012. The sensors comprised a new subnetwork that monitored the raise boring of two shafts done 2014, from the level -455 m to the level -290 m. The aim was to record the seismic signal generated when the drill bit hits the rock at the moment the tunnel boring begins. Altogether 113 seismic signals generated by the drill bit were located during the

  8. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  9. 76 FR 54072 - Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program, Livestock Indemnity Program, and General... clarifying amendments and corrections to the regulations for the Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) and the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP) to clarify when...

  10. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a

  11. Living with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Parental Experiences of Raising a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan; Overall, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the study was to explore parental experiences of raising a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A mixed-method approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used in order to elicit parental perspectives of raising a child with ASD. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of…

  12. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  13. Factors Associated with the Empowerment of Japanese Families Raising a Child with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimizu, Rie; Fujioka, Hiroshi; Yoneyama, Akira; Iejima, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We identified factors associated with the empowerment of Japanese families using the Family Empowerment Scale (FES) to contribute to the improvement of empowerment in Japanese families raising a child with developmental disorders (DDs). The study was conducted in 350 caregivers who raised children aged 4-18 years with DDs in urban and suburban…

  14. The Critical Role of Stewardship in Fund Raising: The Coaches vs. Cancer Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.; Little, Jennifer K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the critical role of stewardship in the process of fund raising. Uses the Coaches vs. Cancer campaign to illustrate the limitations of the public relations ROPE (research, objectives, planning, and evaluation) model in explaining fund raising success, and supports K.S. Kelly's contention that addition of a fifth step to the model, the…

  15. Recession Tempers the Usual Optimism in College Fund-Raising Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After years of growth and predictions that fund raising for higher education would escape the brunt of the economic crash, the recession has started to affect colleges' efforts to raise money, according to a survey by "The Chronicle" and Moody's Investors Service. Predictions are that 2009 may be an even tougher year for fund raisers, with…

  16. Perceptions of the Home Environments of Graduate Students Raised in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jacqueline S.; Juntune, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Current literature has identified a growing achievement gap experienced by students raised in poverty. However, some students from poverty can defeat the odds and succeed academically with advanced degrees. Nine graduate students self-identified as being raised in poverty participated in this study. The home-related experiences that led to their…

  17. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  18. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  19. Raising Generation Tech Preparing Your Children for a Media-Fueled World

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are being raised as 'digital natives' in a world dominated by popular culture and technology. TV shows, computers, video games, social networking sites, advertisements, and cell phones too often have an unnecessarily strong-and negative? influence on children.  But pulling the plug just isn't an option in a world where being connected is essential for success. In Raising Generation Tech,  noted parenting and new-media expert Dr. Jim Taylor explores how popular culture and technology shape children's lives. The essential message from Raising Generation Tech is that excessive

  20. Consumer Choice between Food Safety and Food Quality: The Case of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghiri, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118

  1. Raising Awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Autism is China’s most common mental handicap,but the country lags behind in efforts to help the children who suffer from it or their parents University English teacher Tian Huiping,a career woman with a child,was living an ideal life in the eyes of many women,when in 1989 her family was shaken by the news that her son had autism.

  2. Raising Nora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Margo

    1996-01-01

    Describes a creative approach to including Nora, a student with cerebral palsy, in an outdoor adventure--a hilly, seven-mile trek through Eastern Oregon's Ponderosa pine forests. With teachers' and classmates' help, Nora practiced on a simulated horse and saddle, overcame her fear of heights, and eagerly joined classmates on horseback. (MLH)

  3. Raising tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, T M; Copeland, P; Kidd, W S; Yin, A

    1992-03-27

    Thermochronologic, sedimentologic, oceanographic, and paleoclimatic studies suggest that rapid uplift and unroofing of southern Tibet began about 20 million years ago and that the present elevation of much of the Tibetan plateau was attained by about 8 million years ago. Hypotheses advanced to explain the tectonic evolution of the India-Asia collision, which began about 40 to 50 million years ago, predict the timing and rates of crustal thickening of the southern margin of Asia. However, these models do not predict the prominently enhanced early Miocene denudation and uplift that are manifested in a variety of geological records. A model involving continental extrusion, development of a crustal-scale thrust ramp of the Main Central Thrust beneath the Gangdese belt, and lithospheric delamination provides a history consistent with these observations.

  4. [Educational project for raising awareness of food hygiene in infant schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Dimitri; Malinic, Caroline; Menoud, Mathilde; Rousseau, Aurore; Savoy, Camille

    2018-01-01

    Five students from a nursing training institute designed an educational initiative aimed at infant school pupils. The objective of this primary prevention intervention was to raise children's awareness of food hygiene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. On the raising and lowering difference operators for eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiyeva, M K; Atakishiyev, N M

    2015-01-01

    We construct explicit forms of raising and lowering difference operators that govern eigenvectors of the finite (discrete) Fourier transform. Some of the algebraic properties of these operators are also examined. (paper)

  6. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  7. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  8. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  9. The role of knowledge management in raising the efficiency of pilots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of knowledge management in raising the efficiency of pilots' performance in the ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... the actual knowledge management implementation in the aviation industry as well as determining the ...

  10. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  11. A New Drawing of The Raising of Lazarus by Hans von Aachen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fučíková, E.; Konečný, Lubomír

    -, č. 16 (2016), s. 89-94 ISSN 1213-5372 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Hans von Aachen * Raising of Lazarus * Caravaggio * Taddeo Zuccari Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Arts, Art history

  12. Labor analgesia in parturients of fetal growth restriction having raised umbilical Doppler vascular indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Continuous epidural ropivacaine causes improved fetoplacental circulation in parturients with growth-restricted fetuses having raised Doppler indices during labor analgesia. We also found better neonatal outcome with continuous infusion of epidural ropivacaine as compared to IM tramadol.

  13. Quantification of the physical properties required of raised pavement markers and accelerated laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Retroreflective raised pavement markers (RRPMs) can provide lane and directional information at : night, particularly during wet weather conditions. In recent years, the RRPM service life in Florida has : been generally shorter than expected. Moreove...

  14. Quantification of the physical properties required of raised pavement markers and accelerated laboratory testing : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Retroreflective raised pavement markers (RRPMs) : can provide lane and directional information at : night, particularly during wet weather conditions. : However, in recent years, the service life of : RRPMs in Florida has been generally shorter than ...

  15. Effect of bite-raised condition on the hippocampal cholinergic system of aged SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Tasuku; Mori, Daisuke; Miyake, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Shuu; Ono, Yumie; Takahashi, Toru; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2012-06-27

    Occlusal disharmony induces chronic stress, which results in learning deficits in association with the morphologic changes in the hippocampus, e.g., neuronal degeneration and increased hypertrophied glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. To investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired hippocampal function resulting from occlusal disharmony, we examined the effects of the bite-raised condition on the septohippocampal cholinergic system by assessing acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medial septal nucleus in aged SAMP8 mice that underwent the bite raising procedure. Aged bite-raised mice showed decreased acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and a reduced number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons in the medial septal nucleus compared to age-matched control mice. These findings suggest that the bite-raised condition in aged SAMP8 mice enhances the age-related decline in the septohippocampal cholinergic system, leading to impaired learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Report of geophysical raising of the amethyst and agate in two quarries in Artigas district Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitmayr, G.; Gonzalez, C.; Torterolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    In a geophysical raising of amethyst and agate was studied the possibility to apply a better suitable geophysical method. The conclusion was that the electromagnetic VLF method was suitable to identify the zones.

  17. Pragmatics in Teacher Education for Nonnative-Speaking Teachers: A Consciousness-Raising Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the problems relevant to the teaching of language use and discusses pragmatic consciousness raising (PCR) as one alternative in teacher education for dealing with pragmatics in the classroom. (Author/JL)

  18. Study Raises Concerns about Mobile Phones%对手机多些关注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平

    2003-01-01

    @@ Italian scientists have raised new health concerns about the safety of using mobile phones, with research showing radio waves from the handsets( 手机) makes cancerous cells grow more aggressively.

  19. Mental Health Stigma: What is being done to raise awareness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental Health Stigma: What is being done to raise awareness and reduce ... need to find effective strategies to increase awareness about mental illnesses and ... Results: Numerous anti-stigma campaigns are in place in both government and ...

  20. Raised intracranial pressure: What it is and how to recognise it

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ... involves shifts of CSF and venous blood out .... by changes in posture, position and .... ICP can be measured by a number of.

  1. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The processing of raising and nominal control: An eye-tracking study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSturt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment Dillon et al (2013 found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g. ``John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself...'', or nominal control (e.g. ``John’s agreement with Tom to be kind to himself...''. We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a be processed more quickly, and (b be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control.

  3. Public support for raising the age of sale for tobacco to 21 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P; McMillen, Robert; Tanski, Susanne; Wilson, Karen; Gottlieb, Mark; Crane, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The vast majority of tobacco users began before the age of 21. Raising the tobacco sales age to 21 has the potential to reduce tobacco use initiation and progression to regular smoking. Our objective was to assess the level of public support nationally for 'Tobacco 21' initiatives in the USA. The Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control, a cross-sectional dual-frame survey representing national probability samples of adults was administered in 2013. Respondents were asked to state their agreement level with, 'The age to buy tobacco should be raised to 21.' Of 3245 respondents, 70.5% support raising the age to buy tobacco to 21. The majority of adults in every demographic and smoking status category supported raising the tobacco sales age to 21. In multivariable analyses, support was highest among never smokers, females, African-Americans and older adults. This national study demonstrates broad public support for raising the sales age of tobacco to 21 and will help facilitate wide dissemination of initiatives to increase the legal purchase age at national, state and local levels. Increasing public awareness about the susceptibility and rapid addiction of youth to nicotine may further increase public support for raising the tobacco sale age to 21. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus . Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis ; medium level in N. californicus ). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus , consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  6. Antipredator responses in Tetranychus urticae differ with predator specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer; Alexakis, I.; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural response of Tetranychus urticae to chemical cues from specialist predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or generalist predatory bugs, Orius majusculus, on either bean or strawberry was studied in experimental arenas. Predators were placed on the leaf disc for 24 h and removed...... and control treatments. No interaction effect was found between plant species and prey fecundity, while significantly more eggs were laid on bean than on strawberry. Predator cues irrespective of predator specialization resulted in more prey dispersal than in the control. Findings emphasize the importance...

  7. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Diego Sánchez de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  8. Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Kristy L; Boyes, Allison W; Carey, Mariko L; Hall, Alix E; Symonds, Michael; Brown, Sandy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W

    2018-04-01

    To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score ≥ 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  10. Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

    2003-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement.

  11. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  12. Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia - description and analysis of their morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    The disturbance of Pre Columbian populations on Amazonian ecosystems is being actively debated. The traditional view of amazon being an untouched landscape because of its poor soils and harsh climate has been challenged and the extreme opposite idea of highly modified landscapes with complex societies is growing. Recent research has led to new impulses and issues requesting about the agricultural strategies people developed to survive in this climate. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands in south-eastern Amazonia is one important region which was densely altered and where a great variety of earthworks can be found. One of the most impressive earth works are the raised fields, which are earth platforms for cultivation of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscapes natural surface. In contrast to the "terra preta" formation where artefacts and amendments like charcoal and kitchen waste have been clearly identified, raised fields have shown to be artefact poor and studies up till now couldn't find any evidence of additional amendments which could have improved soil quality in the long term. As a result the function and productivity of raised fields is still not well understood and is being actively discussed. Detailed investigations on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos provides data showing a novel explanation of the Pre-Columbian management of raised fields, and a chronological sequence of their utilization and abandonment. OSL dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 600 AD. Comparison of Geochemistry with a reference profile, away from raised fields, showed that there is no evidence for manure amendments deriving from kitchen waste or animal residues suggesting a rather extensive use of those fields. Complementary the description of intern morphology and laboratory analysis of this raised fields, combined with radiocarbon

  13. Some results on the isotope studies of water exchange in boreal raised bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, A.A.; Vlasova, L.S.; Polyakov, V.A.; Trofimova, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Raised bogs are rather common and one of the most exciting mire types of the boreal zone. They receive water and nutrients from precipitation and pore water stored in their domes (up to 10 m in height) is spaced above levels of regional ground water or streams draining them. Peatland hydrologists have long assumed that fluid flow occurs mainly in a peat layer near to the surface and water transport is negligible in deeper layers. The 'acrotelm/catotelm' paradigm on active and inert horizons for the peat above and below the lowest water level is still widely spread in peatland hydrology. However, recent studies have shown that deep water movement is much more dynamic in raised bogs than was previously thought. Based on geochemical studies and numerical simulations even temporal reverse of the vertical direction of water fluid flow through the peat as connected to climate fluctuations was assumed. Relying on isotope studies we consider only the mounded strata of the raised bogs to have relatively active water exchange. The study included two raised bogs, representing different local hydrological conditions (underlain by outwash sands and moraine clay) at the Zapadnaya Dvina Peatland Field Station of the Forest Research Institute located 400 km west of Moscow. Peatlands, among which raised bogs dominate, constitute >30% of the area, and maximum peat thickness exceeds 7 m

  14. Dynamics of psychological safety in mothers raising children with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamanova I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a considerable decrease in psychological well-being among mothers raising children with special needs. Addressing the issues of providing psychological support for them is of particular importance for both researchers and practitioners. The paper presents a study aimed at exploring the dynamics of psychological safety in mothers raising children with special needs. 32 mothers whose children underwent a rehabilitation programme in a rehabilitation centre participated in the study. The key element of the psychological support programme developed for these mothers was a specific psychotherapeutic space combining hippotherapy with environmental, social and personal factors. Compared to the control group, the study participants’ parameters of psychological safety showed statistically significant positive dynamics. The results obtained contribute to studying factors of psychological well-being in mothers raising children with special needs and suggest an effective way of enhancing their sense of psychological safety.

  15. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanta, I. S.; Hasnat, Md A.; Zeidner, N.

    2016-01-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry...... interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2–12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock...... handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk...

  16. The relationship between explicit learning and consciousness-raising tasks within a communicative language context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscioli, Deise Caldart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating whether consciousness-raising tasks, used in a communicative learning environment of EFL, can be considered a valid instrument for eliciting explicit learning in that context. Five participants enrolled in the second level of a language course answered a cycle of tasks that intended to teach the use of comparatives. The materials used in this study consisted of a pre-task, consciousness-raising tasks, an untimed grammaticality judgment test, and a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the instruments used in this research were of a valid nature for eliciting explicit learning. The findings also provide empirical support regarding the importance of consciousness-raising tasks to assist students’ second language learning in a communicative classroom environment. Despite being a small scale research, this study may contribute to a greater understanding of the SLA processes within a communicative context and highlight the importance of explicit knowledge learning within a meaning focused approach

  17. THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF KENTISH RAISING: ISSUES IN OLD ENGLISH SOCIOLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Trousdale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers issues in Old English sociolinguistics, in relation to specific changes affecting the low front vowels in ninth-century Kentish, as manifest in spelling variation in charters of the time. This change is referred to as Kentish Raising (Hogg 1988. It is suggested that variationist sociolinguistics is not an appropriate framework within which to explain Kentish Raising, since the nature of the data is such that a variationist approach is untenable. A reconstruction of the social, political and cultural situation in ninth-century Kent is provided, which examines Mercian influence in the period, and suggests that a Mercian-driven change from above (Second Fronting cannot be the source of Kentish Raising. Finally, it is proposed that recent work in genetic anthropology, which seeks to discover more about the nature and extent of the continental migrations, may be useful in understanding the social context in which the varieties of Old English existed and developed.

  18. The relation between district raise in the multiple coal seams and its pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2002-02-01

    Based on the geological condition of multiple coal seams mining in No.8 Colliery of Pingdingshan Coal Group, the behaviours of the front abutment pressure in each of the coal seams and the fixed abutment pressure are observed. The main cause of deformation and damage to the galleries is the increasing value of the valid load coefficient of the surrounding rock. The rational pillar width of the district raise is studied when its two side seams have been mined, and the layout question of district raise in the different set of seams is also studied. The conclusions derived from the study are useful guiding reference for the design of district raise layout in deep multiple coal seams mining. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  20. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  1. CT changes in children with drained hydrocephalus and intermittently raised intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Korinthenberg, R.; Erlemann, R.; Lengerke, H.J. von; Muenster Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Seven children with drained hydrocephalus are described who showed increasingly severe and frequent episodes of intermittently raised intracranial pressure. CT examinations during symptom-free intervals, or after conservative treatment, showed collapsed slit-like ventricles. Examination during attacks of raised pressure showed relative dilatation of the ventricles as compared with earlier examinations. Children with ventricular shunts of long duration may develop a shunt-dependent syndrome; CT may show normal or narrow ventricles and this does not exclude the possibility of a rise of intracranial pressure. These findings may help in making the diagnosis by means of CT without any further invasive procedure. (orig.) [de

  2. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, T.; Morimoto, T.; Iida, N.; Nishimura, T.; Soda, Y.; Itoh, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  3. GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.

  4. Elucidating the mechanism behind the lipid-raising effect of cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekschoten, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to identify genes that control the response of serum lipid levels to diet. To this end we used cafestol as model substance for a food component that affects serum lipids and therefore health. Cafestol is a cholesterol‑raising diterpene present in coffee beans and

  5. Strengths Classification of Social Relationships among Cybermothers Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and their families are different. Parents often surf the Internet in search of supportive solutions to the unique challenges they face. One source of insight for parents raising children with ASD comes from blog writers and the parents who surf the net to read their blogs, or cyberparents. The study…

  6. Family Quality of Life of South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, Liezl; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the family quality of life among families who are raising a young child with autism spectrum disorder. Survey research was conducted with 180 families of children with autism spectrum disorder who were receiving disability-related services in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The principle measure used was the Beach…

  7. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  8. Lumbar drainage for control of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure in cryptococcal meningitis: case report and review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macsween, K.F.; Bicanic, T.; Brouwer, A.E.; Marsh, H.; Macallan, D.C.; Harrison, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Raised intracranial pressure in the absence of ventricular dilatation is common in cryptococcal meningitis and associated with increased mortality. We report the case of a patient with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis, who developed increasing CSF pressure and visual impairment on therapy

  9. Noise, What Noise? Raising Awareness of Auditory Health among Future Primary-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Tejada, M. -P.; Hodar, J. A.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of acoustic contamination and its deleterious effects on students preparing to become school teachers and analyse their acoustic habits, with the aim of raising their awareness concerning this problem. We designed a number of activities, applied during a practical lesson, in which students evaluated some of their…

  10. Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuf, Anders; Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Kristensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The histone demethylase KDM5B is considered to be a promising target for anticancer therapy. Single-chain antibodies from llama (nanobodies) have been raised to aid in crystallization and structure determination of this enzyme. The antigen-binding properties of 15 of these nanobodies have been...

  11. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  12. Evaluation of Preparatory Measures for Coping with Anxiety Raised by Media Coverage of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety and raises suggestions for 2 intervention strategies to moderate elevated anxiety. Participants were 120 young Israeli adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or a nonterrorism television broadcast and assigned to 1 of 3 intervention conditions prior to…

  13. The Miracle of Money! Managing LRC Budgets, Funds and Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, M. Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Describes the management of a learning resource center (LRC) budget. Topics discussed include controlling a budget, keeping records, managing grants, managing petty cash, responding to unexpected expenses, managing capital outlay dollars, managing insurance, balancing budgets, budget stretching strategies, and fund raising. (JLB)

  14. HIV treatment is associated with a twofold higher probability of raised triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekoru, Kenneth; Young, Elizabeth H; Dillon, David G

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TG) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. Methods: Pooled analyses of ...

  15. Educational Fund Raising: Principles and Practice. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael J., Ed.

    This volume offers 36 papers on higher education fundraising. Major topics treated are the development function, foundations of fund raising, annual giving, major gifts, campaigns, corporate and foundation support, special constituencies, managing development programs, special considerations for institutions, and special considerations for the…

  16. Exploring the Listening Process to Inform the Development of Strategy Awareness-Raising Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria; Guisado, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a small-scale qualitative study aimed at exploring the listening process in a group of Spanish beginners in a UK higher education context. The specific aim of the study was to inform the development of materials for listening strategy awareness-raising activities. The exploration was focused on identifying (a) strategies…

  17. Process and device for the protection of steam-raising units, particularly of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, W.; Wieling, N.; Stellwag, B.

    1986-01-01

    To protect the housing against corrosion by chemical conditioning of the feedwater, the redox potential of the feedwater and the corrosion potential of at least one pipe of the pipe bundle is continuously determined during operation of the steam raising unit. With potentials indicating the danger of corrosion, the quality of the secondary water can be improved by suitable measures. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Some Late-Holocene pollen diagrams from the Peel raised bogs (Southern Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.; Hove, ten H.A.

    1971-01-01

    Three pollen diagrams from the Peel peatlands, a raised bog area in the southern part of The Netherlands reveal the post-Boreal vegetation history of that region. There are two or three land-occupation phases in the Neolithic and Bronze ages, that show but low values of terrestrial herbs. They are

  19. Technological Literacy for All: A Course Designed to Raise the Technological Literacy of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Fantz, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding what technology is, and is not, is the first step in becoming technologically literate. One should also understand how technology is created, how it works, how it shapes society, and how society shapes technology. This study was designed to gauge the ability of a single-semester course to raise students' technological literacy as…

  20. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence Awareness-Raising Activities on L2 Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Reza; Sadr, Sajjad Aref

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) awareness-raising on Iranian university students' overall as well as variable-specific L2 motivation. The 136 participants (107 males, 29 females) were divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which completed the same motivation…

  1. Report: Awards Made by EPA’s Office of the Chief Financial Officer Raise Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0048, November 30, 2015. OCFO’s unprecedented award of $9,000 in bonuses to a Director less than 3 months after being hired raises questions about the reasonableness of the awards and how the OCFO uses the awards process.

  2. Disability in the Family: John and Alice Dewey Raising Their Son Sabino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Scot

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: The current biographic understanding of John Dewey's experience adopting and raising an Italian boy named Sabino emphasizes the theme of finding an emotional replacement for Morris and Gordon, two young sons who had tragically died on family trips to Europe. Lacking is substantive attention to the fact that John Dewey's son had…

  3. Materialistic Aspects of Raising Resource of Pressurized Water Reactors for Low-Power Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, A.M.; Muratov, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    The opportunity of using ships reactors for low-power nuclear plants is considered. Some aspects of working constructional materials on cases of water-water reactors of ships nuclear units are considered. Advantages of raising resource of ships reactors are shown

  4. 137Cs deposition in peat profiles on a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Galan, P.R.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of 137 Cs depositions within peat profiles in open bog and nearby (low pine) sites in raised bog are shown and discussed. A possible involvement of Sphagnum moss in radionuclide binding and retention in such nutrient poor ecosystem is suggested. (au)

  5. Will Raising the Participation Age in England Solve the NEET Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the rationale for introducing the raising of the participation age (RPA) in learning in England from 2013 and assesses how, if fully implemented, it could contribute to improving the outcomes for young people who do not participate in any form of post-16 education, employment or training, and are currently defined as not in…

  6. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.

  7. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  8. Response to Key Issues Raised in the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghes, David; Hindle, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This article is a detailed response to the issues raised by the Post-14 Mathematics Inquiry in the UK. It aims to debate some of the central issues in mathematics teaching in the UK, including recruitment and retention of mathematics teachers, the curriculum content, national assessment, teaching resources (including ICT) and national strategies…

  9. Authentic L2 Interactions as Material for a Pragmatic Awareness-Raising Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsui-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study draws on conversation analysis to explore the pedagogical possibility of using audiovisual depictions of authentic disagreement sequences from L2 interactions as sources for an awareness-raising activity in an English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Video excerpts of disagreement sequences collected from two ESL classes were used…

  10. More Proficient vs. Less Proficient EFL Learners’ Perceptions of Teachers ‘Motivation Raising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Yousefi

    2022-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivation raising strategies are frequently used in English as a Foreign Language (EFL classes; nevertheless, learners’ perceptions of such strategies used by language teachers have not sufficiently been explored. Also, there are not enough studies on differences and similarities between more and less proficient EFL learners regarding this issue. To scrutinize this topic, a groups of more (No=50 and less proficient EFL learners (No=50 participated in this study by completing to a validated, researcher-made questionnaire with a five-point Likert type format. Non-parametric Mann-Whiteny U test was run in the SPSS ver. 23 to check the differences between the two groups. The results of the study verified that, regardless of each individual scale in the utilized questionnaire, overall, the more proficient ones manifested significantly less perceptions on teachers’ motivation raising strategies based on the total estimated mean ranks compared with the less proficient learners.  However, within the surveyed scales, only in the classroom atmosphere scale, the results showed that the less proficient learners were more mindful of teacher strategies for motivation raising. The findings from this study have implications for motivation raising strategy instructions for a language classroom.

  11. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  12. Sibling cooperative and externalizing behaviors in families raising children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Christine; Roper, Susanne Olsen; Mandleco, Barbara; Freeborn, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Raising a child with a disability (CWD) in the home is increasing across the globe. Because of caregiver burden and the complexity of care, there is growing concern for typically developing sibling (TDS) outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine whether caregiver burden, parenting style, and sibling relationships in families raising a CWD are associated with cooperative and externalizing behaviors in TDS. This correlational study included 189 families raising both a CWD and a TDS. Multilevel modeling was used to identify which variables were most predictive of TDS outcomes and if there were parent gender effects. Authoritative parenting was positively associated with cooperative behaviors. Authoritarian parenting was positively associated with externalizing behaviors. Multilevel modeling revealed caregiver burden was a significant predictor of sibling behaviors in the first model. When parenting style was added as a predictor, it was also significant. When sibling relationships were added as predictors, they were significant predictors for both cooperative and externalizing TDS behaviors; however, caregiver burden was no longer significant. Authoritarian parenting significantly predicted externalizing behaviors, and authoritative parenting was significantly related to cooperative behaviors. In families raising a CWD, positive sibling relationships may help negate the effects of caregiver burden and are more predictive of TDS outcomes than some parenting practices.

  13. Education for the Creative Cities: Awareness Raising on Urban Challenges and Biocultural Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova, Aida

    2018-01-01

    Creative Cities are facing the big challenges due to the demographical, environmental and economic issues. In this study we considered to create the educational fieldworks inside the creative city and raise the awareness in youth about the importance of the biocultural preservations to sustain the city's creativity and sustainability. Our…

  14. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  15. Can Increasing Faculty Professionalism Raise Instructional Quality at a Chinese University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if increasing faculty professionalism is a viable strategy for raising the quality of instruction at a Chinese university. In this study, increasing faculty professionalism refers to increases in regards to six areas of faculty work: academic freedom, work balance, governance, reward systems, salary, and…

  16. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  17. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  18. An Instructional Exercise in Cost-Raising Strategies, and Perfect Complements Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents an account of the 1993 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers (UAW) and Ford Motor Company to assist students in developing facility with perfect complements production and cost functions and cost-raising strategies. The author seeks an answer to why the UAW targeted Ford for contract negotiations to establish a…

  19. Mothers Raising Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Intersection of Race, Gender, and Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P. R.; Antle, Beverley J.; Williams, Charmaine C.; Cook, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study used the long interview method with Canadian mothers of African and Caribbean descent to understand the underresearched experience of raising a child with sickle cell disease (SCD). Mothers' realities were explored through three levels of social organization: daily caregiver coping (micro level); community views of SCD, such…

  20. Math, Science, and Web-Based Activities to Raise Awareness about Nutrition and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuercher, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of child obesity in the United States is increasing at an alarming rate. This article provides information about nutrition, obesity, and related health conditions and suggests some classroom activities to raise awareness about these issues and empower students to live healthier, more active lives. A list of recommended health-related…

  1. Raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment as complications of external retinal detachment surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawwad, M.; Khan, B.; Shah, M.A.; Qayyum, I.; Aftab, M.; Qayyum, I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may develop raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment when they undergo external retinal detachment surgery. The present study was conducted to determine the postoperative rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) and recurrence of retinal detachment. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted at Eye department of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar on 25 patients of both genders from August 2012 to July 2014. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) developed raised IOP in the immediate postoperative period; this figure decreased to 12 (48%) at one week. Following medical or surgical intervention in these 12 cases, there was only 1 (4%) case with mildly raised IOP at two weeks postoperative. Five (20%) cases developed recurrent retinal detachment which later resolved with treatment. There were no significant differences by age or gender. Conclusion: External Retinal Detachment Surgery raised intraocular pressure postoperatively and caused recurrence of retinal detachment. These complications were treated medically and surgically with resolution within two weeks. (author)

  2. RAISED between Cultures: New Resources for Working with Children of Immigrant or Refugee Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Larissa; Georgis, Rebecca; Gokiert, Rebecca; Mejia, Teresa; Kirova, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The pressing needs of populations with unique challenges, such as immigrants or refugees, often stimulate important innovation in development of educational techniques and resources. This article highlights the RAISED between Cultures model, a conceptual framework for understanding children's experiences holistically and promoting intercultural…

  3. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  4. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  5. Progress toward Increasing National and State Graduation Rates. Raising Graduation Rates: A Series of Data Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; West, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a series of briefs examining the progress in raising high school graduation rates over the past decade. During this period, the prevailing belief has been that all students who wanted to or needed to graduate did so. However, it is now recognized that in every state there are too many communities and schools where high school…

  6. Raising Their Voices: Engaging Students, Teachers, and Parents to Help End the High School Dropout Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, John M.; Balfanz, Robert; Moore, Laura A.; Friant, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    High dropout rates continue to be a silent epidemic afflicting the nation's schools. Although some measurable progress is being made in some school districts and states to raise high school graduation rates, and federal, state, and local policies and practices are changing to meet the dropout challenge, the nation's progress is too slow and the…

  7. Teaching Children To Love: 80 Games & Fun Activities for Raising Balanced Children in Unbalanced Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childre, Doc Lew; Paddison, Sara Hatch, Ed.

    Raising children in today's fast-paced society requires love and technique. Ways that parents can teach children to love, teach them values, and help them balance their lives are discussed in this activity book. The text opens with a discussion of heart intelligence (what is sometimes equated with emotional intelligence). Heart intelligence…

  8. [Hygienic evaluation of health risk for female workers of stock-raising enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iusupova, N Z; Shamsiiarov, N N; Dautov, F F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results of study concerning work conditions of female workers engaged into stock-raising enterprises of Tatarstan Republic. Findings are that major occupational hazards in the female workers are unfavorable microclimate, chemical hazards contaminating ambient air of workplace and high noise level.

  9. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  10. Impact of raised without antibiotics practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The increasing occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant human infections has been attributed to the use of antimicrobials in a variety of applications including food-animal production. "Raised without antibiotics" (RWA) meat production has been offered as a practice to reduce antimicrobial-...

  11. Preparing FCS Professionals: Using Simulations to Raise Awareness and Change Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiden, Kathleen; Harpel, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Many universities offer courses in multiculturalism to broaden students' perspectives, but are the courses effective? This article explores the effects of using simulations to raise awareness and challenge students' perspectives of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. The results of three simulation activities are presented. Three…

  12. Raising Cash under Duress and the Role of Cash Value Life Insurance: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David T.; Chong, James T.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2018-01-01

    Consumers face hard choices when they need cash quickly. Hard choices can lead to emotional or economically unsound decisions. Traditional classroom discussions of raising funds to pay for expenses usually focus on generating income, borrowing, or the sale of real and financial assets, if hardship is discussed at all. However, many families have…

  13. The changing landscape of Clara Bog: the history of an Irish raised bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crushell, P.H.; Connolly, A.; Schouten, M.G.C.; Mitchell, F.J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Clara Bog is one of the few raised bogs that has not been fully exploited in the Irish midlands and is a reminder of how the landscape of this region once appeared. This paper describes how the Clara Bog landscape has been changing since the commencement of the Holocene 11,500 years ago. Initially

  14. Inflation Rate Surpasses Administrators' Raises for First Time in 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carolyn J.

    1988-01-01

    An annual survey found that, alhtough administrator salary increases at public colleges and universities exceeded the inflation rate, those at private institutions lagged behind, and many institutions targeted particular groups of employees for raises. As in the past, women and minority group members earned less than their White male counterparts.…

  15. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  16. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  17. Essential Not Optional: A Strategic Approach to Fund-Raising for Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This overview of the state of endowment giving comes at a time of urgent need in the nonprofit sector. With market returns uncertain, and spending restraint difficult, the moderate but measurable increase in donations in the previous year invites institutions to consider elevating fund-raising to a more strategic position within the organization.…

  18. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  19. Water exchange in raised bogs: revised views especially in relation to biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Andrey; Kravchenko, Irina; Yurova, Alla; Markina, Anastasiya

    2017-04-01

    Raised bogs are one of the most common and exciting mire type within the boreal zone and appear in the other zones including mountain regions in the tropics. They receive water and nutrients from the atmosphere and pore water stored in their domes is spaced above the surrounding area (up to 10 m in height). Traditionally it is assumed that water flow occurs mainly in a peat layer near to the surface and water transport is negligible in deeper layers (lvanov, 1981; Ingram, 1982; etc.). The «acrotelm/catotelm» paradigm on active and inert horizons for the peat above and below the lowest water level is still widely spread in peatland hydrology. However, recent studies have shown that deep water movement is much more dynamic in raised bogs than was previously thought (Sirin et al., 1997, Reeve et al., 2000; etc.). Relying on isotope studies we conclude that all the mounded strata of the raised bogs have relatively active water exchange although water residence time changes with depth. The study included two raised bogs, representing different typical hydrological conditions (underlain by outwash sands and moraine clay) at the Zapadnaya Dvina Peatland Field Station of the Institute of Forest Science RAS located 400 km west of Moscow (56 N, 32 E). Peatlands, among which raised bogs dominate, constitute > 30% of the area, and maximum peat thickness exceeds 7 m. To evaluate water residence time in peat strata specially determined mathematical model which include the equations of water mass and tritium balance, imbedded in a conceptual framework of water dynamics within a raised bog peat body, have been developed and tested. The results from isotope studies (3H, 18O, 2H) were additionally supported by geochemical (pH, Eh, electrical conductivity) and temperature long term monitoring, as well as dissolved CO2 and CH4 monitoring within vertical profiles of the studied raised bogs (Sirin et al., 1998). Later it was also supported by microbiology data of methane cycle in the

  20. A Review on Some Parameters of Environment in Youth Intensive Raising of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ioniţă

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-art of scientific research on some environmentalparameters recommended by the literature in the intensive raising of young quails. As a result ofthe research it can be said that the temperature in the raising area of the young Japanese quailvaries between 35 º - 37.8 º C in the first week of life, after which it decreases by 3-4 ° C / week.The relative humidity in the shelter of young quails in the first week of raising must bemaintained at 80% (made with trays of water; then it should decrease at the value of 70%. Lightregime recommended for intensive young quails raising can be 24 hours light per day to 42 daysor can choose a program of light of 24 hours a day during the first 7 days of life, after which itcan be reducde up to 16 hours a day until the age of 42 days. Light intensity should be between20 lux and 45 lux for the first 7 days of life of the youth, then can be reduced by 20 to 5 lux untilthe age of 41 days. Density per area unit in the house is of 150 chicken / sqm (for ground riasing,reaching the age of 6 weeks at a density of 100 chicks / sqm or 250 chicken / sqm cage (in thecase of youth raising in batteries The number of chickens decreases to 250 for 1.5 sqm of cagearea in the second week of life and 250 chicken for 2 sqm cage area in the third week.

  1. Computational simulation of passive leg-raising effects on hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Ah; Park, Jiheum; Lee, Jung Chan; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-03-01

    The passive leg-raising (PLR) maneuver has been used for patients with circulatory failure to improve hemodynamic responsiveness by increasing cardiac output, which should also be beneficial and may exert synergetic effects during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the impact of the PLR maneuver on CPR remains unclear due to difficulties in monitoring cardiac output in real-time during CPR and a lack of clinical evidence. We developed a computational model that couples hemodynamic behavior during standard CPR and the PLR maneuver, and simulated the model by applying different angles of leg raising from 0° to 90° and compression rates from 80/min to 160/min. The simulation results showed that the PLR maneuver during CPR significantly improves cardiac output (CO), systemic perfusion pressure (SPP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) by ∼40-65% particularly under the recommended range of compression rates between 100/min and 120/min with 45° of leg raise, compared to standard CPR. However, such effects start to wane with further leg lifts, indicating the existence of an optimal angle of leg raise for each person to achieve the best hemodynamic responses. We developed a CPR-PLR model and demonstrated the effects of PLR on hemodynamics by investigating changes in CO, SPP, and CPP under different compression rates and angles of leg raising. Our computational model will facilitate study of PLR effects during CPR and the development of an advanced model combined with circulatory disorders, which will be a valuable asset for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Raising the topic of weight in general practice: perspectives of GPs and primary care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Maxine; Stathi, Afroditi; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2015-08-07

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs) and primary care nurses' perceived barriers to raising the topic of weight in general practice. A qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). 34 semistructured interviews were conducted to explore views, opinions and experiences of initiating a discussion about weight. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyse the interview transcripts. General practices located in one primary care trust in the South West of England. 17 GPs and 17 nurses aged between 32 and 66 years. The modal age range for GPs was 30-39 years and for nurses, 40-49 years. Barriers were synthesised into three main themes: (1) limited understanding about obesity care, (2) concern about negative consequences, and (3) having time and resources to raise a sensitive topic. Most barriers were related to raising the topic in more routine settings, rather than when dealing with an associated medical condition. GPs were particularly worried about damaging their relationship with patients and emphasised the need to follow their patient's agenda. Uncertainty about obesity, concerns about alienating patients and feeling unable to raise the topic within the constraints of a 10 min consultation, is adding to the reluctance of GPs and nurses to broach the topic of weight. Addressing these concerns through training or by providing evidence of effective interventions that are feasible to deliver within consultations may lead to greater practitioner engagement and willingness to raise the topic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The relationship between raising a child with a disability and the mental health of mothers compared to raising a child without disability in japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Yamaoka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous studies conducted in Japan targeted only mothers who cared for children with disabilities, and lacked reference subjects, such as mothers of children without disabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the association between raising one or two children with a disability and maternal psychological distress compared to mothers of children without a disability, and to assess differences among partnered mothers living with grandparent(s, partnered mothers without grandparent(s, and single mothers. Methods: This study utilized data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (CSLC in 2010. We merged the data of the children (aged six and over, mothers, and fathers. This study obtained 33,739 study subjects as a triad of a child (33,110 children without disabilities and 629 children with disabilities, mother, and father. The Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6 was used to assess the psychological distress of mothers. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent association of a child with a disability on maternal psychological distress after controlling for the basic characteristics of the children, mothers, and households. Results: This study reported that raising one or two children with disabilities was significantly related to maternal psychological distress (odds ratio: 1.72 for one child, 2.85 for two children compared to mothers of children without disability. After stratifying the analyses by family structure, significant associations remained among mothers in two-parent families but not for mothers in three-generation families and single mothers due to a small number of children with disabilities in these families. Conclusions: This study reported the significant association between raising a child with a disability and maternal psychological distress in comparison to mothers of children without disabilities. Attention should be paid to not only single mothers, but also partnered

  4. Living with students: Lessons learned while pursuing tenure, administration, and raising a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Michael; Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    An emerging promising practice in many universities has been the development of faculty-in-residence programs, in which university faculty members and their family moved into university student residences, sharing common living spaces with students. This case study is centered on two faculty-in-residence living in university residence halls. One was an assistant professor pursuing tenure while raising a young child, while the second was a tenured full professor and associate dean raising two teens. This case study offers the post-experience conclusions of these two faculty-in-residence individuals, noting the benefits and challenges each experienced while living -and working closely with these students outside of the university classroom, all while striving for an optimal balance in managing professional and familial obligations.

  5. Carcass yields of two different strains of ducks raised in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillak, St. Y. F. G.; Mulyantini, N. G. A.; Sipahelut, G. M.; Lole, U. R.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if there is a difference in performance and carcass yield between ducks of two different strains raised in different altitude. Ducks different strains (Muscovy vs Pekin ducks) and they raised either in high or low altitude (high altitude which was between 500 and 1000m vs low altitude which was below 500m). All ducks were given one of two different diet s and provided water ad libitum. The diets were: 1) commercial diet, and 2) local diet. There were three replicate per treatment and there were 5 ducks per replication. Ducks from each strain were standardized to a similar weight. The results show that Pekin ducks carcass performance was significantly better than Muscovy ducks. Ducks given diet 2 had significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Pekin ducks is significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Muscovy ducks.

  6. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces

  7. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  8. Occipital Intraosseous Hemangioma over Torcula: Unusual Presentation with Raised Intracranial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K V L N; Beniwal, Manish; Vazhayil, Vikas; Somanna, Sampath; Yasha, T C

    2017-12-01

    Hemangiomas of the bone are benign, uncommon, slow-growing lesions accounting for occipital hemangiomas are rare, and occipital hemangiomas presenting with features of raised intracranial tension are, with only 2 cases reported to date. In this case report, we describe the unique case of a 30-year-old male patient presenting with raised intracranial pressure due to venous obstruction at the torcula. The patient underwent excision of the lesion and became symptom free. Although these are benign lesions, they can have a varied clinical presentation. An understanding of the different clinical presentations and surgical nuances in excising such tumors can lead to early diagnosis and good patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagdy, M.; Harrison, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  10. Catastrophic failure of a raise boring machine during underground reaming operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, A

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available rights reserved. 1. INTRODUCTION The process of raise boring (or back reaming) has been in use for over 30 years, and has proved to be a very successful technique in underground mining operations. Its primary use... the overhaul, the equipment was moved from its underground location to the surface. All the drive head bolts were replaced. A cutaway diagram of the drive head installation, showing the relative positions of the cover, drive...

  11. Topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 7 of the document contains topics raised by the summary report of the first review meeting. The chapter covers status and position of the regulatory body, collective doses, effluents release trends, adoption of the ICRP 60 and basic safety standards, regulatory strategy, quality assurance, monitoring safety management, international cooperation, probabilistic safety assessment and safety improvement programmes

  12. Murder-suicide involving BC doctor raises troubling questions about euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V

    1995-01-01

    The deaths last September of a British Columbia physician and his wife have raised troubling questions about euthanasia and Alzheimer's disease. Police described the deaths of Dr. Tom Powell and his wife Dr. Lorraine Miles, a retired dentist, as a murder-suicide. Friends of the couple wonder if more lenient laws concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide might have saved Miles' life. Images p1856-a PMID:7773902

  13. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of circulating...

  14. Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanta, I S; Hasnat, Md A; Zeidner, N; Gurley, E S; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Sharker, M A Y; Hossain, K; Khan, S U; Haider, N; Bhuyan, A A; Hossain, Md A; Luby, S P

    2017-10-01

    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission and increase productivity of

  15. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Ali, A.; Akmal, N.; Yaqoob, S.; Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  16. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2007-01-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  17. EFFECT OF SHOE RAISE ALONG WITH MOTOR RELEARNING PROGRAMME (MRP ON AMBULATION IN CHRONIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Bhalerao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subjects face reduced tolerance to activity and sedentary lifestyle due to various impairments, such as muscle weakness, pain, spasticity, and poor balance. Thus, loss of independent ambulation especially outdoors is generally observed in them. Methods: Chronic stroke patients (> 6 months with Functional Ambulation Category score > 2 and able to walk at least 10 meters of distance with and without assistance from a tertiary healthcare centre were selected and treated. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups control group (n=14 and experimental group (n=13. Each group received Motor Relearning Programme for 60 minutes, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group received an additional shoe-raise of 1 cm on the unaffected side along with while ambulating during therapy as well as at home. Pre and post treatment the patients were assessed for spatio-temporal parameters using foot print analysis method and Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment (RVGA Score using RVGA scale. Results: There was significant improvement seen in almost all the spatio-temporal gait parameters and RVGA score in within group analysis. Whereas on between group the results from between group comparison suggests that subjects in MRP with shoe-raise group showed better results in spatio-temporal parameters of gait than subjects receiving MRPalone. But there was no additional benefit of shoe-raise seen on RGVA score and angle of toe-out parameter. Conclusion: Additional use of shoe-raise helps to improve spatio-temporal gait parameters. However, there was no additional change seen in RVGA score.

  18. The active straight leg raising test and mobility of the pelvic joints

    OpenAIRE

    Mens, J. M. A.; Vleeming, Andry; Snijders, Chris J.; Stam, Henk J.; Ginai, Abida Z.

    1999-01-01

    Objective signs to assess impairment in patients who are disabled by peripartum pelvic girdle pain hardly exist. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinical test to quantify and qualify disability in these patients. The study examined the relationship between impaired active straight leg raising (ASLR) and mobility of pelvic joints in patients with peripartum pelvic girdle pain, focusing on (1) the reduction of impairment of ASLR when the patient was wearing a pelvic belt, and (2) mot...

  19. Camp Raising Spirits: An Oncology Nursing Society Chapter Leadership Success Story
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennimore, Laura; Burgunder, Mary; Lee Schafer, Sandra; Jameson, Gayle S

    2017-08-01

    Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) members share a unique passion for the people they serve and frequently commit to projects that make a difference. Camp Raising Spirits, a weekend retreat for adults with cancer, has made a difference in southwestern Pennsylvania for hundreds of people with cancer and their caregivers for 24 consecutive years. This article will describe how an ONS chapter capitalized on the leadership attributes of partnership, creativity, and commitment to sustain an important community service program. 
.

  20. Raising Awareness and Signaling Quality to Uninformed Consumers: A Price-Advertising Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhao

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the firm's optimal advertising and pricing strategies when introducing a new product. We extend the existing signaling literature on advertising spending and price by constructing a model in which advertising is used both to raise awareness about the product and to signal its quality. By comparing the complete information game and the incomplete information game, we find that the high-quality firm will reduce advertising spending and increase pric...

  1. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  2. Some issues raised by the National Academy of Sciences study for MC and A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Six of several issues raised by the recent DOE commissioned National Academy of Science Study for MC and A are briefly discussed in part along with resulting recommendations for DOE consideration. The activities discussed are: 1. Evaluating System Performance; 2. Management of Inventory Differences; 3. Management of Shipper-Receiver Differences; 4. Managing the MC and A Data Base; 5. Management of Threat and Vulnerability; and 6. MSSA Content and Preparation

  3. Device for inspection and/or repair of a pipe of a steam raising unit of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermaat, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    Eddy current sensors are introduced into the pipe from the steam raising unit chamber. The two-part device on the supporting pillar is used to support the sensors and to position them, and so is an arm connected to it via a clutch. It is accommodated inside the steam raising chamber, but can be operated remotely from outside the steam raising chamber. This reduces the radiation loading of the operating staff. (DG) [de

  4. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms

  5. Burst protection device for largely cylindrical steam raising units, preferably of pressurized water nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutzl, J.

    1978-01-01

    This burst protection device controls forces to be expected in an accident by resolving them into axial (vertical) and radial (horizontal) components, which are taken by a large number of elements stressed in tension. The steam raising unit is surrounded by a containment, but remains easily accessible. The containment consists of a steel jacket, lid and floor. Several cylindrical sections above one another form the steel jacket, which surrounds the steam raising unit with an intermediate insulating layer of concrete. The insulating concrete cylinder is of several times the thickness of the steel jacket, and also consists of cylindrical sections. An outer supporting ring for the lid and floor of the containment have outside diameters which project beyond the jacket. Prestressed circumferential vertical tension ropes between the supporting ring and floor take any additional tensional forces. The lid is domed with downward curvature towards the upper boiler dome. Internal bursting forces produce compressive stresses in the lid, which thus pass along its outside diameter into the surrounding ring. The lid, which is devided along one diameter, makes dismantling and access to the boiler easy even with a central steam pipe going upwards. The floor of the burst protection is also the floor of the steam raising unit. It is of several times the thickness of the tube floor, which, with its spacing above the floor forms the usual inlet and outlet space for the reactor cooling water. The main coolant pump installed there is driven by an external motor through a floor penetration. (HP) [de

  6. An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

    2007-01-01

    SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.

  7. An evaluation of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portwood, Sharon G; Lambert, Richard G; Abrams, Lyndon P; Nelson, Ellissa Brooks

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids program, developed by the American Psychological Association in collaboration with the National Association for the Education of Young Children, as an economical primary prevention intervention for child maltreatment. Using an experimental design with random assignment to groups, program impact on participating parents' knowledge, behavior, and attitudes compared to those of a comparison group of parents receiving standard community-based support services was examined. As hypothesized, the ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids program achieved positive results in several areas related to effective parenting, including a reduction in the use of harsh verbal and physical discipline and an increase in nurturing behavior. Positive results were observable both at the conclusion of the ACT program and at three-month follow-up. Results further indicated a positive impact on parent expectations and social support for those parents with the greatest need in these areas. Qualitative data collected through focus groups demonstrated that parents themselves perceived numerous benefits to the ACT program, including assistance in controlling their anger, learning and implementing better parenting and discipline strategies, and recognizing when their child's behavior is developmentally appropriate. Overall, findings suggest that the ACT Parents Raising Safe Kids program is a promising primary prevention strategy that can be implemented across diverse community settings.

  8. Community reductions in youth smoking after raising the minimum tobacco sales age to 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; Buka, Stephen L; Dash, Kim; Winickoff, Jonathan P; O'Donnell, Lydia

    2016-05-01

    Raising the tobacco sales age to 21 has gained support as a promising strategy to reduce youth cigarette access, but there is little direct evidence of its impact on adolescent smoking. Using regional youth survey data, we compared youth smoking trends in Needham, Massachusetts--which raised the minimum purchase age in 2005--with those of 16 surrounding communities. The MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey is a biennial census survey of high school youth in communities west of Boston; over 16,000 students participated at each of four time points from 2006 to 2012. Using these pooled cross-section data, we used generalised estimating equation models to compare trends in current cigarette smoking and cigarette purchases in Needham relative to 16 comparison communities without similar ordinances. To determine whether trends were specific to tobacco, we also examined trends in youth alcohol use over the same time period. From 2006 to 2010, the decrease in 30-day smoking in Needham (from 13% to 7%) was significantly greater than in the comparison communities (from 15% to 12%; psales age to 21 for tobacco contributes to a greater decline in youth smoking relative to communities that did not pass this ordinance. These findings support local community-level action to raise the tobacco sales age to 21. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.

  10. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition was studied in a glasshouse experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnummagellanicum and Eriophorumangustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised

  12. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, S.; Benkov, M.; Panev, P.; Zlatev, D.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

  13. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, S; Benkov, M; Panev, P; Zlatev, D [Pig-Breeding Research Institute, Shumen (Bulgaria)

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACTH-hormone testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the hemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of engineering solutions aimed at raising the efficiency of integrated gasification combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    Raising the efficiency and environmental friendliness of electric power generation from coal is the aim of numerous research groups today. The traditional approach based on the steam power cycle has reached its efficiency limit, prompted by materials development and maneuverability performance. The rival approach based on the combined cycle is also drawing nearer to its efficiency limit. However, there is a reserve for efficiency increase of the integrated gasification combined cycle, which has the energy efficiency at the level of modern steam-turbine power units. The limit of increase in efficiency is the efficiency of NGCC. One of the main problems of the IGCC is higher costs of receiving and preparing fuel gas for GTU. It would be reasonable to decrease the necessary amount of fuel gas in the power unit to minimize the costs. The effect can be reached by raising of the heat value of fuel gas, its heat content and the heat content of cycle air. On the example of the process flowsheet of the IGCC with a power of 500 MW, running on Kuznetsk bituminous coal, by means of software Thermoflex, the influence of the developed technical solutions on the efficiency of the power plant is considered. It is received that rise in steam-air blast temperature to 900°C leads to an increase in conversion efficiency up to 84.2%. An increase in temperature levels of fuel gas clean-up to 900°C leads to an increase in the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 3.42%. Cycle air heating reduces the need for fuel gas by 40% and raises the IGCC efficiency gross/net by 0.85-1.22%. The offered solutions for IGCC allow to exceed net efficiency of analogous plants by 1.8-2.3%.

  15. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  17. At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education –How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu UUSIAUTTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1 describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2 describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3 dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.

  18. Financial auditing at enterprises for control of projects realized with credit fund-raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmanova, Inessa

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes methods of conducting financial audit under the construction control of projects implemented with raising credit funds in modern conditions. This work aims to improve the methodological toolkit of construction control when lending projects of the construction of transport infrastructure. The paper considers correlations of various procedures of construction control, financial audit and organizational and technical factors affecting investment and construction projects. The authors presented the logical scheme of the process of lending to legal entities and developed an algorithm of the procedure for conducting a financial audit, allowing to make possible adjustments and the right decision.

  19. Emotional strain in caregiving among African American grandmothers raising their grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Francine; Jones, Samuel; Speakes-Lewis, Amandia

    2011-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented in the number of grandparents raising their grandchildren. Using Role Strain Theory and Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, this study examines how older grandmothers fare relative to their younger counterparts. Eighty-five custodial African American grandmothers, aged 33-88 years old, completed demographic questionnaires and scales of Role Demand, Emotional Strain, Caregiving Strain Index, and Level of Care. Results showed older grandmothers experienced less emotional and caregiving strain relative to younger grandmothers. Furthermore, married grandmothers experienced less caregiving strain, and their age did not insulate them from the strain associated with the level of care. Implications are discussed.

  20. Raising the 3Ps of Sustainable Facilities Management in Singapore – Profession, Perception and Prospection

    OpenAIRE

    Thoo, S. L.; Marjanovic-Halburd, L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the target set by Singapore’s Inter-Ministerial Committee for Sustainable Development to have 80% of the buildings at least Green Mark certified by 2030 has any impact on raising the profession, perception and prospection (3Ps) of Sustainable Facilities Management (SFM) in Singapore. The objectives are to understand the tertiary students’ choice of study, determine the core knowledge for SFM, compare the pre-existing 3Ps of Tertiary Students (TS) a...

  1. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  2. “Music for raising awareness, music for joy”, dealing with disability at the Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramos Ramos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze the results of the project “Music for raising awareness, music for joy”, developed by the music department of the Joan Coromines Secondary School. The main objective was to bring disability’s reality to teenagers through the direct contact with disable people and through emotional implication. The participants in the project were both a group of low-academic- performance teenagers and a group of adult disabled people. The cooperative work between both groups culminated with the recording of “The rap of disability”.

  3. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, J.; Sandoz, C.; Dickenson, J.; Lee, J.C.; Smith, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  4. [Schizophrenia or spiritual crisis? On "raising the kundalini" and its diagnostic classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, G

    1995-07-31

    Two patients are described who had been diagnosed as schizophrenic, but had actually instead been going through spiritual crises, which in Eastern spiritual tradition are called raising the kundalini. Perhaps this experience is not a disease, but many--especially if not understood by oneself, the nearest relations and the medical profession--cause mental illness. In WHO ICD-10 the experience could be classified as F48.8, disordines neurotici specificati alii. The process falls outside the categories of both normal and psychotic. When allowed to progress to completion this process culminates in deep psychological balance, strength, and maturity.

  5. Development of organs and tissues in lambs raised on Spanish mountain grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Sanz, A.; Joy, M.; Carrasco, S.; Ripoll, G.; Teixeira, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish the pattern of body development in grass-raised Churra Tensina lambs. Forty-nine single male lambs were slaughtered at three body-weight intervals, according to the commercial categories of suckling (11.191.0kg), light (22.190.8 kg) and heavy lamb (32.092.9 kg). Non-carcass and carcass components were recorded and the half left carcasses were completely dissected. Lambs showed a low growth rate of main organs in relation to empty body w...

  6. Raising Citizens: Parenting Education Classes and Somali Mothers’ Experiences of Childrearing in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Fellin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mothers are viewed as the people who are raising future citizens of Canada; therefore, their parenting practices are being targeted for intervention by civic organizations funded by the state. In this article, I argue that modernity narratives and neoliberalism approaches to mothering inform parenting education classes for Somali refugee women to Canada. Thus, Somali women are often seen as victims. Stereotyped identities conceal their social and historical agency. This research draws on 15 individual interviews with Somali mothers and participant- observation in two parenting education classes in Canada.

  7. Technique improvement of thoracoabdominal CT scan for patients with arm-raising disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhidong; Liu Yuanjian; Jiang Guoyin; Feng Fei; Wang Chenglin; Liu Pengcheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new scanning technique to reduce and avoid image artifacts of thoracoabdominal CT and improve image quality for patients who cannot raise their arms. Methods: Sixty-one patients with arm-raising disability between March 2004 and May 2009 were enrolled in the study. Thirty-one cases before June 2007 were scanned with their arms beside their body (control group), 30 cases after June 2007 were scanned with their arms shifting to different imaging planes of the spine (study group), and another 30 patients who can raising their arms were taken as routine group. The images artifacts were blindly evaluated by 5-points scale (severe, less severe, moderate, minimum and no artifact) by 2 experienced CT technologists and one radiologist and compared between the three groups (X 2 test). CT values and its noise of the liver with or without artifact of the three groups were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: In the control group, 11 cases had severe, 15 cases had less severe, 5 cases had moderate. In the study group, 6 cases had moderate, 15 cases had minimum, 9 cases had no artifact. In the routine group, 8 cases minimum and 22 cases had no artifact. Image quality was significantly improved in the study group compared to the conventional group where X 2 =95.32 and P<0.01. CT value and the noise of the liver without artifact were (54.5 ± 3.0) HU and 10.7 ± 2.4 in the control group, (52.0 ± 3.5) HU and 10.7 ± 0.5 in the study group, (53.7 ± 3.1) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. CT value and noise of the liver with artifact were (41.7 ± 8.4) HU and 17.9 ± 2.6 in control group, (53.1 ± 6.9) HU and 11.0 ± 0.7 in the study group, (54.1 ± 2.4) HU and 9.9 ± 0.5 in the routine group, respectively. The CT value and its noise variation with artifact were significantly higher in the control group than the study group and the control group, where F=36.352, 235.848, respectively and P<0.01. Conclusion: The image

  8. Parents' leisure: the impact of raising a child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Deborah O'Mullan; Krishnagiri, Sheama

    2005-01-01

    A healthy and productive life depends upon the balance between work, leisure, and activities of daily living. Gaining or regaining that balance is a core concept within occupational therapy. Raising a child with special needs is one factor that challenges parents in achieving a balance. The purpose of this research was to describe factors that affect the leisure occupations of these parents. A qualitative approach was used in which in-depth interviews and the adapted Barth Time Construction were administered to four married couples that were raising children with Down syndrome who were between seven and nine years of age. Data was examined through content analysis. Results indicated that the parents of children with Down syndrome had limitations in time available for leisure, changes in types of leisure engaged in, and an increase in planning for leisure activities. Despite overall satisfaction with the manner in which they allocated their time, parents frequently noted the potential benefits of incorporating more leisure into their daily lives. Limitations of the study include type and size of sample.

  9. Justifications for caregiving in white, Asian American, and native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Race has been found to predict justifications for caregiving in family caregivers for older adults. However, little is known about this relationship in another type of family caregiver, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (GRG). This study examined relationships between race and justifications for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG. A sample of 259 GRG registered as students' primary caregivers with a public school system completed a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. CJCG items did not load onto a single analytic factor. Two factors, custom and responsibility, emerged. Race was predictive of custom, with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. Justifications for raising grandchildren appear to differ among groups based on racial identification. Findings elucidate cultural justification for caregiving in understudied GRG populations and suggest that justifications for caregiving are configured differently in GRG and family caregivers for older adults. Future studies should examine justifications for caregiving in GRG of other races.

  10. Raising Climate Finance from International Transport Sectors. Identification and Analysis of Governance Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Pahuja, N.; Garg, A. [The Energy and Resources Institute TERI, New Delhi (India)

    2012-03-15

    Market based instruments (MBIs) for maritime transport have the potential to reduce emissions while at the same time raising funds for climate policies in developing countries. GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport accounted for approximately 5% of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005 and are rising rapidly. There is a clear need to address these emissions in order not to undermine policies for mitigating land based emissions. Developing countries need financial support to carry out climate policies, both adaptation and mitigation. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) makes policies by developing countries conditional on climate finance. In the current economic and financial circumstances, there is a need for new sources of finance. The governance of such MBIs should ensure that they are neither an international tax nor require hypothecation of fiscal revenues, while they should provide new and additional finance. MBIs which are in fact an international tax would not be politically feasible, and likewise hypothecation would be opposed by many states. This report finds that an emissions trading scheme (ETS) can satisfy these criteria, provided that: (1) it transfers a share of allowances directly to developing countries in order to ensure there is no net incidence on them; developing countries could auction these allowances in order to raise revenue; (2) it transfers allowances to the Green Climate Fund to support climate policies; auctioning these allowances would provide revenues for the Fund; (3) it transfers allowances to IMO or another organisation in order to finance fuel-efficiency improvements in international transport.

  11. Equipment for inspection and carrying out repairs, if required, for tube bundles of steam raising units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment solves the problem of being able to inspect and possibly to repair U-tubes of a vertical steam raising unit standing on a tube floor, without draining the primary medium and bringing the test equipment and tools into the inside of the boiler first. This is achieved by leaving a considerable part of the equipment permanently in the hemispherical space under the tube floor and operating it from the outside, on the other side of the concrete shielding. An inspection tube is threaded in turn horizontally through a concrete shield, a tube duct in the heat insulation of the steam raising unit, and through a hole in the hemispherical space under the tube floor into this space. The end of an angle tube can be moved axially from outside the concrete shield and can be rotated in a semicircle above the tube axis. By interposing a, for example, 12 part distributor with 12 short, differently bent tubes 12 adjacent tubes opening into the tube floor can be controlled and tested, by axial movement of the angle tube together with the distributor, e.g. 4 x 12 other U tubes. A turbulent flow sensor, for example, can be introduced through the angle tube and distributor. In the non-operational condition the equipment is moved into a recess via a supporting angle and stopped there. (ORU) [de

  12. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The International Communication Project: Raising global awareness of communication as a human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcair, Gail; Pietranton, Arlene A; Williams, Cori

    2018-02-01

    Communication as a human right is embedded within Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; however, there is a need to raise global awareness of the communication needs of those with communication disorders. In 2014, the six national speech-language and audiology professional bodies that comprise the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) launched the International Communication Project (ICP) to help raise awareness of communication disorders around the world. Since its inception, the project has engaged close to 50 organisations from diverse regions, and has undertaken a number of initiatives, including development of the Universal Declaration of Communication Rights. A consultancy report was commissioned to inform ICP efforts to influence international policy bodies. As a result, the current focus of the ICP is to identify opportunities to influence the policies of organisations such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations and World Bank to more explicitly acknowledge and address communication as a human right. This commentary paper describes the work of the ICP to date, with an emphasis on the place of communication disorders in current international policy and potential pathways for advocacy.

  14. COMMUNITY INTERVENTION IN THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT TO RAISE THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amalia Rodríguez-Barrera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern university has the mission of training of competent professionals, able to preserve, develop and promote the strengthening of cultural development of students and the community through academic, research and social work practice processes. This paper aims to present the results of Community action in the university context Career Early Childhood Education, to raise the cultural development of families. The intervention was designed according to three basic processes: planning, implementation, evaluation and control, and to ensure, as previous steps, the study programs of disciplines and subjects of the race, for determining the didactic treatment of the required content Community intervention from academic, scientific and practical work; of the main needs of the community and preparing students for the fulfillment of the tasks. The research was conducted with the application of a quasi-experiment Teaching and the use of theoretical, empirical (interview, observation, document analysis and for the collection and statistical data processing methods. The comparison of results between the experimental and control groups before and after application of the Community intervention allowed to check their effectiveness from raising the cultural development of families in the experimental group, in the motivational-regulative dimensions, cognitive, attitudinal and communication. The essential differences in the results of each dimension not only differ significantly between the groups, but all of them is able to distinguish very well the cultural development of families applied after the intervention actions.

  15. Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (P<0.05. It was higher during the rainy season than the dry season (80.2% vs. 55.8% and highest in young animals than the adults animals (68.2% vs. 39.6%. The OPG was lower during the dry season (1,269 ± 312 vs. 4,400 ± 1,122. Ten species were found; of these, E. ovinoidalis, E. granulosa, E. faurei, and E. crandallis were the most frequent. E. ovinoidalis and E. crandallis were found in all properties, with their prevalences being 19.4% and 13.6% respectively. The high prevalence of pathogenic species shows that eimeriosis is a risk for animals raised extensively in the semiarid region.

  16. Raising Public Awareness of Clinical Trials: Development of Messages for a National Health Communication Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Dilts, David M; Bailey, Robert; Berktold, Jennifer; Ledsky, Rebecca; Atkinson, Nancy L; Mishkin, Grace; Denicoff, Andrea; Padberg, Rose Mary; Allen, Marin P; Silver, Karen; Carrington, Kelli; Johnson, Lenora E

    2017-05-01

    Clinical trials are essential for developing new and effective treatments and improving patient quality of life; however, many trials cannot answer their primary research questions because they fall short of their recruitment goals. This article reports the results of formative research conducted in two populations, the public and primary care physicians, to identify messages that may raise awareness and increase interest in clinical trials and be used in a national communication campaign. Results suggested that participants were primarily motivated to participate in clinical trials out of a self-interest to help themselves first. Messages illustrated that current treatments were tested via clinical trials, helped normalize trials as routine practices, and reduced concerns over trying something new first. Participants wanted messages that portray trials as state-of-the-art choices that offer some hope, show people like themselves, and are described in a clear, concise manner with actionable steps for them to take. The study revealed some differences in message salience, with healthy audiences exhibiting lower levels of interest. Our results suggest that targeted messages are needed, and that communication with primary health-care providers is an important and necessary component in raising patient awareness of the importance of clinical trials.

  17. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  18. Frank-ter Haar syndrome associated with sagittal craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendon, Charlotte L; Fenwick, Aimée L; Hurst, Jane A; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Wall, Steven A; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Johnson, David

    2012-11-09

    Frank-ter Haar syndrome is a rare disorder associated with skeletal, cardiac, ocular and craniofacial features including hypertelorism and brachycephaly. The most common underlying genetic defect in Frank-ter Haar syndrome appears to be a mutation in the SH3PXD2B gene on chromosome 5q35.1. Craniosynostosis, or premature fusion of the calvarial sutures, has not previously been described in Frank-ter Haar syndrome. We present a family of three affected siblings born to consanguineous parents with clinical features in keeping with a diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome. All three siblings have a novel mutation caused by the deletion of exon 13 of the SH3PXD2B gene. Two of the three siblings also have non-scaphocephalic sagittal synostosis associated with raised intracranial pressure. The clinical features of craniosynostosis and raised intracranial pressure in this family with a confirmed diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome expand the clinical spectrum of the disease. The abnormal cranial proportions in a mouse model of the disease suggests that the association is not coincidental. The possibility of craniosynostosis should be considered in individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Frank-ter Haar syndrome.

  19. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  20. Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotek Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

  1. Raising adults as children? A report on milieu therapy in a psychiatric ward in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeye, Christine; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Skorpen, Aina; Anderssen, Norman

    2009-03-01

    Milieu therapy is widely used as a therapeutic approach in psychiatric wards in the Nordic countries, but few studies exist that report on what practices a milieu therapy approach implies as seen from an ethnographic perspective. Therefore, there is a need to obtain insight into how milieu therapy unfolds in a psychiatric ward setting. The present ethnographic study aims to explore this in a locked-up psychiatric ward that was tied to a psychodynamic-oriented milieu therapy approach. Metaphors from traditional nuclear family life were widely used. Patients were often understood as harmed children and were taught self-management skills; the staff aimed at providing a caring atmosphere; and the patients seemed to behave, sometimes, in a childlike manner. In a Foucaultian framework, milieu therapy can be seen as a therapeutic normalization technique used to produce self-governing individuals. Milieu therapy "raises" patients in order to transform patients' odd behaviour and nonconforming lifestyles. We see this "raising children" approach as a type of intervention that nicely connects to the national policy of normalization and integration politics towards persons with psychiatric diagnoses.

  2. PECULIARITIES OF RAISING YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR EUROPEAN GRAYLING (THYMALLUS THYMALLUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kucheruk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study was aimed at raising young-of-the-year European grayling and improving the industrial technology with the use of specialized artificial feeds. Methodology. The work on raising young-of-the-year European grayling was carried out in 2014 at the fish hatchery “Lopushno”, Chernivtsi region, during five months (May – September. YOY were obtained from 22 age-3–4 brood fish, which were kept in ponds of the natural reserve “Synevir”. Culture-biological parameters of brood fish were determined based on Pravdin (1966 method for salmonids. To avoid traumatization of fish, they were kept in the anesthetic “Propiscin” before the collection of sexual products. The condition factor was determined by Fulton’s formula. Findings. The mean weight of brood fish used for spawning was 110 g with the mean body length of 22 cm. Fulton’s condition factor of European grayling was: 1.1 in females and 1.0 in males. Feeding of larvae was as follows: starting feeds — live feeds (Cyclops, Moina, then the alternation of live feeds and a specialized starting feed for 30 days, and the artificial feed after. Raising European grayling from larvae to young-of-the-year was carried out in trays of different sizes from 0.5 m2 to 4.5 m2, water level in trays was increased according to fish growth from 20 cm to 42 cm. Water supply was 60 L/min, thus the rate of water exchange was from 0.5 to 1.7 times/hour that corresponded to technical norms for salmonids. Mean weight of the young-of-the-year on September 10 was 17.1 g, mean length was 11.8 cm. Originality. Consists in the comprehensive assessment and development of an integral mechanism of scientific principles and methodical recommendations on artificial reproduction of European grayling. Practical value. The results of the work will be used for the works on the reproduction of valuable fish species in aquaculture facilities of the Carpathian region.

  3. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, Giuseppe Cernicchiaro; D'Avignon, Alexandre Louis de Almeida; Freitas, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO 2 eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO 2 eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO 2 eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO 2 eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle

  4. Forecasting the Effects of Raising the Retirement Age on Russia’s Demographic Struc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vital’evna Chistova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the possibility of raising the retirement age to mitigate the effects of ageing on the pension system of Russia. The authors make demographic forecasts based on hypotheses about the presence of global demographic trends in population reproduction and manifestations of development features specific for Russia. The demographic forecast is based on the age shifting method according to three scenarios. The forecast takes into account the provisions of a draft law that has already been approved and that provides for a gradual increase in age limit for civil servants, both men and women, to 65 years (by six months each year. The following assumption is made for the purpose of studying the effects of raising the retirement age to 65 years for all categories of Russian citizens. The increase in the retirement age begins in 2016 at the rate of 6 months per year, and it will end for men in 2026 and for women – in 2036. Thus, by 2036, the official retirement age will be 65 years for both sexes. The resulting forecasts show that population ageing in Russia is an inevitable process. Depending on whether demographic processes are in line with global trends or whether certain specific Russian features of development are revealed, ageing process will occur in the first case – “from above”, in the second case – “from below”. The forecast has confirmed a well-known paradox that if the situation regarding the decline in mortality is improved further, as has happened in recent years, then the pace of ageing that negatively affects the balance of the pension system will be even higher, at least in the medium term. Forecast calculations have shown that, first, demographic burden on the working population will continue to increase under any demographic development scenario implemented in Russia, and most significantly, under a scenario that describes a successful demographic policy. Second, the number of retirement age women is a

  5. Herbage intake regulation and growth of rabbits raised on grasslands: back to basics and looking forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G; Duprat, A; Goby, J-P; Theau, J-P; Roinsard, A; Descombes, M; Legendre, H; Gidenne, T

    2016-10-01

    Organic agriculture is developing worldwide, and organic rabbit production has developed within this context. It entails raising rabbits in moving cages or paddocks, which enables them to graze grasslands. As organic farmers currently lack basic technical information, the objective of this article is to characterize herbage intake, feed intake and the growth rate of rabbits raised on grasslands in different environmental and management contexts (weather conditions, grassland type and complete feed supplementation). Three experiments were performed with moving cages at an experimental station. From weaning, rabbits grazed a natural grassland, a tall fescue grassland and a sainfoin grassland in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Rabbit diets were supplemented with a complete pelleted feed limited to 69 g dry matter (DM)/rabbit per day in experiment 1 and 52 g DM/rabbit per day in experiments 2 and 3. Herbage allowance and fiber, DM and protein contents, as well as rabbit intake and live weight, were measured weekly. Mean herbage DM intake per rabbit per day differed significantly (P<0.001) between experiments. It was highest in experiment 1 (78.5 g DM/day) and was 43.9 and 51.2 g DM/day in experiments 2 and 3, respectively. Herbage allowance was the most significant determinant of herbage DM intake during grazing, followed by rabbit metabolic weight (live weight0.75) and herbage protein and fiber contents. Across experiments, a 10 g DM increase in herbage allowance and a 100 g increase in rabbit metabolic weight corresponded to a mean increase of 6.8 and 9.6 g of herbage DM intake, respectively. When including complete feed, daily mean DM intakes differed significantly among experiments (P<0.001), ranging from 96.1 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 2 to 163.6 g DM/rabbit per day in experiment 1. Metabolic weight of rabbits raised on grasslands increased linearly over time in all three experiments, yielding daily mean growth rates of 26.2, 19.2 and 28.5 g/day in

  6. Methods of Raising Funds for Purchasing of New Cruise Ships by International Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizielewicz Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s cruise corporations regularly purchase large, luxurious cruise ships. In accordance with the Cruise Line International Association, 33 new ocean cruise ships will be available on the market by 2020. These types of capital expenditures are associated with large financial outlays of up to $ 1 billion. The leading cruise corporations are not able to finance purchases of new units with their own resources and therefore look for different solutions. Available publications focus mainly on issues related to purchasing cargo ships, not cruise ships. The objective of the article is to identify sources of funding of new cruise ships. Our analysis identifies the average capital expenditure associated with purchasing new cruise ships and factors that influence it. The most popular methods for raising such capital are also provided. Our research methodology relies on data exploration method, a desk research method and comparative analysis.

  7. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Strategic and policy issues raised by the transition from thermal to fast nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD-D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios. The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues. (author)

  9. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  10. International Perspectives on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Contextual Considerations for Advancing Global Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Yancura, Loriena A

    2018-01-01

    Globally, it is common for grandparents to serve as surrogate parents to their grandchildren, often in response to family crises and other challenges such as poverty, disease epidemics, and migration. Despite the global nature of this intergenerational caregiving arrangement, there have been few contextually focused examinations of how grandparents' surrogate parenting roles are enacted across countries and cultures. This analytic review addresses this issue by exploring demographic and cultural contexts, needs and experiences, and formal and informal supports for grandparents raising grandchildren in four diverse countries: China, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa. We conclude our analysis by discussing key contextual factors, and their associated interrelationships, from which future research may elucidate how cultural, historical, and sociopolitical factors uniquely shape grandparents' experiences. We also make recommendations for contextually informed policies and practice.

  11. Addressing the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by voting by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason H; Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Lyketsos, Constantine; James, Bryan; Knopman, David; Patusky, Christopher; Kane, Rosalie A; Karlan, Pamela S

    2004-09-15

    This article addresses an emerging policy problem in the United States participation in the electoral process by citizens with dementia. At present, health care professionals, family caregivers, and long-term care staff lack adequate guidance to decide whether individuals with dementia should be precluded from or assisted in casting a ballot. Voting by persons with dementia raises a series of important questions about the autonomy of individuals with dementia, the integrity of the electoral process, and the prevention of fraud. Three subsidiary issues warrant special attention: development of a method to assess capacity to vote; identification of appropriate kinds of assistance to enable persons with cognitive impairment to vote; and formulation of uniform and workable policies for voting in long-term care settings. In some instances, extrapolation from existing policies and research permits reasonable recommendations to guide policy and practice. However, in other instances, additional research is necessary.

  12. Difficulties in Raising Finance and Sources of Finance Available for SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范怡纯

    2015-01-01

    Compared with large sized enterprises,one of the chief characters of smal and medium enterprises(SMEs)is that the scale is smal and the power has been highly concentrated.Essential y , almost any smal enterprise manages their business independently.Thus,the initiative of the operator total y determines the motivation for profits.As the operators are sensitive to the changeable market,implementing the combination of the right of ownership and management control can help operators either save the supervision costs or make quick decisions.However,dif iculties in raising finance have secularly blocked the development of the SMEs.Therefore,it becomes a key issue for the growing of the SMEs that how to ef ectively improve the financing situation of SMEs.

  13. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  14. Grammar Consciousness-Raising Activities and Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes toward English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokhlagha Heidari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R activities on learning grammatical structures by Iranian EFL learners. The second one was to investigate the effect of gender through C-R activities and tasks. Finally, this study wanted to investigate the Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English prior to and after applying the C-R activities. An attitude questionnaire was use to investigate the participants' attitudes toward learning English before and after applying C-R activities. Data analysis indicated that using C-R activities in is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches. Regarding gender, male outperformed females. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching other aspects of language.  Based on the statistics and findings, Iranian students’ attitudes toward learning English language were not much different prior to and after applying C-R activities.

  15. Trenched raised cosine FMF for differential mode delay management in next generation optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaane, Saleh; Fathallah, Habib; Seleem, Hussein; Machhout, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    Dispersion management in few mode fiber (FMF) technology is crucial to support the upcoming standard that reaches 400 Gbps and Terabit/s per wavelength. Recently in Chebaane et al. (2016), we defined two potential differential mode delay (DMD) management strategies, namely sawtooth and triangular. Moreover we proposed a novel parametric refractive index profile for FMF, referred as raised cosine (RC) profile. In this article, we improve and optimize the RC profile design by including additional shaping parameters, in order to obtain much more attractive dispersion characteristics. Our improved design enabled to obtain a zero DMD (z-DMD), strong positive DMD (p-DMD) and near-zero DMD (nz-DMD) for six-mode fiber, all appropriate for dispersion management in FMF system. In addition, we propose a positive DMD (p-DMD) fiber designs for both, four-mode fiber (4-FMF) and six-mode fiber (6-FMF), respectively, having particularly attractive dispersion characteristics.

  16. African-American Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Representative Profile of Their Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to document the health profile of 252 African-American grandparents raising their grandchildren solo, compared with 1552 African-American single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System is used to compare the specific physical and mental health profiles of these two family groups. The findings suggest solo grandparents have prevalence of many health conditions, including arthritis (50.3 %), diabetes (20.1 %), heart attack (16.6 %) and coronary heart disease (16.6 %). Logistic regression analyses suggest that solo grandparents have much higher odds of several chronic health disorders in comparison with single parents, but this difference is largely explained by age. Although solo grandparents have good access to health care insurance and primary care providers, a substantial percentage (44 %) rate their health as fair or poor. Practice interventions to address African American solo grandparents' health needs are discussed.

  17. Basidiospore and Protoplast Regeneration from Raised Fruiting Bodies of Pathogenic Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nisha T; Mahmood, Maziah; Seman, Idris A; Mui-Yun, Wong

    2016-08-26

    Ganoderma boninense, a phytopathogenic white rot fungus had sought minimal genetic characterizations despite huge biotechnological potentials. Thus, efficient collection of fruiting body, basidiospore and protoplast of G. boninense is described. Matured basidiocarp raised under the glasshouse conditions yielded a total of 8.3 × 104 basidiospores/ml using the low speed centrifugation technique. Mycelium aged 3-day-old treated under an incubation period of 3 h in lysing enzyme from Trichoderma harzianum (10 mg/ml) suspended in osmotic stabilizer (0.6 M potassium chloride and 20 mM dipotassium phosphate buffer) yielded the highest number of viable protoplasts (8.9 × 106 single colonies) among all possible combinations tested (regeneration media, age of mycelium, osmotic stabilizer, digestive enzyme and incubation period).

  18. Issues on raising a bilingual child in Costa Rica: a myth or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Quesada Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main issues concerning bilingualism and bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA. A review of the literature is presented on how children learn languages. In addition, this paper summarizes what bilingualism is and addresses how the One-parent One-language (OPOL and the Minority Language at Home (ML@H methods work. The paper includes sample testimonies of Itzel, a three-year-old child, raised with these methods. It also illustrates samples of her code-switching and code-mixing as part of her evolution in bilingual first language acquisition. Based on this evolution, there is some evidence that a child can become bilingual under foreign language conditions. Finally, the article reflects on the decisive role that dedication, consistency and effort have as crucial components to accomplish BFLA.

  19. Raising energy efficiency and cutting greenhouse gas emissions : an analysis of publicly funded petroleum research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    From the preface: This brochure is based on an analysis study that ascertained that since 2004 the Research Council's PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes have allocated funding to more than 80 projects carried out by the research community and private industry relating to climate challenges. Once these projects have been concluded, they will have received a total of over half a billion kroner in public funding. There is no doubt that many of the measures recommended by these projects will have positive impacts on the environment. Many of these research findings can contribute to making processes more energy efficient or to directly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The brochure presents a selection of these projects. A complete list of projects under the PETROMAKS and DEMO 2000 programmes which address raising energy efficiency may be found at the end of the brochure.(eb)

  20. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  1. Some sauropods raised their necks—evidence for high browsing in Euhelopus zdanskyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A very long neck that is apparently suitable for feeding at great heights is a characteristic feature of most sauropod dinosaurs. Yet, it remains controversial whether any sauropods actually raised their necks high. Recently, strong physiological arguments have been put forward against the idea of high-browsing sauropods, because of the very high blood pressure that appears to be inevitable when the head is located several metres above the heart. For the sauropod Euhelopus zdanskyi, however, biomechanical evidence clearly indicates high browsing. Energy expenditure owing to high browsing is compared with energy costs for walking a distance. It is demonstrated for Euhelopus as well as for the much larger Brachiosaurus that despite an increase in the metabolic rate, high browsing was worthwhile for a sauropod if resources were far apart. PMID:20519198

  2. Some sauropods raised their necks--evidence for high browsing in Euhelopus zdanskyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Andreas

    2010-12-23

    A very long neck that is apparently suitable for feeding at great heights is a characteristic feature of most sauropod dinosaurs. Yet, it remains controversial whether any sauropods actually raised their necks high. Recently, strong physiological arguments have been put forward against the idea of high-browsing sauropods, because of the very high blood pressure that appears to be inevitable when the head is located several metres above the heart. For the sauropod Euhelopus zdanskyi, however, biomechanical evidence clearly indicates high browsing. Energy expenditure owing to high browsing is compared with energy costs for walking a distance. It is demonstrated for Euhelopus as well as for the much larger Brachiosaurus that despite an increase in the metabolic rate, high browsing was worthwhile for a sauropod if resources were far apart.

  3. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-04

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Problems raised by applying the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.

    1977-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection regularly issues recommendations on the basic concepts of radiation protection and the general principles governing their application in the field of occupational exposure, medical and other types of population exposure. Among these recommendations some, such as those concerning dose limits applied to individuals of the population, can be directly taken up in national regulations, yet this is not the usual case and the practical application of protection principles will sometimes raise a number of problems difficult to solve. In particular, this is the case with the principle stating that all exposures shall be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and social factors. This problem is especially important as it governs the determination of authorized limits. Various approaches for solving it are examined. (author)

  5. Quantifying risk of death and disability associated with raised blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P; Nichols, R; Chee, D

    1999-01-01

    Raised blood pressure is one of the most important underlying risk factors for morbidity and mortality in the world today, ranking alongside tobacco in estimates of the worldwide attributable burden of mortality. It is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and the major risk factor for stroke. Taken together, the cardiovascular diseases are estimated to account for some 28% of all deaths in the world. Already many more of such deaths are occurring in the developing than the developed world, and this burden of disease is set to worsen as a result of demographic changes in the poorer countries, together with adoption of Western lifestyle. The development of unfavourable blood pressure patterns in populations is a key factor underlying this worldwide epidemic. Both primary prevention (for example through improved diet) and secondary prevention (through drug treatment and non-pharmacologic approaches) are needed.

  6. Developing a Translator from C Programs to Data Flow Graphs Using RAISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a translator from a subset of C to data flow graphs has been formally developed using the RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering) method and tools. In contrast to many development examples described in the literature, this development is not a case study......, but a real one, and it covers all development phases, including the code-generation phase. The translator is now one of the components of the LYCOS (LYngby CO-Synthesis) system, which is a software/hardware co-synthesis system under development at the Technical University of Denmark. The translator, together...... with the other components of LYCOS, provides a means for moving parts of C programs to dedicated hardware, thereby obtaining better performance. The translator was refined in steps, starting with an abstract specification and ending with a concrete specification from which C++ code was then automatically...

  7. Adequacy of authors' replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Delamothe, Tony; Godlee, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    . Inclusion criteria Research papers generating substantive criticism in the rapid responses section on bmj.com. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Severity of criticism (minor, moderate, or major) as judged by two editors and extent to which the criticism was addressed by authors (fully, partly, or not) as judged by two......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: BMJ between October 2005 and September 2007...... editors and the critics. RESULTS: A substantive criticism was raised against 105 of 350 (30%, 95% confidence interval 25% to 35%) included research papers, and of these the authors had responded to 47 (45%, 35% to 54%). The severity of the criticism was the same in those papers as in the 58 without author...

  8. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Practices and rationales of community engagement with wind farms: awareness raising, consultation, empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In light of the growing emphasis on community engagement in the literature on renewable energy planning, and given the acknowledgement of the complexity of community engagement as a concept, we conducted an empirical review of practice relating to community engagement with onshore wind farms...... in the UK, exploring what is actually happening in terms of community engagement relating to onshore wind farms, and examining the rationales underpinning approaches to community engagement. We found that a wide range of engagement methods are being used in relation to onshore wind farms across the UK......-hierarchical classification of community engagement approaches: awareness raising; consultation and empowerment. This provides a useful tool for reflecting on practices and rationales of community engagement. By considering the three approaches non-hierarchically, this model allows for an examination of how such rationales...

  10. Exploring Partner Intimacy Among Couples Raising Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Identification, rearing, and distribution of stick insects of Madeira Island: an example of raising biodiversity awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, António M F; Pombo, Dora Aguin; Gonçalves, Ysabel M

    2014-04-10

    Two species of stick insects are currently known to be present in the Macaronesian archipelagos: Clonopsis gallica (Charpentier) (Phasmatodea: Bacillidae) on the Canary Islands and in the Azores and Carausius morosus (Sinéty) (Phasmatidae) in the Azores. Here, we provide the first reliable records of the presence and distribution of C. gallica and C. morosus on Madeira Island. Egg and adult stages are briefly described along with some notes on the life history of these species in captivity. Data on islandwide distribution are based on specimens donated by the public in response to an article published in a daily newspaper. This method of data collection raised great popular interest in stick insects. The role of newspapers as a means of communicating awareness in biodiversity issues is discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  12. Interpreting the mineral reservation of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act: Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Supreme Court interpreted the Stock-Raising Homestead Act (SRHA) in Watt v. Western Nuclear, Inc. as reserving common gravel deposits to the US because they are minimal in character. This ignored traditional rules of statutory construction, an adopted an all-inclusive definition of the term minerals that is limited only by fluctuating market conditions. The Court subjugated the original congressional objective of settling the West to the current policy of reserving all assets absolutely. Rather than clarifying the definition of reserved minerals, this injected additional ambiguity into the land title area in which the Court has been unwilling to upset settled expectations. Such a departure from the common use and understanding of the term and from property rights cannot be justified by either policy considerations or notions of justice and fair play

  13. Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenrieder, A.; Klein, R.

    1978-01-01

    Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.) [de

  14. Plasticity in skeletal characteristics of nursery-raised staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Bartels, Erich; Stathakopoulos, Anastasios; Enochs, Ian C.; Kolodziej, G.; Toth, Lauren T.; Manzello, Derek P.

    2017-09-01

    Staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, is a threatened species and the primary focus of western Atlantic reef restoration efforts to date. We compared linear extension, calcification rate, and skeletal density of nursery-raised A. cervicornis branches reared for 6 months either on blocks attached to substratum or hanging from PVC trees in the water column. We demonstrate that branches grown on the substratum had significantly higher skeletal density, measured using computerized tomography, and lower linear extension rates compared to water-column fragments. Calcification rates determined with buoyant weighing were not statistically different between the two grow-out methods, but did vary among coral genotypes. Whereas skeletal density and extension rates were plastic traits that depended on grow-out method, calcification rate was conserved. Our results show that the two rearing methods generate the same amount of calcium carbonate skeleton but produce colonies with different skeletal characteristics and suggest that there is genetically based variability in coral calcification performance.

  15. Ethical and Logistical Issues Raised by the Advanced Donation Program "Pay It Forward" Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Rodrigue, James R; Veatch, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Raising money with tax incentives: an overview of how U.S. tax credits are marketed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotroff, A.S.; Sanderson, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This article outlines a method for using certain U.S. income tax credits to raise investment capital. With proper structuring, these tax credits can essentially be ''sold'' to outside investors. A project which may not have sufficient income to take advantage of tax benefits, such as the 29 alternative fuel credit, may sell an interest in the project to commercial investors who can use tax credits. The investors provide cash for the project in return for the tax credits, as well as a portion of the income generated by the project. This article outlines how this type of arrangement can be structured and which tax credits are available for ''sale''. It also identifies possible sources of investment money, issues that an investor will likely consider before investing in such a project, and the potential pitfalls of such a project. (author)

  17. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA profiles, of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01 were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2, which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001, reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.

  18. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099). Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds. PMID:19284689

  19. Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mériaux Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic diversity and structure of horses raised in France were investigated using 11 microsatellite markers and 1679 animals belonging to 34 breeds. Between-breed differences explained about ten per cent of the total genetic diversity (Fst = 0.099. Values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.43 to 0.79 depending on the breed. According to genetic relationships, multivariate and structure analyses, breeds could be classified into four genetic differentiated groups: warm-blooded, draught, Nordic and pony breeds. Using complementary maximisation of diversity and aggregate diversity approaches, we conclude that particular efforts should be made to conserve five local breeds, namely the Boulonnais, Landais, Merens, Poitevin and Pottok breeds.

  20. Modeling the marine resources consumed in raising a king penguin chick: an energetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Bost, C-A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Accurate estimates of penguin energetics would represent an important contribution to our understanding of the trophodynamics of the Southern Ocean ecosystem and our ability to predict effects of environmental change on these species. We used the heart rate-rate of oxygen consumption technique to estimate rate of energy expenditure in adult king penguins raising a chick, in combination with data from the literature on changes in adult mass, chick energy requirements, and prey energy density. Our model estimated a variety of energetic costs and quantities of prey consumption related to raising a king penguin chick during the austral summer. The total energy requirements of a king penguin chick at the Crozet Archipelago from hatching until reaching a mass of 8 kg 90 d later is 271 MJ, representing the consumption of 38.4 kg of myctophid fish. A successfully breeding male requires 0.78 kg d(-1) of fish during the entirety of the incubation period and 1.14 kg d(-1) during the subsequent 90 d of chick rearing. Assuming the same energy requirements for females, the estimated 580,000 pairs of king penguins that breed successfully at Crozet each year, together with their chicks, consume a total of around 190,000 tons of fish during the incubation and summer rearing periods combined. If, due to depletion of fish stocks, the diet of breeders and chicks during the summer becomes identical to the typical diet of adults during the austral winter, the mass of prey required by both adults and chicks combined (where the chick still reaches 8 kg after 90 d) would increase by more than 25%.

  1. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r = 0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r = 0.95) and cattle (r = 0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r = 0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

  2. Differential Haematobia irritans infestation levels in beef cattle raised in silvopastoral and conventional pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Nicodemo, Maria Luiza F; Gusmão, Marcos R; Pezzopane, José Ricardo M; Bilhassi, Talita B; Santana, Clarissa H; Gonçalves, Thuane C; Rabelo, Márcio D; Giglioti, Rodrigo

    2017-11-15

    The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. One of the reasons for its scarce adoption is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the infestation by external parasites - the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus), horn fly (Haematobia irritans), and larvae of the botfly (Dermatobia hominis) - in beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system (CPS), evaluated for 24 months. Data on air and soil temperature, solar radiation, wind incidence and water balance were used to characterize the SPS and CPS. R. microplus adult females and D. hominis larvae were counted on the body of each animal to determine the parasites burdens, but we did not find significant differences between the two systems. Horn flies counts on animals' body, and analysis of the horn fly and its pupal parasitoids associated with the dung pats were obtained in the two systems. Horn fly infestation was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the SPS (13.17±3.46) in comparison with the CPS (24.02±4.43). In SPS and CPS, respectively, the mean densities of pupae of H. irritansin dung pats were 9.8 and 10.7; the mean density of adults of H. irritans, 3.7 and 3.5; and the density of its pupal parasitoids were 20.5 and 5.4. The effect of production system was significant (p<0.05) only for the occurrence of pupal parasitoids of the horn fly, where the greatest occurrences of these natural enemies were in the SPS. These data indicate that natural enemies were able to control, at least partially, the horn fly populations in the cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  4. Effect of Raised Body Fat on Vitamin D, Leptin and Bone Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S. S.; Alam, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate leptin, vitamin D and bone mineral density levels in individuals with high fat mass, and to assess any correlation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Aga Khan University, Karachi, from August 2012 to July 2014, and comprised healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18-60 years. Body fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis and the participants were classified as: Group A (15-21.9); Group B (22-27.9); and Group C (>28). Bone mineral density was calculated by ultrasound bone densitometer (T-score between +1 and -1 considered normal). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the levels of vitamin D and leptin. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 132 male subjects participated in this study, with each of the 3 groups having 44(33.3 percent). Despite all groups having low Vitamin D, a marked decrease was observed in group C compared to groups A and B (p <0.018). Bone mineral density T-score was <-1; total calcium was within normal range in all three groups. Serum leptin was raised in Group C compared to group A and B (p=0.03). Body fat percentage was negatively associated with vitamin D (p=0.004; r = -0.351), while it was positively correlated with leptin (p =0.038; r = 0.256). Conclusion: Excess of body fat percentage led to decreased vitamin D and raised leptin. However, bone mineral density and calcium levels were within normal range, suggesting that other factors might have played a role in maintaining bone mass in obese individuals, such as leptin. (author)

  5. Participatory Dark Sky Quality Monitoring from Italy: Interactions Between Awareness Raising and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giacomelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on light pollution and its effects developed in Italy through a peculiar path. After originating seminal work in the late Nineties, above all the first world atlas of night sky brightness, the academic system apparently did not leverage this asset to a wider set of studies. In parallel, some activities which are prerequisites to research and analysis, such as measurement campaigns or development of calibration tests, were initiated in a “grassroots mode” by other sectors of society, such as non-governmental associations. One of the relevant example of this process is the BuioMetria Partecipativa project which was started in 2008 in Italy with the aim of encouraging non-professionals to collect data on light pollution as a strategy for environmental awareness raising. The BMP project conjugates this component with a scientific approach, allowing the collection of valuable quantitative environmental data, using a low-cost device, called Sky Quality Meter (SQM, provided to citizens. The measurements are loaded to a database on the project web site, and are published in a variety of formats. In 2011 the system was extended to collect data from fixed SQM stations for continuous monitoring, with the development of automated data harvesting procedures and leading to complement the citizen science measures with more high-quality time series of light pollution data. At the national level, the project obtained considerable recognition, in terms of citizen participation and media coverage. Most interestingly from a research perspective, the project acted as a trigger to initiate light pollution studies by Italian experts, namely in the areas of biometeorology and marine ecology. The article will review the process which led the authors to escalate their operations from awareness raising to research, and will provide an overview of the models and of the first tests conducted in the context of our research studies.

  6. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear.We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo.Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and thereby indicates possible targets for therapies.

  7. Raising the Bar for Reproducible Science at the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable concern has been raised regarding research reproducibility both within and outside the scientific community. Several factors possibly contribute to a lack of reproducibility, including a failure to adequately employ statistical considerations during study design, bia...

  8. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective

  9. [Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The American Physical Society conferred the prestigious Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award to Taiwan-born and raised American physicist Michele Ma Chung-pei recently in recognition of her important contributions to theoretical astrophysics" (1 page).

  10. Electronic Health Records: VAs Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals and Measures, Duplication with DOD, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA’s Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals and Measures, Duplication with DOD...Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate July 13, 2016 ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA’s Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals...initiatives with the Department of Defense (DOD) that were intended to advance the ability of the two departments to share electronic health records ,

  11. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van, T.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, each la...

  12. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis . Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth.

  13. Interaction between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles R, Angelica; Plazas, Natali; Bustos R, Alexander; Cantor R, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel; Hilarion, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited predators for the control of the pest. Several situations leading to interaction were evaluated: high density of one predator and low density of the other one, being the prey present or absent. The scenario with predators in equal densities and in presence of the prey was also evaluated. When a predator is in higher density and the prey present, the predator with the lower density increases the interference with the consumption of preys by the predator with higher density. On the other hand, when the consumption of T. urticae reduces, intraguild predation increases. P. persimilis shows intraguild predation behavior when t. urticae is absent and N. californicus is present, consuming all developmental stages of its conspecific. Instead, N. californicus only feed on conspecific larvae, when the fitofagous was absent and P. persimilis was present. When the two predators were present in the same assemblage and with the same population density, the quantity of T. urticae consumed by both of them was not higher than the consumed one when each predator was present in separate way.

  14. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  15. Comparison of Aviary, Barn and Conventional Cage Raising of Chickens on Laying Performance and Egg Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahammed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to compare the productive performance of three different layer raising systems; conventional cage (CC, barn (BR and aviary (AV. The AV is welfare bestowed housing that allows free locomotion for birds within the BR. The BR allows bird’s free locomotion inside BR but without multilevel structures. Both pullets and cockerels were housed together in both AV and BR, but only pullets in CC. Seventeen weeks old Lohmann Brown Lite (n = 800 pullets were housed in AV during this study. The same age layer pullets were simultaneously assigned to either at CC or BR to compare egg production performance with AV. The duration of experiment was 40 weeks (from 21st to 60th week. There were no remarkable differences in egg production, hen day egg production (HDEP and average egg weight among three rearing systems. First 20 weeks (phase-1 average HDEP (% of AV, CC, and BR were 85.9, 88.8, 87.1 and average egg weights (g were 57.5, 59.9, and 56.9 respectively. Those of the remaining 20 weeks (phase-2 were 87.1, 87.9, 85.5 and 64.2, 63.0 62.1, respectively. Daily feed intakes (122 g, 110 g, 125 g; feed conversion ratio (2.4, 2.1, 2.5 and daily egg mass (53.9 g, 54.4 g, 52.8 g data from AV, CC, and BR were not influenced significantly by the respective raising systems. Daily feed intake of layers in both AV (124 g and BR (127 g tended to be higher than that in CC (113 g during phase-2. Overall, exterior egg quality (dirty and cracked eggs in both phases was superior in BR compared with AV and CC, whereas CC generated intermediate results. This study indicated that the HDEP per se in AV and BR were not significantly different from that in CC. The study implied that the facility depreciation cost for AV and cost for increased feed intake in AV compared to CC are believed to be critical to evaluate the cost effectiveness of egg production in AV.

  16. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  17. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  18. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by 31P-MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishide, Naoto

    1997-01-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). 31 P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  19. Metabolic changes of masseter muscle in experimental unilateral bite-raised rat determined by {sup 31}P-MRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishide, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Occlusal interference is known to alter the functional activity of masticatory muscle, but no alteration of the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle which has gone occlusal interference has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the energy metabolism in rat masseter muscle during masticatory movements following unilateral bite-raising. A bite-raising splint (1 mm) was fixed on the unilateral upper molar of experimental rats, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks, the rats were anesthetized and masticatory movements were induced by electrical stimulation applied to the masseter muscle (with a biting force of 40 g, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stimulation time of 32 min). {sup 31}P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the masseter muscle were recorded during a sequence of rest, stimulation and recovery periods, and the resonance signal area ratio of PCr and Pi ((PCr)/(PCr + Pi)) and the muscle pH were determined. After 4 and 6 weeks following the bite-raising, the masseter of the bite-raised side showed a decrease in the (PCr)/(PCr + Pi) ratio compared with a control group during stimulation (p<0.05). Neither the bite-raised side masseter at 2 weeks and the contralateral side at 4 weeks showed any differences compared with the control. The muscle pH during stimulation was similar in both the control and the bite-raised groups of rats. These findings suggest that the occlusal alteration induced by unilateral bite-raising reduces the masseter energy level during mastication. (author)

  20. Lack of Social Support Raises Stress Vulnerability in Rats with a History of Ancestral Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Lotfi, Hamid; Moeeini, Reza; Moharreri, Ali-Reza; Roudaki, Shabnam; Hosseini, S Abedin; Olson, David M; Abdollahi, Ali-Akbar; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Mohajerani, Majid H; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2017-07-13

    Stress is a primary risk factor for psychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood why some stressed individuals are more vulnerable to psychiatric disorders than others. Here, we investigated whether multigenerational ancestral stress produces phenotypes that are sensitive to depression-like symptoms in rats. We also examined whether social isolation reveals potentially latent sensitivity to depression-like behaviours. F4 female rats born to a lineage of stressed mothers (F0-F3) received stress in adulthood while housed in pairs or alone. Social isolation during stress induced cognitive and psychomotor retardation only in rats exposed to ancestral stress. Social isolation also hampered the resilience of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic stress and reduced hippocampal volume and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Thus, synergy between social isolation and stress may unmask a latent history of ancestral stress, and raises vulnerability to mental health conditions. The findings support the notion that social support critically promotes stress coping and resilience.

  1. Child-Parent Interactions in Families Raising Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Yu.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article reveals communication (information exchange between parents and their deaf children. The effectiveness of information exchange in different communication means between parents and children having hearing loss was investigated. Effectiveness here is an opportunity of fast understanding of the information given by one participant to another. Special experimental situation was constructed to measure the effectiveness. This situation was divided in two parts: at first parent was giving instructions to the child, then – child was giving instructions to the parent. The time that was needed to follow the instructions was measured, and communication means were registered. 17 deaf children and their mothers participated in the study. 5 of those mothers also have hearing impairment and do know sign language. Control group was represented by 10 regular developing children and their parents. Experimental results allows us to make the conclusion that there are significant difficulties in information exchange between parent and child in families raising deaf children. These difficulties are more shown in situations when children have to understand parents’ instructions and are the result of not very efficient communication means that parents use in several cases. The most efficient communication means that allow receiving information faster, accurately and fully is Russian sign language. That is shown by the best results of information exchange in pairs of mother and child both having hearing loss.

  2. The Effects of Active Straight Leg Raising on Tonicity and Activity of Pelvic Stabilizer Muscles

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    Azadeh Shadmehr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Active straight leg raising (SLR test is advocated as a valid diagnostic method in diagnosis of sacroiliac joint (SIJ dysfunction that can assess the quality of load transfer between trunk and lower limb. The aim of this study is Comparison of changes in tonicity and activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles during active SLR, between healthy individuals and patients with sacroiliac joint pain. Materials & Methods: A case – control study was designed in 26 women (19-50 years old. With use of simple sampling, surface electromyography from rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, adductor longus, erector spine, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris was recorded in 26 subjects (15 healthy females and 11 females with sacroiliac pain in resting position and during active SLR test. Resting muscle tonicity and rms during ramp time and hold time in active SLR test were assessed by non parametric-two independent sample test. Results: Biceps femoris activity in resting position was significantly larger in patients group (P<0.05. During the active SLR, the women with sacroiliac joint pain used much less activity in some pelvic stabilizer muscles compared to the healthy subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: The increased resting tonicity of biceps femoris and decreased activity of pelvic stabilizer muscles in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain, suggests an alteration in the strategy for lumbopelvic stabilization that may disrupt load transference through the pelvis.

  3. Current means for raising efficiency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking

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    Dronova O.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of counteraction to counterfeit goods trafficking is shown. Annual loss due to counterfeit goods producing and trafficking reaches several billion dollars. There remains a danger of buying low-quality and counterfeit goods despite implementing new producing techniques and protective elements. Measures, taken by law enforcement agencies, state authorities and public human rights organizations have not led to systematic suppression of producing and trafficking of such goods. Creation of new information and reference resource, containing information blocks of protective symbols on goods and packages and illustrated materials comprising patterns of discovered counterfeit goods, can assist to increase public awareness and to give necessary information to law enforcement agencies. Organizations, realizing state and social protection of consumers and entrepreneurs, along with producers, rightholders’ representatives and law enforcement bodies can accept the responsibility of creating and functioning this information and reference system in the Internet. Such level of cooperation of all interested organizations will allow to raise efficiency of measures for counteraction to trafficking goods with violated consumer properties. The author proves the necessity to organize functioning of information and reference resource for a wide range of users. Operation of such resource should comply with main principles of generating any information resource, notably full scale, authenticity and relevance of information. The author proposes the algorithm of creating such system which provides cooperation of law enforcement agencies, producers and consumers for the purpose of preventing counterfeit goods trafficking and investigating committed crimes.

  4. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

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    Jong Han Leem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEP contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  5. Raising quality of maintenance and control of metallic structures in large-load technological machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, M. Yu; Kuryshkin, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Active growth of coal extraction and underinvestment of coal mining in Russia lead to the fact that technical state of more than 86% of technological machines at opencast coal mines is unacceptable. One of the most significant problems is unacceptable state of supporting metallic structures of excavators and mine dump trucks. The analysis has shown that defects in these metallic structures had been accumulated for a long time. Their removal by the existing method of repair welding was not effective - the flaws reappeared in 2-6 months of technological machines’ service. The authors detected the prime causes that did not allow to make a good repair welding joint. A new technology of repair welding had been tested and endorsed, and this allowed to reduce the number of welded joints’ flaws by 85% without additional raising welders’ qualification. As a result the number of flaws in metallic structures of the equipment had been reduced by 35 % as early as in the first year of using the new technology.

  6. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  7. Technology Addiction Survey: An Emerging Concern for Raising Awareness and Promotion of Healthy Use of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Rao, Girish N; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K; Thomas, Divya

    2017-01-01

    Technology use has shown an impact of users' lifestyle. The use has been attributed to psychosocial reasons. This usage manifests as excessive to addictive use of technology. There is a need to explore its addictive potential on large sample study as well as its association with psychosocial variables. It is one of its kind study on wider age group. The present work assessed the magnitude, burden, and sociodemographic correlates of technology addiction in an urban community. A total of 2755 individuals (1392 males and 1363 females) in the age group of 18-65 years were approached for screening internet addiction and mobile overuse, using house-to-house survey methodology. The survey indicated the presence of addiction for 1.3% for internet (2% males and 0.6% females) and mobile phone overuse (4.1%-2.5% males and 1.5% females). It was more common among males. Significant differences were observed in relation to family status for internet and mobile phone use more commonly among single/nuclear families. Technology addictions were found to be more common among single families and lesser in nuclear and joint families. Mobile phone users had psychiatric distress in comparison to users with internet addiction. The study showed negative correlation of age, years of marriage, and numbers of family members with internet addiction and mobile overuse. It has implication for raising awareness about addictive potential of technology and its impact on one's lifestyle.

  8. Comparing passive leg raising and suprasystolic ankle occlusion responses to quantify age-related microcirculatory status

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    Henrique Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The skin provides an easy accessible vascular network to assess microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF, and transcutaneous (tc gasometry, widely known techniques used for this purpose. the objective of this study was to assess and compare the microcirculation status of different age subjects, knowing that the ageing process progressively affects macro and microcirculatory vessels. We’ve chosen to compare dynamical responses to two provocation tests – passive leg raising (PLR and ankle occlusion - in 59 healthy subjects, 35 young (22.1 ± 3.7 years old. in Group 1, and 24 older (50.8 ± 7.6 years old. in Group 2, selected after informed consent. Local blood flow, tcpO2 and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were measured in distal locations of the lower limb. PLR and ankle occlusion significantly reduced blood flow and tcpO2 in both groups, while no changes were found for TEWL. While the magnitude of the hyperemic response was found to be significantly reduced in group 2, no differences were found during ankle occlusion. tcpO2-dependent parameters were also significantly different between groups. These results seem to confirm the usefulness of these experimental models to distinguish the microcirculatory function of subjects with different ages, with PLR being more sensible in detecting age-related changes.

  9. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelnikov, V. [Gosgortechnadzor, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, V. [Intron Plus, Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  10. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotelnikov, V.; Sukhorukov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  11. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Asha Jyoti; Bansal, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  12. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts

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    Matsumoto Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP. Methods Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Results Under normoglycemia, both 30 μg/kg milrinone (29 ± 12% and 10 μg/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13% reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%. Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13% reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 μg/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 μg/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9% reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Conclusion Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  13. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan- but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shuhei; Cho, Sungsam; Tosaka, Shinya; Higashijima, Ushio; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya; Sumikawa, Koji

    2012-01-12

    The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Wistar rats underwent 30-min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. Under normoglycemia, both 30 μg/kg milrinone (29 ± 12%) and 10 μg/kg levosimendan (33 ± 13%) reduced infarct size compared with that in the control (58 ± 7%). Under hyperglycemia, milrinone (34 ± 13%) reduced infarct size at the same dose as under normoglycemia. In contrast, neither 10 nor 30 μg/kg levosimendan protected hyperglycemic hearts, and only 100 μg/kg levosimendan (32 ± 9%) reduced infarct size compared with that in the hyperglycemic control (58 ± 13%). All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside. Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan-induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia.

  14. Contributions of Hamstring Stiffness to Straight-Leg-Raise and Sit-and-Reach Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kimura, Noriko; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri

    2018-02-01

    The passive straight-leg-raise (PSLR) and the sit-and-reach (SR) tests have been widely used to assess hamstring extensibility. However, it remains unclear to what extent hamstring stiffness (a measure of material properties) contributes to PSLR and SR test scores. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between hamstring stiffness and PSLR and SR scores using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Ninety-eight healthy subjects completed the study. Each subject completed PSLR testing, and classic and modified SR testing of the right leg. Muscle shear modulus of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus was quantified as an index of muscle stiffness. The relationships between shear modulus of each muscle and PSLR or SR scores were calculated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. Shear modulus of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus showed negative correlations with the two PSLR and two SR scores (absolute r value≤0.484). Shear modulus of the biceps femoris was significantly correlated with the PSLR score determined by the examiner and the modified SR score (absolute r value≤0.308). The present findings suggest that PSLR and SR test scores are strongly influenced by factors other than hamstring stiffness and therefore might not accurately evaluate hamstring stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Spoken grammar awareness raising: Does it affect the listening ability of Iranian EFL learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Rashtchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in spoken corpora analysis have brought about new insights into language pedagogy and have led to an awareness of the characteristics of spoken language. Current findings have shown that grammar of spoken language is different from written language. However, most listening and speaking materials are concocted based on written grammar and lack core spoken language features. The aim of the present study was to explore the question whether awareness of spoken grammar features could affect learners’ comprehension of real-life conversations. To this end, 45 university students in two intact classes participated in a listening course employing corpus-based materials. The instruction of the spoken grammar features to the experimental group was done overtly through awareness raising tasks, whereas the control group, though exposed to the same materials, was not provided with such tasks for learning the features. The results of the independent samples t tests revealed that the learners in the experimental group comprehended everyday conversations much better than those in the control group. Additionally, the highly positive views of spoken grammar held by the learners, which was elicited by means of a retrospective questionnaire, were generally comparable to those reported in the literature.

  16. Indicative effects of climate change on groundwater levels in Estonian raised bogs over 50 years

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    E. Lode

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 50-year (1962–2011 monthly air temperature and precipitation data indicated substantial climate change in the locations of two raised bogs (Linnusaare and Männikjärve in central-east Estonia. During recent years the cross-year winter air temperature increased by 1.7 ºC, while the cold-season precipitation increased by 4 mm. The fluctuation amplitude of temperature and precipitation values decreased. Snow depth proved to be the most sensitive variable to winter warming, followed by groundwater levels together with mean and maximum soil frosts. Long-term groundwater levels on the domes of the bogs and in the forested/treed lagg areas were 0.3−0.4 m and 0.4−0.8 m below the soil surface, respectively. Warming caused changes in groundwater level amplitude of 3−22 cm in the bog domes and 3−14 cm in the forested lagg zones. The lowest groundwater levels in ridge-pool ecotopes at Männikjärve rose by 6−10 cm (i.e. these ecotopes became wetter; but the incidence of low groundwater levels increased in most ecotopes, indicating a more general trend towards drier conditions in the bog.

  17. Enhancing Comprehension and Production of Argumentation through Critical Thinking Awareness-Raising

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    Mahlagha Akbari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Language pedagogy aims to equip learners with tools to cope critically with the complexity of the language input and rationally evaluate the authenticity of the data. An indispensable part of learning to read and write a foreign language should, hence, develop critical thinking skills that allow interpretation and accurate expression of overt and covert propositions. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the impact of an eleven-session critical thinking (CT awareness-raising (AR mingled with an Advanced Writing Course on 50 male and female Iranian postgraduate TEFL students’ reading comprehension and the accuracy, complexity, and organization of their writing of argumentative texts. The participants in two intact classes were randomly assigned as the experimental and control groups. The treatment followed a reading to writing direction with a stronger focus on explicit presentation and practice of reading-embedded argumentation elements and CT skills in the experimental group. The control group, however, started off with the same materials with now CT focus and proceeded to the detailed process-oriented writing phase. Comparison of the groups’ reading and writing post-test scores verified superior performance of the experimental group in reading and writing of argumentative texts and offer pedagogical implications.

  18. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

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    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  19. The adaptation process of mothers raising a child with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sunhee

    2018-01-01

    Mothers of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) tend to be concerned about their child's normal life. The majority of these mothers tend to experience negative psychological problems. In this study, the adaptation process of mothers raising a child with complex CHD was investigated based on the sociocultural context of Korea. The data collection was conducted by in-depth interviews and theoretical sampling was performed until the data were saturated. The collected data were analyzed using continuous theoretical comparisons. The results of the present study showed that the core category in the mothers' adaptation process was 'anxiety regarding the future', and the mothers' adaptation process consisted of the impact phase, standing against phase, and accepting phase. In the impact phase, the participants emotionally fluctuated between 'feelings of abandonment' and 'entertaining hope'. In the standing against phase, participants tended to dedicate everything to child-rearing while being affected by 'being encouraged by support' and 'being frustrated by tasks beyond their limits'. In the accepting phase, the subjects attempted to 'accept the child as is', 'resist hard feelings', and 'share hope'. Health-care providers need to develop programs that include information regarding CHD, how to care for a child with CHD, and effective child-rearing behaviors.

  20. THE EFFECT OF METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY TRAINING AND RAISING EFL LEARNERS’ METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE ON LISTENING PERFORMANCE

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    Fatemeh Khonamri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of metacognitive strategy training and the degree of metacognitive knowledge on EFL learners’ listening comprehension achievement. To this end and to complement the results of previous research, the participants were also involved in a self-rating process through engaging in log writing and completing a performance checklist. The participants were 40 female intermediate students studying English in a language institute in the north of Iran. Paired and Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the performance of the experimental group to that of the control group. Students’ listening logs and performance checklists were also investigated for finding traces of raised awareness and increased strategy use.  Results proved that strategy training and students’ degree of metacognitive knowledge affected their listening achievement. The results were enlightening in that students indicated greater tendency to become more strategic learners as a result of the training they received. An analysis of participants’ self- rating corroborated the attained results.