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Sample records for phytoseiidae predar aceria

  1. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?; Pode Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predar Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) em coqueiro?

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    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Area de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: mguedes@depa.ufrpe.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  2. Can Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) prey on Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) in coconut palm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose W. da S.; Domingos, Cleiton A.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C.; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2009-01-01

    Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field. (author)

  3. Sondajul – tehnică interactivă de predare în grup

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    Ana GOREA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bunul mers al procesului de învățământ şi rezultatele obținute depind în mare măsură de metodele utilizate. Metodologia predării ne oferă o mare varietate de tehnici de predare pe care profesorul le poate utiliza în procesul de predare/învățare. Astfel de tehnici ca brainstorming- ul, cubul, ştiu/vreau să ştiu/am învățat, studiul de caz, diagrama Venn, etc. sunt bine cunoscute profesorilor şi le utilizează eficient în predare. Articolul de față propune o tehnică de predare numită ,,sondaj” care a fost utilizată cu succes de către autor la lecțiile de limbi străine în calitate de tehnică centrată pe elev, menită să dezvolte abilitățile de vorbire. Ea are anumite avantaje, mai ales dacă este utilizată în grupuri mari. Tehnica poate fi adaptată pentru orice altă disciplină în cazul în care profesorul doreşte să le ofere studenților spațiu pentru activitate cooperativă şi creativitate.

  4. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

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    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  5. Host Finding Behaviour of the Coconut Mite Aceria Guerreronis

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    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal

  6. Seasonal abundance of Aceria carvi (Acari: Eriophyidae) investing commercial caraway fields in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Kameníková, L.; Zemková-Rovenská, Gabriela; Samek, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2004), s. 593-598 ISSN 0393-8131 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/02/1490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Aceria carvi * eriophyoid mite * caraway Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Phytoseiidae of British Guyana with keys to species

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    Leon, de Donald

    1966-01-01

    The Phytoseiidae have diverse habits. Some are apparently obligate predators, preying on other mites or on insects, others are facultative predators feeding on fungus hyphae, pollen, or plant sap when no prey is at hand (CHANT 1959a), and one species, Anthoseius hebetis DE LEON (1959b), is found

  8. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  9. Diagrammatic scale of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Andreia S.; Gondim Junior, Manoel G.C.; Michereff, Sami J.

    2008-01-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. Due to the lack of standardized methods to quantify damage of this eryophyid, a diagrammatic scale with indices of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 70% of damage caused by A. guerreronis was elaborated and tested to accuracy, precision and reproduction of the estimations. To validate the scale, fruits with different levels of damage were previously measured with the program Assess R and submitted to 10 inexperienced evaluators with or without the scale (first evaluation) and seven days after (second evaluation) with the same evaluators, using digitized pictures of the same fruits in a different sequence. The accuracy and precision of each evaluator was determined through linear regression between observed and estimated damage. Without using the scale, evaluators were less precise as seven out of 10 overestimated the damage, while evaluators provided with the scale were much more accurate. Also, evaluations with the aid of the scale were much more reproducible than without the scale. The scale was used to determine the relationship between infestation and damage levels caused by A. guerrerronis. The relationship between infestation and damage fitted by the equation 1ny = 4.948 - 0.121x + 1.789 1nx (R 2 = 99.87%, P < 0.0001). Therefore, these findings show that it is possible to estimate A. guerreronis population density on infested coconut fruits by using the diagrammatic scale. (author)

  10. Biology and control of Eriophyid mites with a case study of Aceria sp. on New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens)

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    Tessa R. Grasswitz

    2012-01-01

    The biology, recognition, and impact of eriophyid mites (with emphasis on species associated with trees and shrubs) are briefly reviewed. A case study of a leaf-curling eriophyid mite (Aceria sp.) attacking New Mexico olive (Forestiera pubescens Nutt. var. pubescens) is used to illustrate the complexities of developing control strategies for eriophyids in native plant...

  11. Population growth rate of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acariformes: Eriophyidae) on agriculturally important plants and implications on taxonomic status

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    Dry bulb mite (DBM), Aceria tulipae, is an economically important mite with a worldwide distribution and a broad host range. As a generalist, it is the most important eriophyoid mite attacking bulbous plants such as garlic, onion, and tulip. To date, DBM has been recorded on host plants belonging to...

  12. Thermal niches of two invasive genotypes of the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella (Acari: Eriophyidae): congruence between physiological and geographical distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat curl mite (WCM; Aceria tosichella) is a major pest of cereals worldwide. It is also a complex of well-defined genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, which has not been accounted for in applied contexts. The aims of the study were to model the thermal niches of the two most p...

  13. Plant structural changes due to herbivory: Do changes in Aceria-infested coconut fruits allow predatory mites to move under the perianth?

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    Aratchige, N.S.; Sabelis, M.W.; Lesna, I.K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Being minute in size, eriophyoid mites can reach places that are small enough to be inaccessible to their predators. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, is a typical example; it finds partial refuge under the perianth of the coconut fruit. However, some predators can move under the perianth of the

  14. Chemosensory cues of predators and competitors influence search for refuge in fruit by the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Érica C; Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2018-03-01

    Organisms are adapted to recognize environmental cues that can provide information about predation risk or competition. Non-vagrant eriophyoid mites mainly avoid predation by using habitats that are difficult for predators to access (galls or confined spaces in plants) such as the meristematic region of the coconut fruit, which is inhabited by the phytophagous mites Aceria guerreronis and Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of A. guerreronis to cues from the predators Neoseiulus baraki and Amblyseius largoensis in coconut fruits, cues from conspecifics (A. guerreronis injured) and cues from the phytophage S. concavuscutum. The test was carried out through the release of about 300 A. guerreronis on coconut fruits previously treated with cues from predators, conspecific or heterospecific phytophagous. We also observed the walking behaviour of A. guerreronis exposed to the same chemical cues using a video tracking system. The infestation of fruits by A. guerreronis was greater in the presence of predator cues and reduced in the presence of S. concavuscutum cues, but cues from injured conspecifics did not interfere in the infestation process. In addition, the cues also altered the walking parameters of A. guerreronis: it walked more in response to cues from predators and the heterospecific phytophage. Aceria guerreronis spent more time in activity in the treatments with clues than in the control treatment. These results suggest that A. guerreronis recognizes cues from predators and competitors and modifies its behaviour to increase its fitness.

  15. Reproductive parameters of Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks fed with Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae in laboratory

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    G. C. Souza-Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract Predatory mites that belong to the Phytoseiidae family are one of the main natural enemies of phytophagous mites, thus allowing for their use as a biological control. Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is among the main species of predatory mites used for this purpose. Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae is considered to be one of the most important species of mite pests and has been described as attacking over 1,100 species of plants in 140 families with economic value. The objective of the present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the reproductive parameters of the predatory mite P. macropilis when fed T. urticae. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 2 °C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. In addition, biological aspects were evaluated and a fertility life table was established. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the longevity of adult female was 27.5 days and adult male was 29.0 days. The population was estimated to increase approximately 27 times (Ro in mean generation time (T, which was 17.7 days. Lastly, the mite population grew 1.2 times/day (λ and doubled every 3.7 days (TD.

  16. When do predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) attack? Understanding their diel and seasonal predation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Aguilar-Fenollosa, Ernestina; Hurtado, Mónica A; Jaques, Josep A; Pina, Tatiana

    2017-06-16

    Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are considered one of the most important groups of natural enemies used in biological control. The behavioral patterns of arthropods can differ greatly daily and seasonally; however, there is a lack of literature related to Phytoseiidae diel and seasonal predation patterns. The predatory activity of three phytoseiid species (two Tetranychidae-specialists, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, and one omnivore, Euseius stipulatus) that occur naturally in Spanish citrus orchards was observed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer. The temperature and photoperiod of the climatic chamber where the mites were reared did not change during the experiment. Our study demonstrates that phytoseiids can exhibit diel and seasonal predatory patterns when feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Neoseiulus californicus was revealed to be a nocturnal predator in summer but diurnal in winter. In contrast, P. persimilis activity was maximal during the daytime, and E. stipulatus showed no clear daily predation patterns. The predatory patterns described in this study should be taken into account when designing laboratory studies and also in field samplings, especially when applying molecular techniques to unveil trophic relationships. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Phytoseiid mites of the Canary Islands (Acari, Phytoseiidae. II. Tenerife and La Gomera Islands

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    Ferragut, F.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiid mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae inhabiting plants in natural ecosystems from Tenerife and La Gomera islands (Canary Islands have been studied. Surveys were conducted from 1997 to 2002. Eleven species were collected, one of them being reported for the first time from the Canary Islands and six of them reported for the first time from Tenerife and La Gomera islands. Euseius machadoi n. sp. collected from woody plants in the Canarian laurisilva is proposed as a new species.

    En muestreos realizados desde 1997 hasta 2002 se ha estudiado la fauna de ácaros fitoseidos (Acari, Phytoseiidae asociada a plantas de ecosistemas naturales de las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera (Islas Canarias. Se han recolectado un total de 11 especies, siendo una de ellas citada por vez primera en las islas Canarias y seis de ellas citadas por primera vez en las islas de Tenerife y La Gomera. Euseius machadoi n. sp., recolectado en plantas leñosas de la laurisilva canaria, se propone como una nueva especie.

  18. Ecology and distribution ofof Euseius finlandicus (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region

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    K. V. Shtymak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the ecology and distribution of the species Eu. finlandicus Oudemans, 1915 (Parasitiformes, Phytoseiidae in the garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. In Ukraine, such studies were conducted for the Forest-Steppe zone. The mites were collected during the period of 2012–2014. In total, nine settlements of Transcarpathian region were studied. On the researched territory Eu. finlandicus inhabits at least 26 species of plants. For the first time, the status of the species Eu. finlandicus is determined in acaro-complexes of the family Phytoseiidae in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The indices of occurrence and dominance for this species are calculated. Species of plants on which Eu. finlandicus is present in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region are described. Results of the study suggest that Eu. finlandicus is a common species in garden phytocenoses of Transcarpathian region. The results can become the theoretical basis for development of schemes aimed at enhancing the protective function of useful mites in phytocenoses of the Uzhgorod district.

  19. Tolerance of the eriophyid mite Aceria salsolae to UV-A light and implications for biological control of Russian thistle.

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    Moran, Patrick J; Wibawa, M Irene; Smith, Lincoln

    2017-12-01

    Aceria salsolae (Acari: Eriophyidae) is being evaluated as a candidate biological control agent of Russian thistle (Salsola tragus, Chenopodiaceae), a major invasive weed of rangelands and dryland crops in the western USA. Prior laboratory host range testing under artificial lighting indicated reproduction on non-native Bassia hyssopifolia and on a native plant, Suaeda calceoliformis. However, in field tests in the native range, mite populations released on these 'nontarget' plants remained low. We hypothesized that UV-A light, which can affect behavior of tetranychid mites, would affect populations of the eriophyid A. salsolae differently on the target and nontarget plant species, decreasing the mite's realized host range. Plants were infested with A. salsolae under lamps that emitted UV-A, along with broad-spectrum lighting, and the size of mite populations and plant growth was compared to infested plants exposed only to broad-spectrum light. Russian thistle supported 3- to 55-fold larger mite populations than nontarget plants regardless of UV-A treatment. UV-A exposure did not affect mite populations on Russian thistle or S. calceoliformis, whereas it increased populations 7-fold on B. hyssopifolia. Main stems on nontarget plants grew 2- to 6-fold faster than did Russian thistle under either light treatment. The two nontarget plants attained greater volume under the control light regime than UV-A, but Russian thistle was unaffected. Although Russian thistle was always the superior host, addition of UV-A light to the artificial lighting regime did not reduce the ability of A. salsolae to reproduce on the two nontarget species, suggesting that UV-B or other environmental factors may be more important in limiting mite populations in the field.

  20. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

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    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  1. Morphological and molecular diagnostics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

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    Okassa, Mireille; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Kreiter, Serge

    2010-11-01

    This study focuses on the diagnostics of two natural enemy species, belonging to the genus Phytoseiulus in the family Phytoseiidae (sub-family Amblyseiinae): P. macropilis and P. persimilis. These two species are of primary importance in biological control all over the world. However, they are morphologically very similar and specific diagnostics is difficult. This study utilizes mitochondrial molecular markers (12S rRNA and Cytb mtDNA) to differentiate these two species. Morphological analyses showed significant differences between P. persimilis and P. macropilis for 17 morphological characters of the 32 considered. However, despite these significant differences, the ranges of all characters overlap. Only the serration of the macroseta on the basitarsus (StIV) allows the differentiation between P. persimilis and P. macropilis. Despite these small morphological differences, molecular results, for both mitochondrial DNA fragments considered (rRNA and Cytb mtDNA), showed a clear delineation between the specimens of P. macropilis and P. persimilis. This study emphasizes (i) that only one morphological character (serration of the seta StIV) clearly separates these two species, and (ii) the usefulness of an automatical molecular and simple diagnostic tool for accurate differentiation of the two species and ensure the morphological diagnostics. Further studies are proposed, including more DNA sequences especially for P. macropilis.

  2. Plant architecture and prey distribution influence foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

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    Gontijo, Lessando M; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-01-01

    The arrangement, number, and size of plant parts may influence predator foraging behavior, either directly, by altering the rate or pattern of predator movement, or, indirectly, by affecting the distribution and abundance of prey. We report on the effects of both plant architecture and prey distribution on foraging by the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plants differed in leaf number (2- or 6-leafed), and there were associated differences in leaf size, plant height, and relative proportions of plant parts; but all had the same total surface area. The prey, the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were distributed either on the basal leaf or on all leaves. The effect of plant architecture on predator foraging behavior varied depending on prey distribution. The dimensions of individual plant parts affected time allocated to moving and feeding, but they did not appear to influence the frequency with which predators moved among different plant parts. Overall, P. persimilis moved less, and fed upon prey longer, on 6-leafed plants with prey on all leaves than on plants representing other treatment combinations. Our findings suggest that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution should be considered, along with other factors such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles, in augmentative biological control programs.

  3. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  4. Development, oviposition, and mortality of Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to reduced-risk insecticides.

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    Villanueva, Raul T; Walgenbach, James F

    2005-12-01

    Eight reduced-risk insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, indoxacarb, and spinosad) and three conventional insecticides (azinphosmethyl, fenpropathrin, and esfenvalerate) were tested against Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), the most abundant predacious mite in North Carolina apple (Malus spp.) orchards. To assess the effect of insecticides on development and mortality of N. fallacis immatures, 12-h-old eggs were individually placed on bean leaf disks previously dipped in insecticide solutions. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) females were added as a food source. None of the reduced-risk insecticides significantly affected immature N. fallacis compared with the control; however, the pyrethroids esfenvalerate and fenpropathrin were highly toxic to immatures. To evaluate the effect of insecticides on mortality and oviposition of adult N. fallacis, 7- to 8-d-old females were confined on insecticide-treated bean leaves with Malephora crocea (Aizoaceae) pollen added as a food source. Spinosad resulted in the highest mortality, whereas azinphosmethyl, acetamiprid, fenpropathrin, and imidacloprid were moderately toxic, and mortality from esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, thiacloprid, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, and thiamethoxam did not differ significantly from the control. Oviposition was affected in a similar manner, with the exception of acetamiprid that did not affect oviposition, and thiamethoxam that reduced oviposition.

  5. Outbreak, Intensity of Infestation and Control of Two New Eriophyids, Aceria oleae and Shevtchenkella barensis, on Olive Nursery Plants in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Hrnčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Only two species of eriophyoid mites, Ditrimacus athiasella Keifer and Oxycenus maxwelli (Keifer, have been registered in Montenegro until recently. Late in April 2007, chlorotic spots and deformations were found on apical leaves of one-year old seedlings of the žuticavariety in a greenhouse in the town of Bar. Two species of eriophyoid mites were identified from the collected material, Aceria oleae, a widely distributed species in Mediterranean countries, and Shevtchenkela barensis, described as a new species in the world acarofauna. The intensity of infestation was calculated from all visually examined seedlings (2,560, as well as the percentage of seedlings with observed symptoms. Applying the method of periodic sampling, 50 seedlings (2 % of the total number were choosen. The intensity of injury was estimated on the new growth. Of the total number of examined seedlings, obvious symptoms were detected on 61.45% of the plants. Of the 50 chosen seedlings, 56 % had all of their young leaflets injuried. Mite control was applied three times. After the third treatment, new leaves without symptoms emerged, whileuntreated seedlings stopped to grow, their injuried leaves fell off and the seedlings ultimately dried out completely.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of Beauveria bassiana on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-09-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS A Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM MACIEIRA, NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL AGROCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY TO Neoseiulus californicus MCGREGOR (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE ON APPLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    LINO BITTENCOURT MONTEIRO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes para determinar os efeitos de agroquímicos homologados para macieira foram realizados em laboratório sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os indivíduos testados foram coletados de um pomar comercial da Agriflor Ltda, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, após várias liberações inoculativas. Os inseticidas utilizados foram os tradicionalmente recomendados para o controle de pragas, principalmente mosca-das-frutas Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. A oviposição e a mortalidade dos ácaros foram avaliadas 12; 24; 48 e 96 horas após a pulverização, cujos produtos foram classificados em quatro classes de toxicidade (IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion provocaram 100% de mortalidade, sendo que dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon foram levemente nocivos (classe 2. Malation foi considerado neutro para esta população.The side-effects of agrochemical to Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae were studied in laboratory. The mites were collected in commercial apple orchard of Agropastoril Rincão das Flores, in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, after successive inoculative releases. The insecticids used were recommended to control of same pest, as Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae. The reproduction effect and mortality were evalued 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after pulverization, while the agrochemical were ranked in toxicity classes, according to IOBC/WPRS. Azinphos ethyl, deltametrina e fenthion were harmful with ca. 100% of mortality in 24 hours, dimethoate, fenitrotion, paration, phosmet e triclorfon were slightly harmful (class 2. Malation was harmless.

  8. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 1. Symptoms in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Kleijn, Prisca W; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. We hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. Here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (NR) population) with mated females of other populations that are strongly attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (responding populations). The most apparent characteristic of the NR population was the presence of numerous dorso-ventrally flattened females (76% of all females). These females had a normal size after mating but shrank during adulthood. Independent of their age, shrunken females did not reproduce and died a few days after shrinking. In addition to these profound differences in short term performance, females from the NR-population showed behavioral changes, including a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, a higher tendency to leave a prey-patch and a lower predation rate. Moreover, about half of the live females of the NR-population carried birefringent dumbbell-shaped crystals in the legs whereas live females of a responding population carried crystals only in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules and the rectum. The symptom 'crystals in the legs' was correlated with low reproduction. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of these crystals revealed that they contain calcium and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Crystals with comparable elemental compositions and the same characteristic concentric layering are well known in insects, where they are thought to play a major role in detoxification of calcium and heavy metals, and in storage of phosphorus. The fraction of predators carrying a white spot in the distal part of the opisthosoma, due to accumulation of excretory

  9. Etoxazole resistance in predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis A.-H. (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Cross-resistance, inheritance and biochemical resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz Salman, Sibel; Aydınlı, Fatma; Ay, Recep

    2015-07-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis of the family Phytoseiidae is an effective predatory mite species that is used to control pest mites. The LC50 and LC60 values of etoxazole were determined on P. persimilis using a leaf-disc method and spraying tower. A laboratory selection population designated ETO6 was found to have a 111.63-fold resistance to etoxazole following 6 selection cycles. This population developed low cross-resistance to spinosad, spiromesifen, acetamiprid, indoxacarb, chlorantraniliprole, milbemectin and moderate cross-resistance to deltamethrin. PBO, IBP and DEM synergised resistance 3.17-, 2.85- and 3.60-fold respectively. Crossing experiments revealed that etoxazole resistance in the ETO6 population was an intermediately dominant and polygenic. In addition, detoxifying enzyme activities were increased 2.71-fold for esterase, 3.09-fold for glutathione S-transferase (GST) and 2.76-fold for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) in the ETO6 population. Selection for etoxazole under laboratory conditions resulted in the development of etoxazole resistance in the predatory mite P. persimilis that are resistant to pesticides are considered valuable for use in resistance management programmes within integrated pest control strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Air temperature optimisation for humidity-controlled cold storage of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi

    2014-03-01

    Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Comparison of thermal activity thresholds of the spider mite predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Megan R; Bale, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    The lower and upper thermal activity thresholds of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared with those of its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of the alternative commercially available control agents for T. urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Adult female P. macropilis retained ambulatory function (CTmin) and movement of appendages (chill coma) at significantly lower temperatures (8.2 and 0.4 °C, respectively) than that of P. persimilis (11.1 and 3.3 °C) and T. urticae (10.6 and 10.3 °C). As the temperature was raised, P. macropilis ceased walking (CTmax) and entered heat coma (42.7 and 43.6 °C), beyond the upper locomotory limits of P. persimilis (40.0 and 41.1 °C), but before T. urticae (47.3 and 48.7 °C). Walking speeds were investigated and P. persimilis was found to have significantly faster ambulation than P. macropilis and T. urticae across a range of temperatures. The lower thermal activity threshold data indicate that P. macropilis will make an effective biological control agent in temperate climates.

  12. Biological control of Eotetranychus lewisi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry by four phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg

    2013-02-01

    The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.

  13. Ricoseius loxocheles (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is not a predator of false spider mite on coffee crops: What does it eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacacela Ajila, Henry E; Ferreira, João A M; Colares, Felipe; Oliveira, Cleber M; Bernardo, Ana Maria G; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is often found in coffee crops and is known to feed on coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). As the occurrence of coffee leaf rust is limited primarily to the rainy season, the mite may use other food sources to survive during the periods of low pathogen prevalence. It is well known that phytoseiid mites can survive on a variety of food sources, such as herbivorous mites, fungi and pollen. We evaluated the ability of R. loxocheles to survive and reproduce on a diet of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), cattail pollen (Typha spp.), clover rust (Puccinia oxalidis), bee pollen (Santa Bárbara ® dehydrated pollen, Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil) and coffee leaf rust. Ricoseius loxocheles did not survive or reproduce on any B. phoenicis stages tested (egg, larva, adult). The survival and oviposition of R. loxocheles were directly affected by the presence of coffee rust urediniospores, but not by the presence of the prey. Survival and oviposition of the phytoseiid were similar when fed cattail pollen, clover rust and coffee leaf rust but was lower when fed bee pollen. Our results show that R. loxocheles is not a predator of B. phoenicis but it is able to utilize other resources besides coffee leaf rust.

  14. Compatibility of reduced-risk insecticides with the non-target predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döker, İsmail; Pappas, Maria L; Samaras, Konstantinos; Triantafyllou, Anneta; Kazak, Cengiz; Broufas, George D

    2015-09-01

    Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a common predatory mite in citrus orchards in some areas of the Mediterranean basin and an important biological control agent of the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes in greenhouse crops. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the 'reduced-risk' insecticides acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, methoxyfenozide, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans, as a means of testing their compatibility in IPM programmes. Although all pesticides decreased immature survival, high mortality was only recorded for young larvae when exposed to acetamiprid, while metaflumizone, thiamethoxam and spinetoram resulted in intermediate lethal effects. The estimated LC50 values of acetamiprid, spinetoram and thiamethoxam for I. degenerans females were 0.52, 0.84 and 0.16-fold lower than the respective maximum recommended doses of the pesticides for field application. Although all pesticides tested significantly decreased fecundity, highest rates corresponded to the three pesticides already mentioned. Chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and methoxyfenozide may preliminarily be included in IPM programmes, whereas the effects of acetamiprid, metaflumizone, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans should be clarified in further field toxicological tests. This information could be useful for rationally planning and implementing pest management on a sustainable basis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of Pollen from Different Plant Species on Development of Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae Efecto del Polen de Diferentes Especies Vegetales sobre el Desarrollo de Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Paulina Bermúdez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a phytoseiid mite with a high potential in controlling the false Chilean mite (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different plant species pollen as a complementary food in the development of T. pyri when its prey is in low levels of availability. Mites were individually placed on black plastic boxes with pollen and maintained at a temperature of 26 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity (RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D. Postembryonic development of T. pyri was studied in 11 pollen species, as well as in a mixed diet of Hirschfeldia incana (L. and B. chilensis. Results show that H. incana was the only pollen in which there was no mortality (P > 0.05 along with the control (Oxalis pes-caprae L.. Mean duration from egg to adult with H. incana was 8.70 ± 1.66 d, protonymph 3.27 ± 0.21 d, and deutonymph 2.90 ± 1.45 d (P > 0.05. The mix feeding of T. pyri did not show any significant differences neither in the mean time from egg to adult, nor in mortality by feeding only with B. chilensis. Survival curves of T. pyri fed only with H. incana pollen, combined with B. chilensis, and only with B. chilensis are higher in the first 14 d of life. The sex ratio was not significantly affected by being fed only with H. incana pollen, B. chilensis, or by a combination of both.Typhlodromus pyri (Sheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae es un ácaro que presenta un alto potencial de uso para el control de la falsa arañita roja de la vid (Brevipalpus chilensis Baker; Acari: Tenuipalpidae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del polen de diferentes especies vegetales como alimento complementario para T. pyri cuando escasea su presa. Los parámetros post-embrionarios de T. pyri se estudiaron en 11 especies de polen, en una dieta mixta de polen de Hirschfeldia incana (L. y B. chilensis. Los ácaros se colocaron individualmente sobre

  16. Novel bacterial pathogen Acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Kleespies, Regina G; Poitevin, Olivier; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a greater tendency to leave prey patches carrying ample prey. Moreover, predators may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption and have a low excretion rate. Here, we satisfy Koch's postulates for a strain of Acaricomes phytoseiuli (DSM 14247) that was isolated from symptomatic female P. persimilis of the NR-population. Adult female P. persimilis were either exposed to a bacterial inoculum suspension (treatment) or to sterile distilled water (control) for a period of 3 days. Control and treated predators were examined for the occurrence of six symptoms characteristic for the NR-syndrome and the presence of A. phytoseiuli after inoculation. The latter was done by re-isolation of A. phytoseiuli from individual predators and predator feces placed on nutrient agar, by PCR-based identification and by histopathological studies of individual predators. The NR-syndrome was clearly induced in those predators that had been exposed to the bacterial inoculum (incubation time=2-5 days, fraction shrunken females=80%), whereas predators exposed to water did not show the NR-syndrome. A. phytoseiuli was never isolated from control predators whereas it could be re-isolated from 60% of the treated predators (N=37) and from feces of 41% of treated predators (N=17). Only one day after exposure A. phytoseiuli could not be re-isolated from treated predators and their feces. Light and electron microscope studies of predators exposed to A. phytoseiuli revealed striking bacterial accumulations in the lumen of the alimentary tract together with extreme degeneration of its epithelium. In addition, bacterial foci also occurred in the fat body. These phenomena

  17. A novel disease affecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae): 2. Disease transmission by adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Conny; Poitevin, Olivier; Negash, Tesfaye; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption, and have a lower excretion rate. We hypothesized earlier that this characteristic syndrome, called non-responding (=NR-) syndrome, is caused by a pathogen infecting P. persimilis. To further support this hypothesis we here study several transmission modes of the factor causing the NR-syndrome. In all tests we measured size, short-term fecundity, mortality, predator position, response to plant odors and crystal location, thus including 6 of the 9 symptoms known yet. No evidence was found for vertical transmission from parent to offspring. Eggs from symptomatic females of the NR-population mated by males of the NR-population gave rise to normal-sized, well performing predators, when they had been surface sterilized or transferred to a new leaf. However, such eggs gave rise to shrunken females (17%) when left on the leaf where they had been laid. In the latter case transmission via products deposited on the leaf by the mothers was possible. We therefore tested several modes of horizontal transmission by exposing females of a commercial population that never showed the NR-syndrome (=R1-population) to products related to the symptomatic NR-population. No evidence was found for transmission via food or via squashed adult females. However, symptoms were induced in adult females of the R1-population after a 3-day exposure to a live adult female of the NR-population (incubation period=3-7 days, fraction shrunken females=53%) and after a 1-day exposure to feces and

  18. Impact of sulfur on density of Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in a central California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur is the oldest and most widely used fungicide in the vineyards of California, where it is used for control of powdery mildew (Uncinula necator [Schw.] Burr). For decades, sulfur use has been associated with outbreaks of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cultivated grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. I undertook large-scale field studies to test this association, to evaluate the impact of sulfur on Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbit) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a major predator of T. pacificus, and to determine if timing of sulfur applications with respect to grape bloom has an impact on T. pacificus density. The studies took place in a 32 ha vineyard in Fresno County, and all fungicide applications were made with commercial-scale equipment. In 1998 a 'high sulfur' treatment, a combination of wettable sulfur and sulfur dust, was compared to 'low sulfur,' in which demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides partially substituted for sulfur. In 1999 treatments were 'sulfur,' 'DMI,' 'sulfur pre-bloom' (here sulfur was applied prior to grape bloom, in late May, and then DMIs were applied until mid-season) and 'sulfur post-bloom' (the reverse of 'sulfur pre-bloom'). In each year, the T. pacificus population increase came after the end of fungicide applications, and results clearly show a relationship between sulfur use and T. pacificus density. In 1998, mean T. pacificus density was 2.7 times higher and mean G. occidentalis density 2.5 times higher in 'high sulfur' compared to 'low sulfur.' In 1999, the highest T. pacificus counts were in the 'sulfur' and 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatments, 4.8 times higher than 'sulfur post-bloom' and 2 times higher than 'DMIs.' Density of G. occidentalis was 2.3 times as high in 'sulfur' or 'sulfur pre-bloom' than 'DMIs.' The predator/prey ratio was not significantly different among treatments in 1998, but in 1999 it was highest in the 'sulfur pre-bloom' treatment. In 1999, density of Homeopronematus anconai (Baker) (Acari

  19. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae fed with castor bean (Ricinus communisL. pollen in laboratory conditions

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    PP Marafeli

    Full Text Available The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  20. The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Acari: Phytoseiidae) follows extracts of trails left by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh

    2010-10-01

    As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.

  1. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [es

  2. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  3. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

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    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  4. Influence de l'usage préventif des pesticides sur les acariens Tetranychus urticae et Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae présents en cultures de fraisiers du Nord du Maroc

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    Lagziri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of previous pesticide use on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae from strawberry crops in the north of Morocco. Description of the subject. Effects of recommended doses of five common pesticides in the strawberries of Loukkos area (Morocco were tested on the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and its predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of one avermectin miticide (abamectin, two pyrethrinoid insecticide-acaricides (bifenthrin and lambda-cyalothrin, and two fungicides: firstly, mancozeb, which belongs to the dithiocarbamates family of chemicals and secondly, hexaconazole, of the triazole family. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to test in laboratory conditions the effect of five pesticides on the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae and its predatory mite, P. persimilis. The five pesticides tested were those most frequently applied for at least two years on strawberries at the experimental site. Method. Bioassays were performed with populations of mites originating from different plots with various crop protection backgrounds. The first group of plots had been repeatedly treated with the five tested pesticides during a two-year period, the second group had been moderately treated, and the third had been treated once with the tested pesticides. Results. Our results showed that the tested pesticides provided effective control of T. urticae but that they were not compatible with use on the predatory mite P. persimilis, as these particular mites did not usually come into contact with these products. On the other hand, in plots where pesticides had been used for a long time, the susceptibility of P. persimilis populations to these products was significantly reduced. Conclusions. If the tested pesticides are to be considered for integrated pest control programs in plots where they have been used for a long time and where P

  5. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

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    Debora B Lima

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae. The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  6. Bioinsecticide-predator interactions: azadirachtin behavioral and reproductive impairment of the coconut mite predator Neoseiulus baraki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José Wagner S; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Gondim, Manoel Guedes C

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic pesticide use has been the dominant form of pest control since the 1940s. However, biopesticides are emerging as sustainable pest control alternatives, with prevailing use in organic agricultural production systems. Foremost among botanical biopesticides is the limonoid azadirachtin, whose perceived environmental safety has come under debate and scrutiny in recent years. Coconut production, particularly organic coconut production, is one of the agricultural systems in which azadirachtin is used as a primary method of pest control for the management of the invasive coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae). The management of this mite species also greatly benefits from predation by Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Here, we assessed the potential behavioral impacts of azadirachtin on the coconut mite predator, N. baraki. We explored the effects of this biopesticide on overall predator activity, female searching time, and mating behavior and fecundity. Azadirachtin impairs the overall activity of the predator, reducing it to nearly half; however, female searching was not affected. In contrast, mating behavior was compromised by azadirachtin exposure particularly when male predators were exposed to the biopesticide. Consequently, predator fecundity was also compromised by azadirachtin, furthering doubts about its environmental safety and selectivity towards biological control agents.

  7. The effect of indoxacarb and five other insecticides on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Amblyseius fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanian, Noubar J; Akalach, Mohammed

    2006-04-01

    A laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, S-kinoprene and dimethoate to Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say). Amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in North American apple orchards. The other two beneficials are widely used in greenhouses to manage various arthropod pests infesting vegetable and ornamental crops. Indoxacarb is a slow-acting insecticide, so toxicity data were recorded 7 days post-treatment when the data had stabilised. It showed no toxicity to O. insidiosus nymphs or to A. fallacis or P. persimilis adults. The LC50 values for O. insidiosus nymphs and P. persimilis could not be estimated with their associated confidence limits, because the g values were greater than 0.5 and under such circumstances the lethal concentration would lie outside the limits. The LC50 for A. fallacis was 7.6x the label rate. The fecundity of P. persimilis was reduced by 26.7%. The eclosion of treated eggs from both species of beneficial mites was not affected adversely. Among the other pest control products, S-kinoprene and endosulfan affected adversely at least one species of the predators, whereas dimethoate, abamectin and insecticidal soap were very toxic to all three beneficials. Indoxacarb should be evaluated as a pest control product in IPM programmes. Copyright (c) 2006 Crown in the right of Canada.

  8. How do Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) females penetrate densely webbed spider mite nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J

    2008-02-01

    The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.

  9. Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, C E M; van Beek, T A; Dicke, M

    2002-12-01

    Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. The predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. No differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were found for predatory mites reared on spider mites on the different test plants or on lima bean. Thus, experience with the spider mite-induced plant volatiles did not affect the predatory mites. Jasmonic acid was applied to ginkgo leaves to induce a mimic of a spider mite-induced volatile blend, because the spider mites did not survive when incubated on ginkgo. The volatile blend induced in ginkgo by jasmonic acid was slightly attractive to predatory mites. Plants with a high degree of direct defence were thought to invest less in indirect defence than plants with a low degree of direct defence. However, plants that had a strong direct defence such as ginkgo and sweet pepper, did emit induced volatiles that attracted the predatory mite. This indicates that a combination of direct and indirect defence is to some extent compatible in plant species.

  10. Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, A; Talebi, K

    2003-01-01

    Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

  11. Disease prevalence and transmission of Microsporidium phytoseiuli infecting the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson, S; Keddie, B A

    2001-02-01

    Isolated colonies of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were used to gain information regarding prevalence and transmission of Microsporidium phytoseiuli. Two colonies of P. persimilis were reared on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)-infested bean plants in isolated cages. Disease prevalence of predators from Colony 1 remained relatively low (between 0 and 15%) over 57 weeks of observation whereas disease prevalence of predators from Colony 2 increased over 3 months (from 12 to 100%). Disease prevalence among predators from Colony 1 had increased to 100% 2 months after weekly sampling had ceased for this colony and periodic sampling confirmed that disease prevalence among individuals of both colonies remained at 100%. Microsporidian spores were not detected in randomly chosen samples of T. urticae prey mites that were removed and examined biweekly during this period. Although numerous microsporidian spores were observed in smear preparations of fecal pellets examined by light microscopy, spores were not observed on leaf surfaces or predator feces when examined by SEM. The latter appeared as intact aggregates composed of numerous dumbbell-shaped crystals and it is unlikely that spores are liberated from intact fecal pellets onto leaf surfaces. Vertical transmission of M. phytoseiuli was 100%; horizontal transmission was low (14.3%) and occurred only when immature P. persimilis were permitted to develop in contact with infected immature and adult predators. The mean number of eggs produced per mated pair was highest when uninfected females were mated with uninfected males (63.2 eggs per mated pair). Although mean egg production decreased when one or both parents were infected, not all differences were significant. Male predatory mites did not contribute to infection of their progeny. Results suggest that routine examination of P. persimilis for microsporidian spores is essential for the management of M. phytoseiuli within P. persimilis colonies. Low disease prevalence and lack of obvious disease signs or symptoms, as in the case of M. phytoseiuli, increase the probability that these pathogens will escape notice unless individuals are routinely examined for pathogens. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. CRITERIOS PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE Phytoseiulus persimilis (PARASITIFORMES: PHYTOSEIIDAE BAJO CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

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    Mauricio Alberto Daza Vallejos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El ácaro depredador Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido usado con éxito para el control del ácaro fitófago Tetranychus urticae, el cual constituye  una de las plagas mas importantes en los cultivos de rosa de la Sabana de Bogotá. En Colombia esta estrategia de control se ha visto limitada por la falta de disponibilidad de los depredadores en el comercio del producto. En el presente trabajo se proponen criterios para estandarizar las bases para la producción de P. persimilis en plantas de frijol infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae de diferentes tiempos de desarrollo, utilizando una proporción constante de depredadores liberados. Se encontró que plantas infestadas con poblaciones de T. urticae por más de tres semanas permiten obtener mayores incrementos de población de los depredadores y que aproximadamente a los 25 días después de realizada la liberación, de los depredadores en las plantas infestadas, se obtienen los mayores poblaciones del depredador en estado de ninfa y adulto para cosechar, y usar como estrategia de control en los cultivos.

  13. The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, David J; Fenlon, John S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. This paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. The use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure has on predation to be incorporated into the assay. Control assays were also used (without predators) to estimate natural losses of prey. The data were analysed using a binomial model, with the use of Abbot's formula to correct for the losses in the controls. A combined equation to describe the effect of temperature and prey density on the predation rate of Phytoseiulus persimilis was derived. The results showed that more prey are eaten as the temperature increases from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, but the number of prey eaten then declines at 30 degrees C, although not to the levels seen at 20 degrees C. The implication of these results for biological control in ornamental crops, where the temperature can often exceed 30 degrees C, is discussed.

  14. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-04-01

    Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.

  15. Birefringent Crystals and Abdominal Discoloration in the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1997-03-01

    In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory products, the cause of white abdominal signs associated with crystal accumulation in P. persimilis is unknown. These signs indicate overall poor health.

  16. Species of the genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914, from Tamatave, East Madagascar (Acarina: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers, Leo

    1974-01-01

    Seven new species of the genus Amblyseius are described: Amblyseius (Proprioseiopsis) parasundi, A. (A.) tamatavensis, A. (A.) passiflorae, A. (A.) reptans, A. (A.) ivoloinae, A. (A.) ovaloides, A. (A.) aequidens. All species were collected on fruit trees except A. passiflorae. A. parasundi is a

  17. Comparative Study of Feeding on Some Pollens on Biology of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Arutunjian & Wainstein (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    E. Hajmohammadloo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of feeding of five pollen sources, apple, pear, almond, apricot and walnut, as 5 treatments on the period of egg to adult, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani, was studied in a complete randomized design (CRD. Mites kept individually on black mulberry leaf discs at 24±2 °C temperature, 60±5 % relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours, with a sufficient quantity of the pollens. Results showed that T. bagdasarjani could develop and reproduce when the predatory mite feed on the all of diets. Thus, the pollens can be alternative foods for the mite. The mean of developmental time from egg to adult emergence varied between the treatments from 11.69 to 21.49 days for females and 11.70 to 20.07 days for males. The minimum mean of developmental time of females and males was on walnut, almond and apple pollens and the maximum mean of it was on pear pollen. The mean of longevity varied among the treatments from 17.45 to 31.26 days for the females and 18.23 to 31.44 days for the male insects. The maximum mean longevity was on apricot and almond pollens for females and it had maximum amount on apricot and walnut for males. The minimum mean of longevity of females and males was on pear pollen. Also the maximum means of daily and total fecundity (0.73 and 9.60 eggs/female were on apple and walnut pollens. The minimum amount of these means was on pear pollen. According to these results, almond and walnut pollens were the most suitable diet for T. bagdasarjani as compared to the other pollens. Among diets, pear pollen had least desirability and nutritional value for the mite.

  18. Perspectives for mass rearing of Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Fabio A. de

    2008-01-01

    Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma is an important predator of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on citrus in Brazil. The suitability of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) as a food source of I. zuluagai in laboratory rearing was investigated at 25.5 ± 0.5 deg C, 88 ± 7% RU and photophase of 12h. Initially, levels of oviposition of the predator fed on eggs were evaluated, as well as the dead or live post-embryonic stages of T. putrescentiae, in a period of 10 days. The daily oviposition rate was 1.3 egg per female when they were fed on eggs on T. putrescentiae, 0.7 egg per female when they were fed on dead post embryonic stages and about 0.3 egg per female when they were fed on live post-embryonic stages. Later, the life table of I. zuluagai was constructed, when eggs of T. putrescentiae were offered to the predators as prey. The immature stages were observed every 8 h, to determine the corresponding durations. In the adult phase, the mites were observed every 24 h, to determine the reproductive parameters. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) was 0.11 female/ female/day; resulting in a fi nite rate of increase of 1.11 (λ). The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was 7.1 females/generation, with a mean generation time (T) 18.6 days. The results show that T. putrescentiae is a favorable food source for the development of I. zuluagai. (author)

  19. Evidence for host plant preference by Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves. This preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. Iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in spite of the greater abundance of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in sweet orange trees. Similar preference responses were observed in laboratory tests using a Y-tube olfactometer whether I. quadripilis were collected from sweet orange or grapefruit. Iphiseiodes quadripilis collected from grapefruit trees showed significant preference for grapefruit over sweet orange leaves in contact choice tests using an arena of alternating leaf strips (12 mm long x 2 mm wide) of sweet orange and grapefruit. However, I. quadripilis collected from sweet orange trees did not show preference for either grapefruit or sweet orange leaves. Based on these results, grapefruit leaves foster some unknown factor or factors that retain I. quadripilis in greater numbers compared with sweet orange leaves.

  20. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .

  1. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  2. Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae Intra and interpopulational morphological variations of Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyséia Cristina da Silva Noronha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of morphologic variability within and between populations of phytoseiid mites is important for the precise species identification. Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970 and Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 are phytoseiids commonly found on different crops in Brazil and other South American countries. The morphologic characterization of populations preliminarily identified as E. citrifolius and E. concordis was done through examination of 10 adult females and 10 adult males of each population and of 2 to 10 adult females and males resulting from crosses between those populations. The plant substrate and collection site of each population were: E. citrijolius: Bauhinia sp. in Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, Coffea arabica Linnaeus in Campinas, São Paulo and Terminalia catappa Linnaeus in Petrolina, Pernambuco. E. concordis: Passiflora edulis Sims. i.flavicarpa Deg. in Arroio do Meio, Manihot esculenta (Crantz in Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso, T. catappa in Petrolina and C arabica in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. A comparison of the measurements of different structures of individuals of each population and of type specimens of E. citrifolius and E. concordis confirmed the preliminary identification of the populations. Significant relationships were observed between mean setal lengths and the respective ranges within each population. Females and males of E. citrifolius from Petrolina and E. concordis from Jaguariúna had some of the setae generally shorter than those of other populations of the same species. Measurements of males resulting from heterogamic crosses indicated that E. citrifolius and E. concordis reproduce by pseudo-arrhenotoky.

  3. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, acondicionadas em arenas, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. A toxicidade residual dos produtos foi avaliada duas horas e 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Em cada arena, foram transferidas dez fêmeas adultas de N. californicus, juntamente com uma quantidade suficiente de Tetranychus urticae, como fonte de alimento. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a transferência dos ácaros para as arenas. Os agrotóxicos acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, enxofre, fenpropathrin, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite não causaram mortalidades significativas em adultos de N. californicus. Foram registradas mortalidades de 29,8; 24,0 e 34,1% para ácaros N. californicus expostos a resíduos de duas horas de idade de abamectim, azocyclotin e cyhexatin, respectivamente. Dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr causaram 100% de mortalidade aos ácaros predadores expostos aos resíduos tóxicos dos acaricidas, com duas horas de idade. Abamectin provocou mortalidade significativa por um período inferior a um dia. Resíduos dos acaricidas azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr provocaram mortalidades significativas por períodos de 1; 1; 10; 10 e 21dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento servem de subsídio para a escolha adequada dos agrotóxicos a serem utilizados em pomares de citros nos quais N. californicus esteja presente ou naqueles em que o predador venha a ser liberado. Esses resultados também servem para a escolha do momento mais favorável para a liberação dos ácaros predadores dessa espécie no campo, após a aplicação de agrotóxicos nos pomares. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.This study was carried out to evaluate the residual toxicity of some pesticides used in citrus orchards, on Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor under laboratory conditions. The residual contact bioassay method was adopted. Citrus leaves of the variety "Pêra" were sprayed in a Potter tower. The products' residual toxicity was evaluated at two hours and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Ten adult females of N. californicus were transferred to each arena together with an enough amount of Tetranychus urticae to feed the predator. Mortality evaluations were performed at 72 hours after transferring the predaceous mites to the arenas. The pesticides acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, sulphur, fenpropathrin, fenbutatin oxide and propargite did not cause significant mortalities to the adults of N. californicus. Abamectim, azocyclotin and cyhexatin caused mortalities of 29.8, 24.0 and 34.1%, respectively, for N. californicus adults exposed to two-hour pesticide residues. Dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused 100% of mortality to the predators exposed to the two-hour acaricide residues. Abamectin provoked significant mortalities for a period shorter than one day. Residues of azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused significant mortalities for periods of 1, 1, 10, 10 and 21 days, respectively. The results of this study provided basic information for choosing the adequate pesticides to be used in citrus orchards in which N. californicus is present, or in those the predator will be released. The results are also useful for the decision of the best releasing time for N. californicus in the field, after pesticide applications. Studies carried out in the field are still necessary to understand better the effect of these pesticides under the predaceous mite.

  4. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae in apple orchard

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    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre as plantas daninhas, Plantago tormentosa e Erigeron sp, e sobre as folhas de macieira. As maiores populações de N. californicus foram observadas nas parcelas onde os manejos proporcionaram desenvolvimento de plantas daninhas na linha de plantio. Na parcela manejada com herbicida, houve maior população de ácaros tetraniquídeos sobre as macieiras, provavelmente, devido ao reduzido número de N. californicus. P. tormentosa foi o hospedeiro preferencial do ácaro predador. Concluiu-se que o manejo de plantas daninhas, na linha de plantio das macieiras, assume um importante papel no equilíbrio entre as populações de ácaros.The influence of weed management on tetranychid mites (Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae and phytoseids movement was evaluated. Neoseiulus californicus populations were released in an apple orchard for biological control of tetranychid mites. Three kinds of weed management were used: no weed control at all, manual control and control with herbicide. The mites were evaluated in Plantago tormentosa, Erigeron sp, and apple tree leaves. The highest population of N. californicus was observed where weed was not controlled. Tetranychid mites populations were abundant on apple trees when herbicide was used, probably due to the low population of N. californicus. P. tormentosa was the preferred host of phytoseids. The conclusion was that weed management plays an important role in the regulation of mite species in apple orchards.

  5. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

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    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros fitoseídeos, especialmente Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, são importantes agentes de controle biológico de ácaros tetraniquídeos-praga nas culturas de pomáceas no "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a mortalidade de N. californicus quando exposto a resíduos dos inseticidas azimphos-methyl, carbaryl e cyfluthrin, e dos acaricidas cyhexatin e propargite. Os produtos foram aplicados às concentrações recomendadas em plantas de pereira. Um, três, seis e dez dias após a aplicação (DAA, folhas tratadas foram retiradas das plantas para a preparação de unidades experimentais. Cinco adultos de N. californicus, provenientes de criação-estoque, foram transferidos para cada unidade, onde pólen de taboa foi fornecido como alimento. As unidades foram mantidas a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 14 h. A mortalidade do ácaro foi avaliada 24 h após o confinamento. As médias de mortalidade foram comparadas pelo teste de Dunnett, a 5% de probabilidade. A progressão do declínio do efeito dos produtos testados foi submetida à análise de regressão. Nas duas primeiras datas de avaliação, todos os produtos apresentaram valores de mortalidade significativamente diferentes da testemunha tratada com água. Seis dias após a aplicação, propargite, cyhexatin e cyfluthrin apresentaram mortalidade de aproximadamente 30%, enquanto a mortalidade nos tratamentos azimphos-methyl e carbaryl apresentou níveis estatisticamente similares aos da testemunha. Dez dias após a aplicação, a mortalidade em todos os tratamentos não diferiu significativamente da testemunha. O efeito de todos os produtos apresentou declínio progressivo ao longo do período de observação, sendo significativa a 1% de probabilidade a regressão linear negativa para os valores obtidos. Os maiores efeitos negativos sobre a sobrevivência de N. californicus corresponderam aos acaricidas testados. Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0.01 the negative linear regression obtained. Tested acaricides produced the greatest negative effects on the survival of N. californicus. Azimphos-methyl was the pesticide that least affected the survival of the predatory mite. Tested insecticides, used in the "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" region to control codling moth, C. pomonella, key pest of pip fruit crops, showed low toxicity to N. californicus.

  6. Peculiarities of Distribution of Two Amblydromella Species (Phytoseiidae, Parasitiformes in the Zone of Their Natural Intergradation in the Eastern Ukraine

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    Kolodochka L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of two morphologically and ecologically related species of predatory phytoseiid mites of the genus Amblydromella (A. pirianykae and A. recki in a zone of their natural intergradation (mountain ridge Donetsky Kriazh in the east of Ukraine is studied for the first time. The list of plants populated by both predators is given. Consistent patterns of mite distribution on life forms of plants are determined biotopical fidelity on the basis of the coefficient. Very rarely, A. pirianykae and A. recki mites simultaneously populate the same plant organism (only 1.6 % of all samples which can be attributed to the partially resolved antagonistic relationships. Th e basis of the antagonism is, in the first place, similarity of food preferences of the predators that, in principle, occupy the same ecological niche. Dramatic finale of this confrontation is the elimination of one of the species which has no distinct advantage in the specific conditions of a local microhabitat.

  7. PREDATORY PHYTOSEIID MITES (Acari:Phytoseiidae) AS BIOINDICATORS OF STRESS IMPACT ON A FARMLAND AND BUTRESSES OF THE FARMLAND REVIVAL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zacharda, Miloslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2001), s. 47-56 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : farmland * stress * revival Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  8. Electron microscopic study of developmental stages of Rickettsiella phytoseiuli in Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Gamasoidea:Phytoseiidae) mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutáková, G

    1988-01-01

    Rickettsiella phytoseiuli was found in great amounts in all tissues except of the nervous system of adult Phytoseiulus persimilis mites. Six morphologically different stages (dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles) of R. phytoseiuli were detected. No rickettsiae were seen in the larvae and in phase 1 and 2 nymphae of these mites.

  9. Sublethal effects of fenpyroximate and pyridaben on two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus womersleyi and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Minsik; Lee, Joon-Ho; Shin, Key-Il; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Cho, Kijong

    2011-07-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the sublethal effects of fenpyroximate and pyridaben on life-table parameters of two predatory mites species, Neoseiulus (= Amblyseius) womersleyi and Phytoseiulus persimilis. In these assays, young adult females were treated with three sublethal concentrations of each acaricide. The life-table parameters were calculated at each acaricide concentration, and compared using bootstrap procedures. For each acaricide, the LC(50) estimates for both species were similar, yet the two species exhibited completely different susceptibility when the population growth rate was used as the endpoint. Exposure to both acaricides reduced the net reproduction rate (R (o)) in a concentration-dependent manner and their EC(50)s were equivalent to less than LC(7). Two different scales of population-level endpoints were estimated to compare the total effect between the species and treatments: the first endpoint values were based on the net reproductive rate (fecundity λ) and the second endpoint values incorporated the mean egg hatchability into the net reproductive rate (vitality λ). The fecundity λ decreased in a concentration-dependent manner for both acaricide treatments, but the vitality λ decreased abruptly after treatment of N. womersleyi with pyridaben. The change in the patterns of λ revealed that the acaricide effects at the population level strongly depended on the life-history characteristics of the predatory mite species and the chemical mode of action. When the total effects of the two acaricides on N. womersleyi and P. persimilis were considered, fenpyroximate was found to be the most compatible acaricide for the augmentative release of N. womersleyi after treatment.

  10. PCR-based identification of the pathogenic bacterium, Acaricomes phytoseiuli, in the biological control agent Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Schütte, C.; Stouthamer, R.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis is an important biological control agent of herbivorous spider mites. This species is also intensively used in the study of tritrophic effects of plant volatiles in interactions involving plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies. Recently, a novel

  11. Sex-specific developmental plasticity of generalist and specialist predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in response to food stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We studied developmental plasticity under food stress in three female-biased size dimorphic predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni. All three species prey on two-spotted spider mites but differ in the degree of adaptation to this prey. Phytoseiulus persimilis is a specialized spider mite predator, N. californicus is a generalist with a preference for spider mites, and A. andersoni is a broad generalist. Immature predators were offered prey patches of varying density and their survival chances, dispersal tendencies, age and size at maturity measured. Amblyseius andersoni dispersed earlier from and had lower survival chances in low density prey patches than N. californicus and P. persimilis. Age at maturity was not affected by prey density in the generalist A. andersoni, whereas both the specialist P. persimilis and the generalist N. californicus accelerated development at low prey densities. Species-specific plasticity in age at maturity reflects opposite survival strategies when confronted with limited prey: to prematurely leave and search for other food (A. andersoni) or to stay and accelerate development (P. persimilis, N. californicus). In all species, size at maturity was more plastic in females than males, indicating that males incur higher fitness costs from deviations from optimal body size.

  12. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: The first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Fenlon, J S

    2001-02-01

    The functional response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was examined on three plant species. Experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. The results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the predatory ability of P. persimilis on the three plant species. Fewer eggs were eaten on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. 'Autumnal Blue', the plant species with hairy leaves, and greater numbers of prey consumed on Choisya ternata, a species with smooth leaves. However, similarly few eggs were eaten on the smooth, but waxy leaved Euonymus japonicus as on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, demonstrating that morphological characters of leaves other than the possession of hairs and trichomes may affect the rates of predation. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, predator and prey, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.

  14. Alternating temperatures affect life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their prey Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may have consequences for their efficacy in biological control programs.

  15. Ultrastructure and Pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. Infecting the Predatory Mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie

    1996-11-01

    Ultrastructure and pathology of Microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. infecting the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Infected mites showed no gross, external symptoms. All observed stages of the parasite had unpaired nuclei. Schizonts were commonly observed within nuclei of digestive cells of the ventriculus and within the cytoplasm of cells lining the cecal wall and in muscle tissue underlying it. Sporoblasts and spores occurred in the nuclei and cytoplasm of digestive cells within the ventriculus, in cortical regions of the sub- and supraesophageal ganglia, within the cecal wall and muscle tissue, and in parenchyma cells underlying the cuticle. Mature spores were also observed in developing eggs within gravid females. These were broad- to elongate-ovoid, measured 4.33 ± 0.35 x 1.27 ± 0.15 &mgr;m (electron micrographs), 5.37 ± 0.46 x 2.22 ± 0.17 &mgr;m (fixed and stained), and 5.88 ± 0.34 x 2.22 ± 0.19 &mgr;m (fresh) and had an isolfilar polar filament coiled 12 to 15 times within the posterior two-thirds. Within cells, individual spores appeared to be in direct contact with host cytoplasm, while groups of spores were infrequently observed within interfacial envelopes. Groups of 4, 8, to more than 16 spores were observed by light microscopy, while 8 was the maximum observed by electron microscopy. No spores were observed in Tetranychus urticae, a mite used as food during this study.

  16. Olfactory response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh

    2013-06-01

    Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.

  17. Process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, S; Nakamura, M; Nagahama, Y; Amano, H

    2000-01-01

    The process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. After insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. Two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. After the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. The egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into the oviduct, where the eggshell was formed. When the eggshell was complete, and while embryogenesis proceeded, the egg was deposited. In the meantime some ova began to expand sequentially and two joining pronuclei appeared in expanding eggs. The joining pronuclei in the first egg proved male diploidy. This is additional evidence of pseudo-arrhenotoky in this phytoseiid mite species, since the first eggs developed into males.

  18. A Modular Cage System Design for Continuous Medium to Large Scale In Vivo Rearing of Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alfredo Morales-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima beans,  Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. The cage units connect with each other through a connection cup, which also serves for monitoring and collection. Predatory mites migrate upwards to new cage units as prey is depleted. The system was evaluated for production of Phytoseiulus persimilis. During a 6-month experimental period, 20,894.9±10,482.5 (mean ± standard deviation predators were produced per week. The production consisted of 4.1±4.6% nymphs and 95.9±4.6% adults. A mean of 554.5±59.8 predatory mites were collected per harvested cage and the mean interval length between harvests was 6.57±6.76 days. The potential for commercial and experimental applications is discussed.

  19. Evaluation of various types of supplemental food for two species of predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii and Neoseiulus cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, J F; Brodeur, J; Shipp, L

    2015-04-01

    Although phytoseiids are best known as predators of phytophagous mites and other small arthropods, several species can also feed and reproduce on pollen. In laboratory assays, we assessed the profitability of two types of dietary supplements (three pollen species-cattail, maize and apple-and eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella) for the two species of predatory mites most commonly used as biocontrol agents in horticulture in Canada, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii. We measured the effects of each diet on phytoseiid fitness parameters (survival, development, sex ratio, fecundity) and, as a means of comparison, when fed larvae of the common targeted pest species, western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. A soluble protein assay was also performed on the alternative food sources as protein content is often linked to high nutritive value according to the literature. All food sources tested were suitable for N. cucumeris and A. swirskii, both species being able to develop from egg to adult. The dietary supplements had a beneficial impact on biological parameters, mostly resulting in shorter development times and higher survival rates when compared to thrips larvae. Amblyseius swirskii exhibited a wider dietary range than N. cucumeris. Overall, flour moth eggs, cattail pollen and apple pollen are food sources of equal quality for A. swirskii, whereas apple and cattail pollen are better when it comes to N. cucumeris. In contrast, maize pollen is a less suitable food source for N. cucumeris and A. swirskii. Soluble protein content results did not match the prediction under which the most beneficial food source would contain the highest concentration in protein.

  20. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  2. Amazoniaseius imparisetosus n. sp., n. g.: an unusual new phytoseiid mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from the Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demite, Peterson R; Cruz, Wilton P da; McMURTRY, James A; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2017-02-22

    A new genus and species of the subfamily Typhlodrominae are described from the Brazilian Amazon. The main differences between this and all other phytoseiid species are the presence of two unpaired setae on dorsal shield of deutonymphs and adults, and the absence of all ZV setae. It also differs from other typhlodromine species by its relatively long J5 setae, the presence of seta J4 and the broadly rounded posterior margin of the genital shield. Thus, the unique idiosomal setal pattern of this species is here designated as 13A+x:8F+X/JV-3,4:ZV-1-3. Because of the unique characteristics, we here describe this new taxon, Amazoniaseius imparisetosus n. sp., n. g., based on protonymphs, deutonymphs and adult females. This species is accommodated in tribe Paraseiulini Wainstein within Typhlodrominae, due to the presence of the setae z6 and S4. The tribe is redefined and an updated dichotomous key for the separation of the genera of Paraseiulini is provided.

  3. Effect of different times of cold storage on some parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias henriot) and Neoseiulus californicus. (Parasitiformes: phytoseiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Pena, Adriana; Nino, Pilar; Bustos, Alexander; Cantor, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus are used in programs of mass rearing for the control of phytofagous mites. the effect on survival, longevity, predator capacity and fecundity of this predators was studied after storage them to a temperature of 8 Celsius degrade and relative humidity of 85+/-5 % during different periods of time (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 35 days). During the time of evaluation the predators were individualized and kept at 25 Celsius degrade of temperature and relative humidity of 85+/-5 %. the survival, longevity predator capacity and fecundity presented during all the time of evaluation of P. persimilis displayed a decrease after being stored during 21 or more days, the same happened to the survival and consumption of N. californicus sp. however, the longevity and oviposition during all time of evaluation for N. californicus was reduced after storing them for 28 or more days. Daily consumption and daily fecundity of both predators had no effect, except on daily consumption of eggs for P. persimilis and daily consumption of nymphs for N. californicus after storing them for 35 days.

  4. Evaluation of methyl salicylate lures on populations of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and other natural enemies in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...

  5. Information use by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a specialised natural enemy of herbivorous spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.G.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plants can respond to infestation by herbivores with the emission of specific herbivore-induced plant volatiles. Many carnivorous arthropods that feed on herbivorous prey use these volatiles to locate their prey. Despite the growing amount of research papers on the interactions in tritrophic

  6. Obtaining a glass-ceramic material from a steel slag mixed with glass cullet; Obtencion de un material vitroceramico a partir de una escoria de aceria mezclada con vidrio de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oziel Mendez Guerrero, D.; Alicia Vazquez Mendez, B.; Alvarez Mendez, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the qualitative, quantitative and thermal characterization of a steel slag and glass cullet of high generation rate in northern Mexico were made in order to use these wastes as raw materials in the production of glass ceramics. The particle size was controlled at sizes = 75 micrometers and the major components of the slag were located in a phase equilibrium diagram for proposing a reaction temperature that leaded to the starting glass. Later, heat treatments were performed to obtain the glass ceramics. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis coupled with thermal gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA), reflected light optical microscopy (RLOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subsequently, Vickers microhardness and chemical resistance tests were performed, which enabled us to propose an application of the glass ceramics. (Author) 18 refs.

  7. Experiences on modernization of steel production plants in countries which metallurgy industry is in reconversion process; Experiencias en la modernizacion de acerias en paises en reconversion de su industria siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Jose M. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Munoz, Jon

    1986-12-31

    The Spanish experience on modernization of its metal industry, mainly steel production sector, under a strong structural exchange, face the Europe Common Market and the metal industry crisis are discussed. Economical and technological aspects of those exchanges, the measures applied, development of new technologies, innovations presented on the sector of electric arc furnace, increase of productivity, main steps present on modern steel production sector, are also analysed. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 7 refs

  8. Methodology for the characterization and radioactive tracing of a reference to the control of radioactive material in steel mills; Metodologia para la caracterizacion y trazado radiactivo de un material de referencia para el control radiactivo en acerias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejuto Mendieta, M.; Crespo Vazquez, M. T.; Peyres Medina, V.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-07-01

    One of the tasks which corresponded you to the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation CIEMAT, consists of the preparation of the reference standards of a black slag from steel making drawn {sup 2}26Ra, {sup 1}37Cs, {sup 6}0Co. This work summarizes the steps followed for the preparation of the reference standards of the slag, including the physical sample preparation, chemical, mineralogical and radioactive characterization as well as the development of the method of path with the above listed radionuclides. (Author)

  9. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites......Biological control, Bottom-up factor, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Plant condition, Predacious mites, Simulation model, Tetranychus urticae, Top-down factor, Two-spotted spider mites...

  10. Side Effects of Four Acaricides on the Predatory Mites of Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel YORULMAZ SALMAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study determined the side effects of four acaricides of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on the predator mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Acaricide concentrations were prepared as a two times the field application dose (2T, field application dose (T, and half of the field application dose (T/2 and were then applied on eggs, nymphs and adults of the P. persimilis and N. californicus. The side effects of the acaricidesapplied to the predator mites were determined three, five and seven days afterthe application. While all doses of acequinocyl and etoxazole showed a higher toxic effect on N.californicus eggs, it was found that bifenazate and milbemectin caused similar effects on both predator mite eggs. Furthermore, it was found that the toxic effects of acequinocyl, etoxazole, bifenazate and milbemectin on nymphs and adults of the predator miteswere high seventh day after the application. The results of the study showed that four acaracides frequently used against to pest mites, should be used more carefully in the agricultural areas.

  11. Tri-trophic level Impact of Host Plant Linamarin and Lotaustralin on Tetranychus urticae (Mesostigmata: Tetranychidae) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Prostigmata: Phytoseiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of Phaseolus lunatus L. on the second and third trophic levels was studied in Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Chemical analyzes showed that the content of linamarin was higher in termin...

  12. The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A

    2009-08-01

    Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.

  13. The effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J

    2003-08-01

    The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.

  14. Toxicity of thiamethoxam to Tetranychus urticae Koch and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) through different routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo; Tirello, Paola; Ortiz, Paulina Bermudez

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge of the impact of insecticides on Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is crucial for IPM. This study evaluates the effect of thiamethoxam on T. urticae and its predator by considering different routes of exposure (topical, residual and contaminated food exposures) and their combinations. Thiamethoxam effects on T. urticae were higher when residual and contaminated food exposures were considered. The total effect was higher than 90% where contaminated food exposure was involved. On P. persimilis, the total effect was higher in residual and contaminated prey exposures compared with topical exposure, and all combinations of routes of exposure attained a total effect higher than 90%. Thiamethoxam was found to be toxic to T. urticae and P. persimilis; however, the impact of the insecticide depended on the routes of exposure and their combinations. Lethal and sublethal effects occurred in residual and contaminated food exposures, while only sublethal effects occurred in topical exposure of predators and prey. The toxicity of thiamethoxam on prey and predator increased with the number of exposure routes involved. By limiting exposure to thiamethoxam to ingestion of contaminated food only, the impact of the pesticide was more favourable to P. persimilis than to its prey. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. EFECTO DE DIFERENTES TIEMPOS DE ALMACENAMIENTO EN FRÍO SOBRE ALGUNOS PARAMETROS DE Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot Y Neoseiulus californicus (PARASITIFORMES: PHYTOSEIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana De la Peña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los ácaros depredadores Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot y Neoseiulus californicus son controladores importantes de ácaros fitófagos utilizados en programas de producción masiva. El efecto sobre la sobrevivencia, longevidad, capacidad depredadora y fecundidad de estos depredadores fue estudiado después de almacenarlos a una temperatura de 8ºC y humedad relativa de 85+/-5% durante diferentes tiempos (siete, 14, 21, 28 y 35 días y comparado con depredadores no almacenados. Durante el tiempo de evaluación los depredadores fueron individualizados y mantenidos a una temperatura de 25°C y humedad relativa de 85+/-5%. La sobrevivencia, longevidad, capacidad depredadora y fecundidad presentada durante todo el periodo de evaluación de P. persimilis presento una disminución después de ser almacenados por 21 o mas días, al igual que la sobrevivencia y el consumo de presas de N. californicus Sin embargo, la longevidad y oviposición durante todo el periodo de evaluación para N. californicus se afecto después de ser almacenado por 28 o mas días. El consumo diario y fecundidad diaria de ambos depredadores no presentaron efecto con excepción del consumo diario de huevos por P. persimilis y el consumo diario de ninfas por N. californicus después de ser almacenados por 35 días. El efecto sobre el consumo y fecundidad es debido posiblemente al efecto que se presenta sobre la sobrevivencia y longevidad de ambos depredadores.

  16. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of bottom-up (plant condition) and top-down (predatory mites) factors on the dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), a series of experiments were conducted in which spider mites and predatory mites were released on bean plants. Plants inoculated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult female T. urticae were either left untreated or were inoculated with 3 or 5 adult female predators (Phytoseiulus persimilis) one week after the introduction of spider mites. Plant area, densities of T. urticae and P. persimilis, and plant injury were assessed by weekly sampling. Data were analysed by a combination of statistical methods and a tri-trophic mechanistic simulation model partly parameterised from the current experiments and partly from previous data. The results showed a clear effect of predators on the density of spider mites and on the plant injury they cause. Plant injury increased with the initial number of spider mites and decreased with the initial number of predators. Extinction of T. urticae, followed by extinction of P. persimilis, was the most likely outcome for most initial combinations of prey and predators. Eggs constituted a relatively smaller part of the prey population as plant injury increased and of the predator population as prey density decreased. We did not find statistical evidence of P. persimilis having preference for feeding on T. urticae eggs. The simulation model demonstrated that bottom-up and top-down factors interact synergistically to reduce the density of spider mites. This may have important implications for biological control of spider mites by means of predatory mites.

  17. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. The effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation model that averages the predation rates over all the local populations inhabiting the individual leaves. The empirical predation rates were compared with predictions assuming random predator search and/or an even distribution of prey. The analysis clearly shows that the ability of the predators to search non-randomly increases their predation rate. On the other hand, the prey may gain if it adopts a more even distribution when its density is low and a more patchy distribution when density increases. Mutual interference between searching predators reduces the predation rate, but the effect is negligible. The stage-specific functional response model was compared with two simpler models without explicit stage structure. Both unstructured models yielded predictions that were quite similar to those of the stage-structured model.

  18. BIOLOGIA E TABELA DE VIDA DO ÁCARO PREDADOR Euseius concordis (CHANT, 1959 (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM PINHÃO-MANSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLECIA DE CARVALHO MARQUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the intrinsic growth rate (rm of Euseius concordis on Tetranychus bastosi on physic nut (Jatropha curcas. The experiment was conducted in incubator BOD at 25 ° C and 70 % RH, with 12h photoperiod environment. The evaluations were performed twice daily for the biology of the mite, and once to the reproductive parameters. The average life cycle of fe-males was 6.3 ± 0.14 days and the males of 6.22 ± 0.14 days. The sex ratio was 0.64, and the average longevi-ty of females was 22.6 ± 2.22 days with an average production of 7,42 eggs per female. The parameters of the life table were obtained : net reproductive rate (Ro, 54,9 individuals ; average length of generations (T , 7,77 days; intrinsic growth rate (rm, 0,22 female per female per day; finite rate of increase (λ, 1,24 female per fe-male; and in population doubling time (TD, 3,16 days. The E. concordis mite has developed satisfactorily when created with T. diet bastosi, with the short development cycle.

  19. Criterios para la liberación de Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Parasitiformes: Phytoseiidae en cultivo de rosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilarión Alejandra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Phytoseiulus persimilis ha sido utilizado en programas de manejo integrado de plagas como alternativa al uso de acaricidas para el manejo de Tetranychus urticae. Los daños ocasionados por T. urticae generan un costo de manejo cercano a los 4.500 dólares por hectárea, esta cifra corresponde aproximadamente al 30% del costo de los plaguicidas (Ceniflores, 2008. La implementación de esta estrategia de manejo debe considerar criterios de liberación basados en los niveles de población de T. urticae del cultivo, estimados a partir de una metodología de muestreo apropiada. En el presente trabajo, se propuso una metodología para estimar el nivel de infestación de T. urticae, para conocer la cantidad de P. persimilis a liberar en el cultivo de rosa y se evaluó la efectividad del control ejercido por P. persimilis. En el área experimental se tomaron 81 cuadros, en cada uno de ellos se muestrearon al azar tres plantas de rosa y se contó el número de individuos en tres hojas de cada tercio de la planta. Así mismo, se determinó el número óptimo de muestras para un muestreo bietápico. Se tuvo en cuenta la respuesta funcional como criterio de liberación de P. persimilis. La población de T. urticae estimada después de la liberación se dividió entre la población previa a la liberación para obtener un índice de control, el cual se comparó entre las estrategias de manejo. Con el control biológico se obtuvo una mayor reducción de la población de la plaga y una menor fluctuación de esta a través del tiempo.

  20. Total effects of contact and residual exposure of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin on the predatory mite Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Alifano, Jesse A; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are generally regarded as acutely toxic to predatory phytoseiid mites; however, persistence of hull split spray pyrethroid residues on almond trees and their effects on phytoseiids have not been quantified over time. Hull split, the separation of the almond hull along the suture, exposes the new crop nuts to infestation by Amyelois transitella (Walker) larvae, and is the preferred timing for insecticides applied for their control. Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is the most important phytoseiid biocontrol agent for web-spinning spider mites in California (USA) almond orchards, and the impact of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin pyrethroid residue on their survival, fertility, and fecundity was determined. The total effects of direct contact with esfenvalerate, permethrin, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin were also evaluated for comparison. The total effects (E) of direct contact treatments of the four pyrethroids ranged from 77.8 % for esfenvalerate to 98.8 % for bifenthrin. Both bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue would be considered harmful (IOBC class 4) following field application at hull split timing. Bifenthrin twig residue would be considered slightly harmful (IOBC class 2) for up to 3.5 months and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. λ-cyhalothrin residue would be considered moderately harmful (IOBC class 3) for up to 3.5 months following application and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue on treated trees significantly reduced G. occidentalis female survival for up to 6 months post-treatment, however total effects (E) classify these residues as harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Harmful effects of direct and residual exposure following application have implications for the use of these pyrethroids in an integrated mite management program for perennial crops.

  1. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  2. The effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachman, Gösta

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. Both mite species were very patchily distributed and P. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves...

  3. Reducing the impact of pesticides on biological control in Australian vineyards: pesticide mortality and fecundity effects on an indicator species, the predatory mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Martina B; Cole, Peter; Kobelt, Amanda; Horne, Paul A; Altmann, James; Wratten, Stephen D; Yen, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, five insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in "worst-case scenario" direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food, and water supply were sprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No significant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. Iprodione and penconazole had some detrimental effect on fecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/fludioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (> or = 400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no significant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of findings is discussed.

  4. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  5. Altered host plant preference of Tetranychus urticae and prey preference of its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) on transgenic Cry3Bb-eggplants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková-Rovenská, Gabriela; Zemek, Rostislav; Schmidt, J. E. U.; Hilbeck, A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2005), s. 293-300 ISSN 1049-9644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * mites * Solanum melongena Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2005

  6. Interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system V: Within-plant dynamics of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Tetranychus urticae (Acari : Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nachman, G.; Zemek, Rostislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, - (2003), s. 35-68 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Biological control * bottom-up factor * Phytoseiulus persimilis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.497, year: 2003

  7. Controle biológico do ácaro rajado com ácaros predadores fitoseídeos (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae em culturas de pepino e morango Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae in cucumber and strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Watanabe

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é considerado uma das principais pragas de hortaliças e várias outras culturas no Brasil, em áreas onde um considerável volume de acaricidas é anualmente empregado no seu controle. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade técnica do emprego dos fitoseídeos Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma e Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, comum ente encontrados no Brasil, no controle de T. urticae em pepino e morangueiro em Jaguaríúna,SP. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 4 tratamentos (T1-T4 para o pepino e 5 tratamentos para o morangueiro (T1-T5: T1, testemunha; T2, pulverizações semanais de Malation para a exclusão de predadores nativos; T3, liberações periódicas de A.idaeus; T4, liberações periódicas de P.macropilis; T5, pulverizações semanais de avermectina para a exclusão de ácaros fitófagos e predadores nativos. Apenas A.idaeus se estabeleceu na cultura de pepino, reduzindo significativamente a população de T. urticae. Ambas espécies de predadores se estabeleceram na cultura do morango e reduziram significativamente a população de T.urticae.The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is considered one of the main pests of horticultural and other crops in Brazil, in areas where a considerable volume of acaricides is annually used for its control. The objective of this work was to test the technical viability of using phytoseiids Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma and Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, commonly found in Brazil, to control T .urticae in cucumber and strawberry crops in Jaguaríúna,SP. A randomized complete block design was used, with 4 replicates and 4 treatments for cucumber (T1-T4 and 5 treatments for strawberry crops (T1-T5: T1, control; T2, weekly sprays of malathion for exclusion of native predators; T3, periodical releases of A.idaeus; T4, periodical releases of P. macropilis; T5, weekly sprays of avermectin for exclusion of native phytophagous and predatory mites. Only A. idaeus was successfully established on cucumber, significantly reducing T. urticae population. Both released phytoseiid species were established on strawberry and reduced significantly the population of T. urticae.

  8. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with commercial products (c.p.. The biological persistence of the products was of approximately three days after being pulverized. The formulations present selectivity in relation to the phytoseiids, however they caused fecundity reduction.

  9. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Olímpia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in two rubber tree plantations. Every three months, about 1.000 cm³ of leaves of each one of the five dominant weeds in each plantation was taken to determine the phytoseiids. As the dominant weeds varied during the study, a total of 20 species were evaluated. Only Cecropia sp. was a dominant weed throughout the study, in both plantations. A total of 336 phytoseiids of the following species were found: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 and N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 specimens and N. tunus (138 specimens were the most abundant species. The highest abundance (231 specimens and diversity (5 species were observed on Cecropia sp. On this plant was found the largest number of mites per sample (29 specimens, followed by Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 and Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius has been determined as the most abundant predatory mite on rubber trees in the region where this work was conducted. Cecropia sp. seems to be the most important of the weeds considered as reservoir of E. citrifolius because it is continuously present in the plantations. Complementary studies could indicate the viability of managing this weed in or around rubber tree plantations to promote the biological control of mite pests on that crop.

  10. Phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Courcy Williams, Michael E; Kravar-Garde, Lidija; Fenlon, John S; Sunderland, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. The shape of the response differed for Phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. Fitted response curves showed that I. degenerans, N. cucumeris, N. californicus and P. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of persimilis egg duration was significantly longer at 60 and 70% than for either 82 or 90% RH. No effect of relative humidity was found on the mean life span of adult females when food was available continuously to the mites. N. californicus lived significantly longer (58 days after the first egg was laid) than the other species. No significant difference was observed in mean life span between adult females of I. degenerans and N. cucumeris (25 and 28 days respectively). The mean life span of adult female P. persimilis (19 days) was significantly shorter than the other species. In the absence of both food and water, the survival of adult female mites was reduced to 2-4 days. Survival time was at least doubled when free water was available in the absence of food. Mean survival of adult female mites with water but without food was 10 days for N. cucumeris, 18 days for N. californicus, 6 days for P. persimilis and 4 days for I. degenerans. Survival of adult female N. cucumeris and N. californicus was increased significantly, to 20 and 22 days respectively, when fungal hyphae were present along with water but in the absence of other food.

  11. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm la potencialidad de 3 ácaros depredadores Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, suministrando huevos, inmaduros y hembras adultas de O. yothersi separadamente, registrando desarrollo postembrionario, consumo y parámetros de tabla de vida. El desarrollo postembrionario de C. picanus fue significativamente menor (5,46 días en comparación a A. graminis (7,33 días y G. occidentalis (8,69 días al ser alimentados con inmaduros de O. yothersi. Los parámetros de tabla de vida de C. picanus fueron tasa neta de reproducción R0 = 25,41, tasa finita de crecimiento λ = 1,29 y tiempo generacional T = 12,46. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r m fue significativamente mayor para C. picanus (r m = 0,25 frente a G. occidentalis (r m = 0,19, mientras que A. graminis presentó una r m = -0,06 indicando que su población no tiene descendencia. El r m registrado por C. picanus en condiciones de laboratorio es un indicador del potencial que tiene como depredador sobre O. yothersi, y permite suponer que en condiciones de campo el patrón de reducción poblacional de la plaga podría mantenerse.

  12. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  13. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  14. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleke, J.M.; Manyong, V.; Mignouna, D.; Isinika, A.; Mutabazi, K.; Hanna, R.; Sabelis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  15. Behaviour of Coconut Mites Preceding Take-off to Passive Aerial Dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo, J.W.S.; Lima, D.B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Pallini, A.; Gondim Jr., M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other

  16. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aratchige, N.S.; Lesna, I.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract

  17. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  18. Intra-seasonal Strategies Based on Energy Budgets in a Dynamic Predator-Prey Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staňková, K.; Abate, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Křivan, V.; Zaccour, G.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a game-theoretical model to describe intra-seasonal predator-prey interactions between predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and prey mites (also called fruit-tree red spider mites) (Acari: Tetranychidae) that feed on leaves of apple trees. Its parameters have been instantiated based on

  19. Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri. 1. Response to volatile kairomones.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.

    1988-01-01

    Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae

  20. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Rosales trees in Iran: two new species and three new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2014-09-11

    This paper describes two new species of Eriophyoidea associated with trees belonging to the order Rosales in the south-western portion of East Azerbaijan province, Iran, collected during a survey in 2011: Aceria lobolinguae n. sp. on Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) and Rhinophytoptus nemalobos n. sp. on Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae). Additionally, Phyllocoptes abaenus Keifer on Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart) on Prunus amygdalus Stokes and Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), and Aceria mori (Keifer) on Morus alba L. (Moraceae) were collected and are new records for the mite fauna of Iran. New locality records and host plant data are provided for Eriophyes similis (Nalepa), Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus baileyi (Keifer) which are eriophyoid species previously known from Iran. 

  1. ASIGURAREA PROCESULUI EDUCAȚIONAL ORIENTAT SPRE ÎNVĂȚARE ACTIVĂ LA UNIVERSITATEA GLOUCESTERSHIRE DIN MAREA BRITANIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela VIDAICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acest studiu a fost elaborat în rezultatul vizitei de studiu la Universitatea Gloucestershiredin Marea Britanie (28 februarie – 5 martie 2016 realizată în cadrul Proiectului „Introducerea metodelor de învățare bazată pe probleme în Moldova: Sporirea competitivității şi angajabilităţii studenților”, finanțat de Programul European Erasmus +. Prezen­tările și orele de curs la care am asistatla Facultatea de Business, Facultatea de Drept şila Facultatea de Tehnologii Informaționale au avut drept scop familiarizarea delegației din Republica Moldova cu procesul de studii de la această universitate, precum și prezentarea unor metode interactive de predare orientate spre o învățare activă și o implicare mai intensă a studenților în procesul de predare-învățare. Acest studiu cuprinde analiza proceselor educaționale la nivel de sistem educațional, management universitar și management al facultăților.ENSURING AN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS FOCUSED ON ACTIVE LEARNING ATGLOUCESTERSHIREUNIVERSITYFROMUKThis study was conducted as follow up to the study visit at GloucestershireUniversityfrom United Kingdom(Feb­ruary 28 – March 5, 2016 within the Project „Introducing Problem Based Learning in Moldova: Toward Enhancing Students’ Competitiveness and Employability", funded by the European Erasmus+ Program. Presentations and classes attended at the Faculty of Business, Faculty of Law and IT Faculty aimed at familiarizing Moldovan delegation with the educational process at this university and with the interactive teaching methods focused on active learning and with significant involvement of students in teaching-learning process. This study refers to the processes on education system level, university and faculty management levels.

  2. Voluntary Falling in Spider Mites in Response to Different Ecological Conditions at Landing Points

    OpenAIRE

    Ohzora, Yousuke; Yano, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    We examined voluntary-falling behaviour by adult females of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of its major predators Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted using a setup in which mites could only move onto one of two landing points by falling. Significantly more T. urticae females fell onto available food leaves compared to non-food or heavily infested leaves, whereas significantly fewer females fell...

  3. The Inventory of Phytoseiid Mite on Apple Orchards in Durrës, Albania

    OpenAIRE

    AURELA SUPARAKU; ARIS HUQI; NATASHA HAKA (DURAJ)

    2014-01-01

    A survey to determine the presence and abundance of phytoseiid mite on apple orchards has been conducted in Durres (Shena-Vlash), Albania. Leaf samples were taken from five apple varieties: Pink Lady, Golden, Starking, Fuji, Gala and the phytoseiid were then extracted. As the result of the survey, two species belonging to the Phytoseiidae family were identified: Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) and Typhlodromus pyri (Scheuten). Amblyseius andersoni was found in all apple varieties analyzed in thi...

  4. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysa...

  5. Ácaros predadores (Acari em plantas nativas e cultivadas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predators mites (Acari in native and cultivated plants of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in twenty counties of the following regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul: Plain, Central Depression, Plateau and Coast Plain to find out the diversity of mite predators in these places. Forty-six vegetable species were sampled, thirty species of miles of the families Anystidae, Ascidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Phyloseiidae and Stigmaeidae were mel. The Phytoseiidae were the mite that presented the greatest diversity, being present in the majority of the sample plants. Most of the Phytoseiidae that were met belong to five species of the Euseius Wainstein, 1962 genus, the second genus of this family was Iphiseiodes DeLeon, 1966, with just one species. The Stigmaeidae come up as second family in number but fewer than Phytoseiidae. In this family, the most common mite belong to the Agistemus Sumers, 1960 genus. The biggest of the mites species (13 species, was met in Morus spp. (Moraceae and Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae; Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae; only one species of the mite was met in Campomanesia spp. (Myrtaceae, Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae and Rosa spp. (Rosaceae. In Alamanda spp.(Apocinaceae, Ficus spp. (Moraceae, Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae and Solanum spp. (Solanaceae were met mites predators. A dichotomic key is presented to separate the families, genus and species of the mites.

  6. Competência de peixes como predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of fish as predators of Aedes aegypti larvae, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a competência de peixes na predação de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foram testados machos e fêmeas de cinco espécies de peixe. Os testes de predação duravam cinco semanas para cada espécie. Cada ensaio compreendia quatro caixas testes e quatro caixas controles. Das caixas controle, duas tinham somente um peixe e as outras duas, apenas larvas. Cada caixa teste continha um peixe e larvas. Na primeira semana foram expostas 100 larvas em cada caixa, e a cada semana acrescentavam-se 100 larvas por caixa/dia, até se obter um máximo de 500 larvas/dia. Comprimento e peso dos peixes foram medidos semanalmente. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizadas 369.000 larvas no total. O Trichogaster trichopteros foi a única espécie em que ambos os sexos predaram 100% das larvas oferecidas. O Betta splendens deixou de predar apenas 15 larvas. Machos do Poecilia reticulata apresentaram baixa capacidade larvófaga quando comparados às fêmeas da mesma espécie. Em relação ao peso e tamanho o Betta splendens mostrou-se capaz de predar 523 larvas/grama/dia. CONCLUSÕES: Fêmeas e machos de Trichogaster trichopteros e de Astyanax fasciatus, e fêmeas de Betta splendens e de Poecillia sphenops foram os peixes que apresentaram maior competência para predar as larvas. Embora com competência menor, machos de Poecillia sphenops e fêmeas de Poecilia reticulata foram capazes de eliminar o número de larvas de Aedes aegypti que possam emergir durante 24 horas num criadouro, em condições naturais. Machos de Poecilia reticulata não foram predadores eficazes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fish as predators of the Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions. METHODS: The male and female of five different fish were included in the experiment. The tests to measure their consumption ability lasted five weeks for each species. Each trial involved four test tanks and four control tanks. Two control tanks

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE POLVOS DE ACERÍA ELÉCTRICA PRODUCIDOS EN VENEZUELA Y EVALUACIÓN PRELIMINAR DE SU LIXIVIABILIDAD CON ÁCIDOS ORGÁNICOS DILUIDOS

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    PEDRO DELVASTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron polvos de aceria cuyo analisis quimico revelo un contenido (en peso de: 27,0 % de Fe; 7,1 % de Mg; 4,9 % de Zn; 4,0 % de Ca y 0,5 % de Pb. La difraccion de rayos X y la espectroscopia infrarroja, permitio identificar en los polvos las siguientes fases: espinelas, Fe3O4, CaCO3, SiO2, ZnO y PbO. El analisis microscopico de estos residuos indico que estan formados por agregados de particulas esferoidales cuyo tamano varia entre 120 y 0,25 ¿Êm. La lixiviabilidad de los mismos se evaluo durante 28 dias en columnas de percolacion, empleando agua y disoluciones de acidos organicos como agentes lixiviantes. El objetivo fue evaluar el comportamiento del residuo bajo condiciones similares a las que generan los microorganismos naturales del suelo. Se encontro que la lixiviabilidad de Zn y Pb vario entre 80 y 16 mg mensuales por kilogramo de polvo de aceria.

  8. STUDIEREA INFORMATICII ÎN ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTUL PREUNIVERSITAR PRIN PRISMA METODELOR ŞI TEHNICILOR MODERNE DE PROGRAMARE

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    Angela GLOBA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available În articolul de faţă este abordat procesul didactico-istoric de studiere a tehnicilor de programare în ciclul preuniversitar din Republica Moldova. Se examinează procesul de dezvoltare şi modernizare a curriculumului disciplinar la Informatică în perioada 1985-2015, compartimentul Tehnici de programare. În atenţie este luată viziunea şi percepţia profesorilor de infor­matică şi a elevilor vizavi de procesul de predare-învăţare a compartimentului Tehnici de programare în învăţă­mântul preuniversitar, expus în cadrul unei chestionări reprezentative din punct de vedere geografic. STUDYING INFORMATICS IN PREUNIVERSITARY EDUCATION BY USING METHODSAND MODERN PROGRAMMING TEHNIQUESThis article aims at studying the historical-didactic process regarding the programming techniques in the pre­uni­versi­tary system in the Republic of Moldova. The development and modernization of the curriculum in Computer Science during 1985-2015 on programming techniques and methods is examined. The article is studying vision and perception of informatics teachers and Olympic students on Computer Science, conducted in a geographically representative question­naire, in relation to the teaching-learning process of the technique programming compartment in the preuniversitary education.

  9. Mitochondrial genome analysis of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and a revisit of the Metaseiulus occidentalis mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this study we sequenced and analysed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Chilean predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Chelicerata: Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). The 16 199 bp genome (79.8% AT) contains the standard set of 13 protein-coding and 24 RNA genes. Compared with the ancestral arthropod mtDNA pattern, the gene order is extremely reshuffled (35 genes changed position) and represents a novel arrangement within the arthropods. This is probably related to the presence of several large noncoding regions in the genome. In contrast with the mt genome of the closely related species Metaseiulus occidentalis (Phytoseiidae: Typhlodrominae) - which was reported to be unusually large (24 961 bp), to lack nad6 and nad3 protein-coding genes, and to contain 22 tRNAs without T-arms - the genome of P. persimilis has all the features of a standard metazoan mt genome. Consequently, we performed additional experiments on the M. occidentalis mt genome. Our preliminary restriction digests and Southern hybridization data revealed that this genome is smaller than previously reported. In addition, we cloned nad3 in M. occidentalis and positioned this gene between nad4L and 12S-rRNA on the mt genome. Finally, we report that at least 15 of the 22 tRNAs in the M. occidentalis mt genome can be folded into canonical cloverleaf structures similar to their counterparts in P. persimilis.

  10. TRASEUL CARIEREI DIDACTICE ŞI PARTICULARITĂŢILE EVOLUŢIEI PROFESIONALE

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    Otilia DANDARA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evoluţia în cariera didactică şi dezvoltarea profesională în acest domeniu este marcată de condiţii specifice exerci­tării profesiei: societatea nu apreciază la justa valoare munca specialiştilor în domeniul educaţiei, iar înşişi specialiştii în domeniul educaţiei consideră că munca lor are multiple inconvenienţe.Pornind de la această situaţie, am lansat ipoteza, că cei care au reuşit să avanseze ierarhic  în cariera educaţională  sunt mai motivaţi pentru predare şi pentru a rămâne în sistem. Cercetarea realizată prin metoda chestionarului a scos în evidenţă că profesorii, cei care realizează o evoluţie în carieră conform modelului orizontal, sunt motivaţi să facă pre­dare, fiindcă le place această  muncă. Managerii şcolari, care au făcut o carieră conform traseului vertical, sunt predispuşi să fie în continuare manageri, însă s-au îndepărtat de predare. Concluzionăm, deci, că nu modelul traseului evoluţiei în carieră este determinant pentru dezvoltarea profesională, ci particularităţile individuale  şi reprezentările persoanei despre progres şi succes.TEACHING CAREER PATH AND EVOLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PROFESSIONALCareer path evolution and professional development in the area are marked by some conditions which are specific for the job: the society does not appreciate too much the job of professionals in education, which in their opinion still has many difficulties. This situation supports our hypothesis that the people who have been able to advance in their educational career are more motivated to teach and to stay in the system. The questionnaire method of our research revealed that teachers who achieved a success in their careers according to the horizontal model are more motivated to teach and enjoy doing it. School managers who have made a career according to the vertical model are more likely to be managers than teachers. We conclude that individual

  11. Biologia de Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae predando Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Biology of Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Preying on Plutella x ylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Mauricélia Ferreira Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae é um predador encontrado em vários agroecossistemas, predando insetos pequenos e de tegumento mole. Seu alto potencial reprodutivo e elevada capacidade de busca o tornam capazes de predar ovos e larvas de Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae nas partes mais internas da cabeça do repolho, onde outros inimigos naturais não conseguem. Essas características podem favorecer a utilização desse predador no controle biológico dessa praga. Neste trabalho, o objetivo é avaliar o desenvolvimento, reprodução e capacidade de predação de C. claveri, quando ovos e larvas de P. xylostella foram ofertados em condições de laboratório. Foram avaliadas as seguintes dietas: 1 ovos; 2 larvas de segundo ínstar; 3 ovos + larvas de segundo ínstar. O desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das formas imaturas de C. claveri foi melhor nas dietas que continham ovos da presa. A oviposição e longevidade também foram maiores nessas dietas, independentemente da presença de larvas. Contudo, o tipo de dieta não afetou a razão sexual e o peso das larvas no oitavo dia de vida. Em média, cada larva de C. claveri foi capaz de predar 1611 ovos ou 135 larvas de segundo ínstar de P. xylostella durante seu desenvolvimento. O predador foi capaz de aumentar a população 218 vezes a cada 42 dias, alimentando-se, exclusivamente, de ovos da presa. Concluiu-se que o predador apresenta potencial para ser utilizado no controle biológico de P. xylostella.Ceraeochrysa claveri Navás (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae is a predator found in several agricultural ecosystems and it preys on small and soft body insects. Its high reproductive potential and forage capacity makes it able of preying eggs and larvae of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae internally hidden on cabbage head, where other natural enemies usually do not reach. These characteristics are important when choosing this predator to be used within

  12. Evaluación de estrategias de control biológico de Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en naranja Valencia

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    Karol Imbachi L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El daño ocasionado por los ácaros Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks y Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead en el cultivo de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. es reconocido tanto por el impacto económico como por el daño externo de los frutos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de agentes biológicos para el control de estas plagas en un cultivo comercial de naranja Valencia en el municipio de Caicedonia, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se usó un diseño de bloques completos al azar para evaluar los tratamientos siguientes: (1 liberación de especies de Phytoseiidae nativos (Neoseiulus anonymus, Neoseiulus californicus, Iphiseiodes zuluagai y Amblyseius herbicolus en poblaciones de 500 individuos/árbol; (2 liberación de larvas de Chrysoperla carnea (100 larvas/árbol; (3 aplicación localizada de cipermetrina 2 cm³/lt como tratamiento de exclusión de agentes benéficos; y (4 testigo consistente en el tratamiento utilizado por los agricultores (aplicación localizada de abamectina, 1.5 cm³/lt. Las liberaciones de las especies benéficas y las aplicaciones de los tratamientos se realizaron sobre racimos florales y frutos marcados en el tercio medio de cada árbol. Las evaluaciones de daños se realizaron cada semana hasta la cosecha. Los tratamientos de liberación de Phytoseiidae, liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron el menor daño de P. latus; el tratamiento de exclusión de benéficos demostró la importancia de los agentes controladores naturales sobre la plaga. En el manejo de P. oleivora, los tratamientos de liberación de larvas de C. carnea y aplicación de abamectina presentaron los mejores resultados con el menor daño en frutos. La población de P. oleivora ocasionó daños significativos en el tratamiento de liberación de ácaros Phytoseiidae y exclusión de benéficos.

  13. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of citriculture in Brazil, very little is known about mite populations in citrus crops in the Northern Region. In the municipality of Manaus, 12 sprayed sweet orange orchards were surveyed every two weeks during seven months to record mite species amount, and to describe the abundance and distribution of the most important species. The size and age of the orchards varied from 3,360 to 88,080 m² and seven to 25 years, respectively. In the fourteen sampling period, leaves, twigs and fruits were collected from 12 trees, one per orchard. In total, 3,360 leaves, 672 twigs and 1,344 fruits were sampled from 168 trees. Mites were manually extracted from the fruits, and by the washing method on leaves and twigs. We identified pests with the potential to cause economic loss. Fourteen species of phytophagous and mycophagous mites from Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae were recorded. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 and Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879, the two commonest phytophagous mites in other Brazilian regions were dominant, showing that local orchards are susceptible to their infestation. Eleven predatory mites were recorded, comprising 10% of the mite population, belonging to Phytoseiidae and Ascidae. Phytoseiidae was the richest family, with ten species. The results are discussed in relation to the temporal variation aspects and habitat use of the most important species. Long-term research encompassing chemical applications followed by evaluations of the mite community are necessary for a better management of the orchards, taking into consideration the seasonal phenology of key pests.Apesar da importância da citricultura no Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre as populações de ácaros em plantações de citros no norte do país. No município de Manaus, 12 pomares de laranja doce pulverizados foram avaliados a cada duas semanas, durante sete meses, para o registro de ácaros plantícolas e

  14. Biological and ecological characterization of two mites (Tetranychus Urticae and Phytoseiulus Persimilis) occurring in some agro-ecosystems; Caratterizzazione biologica ed ecologica di due acari (Tetranichus Urticae e Phytoseiulus Persimilis) interagenti in alcuni ecosistemi agrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvitti, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1995-12-01

    This work is a brief review of the actual knowledge about biological and ecological characteristics of two species of mites: Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina Tetranychidae) (two-spotted spider mite) and the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias Henriot (Acarina Phytoseiidae). Success obtained in biological control of spider mite, by mass release of P. persimilis, has increased the interest in biological and ecological study of these mites. Particularly, the following biological and ecological aspects of both P. persimilis and T. urticae are hereby discussed: reproductive biology; population dynamics (spider mites outbreaks) and natural regulation of the trophic interaction; feeding behaviour; biological control of two-spotted spider mite by P. persimilis. In this report experimental data obtained in laboratory have been integrated with bibliographic information concerning studies produced in natural conditions.

  15. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  16. ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY THROUGH POPULAR SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES

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    Ketevan KUPATADZE

    2017-07-01

    pedagogic denotă că o astfel de metodă de predare a Chimiei ecologice utilizând articole științifico-populare influențează pozitiv motivația elevilor și schimbă atitudinea lor față de poluarea mediului.

  17. Resistance to Wheat Curl Mite in Arthropod-Resistant Rye-Wheat Translocation Lines

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    Lina Maria Aguirre-Rojas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The wheat curl mite, Aceria toschiella (Keifer, and a complex of viruses vectored by A. toschiella substantially reduce wheat yields in every wheat-producing continent in the world. The development of A. toschiella-resistant wheat cultivars is a proven economically and ecologically viable method of controlling this pest. This study assessed A. toschiella resistance in wheat genotypes containing the H13, H21, H25, H26, H18 and Hdic genes for resistance to the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say and in 94M370 wheat, which contains the Dn7 gene for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov. A. toschiella populations produced on plants containing Dn7 and H21 were significantly lower than those on plants of the susceptible control and no different than those on the resistant control. Dn7 resistance to D. noxia and H21 resistance to M. destructor resulted from translocations of chromatin from rye into wheat (H21—2BS/2RL, Dn7—1BL/1RS. These results provide new wheat pest management information, indicating that Dn7 and H21 constitute resources that can be used to reduce yield losses caused by A. toschiella, M. destructor, D. noxia, and wheat streak mosaic virus infection by transferring multi-pest resistance to single sources of germplasm.

  18. Population-level effects of abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the predatory mite Neoseiulus baraki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Gondim, Manoel G C; Guedes, Raul N C; Oliveira, José E M

    2016-10-01

    The coconut production system, in which the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis is considered a key pest, provides an interesting model for integration of biological and chemical control. In Brazil, the most promising biological control agent for the coconut mite is the phytoseiid predator Neoseiulus baraki. However, acaricides are widely used to control the coconut mite, although they frequently produce unsatisfactory results. In this study, we evaluated the simultaneous direct effect of dry residue contact and contaminated prey ingestion of the main acaricides used on coconut palms (i.e., abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate) on life-history traits of N. baraki and their offspring. These acaricides are registered, recommended and widely used against A. guerreronis in Brazil, and they were tested at their label rates. The offspring of the exposed predators was also evaluated by estimating the instantaneous rate of population increase (r i ). Abamectin compromised female performance, whereas fenpyroximate did not affect the exposed females (F0). Nonetheless, fenpyroximate strongly compromised the offspring (F1) net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of population growth (r i ), and doubling time (DT). In contrast, fenpyroximate did not have such effects on the 2nd generation (F2) of predators with acaricide-exposed grandparents. Azadirachtin did not affect the predators, suggesting that this acaricide can be used in association with biological control by this predatory species. In contrast, the use of abamectin and fenpyroximate is likely to lead to adverse consequences in the biological control of A. guerreronis using N. baraki.

  19. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site.

  20. Volatile Metabolomic Composition of Vitex Species: Chemodiversity Insights and Acaricidal Activity

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    José G. de Sena Filho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Vitex genus (Lamiaceae produces a plethora of metabolites that include ecdysteroids and terpenoids, some of which have demonstrated insect repellent properties. The volatile composition of several members of this genus has not been chemically defined, as many taxa are endemic to remote ecosystems. In this study, leaves were collected from the northeast of Brazil from Vitex capitata, V. megapotamica, V. gardneriana, and V. rufescens plants and examined for their chemical profile via GC-MS/FID of essential oil extracts. The analyses showed a diversity of terpenoids. Of particular note were seven-member ring sesquiterpenes which were present in great abundance; a dendrogram showed clades separating by the production of bicyclogermacrene, aromadendrane and 5,10-cycloaromadendrane sesquiterpenoids for the four species. Comparison of volatile metabolite profiles to 13 other Vitex species showed strong similarities in the production of some monoterpenes, but varied by their production of larger terpenes, especially those with gem-dimethylcyclopropyl subunits on seven-member ring compounds. From this work, we suggest that the sesquiterpene skeleton with seven member rings is a good chemosystematic biomarker candidate for the Vitex genus. Separation using this biomarker was then validated using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat profiling. Lastly, experiments examining the toxicity of these four oils against the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis showed that only the oil of V. gardneriana had strong acaricidal activity, with an LC50 of 0.85 mg/mL, thus demonstrating its potential for use as a natural pesticide.

  1. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  2. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  3. Compatibility of organic farming treatments against Monosteira unicostata with non-target arthropod fauna of almond trees canopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Ramos, I.; Marcotegui, A.; Pascual, S.; Fernández, C.E.; Cobos, G.; González-Núñez, M.

    2017-07-01

    Field trials had shown that 1-2 applications of kaolin and potassium salts of fatty acids combined with thyme essential oil (PSTEO) reduced the abundance of the lace bug Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), an important pest of almond trees in the Mediterranean region. These products could be useful for the control of this pest in organic production of almonds, but higher number of applications could be necessary. However, the possible detrimental effects on the almond orchard ecosystem should be evaluated. In the present work, the effects observed on the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond trees canopy in those field assays are shown. First, a comprehensive report of the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond tree is provided. Regarding natural enemies, most of the predatory arthropods captured were spiders belonging to different families like Salticidae, Thomisidae, Philodromidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae or Oxyopidae. Other predatory families that appeared in significant numbers were Chrysopidae, Anthocoridae, Aeolothripidae, Coccinellidae, Phytoseiidae, Erythraeidae or Forficulidae. Among parasitoids, the most abundant families were Eulophidae, Scelionidae and Dryinidae. Kaolin reduced the abundance of natural enemies and other non-target arthropods as well as their diversity and number of species. On the contrary, PSTEO only produced a slight reduction in the number of natural enemies, whereas no effect was found on the diversity and species richness. These effects were observed despite the reduced number of applications, so greater effect is expected if its frequency is increased in order to achieve an efficient control of M. unicostata.

  4. Ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, A; Paulus, H F; Schausberger, P

    2004-12-01

    In greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (both Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on F. occidentalis by P. persimilis and N. californicus. Here, it was tested whether the relevance of these factors changes during predator ontogeny. First, the predator (protonymphs and adult females of P. persimilis and N. californicus): prey (F. occidentalis first instars) body size ratios were measured. Second, the aggressiveness of P. persimilis and N. californicus towards F. occidentalis was assessed. Third, survival, development and oviposition of P. persimilis and N. californicus with F. occidentalis prey was determined. The body size ranking was P. persimilis females > N. californicus females > P. persimilis protonymphs > N. californicus protonymphs. Neoseiulus californicus females were the most aggressive predators, followed by highly aggressive N. californicus protonymphs and moderately aggressive P. persimilis protonymphs. Phytoseiulus persimilis females did not attack thrips. Frankliniella occidentalis larvae are an alternative prey for juvenile N. californicus and P. persimilis, enabling them to reach adulthood. Females of N. californicus but not P. persimilis sustained egg production with thrips prey. Within the guild studied here, N. californicus females are the most harmful predators for F. occidentalis larvae, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis juveniles. Phytoseiulus persimilis females are harmless to F. occidentalis.

  5. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  6. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  7. Whole genome amplification of Chelex-extracted DNA from a single mite: a method for studying genetics of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakandla, Bhanu; Park, Yoonseong; Margolies, David

    2006-01-01

    We developed and optimized a method using Chelex DNA extraction followed by whole genome amplification (WGA) to overcome problems conducting molecular genetic studies due to the limited amount of DNA obtainable from individual small organisms such as predatory mites. The DNA from a single mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henrot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), isolated in Chelex suspension was subjected to WGA. More than 1000-fold amplification of the DNA was achieved using as little as 0.03 ng genomic DNA template. The DNA obtained by the WGA was used for polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. From WGA DNA, nuclear DNA intergenic spacers ITS1 and ITS2 and a mitochondrial DNA 12S marker were tested in three different geographical populations of the predatory mite: California, the Netherlands, and Sicily. We found a total of four different alleles of the 12S in the Sicilian population, but no polymorphism was identified in the ITS marker. The combination of Chelex DNA extraction and WGA is thus shown to be a simple and robust technique for examining molecular markers for multiple loci by using individual mites. We conclude that the methods, Chelex extraction of DNA followed by WGA, provide a large quantity of DNA template that can be used for multiple PCR reactions useful for genetic studies requiring the genotypes of individual mites.

  8. Testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator Phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kiffnie M; Opit, George P; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C

    2006-01-01

    The compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (Conserve SC), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium Pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'Amethyst 96.' Plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. There were three treatment variables, each at two levels: predators (released or not), spray application (water or Conserve SC at 2 ml/3.79 l), and timing of spray (1 day before or after predators were released). Twospotted spider mite populations then were sampled twice each week over a three-week period. The application or timing of spinosad had no effect on the ability of the predator to reduce the population of spider mites. Spider mite populations in the no-predator treatment continued to expand over the course of the experiment, while those in the predator-release treatment declined. We conclude that P. persimilis can be used in conjunction with spinosad on ivy geraniums without causing obvious detrimental effects to this predator or leading to a reduction in biological control.

  9. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  10. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  11. Agroforestry management and phytoseiid communities in vineyards in the South of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Marialivia; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Hernandes, Akashi Fabio; Douin, Martial; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-10-01

    This study deals with the long-term effect of agroforestry management (trees within vine crops) on communities of phytoseiid mites. Several plots were considered: vineyards co-planted with Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea, monocultures of vines and monocultures of S. domestica or P. pinea. All vine plots included two vine cultivars, Syrah and Grenache. Phytoseiid mites have been surveyed in these plots during several years within the previous 10 years. In 2010, samplings were again carried out in these same plots, from May to September, twice a month. Significantly higher densities of Phytoseiidae were observed on the cultivar Syrah (0.85 phytoseiids per leaf) than on Grenache (0.26 phytoseiids per leaf). Furthermore, significantly higher phytoseiid mite densities were observed in the monocultural grapevine plot than in the two co-planted ones. The main species found was Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus in all vine plots considered. However, Kampimodromus aberrans was observed in the grapevine plots co-planted with the two trees, but never in the monocultural vine plot. Surprisingly, this phytoseiid species was not found on the co-planted trees, nor in the neighbouring uncultivated vegetation. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain such an unexpected distribution. Furthermore, contrary to what has been observed previously, agroforestry management did not seem to favour phytoseiid mite development, especially on the Grenache cultivar. Again, some hypotheses are developed to explain such observations and density modifications.

  12. Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Renato A.; Reis, Paulo R.; Oliveira, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O. ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark and Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O. ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I. zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E. citrifolius was lower. For A. herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O. ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I. zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus. (author)

  13. ÁCAROS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL AGUACATE (Persea americana Mill EN LA COSTA CENTRAL DE PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Muñoz Marticorena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa central de Perú (Lima e Ica, se cultiva el aguacate con fines de exportación, especialmente la variedad Hass. Con el objetivo de conocer la diversidad de ácaros depredadores en huertos comerciales de aguacate, se realizaron recolectas en 6 lugares de la costa central, duran - te el 2010 al 2012. Se registraron 12 especies de la familia Phytoseiidae, de los cuales algunos tendrían potencial como depredadores eficien - tes de Oligonychus sp . (Guanilo et ál. 2012; estos son: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma, Ambly - seius chungas (Demmark y Muma, Amblyseiella setosa (Muma, Euseius emanus (El–Banhawy, Euseius concordis (Chant, Euseius stipulatus (Athias–Henriot, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias Henriot, Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, Neo - seiulus californicus (McGregor, Typhlodromina subtropica (Chant, Typhlodromus ( Antoseius evectus (Schusters y Aristadromips n.sp. Se con - firmó que la vegetación espontánea cumple un rol importante en la conservación de las especies halladas en este cultivo y que además la intro - ducción de un ácaro depredador exótico, como Euseius stipulatus, contribuyó significativamente con el control de la plaga durante la temporada de invierno.

  14. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  15. Toxicity of spiromesifen and natural acaricides to Tetranychus urticae koch and compatibility with Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vargas de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one important pest of cotton crop due to reductions in cotton yield and fiber quality. Thus, this work evaluated the toxicity of the synthetic acaricide spiromesifen and natural products on T. urticae and the compatibility with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Spiromesifen and the natural products Azadirachtin A/B, Azadirachtin 1%, Jatropha curcas L. and Ricinus communis L. oils were used at different concentrations; the leaf dipping method was employed. The mortality of T. urticae females and eggs was evaluated 48 and 96 h after treatment to calculate the lethal concentrations. The effect on P. macropilis was studied using the LC50s obtained to T. urticae. All acaricides tested were effective in controlling females and eggs of T. urticae. However, according to the LC50s and LC90s calculated, spiromesifen was the most toxic acaricide to females and J. curcas oil presented the higher toxicity to eggs. Spiromesifen, J. curcas oil and Azadiractina 1% caused side effects on P. macropilis. However, only espiromesifeno was classified as harmful to the predator, whereas Azadirachtin A/B and R. communis oil were slightly harmful. R. communis and Azadirachtin A/B were effective in controlling the two-spotted spider mite and promising for the management of this pest in cotton considering their low toxicity to the predator.

  16. Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids; Influencia da teia de Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) sobre os fitoseideos predadores associados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Renato A. [Bioagri Laboratorios Ltda., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: r.franco@bioagri.com.br; Reis, Paulo R. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Ecocentro], e-mail: paulo.rebelles@epamig.ufla.br; Zacarias, Mauricio S. [EMBRAPA Cafe, Lavras, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: zacarias@epamig.ufla.br; Oliveira, Daniel C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O. ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark and Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O. ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I. zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E. citrifolius was lower. For A. herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O. ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I. zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus. (author)

  17. Compatibility of organic farming treatments against Monosteira unicostata with non-target arthropod fauna of almond trees canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Ramos, I.; Marcotegui, A.; Pascual, S.; Fernández, C.E.; Cobos, G.; González-Núñez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials had shown that 1-2 applications of kaolin and potassium salts of fatty acids combined with thyme essential oil (PSTEO) reduced the abundance of the lace bug Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), an important pest of almond trees in the Mediterranean region. These products could be useful for the control of this pest in organic production of almonds, but higher number of applications could be necessary. However, the possible detrimental effects on the almond orchard ecosystem should be evaluated. In the present work, the effects observed on the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond trees canopy in those field assays are shown. First, a comprehensive report of the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond tree is provided. Regarding natural enemies, most of the predatory arthropods captured were spiders belonging to different families like Salticidae, Thomisidae, Philodromidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae or Oxyopidae. Other predatory families that appeared in significant numbers were Chrysopidae, Anthocoridae, Aeolothripidae, Coccinellidae, Phytoseiidae, Erythraeidae or Forficulidae. Among parasitoids, the most abundant families were Eulophidae, Scelionidae and Dryinidae. Kaolin reduced the abundance of natural enemies and other non-target arthropods as well as their diversity and number of species. On the contrary, PSTEO only produced a slight reduction in the number of natural enemies, whereas no effect was found on the diversity and species richness. These effects were observed despite the reduced number of applications, so greater effect is expected if its frequency is increased in order to achieve an efficient control of M. unicostata.

  18. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  19. Interaction between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae koch (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles R, Angelica; Plazas, Natali; Bustos R, Alexander; Cantor R, Fernando; Rodriguez, Daniel; Hilarion, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of ornamental crops. A species of predatory mite used for its control is Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). This research proposes the use of joint releases of the two cited predators for the control of the pest. Several situations leading to interaction were evaluated: high density of one predator and low density of the other one, being the prey present or absent. The scenario with predators in equal densities and in presence of the prey was also evaluated. When a predator is in higher density and the prey present, the predator with the lower density increases the interference with the consumption of preys by the predator with higher density. On the other hand, when the consumption of T. urticae reduces, intraguild predation increases. P. persimilis shows intraguild predation behavior when t. urticae is absent and N. californicus is present, consuming all developmental stages of its conspecific. Instead, N. californicus only feed on conspecific larvae, when the fitofagous was absent and P. persimilis was present. When the two predators were present in the same assemblage and with the same population density, the quantity of T. urticae consumed by both of them was not higher than the consumed one when each predator was present in separate way.

  20. [Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

    2009-04-01

    In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and

  1. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other.

  2. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON THE PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF P. PERSIMILIS, N. CALIFORNICUS AND N. FALLACIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vangansbeke, D; Verhoeven, R; De Clercq, P; Tirry, L; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in temperature and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two temperature regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant temperature) and DIF15 (variable temperature with day-night difference of 15°C). At mean temperatures of 25°C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean temperatures of 15°C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15°C and 25°C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean temperature of 25°C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that variable greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency

  4. Assessment of the interactions between two predator mites of Tetranychus urticae (Acariformes: Tetranychidae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica María Argüelles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae is one of the most important pests in ornamental cultures. Between the species most used for its control are Neoseilus sp. and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Knowing the effectivity and ages of the prefers prey of each species of predator. In this search purposed the management of the plague through the use of combined releases, is necessary to evaluate that could occur between them with the prey when they act together. With this aim, we evaluated any situations. For one side was evaluated when a predator with a second predator with more density for the first predator. This situation was analyzed in presence and with absence of its prey. For other side, was evaluated the interactions of both predators are presents at the same density and with the prey. In the fist situation in presence of the prey was observe that increase the age of predator in minor density also increase the interference over the consumption of the high population’s predator over the prey. Moreover when decreased the T. urticae’s consumption increased the intraguild consumption. P. persimilis in absence of T. urticae and in presence of N. californicus approve a behavior of intraguild predation over all the ages of its cospecifics, while that N. californicus only consumed coespecific’s larvae in the phytofagous absence and in presence of  P. persimilis.  When both predators were in the same test at the same population’s density, was not observe a higher consumption of T. urticae that when each predator act for its way.

  5. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.

  6. Egg hatching response to a range of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation doses for four predatory mites and the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveos, Dimitrios S; Suzuki, Takeshi; Terzidou, Anastasia; Kokkari, Anastasia; Floros, George; Damos, Petros; Kouloussis, Nikos A

    2017-01-01

    Egg hatchability of four predatory mites-Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Iphiseius [Amblyseius] degenerans Berlese, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, and Euseius finlandicus Oudemans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)-and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) was determined under various UV-B doses either in constant darkness (DD) or with simultaneous irradiation using white light. Under UV-B irradiation and DD or simultaneous irradiation with white light, the predator's eggs hatched in significantly lower percentages than in the control non-exposed eggs, which indicates deleterious effects of UV-B on embryonic development. In addition, higher hatchability percentages were observed under UV-B irradiation and DD in eggs of the predatory mites than in eggs of T. urticae. This might be caused by a higher involvement of an antioxidant system, shield effects by pigments or a mere shorter duration of embryonic development in predatory mites than in T. urticae, thus avoiding accumulative effects of UV-B. Although no eggs of T. urticae hatched under UV-B irradiation and DD, variable hatchability percentages were observed under simultaneous irradiation with white light, which suggests the involvement of a photoreactivation system that reduces UV-B damages. Under the same doses with simultaneous irradiation with white light, eggs of T. urticae displayed higher photoreactivation and were more tolerant to UV-B than eggs of the predatory mites. Among predators variation regarding the tolerance to UV-B effects was observed, with eggs of P. persimilis and I. degenerans being more tolerant to UV-B radiation than eggs of A. swirskii and E. finlandicus.

  7. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicetic; Watson, D M; Beattie, G A; Meats, A; Zheng, J

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. The results showed that 0.5% PSO applied fortnightly to roses gave excellent protection from T urticae infestation when the mite population was not already established. However, PSO applied after roses were infested with T. urticae above the economic threshold only stabilised populations without reducing them below that threshold. Populations of P. persimilis in the upper and lower canopies were unchanged after two sprays of PSO at 7-day intervals, and application of PSO to the upper canopy was as effective in controlling T. urticae in the presence of P persimilis as spraying the entire plant. Combining PSO with P. persimilis gave better control of T. urticae than using P. persimilis alone. The most cost-effective use of PSO in the presence of P. persimilis is, therefore, to apply spray only to the upper canopy. This will not affect control of powdery mildew with PSO. Comparison of a control program for T urticae based on the monitored use of synthetic miticides with that based on calendar application of PSO revealed that both gave equally effective control. The benefits of combining PSO and P. persimilis in an integrated pest management program for T. urticae on roses over a program based on synthetic fungicides are discussed.

  8. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  10. Species diversity of phytoseiid mites on different ecosystems in Sari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Omidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mites of the Phytoseiidae family have been extensively studied as biological control agents of different mites and insect pests. Some species also feed on nematodes, fungal spores, pollen and exudates from plants and insects. About 2,300 phytoseiid species belonging to 90 genera have been described in this family (Chant and McMurtry 2007. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to the collection and identification of the predaceous phytoseiid mites in Iran (Rahmani et al. 2010. Despite some studies on phytoseiid mites in Iran, our knowledge remains limited about their fauna and diversity in Mazandaran province. The data of these studies showed that until recently, only 75 species were reported from Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the species diversity of Phytoseiidae and access to effective predatory mites for biological control of injurious mite pests in Sari, the center of Mazandaran province (Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, 35 ° 47'-36 ° 35' N, 50 ° 34'-54 ° 10' E Materials and methods Samples were taken from 80 plant species belonging to 46 plant families including forest trees, orchards and farm crops representing three types of ecosystems from September 2011 to October 2012. Harvested samples of each plant were separately collected in plastic bags and labeled with region and date of collection. The bags were transported to the laboratory on the same day and stored in a refrigerator at about 4°C for up to a week, until the materials washed for mite extraction. Samples were composed of leaves, stems and shoots of different ages and the number of leaves per sample varied between plant species. In order to assimilate the samples, a volume nearly equal mass of each sample were put in a two-liter water container. The mites were floated on water by adding 1.5 liters of tap water and a few droplets of detergent. The plant leaves and shoots were shaken for several times until the mites fall from

  11. Seasonal variation in the populations of Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

  12. Compatibility of organic farming treatments against Monosteira unicostata with non-target arthropod fauna of almond trees canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sánchez-Ramos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Field trials had shown that 1-2 applications of kaolin and potassium salts of fatty acids combined with thyme essential oil (PSTEO reduced the abundance of the lace bug Monosteira unicostata (Mulsant & Rey (Hemiptera: Tingidae, an important pest of almond trees in the Mediterranean region. These products could be useful for the control of this pest in organic production of almonds, but higher number of applications could be necessary. However, the possible detrimental effects on the almond orchard ecosystem should be evaluated. In the present work, the effects observed on the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond trees canopy in those field assays are shown. First, a comprehensive report of the non-target arthropod fauna of the almond tree is provided. Regarding natural enemies, most of the predatory arthropods captured were spiders belonging to different families like Salticidae, Thomisidae, Philodromidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae or Oxyopidae. Other predatory families that appeared in significant numbers were Chrysopidae, Anthocoridae, Aeolothripidae, Coccinellidae, Phytoseiidae, Erythraeidae or Forficulidae. Among parasitoids, the most abundant families were Eulophidae, Scelionidae and Dryinidae. Kaolin reduced the abundance of natural enemies and other non-target arthropods as well as their diversity and number of species. On the contrary, PSTEO only produced a slight reduction in the number of natural enemies, whereas no effect was found on the diversity and species richness. These effects were observed despite the reduced number of applications, so greater effect is expected if its frequency is increased in order to achieve an efficient control of M. unicostata.

  13. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  14. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  15. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  16. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  17. Comparação econômica entre controle biológico e químico para o manejo de ácaro-vermelho em macieira Economic comparison of biological and chemical control in the management of red spider mites in apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae, é uma importante praga na cultura da macieira em Fraiburgo - SC, e o controle biológico aplicado foi implantado em meados dos anos 90. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os benefícios econômicos da utilização do controle biológico no manejo do ácaro-vermelho. A avaliação foi realizada em dois pomares comerciais de macieiras. Em um deles, foi implantado o controle biológico aplicado de ácaros, baseado na liberação do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, seleção de inseticidas e manejo de ervas invasoras, e o outro pomar seguiu o manejo convencional de artrópodes, baseado na aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de insetos, ácaros fitófagos e ervas invasoras. A análise econômica mostrou que os custos com mão-de-obra e máquinas foram semelhantes em ambos os pomares, entretanto os custos com acaricidas foram significativamente inferiores no pomar onde o manejo foi o controle biológico, demonstrando que, apesar da necessidade de investimentos em instalações para a criação do ácaro predador e custos de manutenção das mesmas, a estratégia biológica foi economicamente viável.Red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae is a significant pest in apple tree in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina (SC and applied biological control was implemented in the mid-nineties. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic benefits of biological control in the management of red spider mite. The assessment was carried out in two commercial orchards, one of which was subjected to biological control of spider mite by releasing the predator Neoseiulus californicus, insecticide selection and weed management, and the other to conventional arthropod management, based on the application of chemicals to control insects, phytofagous mites and weed. Economic analysis showed that the costs for labor and machines were

  18. Phytoseiulus persimilis response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a function of mite-days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Margolies, David C; Nechols, James R; Loughin, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), uses plant volatiles (i.e., airborne chemicals) triggered by feeding of their herbivorous prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), to help locate prey patches. The olfactory response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants varies in direct relation to the population growth pattern of T. urticae on the plant; P. persimilis responds to plants until the spider mite population feeding on a plant collapses, after which infested plants do not attract predators. It has been suggested that this represents an early enemy-free period for T. urticae before the next generation of females is produced. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind the diminished response of predators is due to extensive leaf damage caused by T. urticae feeding, which reduces the production of volatiles irrespective of the collapse of T. urticae population on the plant. To test this hypothesis we investigated how the response of P. persimilis to prey-infested plants is affected by: 1) initial density of T. urticae, 2) duration of infestation, and 3) corresponding leaf damage due to T. urticae feeding. Specifically, we assessed the response of P. persimilis to plants infested with two T. urticae densities (20 or 40 per plant) after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or 14 days. We also measured leaf damage on these plants. We found that predator response to T. urticae-infested plants can be quantified as a function of mite-days, which is a cumulative measure of the standing adult female mite population sampled and summed over time. That is, response to volatiles increased with increasing numbers of T. urticae per plant or with the length of time plant was infested by T. urticae, at least as long at the leaves were green. Predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only 20 spider mites. This suggests that the enemy-free period might only provide a limited window of opportunity for T. urticae

  19. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs in central and south central Florida were sampled for non-phytoseiid mesostigmatid mites. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vine or ground cover plants were sampled monthly in five of the seven orchards. Two of the seven orchards (Mixon I and II) were on full herbicide programs and vines and ground cover plants were absent. A total of 2,655 mites (26 species) within the families: Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae were identified. A total of 685 mites in the genus Asca (nine species: family Ascidae) were collected from within tree samples, 79 from vine or ground cover plants. Six species of Blattisociidae were collected: Aceodromus convolvuli, Blattisocius dentriticus, B. keegani, Cheiroseius sp. near jamaicensis, Lasioseius athiashenriotae and L. dentatus. A total of 485 Blattisociidae were collected from within tree samples compared with 167 from vine or ground cover plants. Low numbers of Laelapidae and Macrochelidae were collected from within tree samples. One Zygoseius furciger (Pachylaelapidae) was collected from Eleusine indica. Four species of Melicharidae were identified from 34 mites collected from within tree samples and 1,190 from vine or ground cover plants: Proctolaelaps lobatus was the most abundant species with 1,177 specimens collected from seven ground cover plants. One Phorytocarpais fimetorum (Parasitidae) was collected from inner leaves and four from twigs. Species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Melicharidae, Laelapidae and Pachylaelapidae were collected from 31 of the 82 vine or ground cover plants sampled, representing only a small fraction of the total number of Phytoseiidae collected from the same plants. Including the

  20. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 e Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: II - Spirodiclofen e Azocyclotin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: II - Spirodiclofen and Azocyclotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp. por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, doença responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Ácaros da família Phytoseiidae, de várias espécies, são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga com spirodiclofen e azocyclotin, e o impacto sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos; em casa-de-vegetação foi avaliada a persistência no controle às duas espécies de ácaros-praga; e em campo foi avaliada a eficiência apenas no controle de B. phoenicis. Os bioensaios foram realizados em arenas de folhas destacadas. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e final de incubação. Os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos aos oito dias, e a persistência até 30 dias após a aplicação. A seletividade aos fitoseídeos foi avaliada, pelo efeito na mortalidade e reprodução de fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Spirodiclofen e azocyclotin (SC mostraram eficiente ação ovicida, principalmente para ovos de B. phoenicis no início de incubação. Para ovos de O. ilicis, somente o spirodiclofen apresentou efeito ovicida. Em geral, os efeitos tópico e residual associados melhoraram a eficiência dos produtos no controle das fases pós-embrionárias de ambas as espécies. O spirodiclofen apresentou seletividade aos ácaros predadores, já o azocyclotin foi nocivo. Em campo, ambos os acaricidas mostram-se altamente eficientes na redução de todas as fases pós-embrionárias do ácaro B. phoenicis, principalmente nas folhas.The mite Brevipalpus

  1. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    . Summarizing, the modern practices in the use of the auxiliary fuels, implemented in the AHMSA blast furnaces, have derived benefits, succeeding in diminishing the productions costs in the pig iron production process, faced to the true need of standing out in the even more competitive world of iron and steel industry of the world. [Espanol] Altos Hornos de Mexico es una industria siderurgica integrada al Grupo Acereros del Norte, localizada en la ciudad de Monclova Coahuila, contando con una capacidad anual instalada de 3.1 MMT de acero liquido. Dentro de sus instalaciones, AHMSA cuenta con el alto horno de mayor capacidad instalado en Mexico, el alto horno No. 5, el cual tiene un volumen util de 2,163 metros cubicos disenado para producir 4,800 toneladas de arrabio por dia. La meta basica a lograr en las operaciones involucradas en la elaboracion de acero via elaboracion de arrabio en el alto horno, es la produccion de metal caliente al mas bajo costo posible y dentro de los requerimientos de calidad especificado por las acerias. El mas importante criterio para la medicion del exito alcanzado es el consumo de combustible por tonelada de arrabio producida, siendo el coque el principal combustible alimentado al alto horno y por ende el que mayor impacto tiene sobre el costo final del producto. AHMSA contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico, la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivadas del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones mayores de 2.6 MMT de acero liquido. En respuesta a esto, y ante la verdadera necesidad de disminuir los costos de produccion en el proceso de elaboracion de arrabio, se han implementado nuevas practicas en el uso de los combustibles auxiliares que sustituyan en parte el consumo de coque metalurgico como fuente de energia en el proceso del alto horno. El uso del gas natural, combustoleo y el incremento paulatino de la temperatura de soplo caliente, han

  2. Energy saving in the pig iron production in the blast furnace no. 5; Ahorro de energia en la produccion de arrabio en el alto horno No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Diaz, Ricardo A.; J Quiroz, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rita Patricia; Banuelos Garza, Yolanda [Altos Hornos de Mexico, S. A., Coahuila (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    . Summarizing, the modern practices in the use of the auxiliary fuels, implemented in the AHMSA blast furnaces, have derived benefits, succeeding in diminishing the productions costs in the pig iron production process, faced to the true need of standing out in the even more competitive world of iron and steel industry of the world. [Espanol] Altos Hornos de Mexico es una industria siderurgica integrada al Grupo Acereros del Norte, localizada en la ciudad de Monclova Coahuila, contando con una capacidad anual instalada de 3.1 MMT de acero liquido. Dentro de sus instalaciones, AHMSA cuenta con el alto horno de mayor capacidad instalado en Mexico, el alto horno No. 5, el cual tiene un volumen util de 2,163 metros cubicos disenado para producir 4,800 toneladas de arrabio por dia. La meta basica a lograr en las operaciones involucradas en la elaboracion de acero via elaboracion de arrabio en el alto horno, es la produccion de metal caliente al mas bajo costo posible y dentro de los requerimientos de calidad especificado por las acerias. El mas importante criterio para la medicion del exito alcanzado es el consumo de combustible por tonelada de arrabio producida, siendo el coque el principal combustible alimentado al alto horno y por ende el que mayor impacto tiene sobre el costo final del producto. AHMSA contemplo dentro de su plan estrategico, la disminucion de produccion de sus plantas coquizadoras derivadas del envejecimiento natural de sus hornos, consecuencia de esto se hace inminente el deficit de coque para producciones mayores de 2.6 MMT de acero liquido. En respuesta a esto, y ante la verdadera necesidad de disminuir los costos de produccion en el proceso de elaboracion de arrabio, se han implementado nuevas practicas en el uso de los combustibles auxiliares que sustituyan en parte el consumo de coque metalurgico como fuente de energia en el proceso del alto horno. El uso del gas natural, combustoleo y el incremento paulatino de la temperatura de soplo caliente, han