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Sample records for physiology give lianas

  1. Seasonal differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical seasonal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Bongers, Frans

    2009-08-01

    Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in seasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage in seasonal tropical forests, which may explain pan-tropical liana distributions. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the wet and dry seasons in a tropical seasonal forest in Xishuangbanna, China. We found that, during the wet season, lianas had significantly higher CO(2) assimilation per unit mass (A(mass)), nitrogen concentration (N(mass)), and delta(13)C values, and lower leaf mass per unit area (LMA) than trees, indicating that lianas have higher assimilation rates per unit leaf mass and higher integrated water-use efficiency (WUE), but lower leaf structural investments. Seasonal variation in CO(2) assimilation per unit area (A(area)), phosphorus concentration per unit mass (P(mass)), and photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE), however, was significantly lower in lianas than in trees. For instance, mean tree A(area) decreased by 30.1% from wet to dry season, compared with only 12.8% for lianas. In contrast, from the wet to dry season mean liana delta(13)C increased four times more than tree delta(13)C, with no reduction in PNUE, whereas trees had a significant reduction in PNUE. Lianas had higher A(mass) than trees throughout the year, regardless of season. Collectively, our findings indicate that lianas fix more carbon and use water and nitrogen more efficiently than trees, particularly during seasonal drought, which may confer a competitive advantage to lianas during the dry season, and thus may explain their high relative abundance in seasonal tropical forests.

  2. No evidence that elevated CO2 gives tropical lianas an advantage over tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, David C; Winter, Klaus; Burnham, Robyn J; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that lianas are increasing in size and abundance relative to trees in neotropical forests. As a result, forest dynamics and carbon balance may be altered through liana-induced suppression of tree growth and increases in tree mortality. Increasing atmospheric CO2 is hypothesized to be responsible for the increase in neotropical lianas, yet no study has directly compared the relative response of tropical lianas and trees to elevated CO2 . We explicitly tested whether tropical lianas had a larger response to elevated CO2 than co-occurring tropical trees and whether seasonal drought alters the response of either growth form. In two experiments conducted in central Panama, one spanning both wet and dry seasons and one restricted to the dry season, we grew liana (n = 12) and tree (n = 10) species in open-top growth chambers maintained at ambient or twice-ambient CO2 levels. Seedlings of eight individuals (four lianas, four trees) were grown in the ground in each chamber for at least 3 months during each season. We found that both liana and tree seedlings had a significant and positive response to elevated CO2 (in biomass, leaf area, leaf mass per area, and photosynthesis), but that the relative response to elevated CO2 for all variables was not significantly greater for lianas than trees regardless of the season. The lack of differences in the relative response between growth forms does not support the hypothesis that elevated CO2 is responsible for increasing liana size and abundance across the neotropics.

  3. Growth and Physiological Response of Tropical Lianas and Trees to Elevated CO2 and Soil Nutrient Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, D. C.; Morrison, E.; Quebbeman, A.; Turner, B. L.; Winter, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent increase in the abundance and size of native lianas (woody climbing vines) in tropical forests may lead to changes in species community composition and decreased carbon storage capacity (Schnitzer & Bongers 2011). Lianas are associated with an increased risk of tree mortality and decreased tree growth due to intense above and belowground competition with trees for light, water, and soil nutrients (Schnitzer & Bongers 2002). Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition are potential drivers of the liana increase. Phosphorus availability, often assumed to be of key importance in constraining the productivity of lowland tropical forests, may decline as a consequence of increased nitrogen deposition (Matson et al. 1999). Our goal is to determine whether there is any difference in the growth and physiological response of tropical lianas and trees grown under elevated CO2, and whether any response differs as soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability change. We investigated locally abundant tropical liana and tree species grown in open-top chambers in Panama, half of which were maintained at twice-ambient levels of CO2. In two separate studies, seedlings were grown in pots that had either reduced soil nitrogen or phosphorus. Half of the pots in each experiment then received weekly additions of a nutrient mixture to return the soil nutrients to current levels found in neotropical forests. We found that elevated CO2 alone leads to a larger relative increase in the biomass of lianas than trees. The relative effect of elevated CO2 on the increase in liana biomass was much larger under low soil phosphorus availability. Nitrogen fertilization in combination with elevated CO2 led to a greater increase in tree height compared to lianas, but no other differences in growth response were found between the two plant types. These results suggest the liana increase will continue as elevated CO2 increases and phosphorus limitation is strengthened by increasing

  4. Ecology of lianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Burnham, R.J.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a

  5. Water-use advantage for lianas over trees in tropical seasonal forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.J.; Cao, K.F.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Fan, Z.X.; Zhang, J.L.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Lianas exhibit peak abundance in tropical forests with strong seasonal droughts, the eco-physiological mechanisms associated with lianas coping with water deficits are poorly understood. •We examined soil water partitioning, sap flow, and canopy eco-physiological properties for 99 individuals of 15

  6. Lianas always outperform tree seedlings regardless of soil nutrients: results from a long-term fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Sarah C; Wright, S Joseph; Santiago, Louis S

    2015-07-01

    Lianas are a prominent growth form in tropical forests, and there is compelling evidence that they are increasing in abundance throughout the Neotropics. While recent evidence shows that soil resources limit tree growth even in deep shade, the degree to which soil resources limit lianas in forest understories, where they coexist with trees for decades, remains unknown. Regardless, the physiological underpinnings of soil resource limitation in deeply shaded tropical habitats remain largely unexplored for either trees or lianas. Theory predicts that lianas should be more limited by soil resources than trees because they occupy the quick-return end of the "leaf economic spectrum," characterized by high rates of photosynthesis, high specific leaf area, short leaf life span, affinity to high-nutrient sites, and greater foliar nutrient concentrations. To address these issues, we asked whether soil resources (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), alone or in combination, applied experimentally for more than a decade would cause significant changes in the morphology or physiology of tree and liana seedlings in a lowland tropical forest. We found evidence for the first time that phosphorus limits the photosynthetic performance of both trees and lianas in deeply shaded understory habitats. More importantly, lianas always showed significantly greater photosynthetic capacity, quenching, and saturating light levels compared to trees across all treatments. We found little evidence for nutrient x growth form interactions, indicating that lianas were not disproportionately favored in nutrient-rich habitats. Tree and liana seedlings differed markedly for six key morphological traits, demonstrating that architectural differences occurred very early in ontogeny prior to lianas finding a trellis (all seedlings were self-supporting). Overall, our results do not support nutrient loading as a mechanism of increasing liana abundance in the Neotropics. Rather, our finding that lianas

  7. Introducing tropical lianas in a vegetation model

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    Verbeeck, Hans; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Brugnera, Manfredo di Procia e.; Krshna Moorthy Paravathi, Sruthi; Pausenberger, Nancy; Roels, Jana; kearsley, elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are essential components of the earth system and play a critical role for land surface feedbacks to climate change. These forests are currently experiencing large-scale structural changes, including the increase of liana abundance and biomass. This liana proliferation might have large impacts on the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However no single global vegetation model currently accounts for lianas. The TREECLIMBERS project (ERC starting grant) aims to introduce for the first time lianas into a vegetation model. The project attempts to reach this challenging goal by performing a global meta-analysis on liana data and by collecting new data in South American forests. Those new and existing datasets form the basis of a new liana plant functional type (PFT) that will be included in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). This presentation will show an overview of the current progress of the TREECLIMBERS project. Liana inventory data collected in French Guiana along a forest disturbance gradient show the relation between liana abundance and disturbance. Xylem water isotope analysis indicates that trees and lianas can rely on different soil water resources. New modelling concepts for liana PFTs will be presented and in-situ leaf gas exchange and sap flow data are used to parameterize water and carbon fluxes for this new PFT. Finally ongoing terrestrial LiDAR observations of liana infested forest will be highlighted.

  8. LIANA Model Integration System - architecture, user interface design and application in MOIRA DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hofman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The LIANA Model Integration System is the shell application supporting model integration and user interface functionality required for the rapid construction and run-time support of the environmental decision support systems (EDSS. Internally it is constructed as the framework of C++ classes and functions covering most common tasks performed by the EDSS (such as managing of and alternative strategies, running of the chain of the models, supporting visualisation of the data with tables and graphs, keeping ranges and default values for input parameters etc.. EDSS is constructed by integration of LIANA system with the models or other applications such as GIS or MAA software. The basic requirements to the model or other application to be integrated is minimal - it should be a Windows or DOS .exe file and receive input and provide output as text files. For the user the EDSS is represented as the number of data sets describing scenario or giving results of evaluation of scenario via modelling. Internally data sets correspond to the I/O files of the models. During the integration the parameters included in each the data sets as well as specifications necessary to present the data set in GUI and export or import it to/from text file are provided with MIL_LIANA language. Visual C++ version of LIANA has been developed in the frame of MOIRA project and is used as the basis for the MOIRA Software Framework - the shell and user interface component of the MOIRA Decision Support System. At present, the usage of LIANA for the creation of a new EDSS requires changes to be made in its C++ code. The possibility to use LIANA for the new EDSS construction without extending the source code is achieved by substituting MIL_LIANA with the object-oriented LIANA language.

  9. The past, present, and potential future of liana ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Putz, F.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Kroening, K.

    2014-01-01

    Lianas are a conspicuous component of many forests, particularly in the tropics. Lianas also compete intensely with trees for belowground resources – primarily water and nutrients. Liana publication rate was extremely low until the 1980s, after which it began a rapid rise. The increase in liana abun

  10. The past, present, and potential future of liana ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Putz, F.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Kroening, K.

    2014-01-01

    Lianas are a conspicuous component of many forests, particularly in the tropics. Lianas also compete intensely with trees for belowground resources – primarily water and nutrients. Liana publication rate was extremely low until the 1980s, after which it began a rapid rise. The increase in liana

  11. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  12. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  13. Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Lianas (woody climbers) and trees are the most important life-forms in most tropical forests. In many of these forests lianas are abundant and diverse and their presence is often a key physiognomic feature. Lianas contribute substantially to the floristic, structural and functional diversity of trop

  14. Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Lianas (woody climbers) and trees are the most important life-forms in most tropical forests. In many of these forests lianas are abundant and diverse and their presence is often a key physiognomic feature. Lianas contribute substantially to the floristic, structural and functional diversity of trop

  15. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  16. How liana loads alter tree allometry in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Dias, de Arildo; Santos, Dos Karin; Santos, Dos Flavio Antonio Maës; Martins, Fernando R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense competition with lianas (wood climbers) can limit tree growth, reproduction, and survival. However, the negative effects of liana loads on tree allometry have not yet been addressed. We investigated the hypothesis that liana loading on tree crown alters tree’s allometry, expressed through sl

  17. How liana loads alter tree allometry in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Dias, de Arildo; Santos, Dos Karin; Santos, Dos Flavio Antonio Maës; Martins, Fernando R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense competition with lianas (wood climbers) can limit tree growth, reproduction, and survival. However, the negative effects of liana loads on tree allometry have not yet been addressed. We investigated the hypothesis that liana loading on tree crown alters tree’s allometry, expressed through

  18. Lianas and trees in tropical forests in south China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Lianas (woody climbers) and trees are the most important life-forms in most tropical forests. In many of these forests lianas are abundant and diverse and their presence is often a key physiognomic feature. Lianas contribute substantially to the floristic, structural and functional diversity of

  19. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  20. Maintenance of Leaf Water Potential by Tropical Dry Forest Tree and Liana Species During a Severe Drought

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    Werden, L. K.; Waring, B. G.; Smith, C. M.; Powers, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystems in northwestern Costa Rica experienced the most severe drought on record since 1950, in which precipitation in the first four months of the rainy season (May-August) was 43% of normal. We used this opportunity to quantify the impact of soil water availability on the maintenance of diurnal leaf water potential (LWP) in a diverse set of tree and liana taxa. Across sites spanning a large soil texture and water potential gradient, we measured pre-dawn (pdLWP) and mid-day leaf water potential (mdLWP) of 79 individuals of 14 tree and 7 liana species both during the peak of the drought (early August), and well after the onset of wet season rains (late September). In addition, we quantified a suite of resource-acquisition related leaf traits for every individual. The maintenance of leaf water potential throughout the day (deltaLWP = mdLWP - pdLWP) varied dramatically among species (Figure 1). During the drought, evergreen species experienced significantly higher drought stress overall (larger deltaLWP) than deciduous species, but trees did not differ from lianas in their responses. The ability of TDF trees or lianas to maintain LWP did not depend on site-specific soil water potential, indicating that soil water retaining characteristics may not be good predictors of overall community responses to drought. We found that TDF tree and liana species have a wide range of responses to severe drought, and future integration of both leaf trait and physiological data (turgor loss point, stomatal conductance) will allow us to determine if specific leaf traits or physiological metrics are good predictors of tree and liana drought responses in TDF.

  1. Myxomycetes associated with pipevine, a temperate liana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho IL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinevine (Aristolochia macrophylla Lam., a climbing woody vine native to temperate forests of eastern North America, is morphologically similar to many of the lianas characteristic of moist tropical forests. In August 2010, samples of dead pinevine collected from a study site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were used to prepare a series of 50 moist chamber cultures. Thirty-seven of the 50 cultures (74% yielded evidence (either plasmodia or fruiting bodies of myxomycetes. Fourteen species representing seven genera were recorded, with members of the Trichiales (41% of all records and Physarales (49% of all records the most abundant.

  2. The struggle of giving up personal goals: affective, physiological, and cognitive consequences of an action crisis.

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    Brandstätter, Veronika; Herrmann, Marcel; Schüler, Julia

    2013-12-01

    A critical phase in goal striving occurs when setbacks accumulate and goal disengagement becomes an issue. This critical phase is conceptualized as an action crisis and assumed to be characterized by an intrapsychic conflict in which the individual becomes torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. Our theorizing converges with Klinger's conceptualization of goal disengagement as a process, rather than a discrete event. Two longitudinal field studies tested and found support for the hypothesis that an action crisis not only compromises an individual's psychological and physiological well-being, but also dampens the cognitive evaluation of the respective goal. In Study 3, marathon runners experiencing an action crisis in their goal of running marathons showed a stronger cortisol secretion and a lower performance in the race 2 weeks later. Results are interpreted in terms of action-phase-specific mindsets with a focus on self-regulatory processes in goal disengagement.

  3. Liana habitat and host preferences in northern temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Grundel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Lianas and other climbers are important ecological and structural components of forest communities. Like other plants, their abundance in a given habitat depends on a variety of factors, such as light, soil moisture and nutrients. However, since lianas require external support, host tree characteristics also influence their distribution. Lianas are conspicuous life forms in tropical regions, but in temperate areas, where they are less prominent, little is known about factors that control their distributions in these forests. We surveyed the climbing plant species in 20 mature (100 years and greater) forested habitats in the Midwest USA at a variety of levels from simple presence/absence, to ground layer abundances, to those species that had ascended trees. We also examined attributes of the tree species with climbers attached to them. Using cluster analysis, we distinguished five different tree communities in our survey locations. We determined that 25% of the trees we surveyed had one or more lianas attached to it, with Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper) the most common climbing species encountered. Canopy cover and soil attributes both influenced climber species presence/absence and ground layer climber abundance. The proportion of liana species of a given climbing type (roots, stem twiner, tendril climber) was significantly related to the DBH of the host tree, with more root climbers and fewer stem and tendril climbers on large trees. In general, the DBH of climbing lianas had a significant positive relationship to the DBH of the host tree; however this varied by the identity of the liana and the tree species. The greater the DBH of the host tree, the higher the probability that it was colonized by one or more lianas, with tree species such as Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Quercus alba (white oak) being more susceptible to liana colonization than others. Finally, some liana species such as Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet) showed a

  4. Diversity and field status of lianas in Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalawmkima Darlong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of lianas in Tripura, India was prepared which enumerates about 60 species of lianas in the state. In this present paper, diversity of lianas in Tripura was analyzed by field exploration from October 2010 to February 2013.  Out of the total 60 species enumerated, 34 species are provided with their phenology and places of occurrence . Field photographs are also given to facilitate their easy identification. Other 26 species could not be traced in the field and are represented only by herbarium specimens.  

  5. Flower morphology and anatomy of Bignoniaceae liana species

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Luiz Antonio de; Santos, Gracielli de Oliveira; Moscheta,Ismar Sebastião

    2010-01-01

    Lianas can be invasive in forests, interfering in the arboreal community’s regeneration. On the other hand, the phenological patterns of the lianas can contribute as alimentary supplement tothe fauna. The ecological importance and the investigation scarcity in fl oral anatomy of lianas motivated the morphological and anatomical study of Adenocalymma marginatum (Cham.) DC., Arrabidaea mutabilis Bureau & K. Schum., Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry, and Tynanthus micranthus Corr. Méllo ex K...

  6. Contribution of lianas to plant area index and canopy structure in a Panamanian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ronderos, M Elizabeth; Bohrer, Gil; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2016-12-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, where they reduce tree growth, fecundity, and survival. Competition for light from lianas may be intense; however, the amount of light that lianas intercept is poorly understood. We used a large-scale liana-removal experiment to quantify light interception by lianas in a Panamanian secondary forest. We measured the change in plant area index (PAI) and forest structure before and after cutting lianas (for 4 yr) in eight 80 m × 80 m plots and eight control plots (16 plots total). We used ground-based LiDAR to measure the 3-dimensional canopy structure before cutting lianas, and then annually for 2 yr afterwards. Six weeks after cutting lianas, mean plot PAI was 20% higher in control vs. liana removal plots. One yr after cutting lianas, mean plot PAI was ~17% higher in control plots. The differences between treatments diminished significantly 2 yr after liana cutting and, after 4 yr, trees had fully compensated for liana removal. Ground-based LiDAR revealed that lianas attenuated light in the upper- and middle-forest canopy layers, and not only in the upper canopy as was previously suspected. Thus, lianas compete with trees by intercepting light in the upper- and mid-canopy of this forest.

  7. Lianas suppress seedling growth and survival of 14 tree species in a Panamanian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Izquierdo, Laura; García, María M; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2016-01-01

    Lianas are a common plant growth form in tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, decreasing tree recruitment, growth, and survival. If the detrimental effects of lianas vary significantly with tree species identity, as is often assumed, then lianas may influence tree species diversity and community composition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that liana abundance and biomass are increasing relative to trees in neotropical forests, which will likely magnify the detrimental effects of lianas and may ultimately alter tree species diversity, relative abundances, and community composition. Few studies, however, have tested the responses of multiple tree species to the presence of lianas in robust, well-replicated experiments. We tested the hypotheses that lianas reduce tree seedling growth and survival, and that the effect of lianas varies with tree species identity. We used a large-scale liana removal experiment in Central Panama in which we planted 14 replicate seedlings of 14 different tree species that varied in shade tolerance in each of 16 80 x 80 m plots (eight liana-removal and eight unmanipulated controls; 3136 total seedlings). Over a nearly two-yr period, we found that tree seedlings survived 75% more, grew 300% taller, and had twice the aboveground biomass in liana-removal plots than seedlings in control plots, consistent with strong competition between lianas and tree seedlings. There were no significant differences in the response of tree species to liana competition (i.e., there was no species by treatment interaction), indicating that lianas had a similar negative effect on all 14 tree species. Furthermore, the effect of lianas did not vary with tree species shade tolerance classification, suggesting that the liana effect was not solely based on light. Based on these findings, recently observed increases in liana abundance in neotropical forests will substantially reduce tree regeneration, but will not significantly alter

  8. The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille

    2010-01-01

    Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change. This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in northeastern DR Con

  9. Lianas suppress tree regeneration and diversity in treefall gaps.

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    Schnitzer, Stefan A; Carson, Walter P

    2010-07-01

    Treefall gaps are hypothesized to maintain diversity by creating resource-rich, heterogeneous habitats necessary for species coexistence. This hypothesis, however, is not supported empirically for shade-tolerant trees, the dominant plant group in tropical forests. The failure of gaps to maintain shade-tolerant trees remains puzzling, and the hypothesis implicated to date is dispersal limitation. In central Panama, we tested an alternative 'biotic interference' hypothesis: that competition between growth forms (lianas vs. trees) constrains shade-tolerant tree recruitment, survival and diversity in gaps. We experimentally removed lianas from eight gaps and monitored them for 8 years, while also monitoring nine un-manipulated control gaps. Removing lianas increased tree growth, recruitment and richness by 55, 46 and 65%, respectively. Lianas were particularly harmful to shade-tolerant species, but not pioneers. Our findings demonstrate that competition between plant growth forms constrains diversity in a species-rich tropical forest. Because lianas are abundant in many tropical systems, our findings may apply broadly.

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lianas during 50 years of succession to temperate forest.

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    Ladwig, Laura M; Meiners, Scott J

    2010-03-01

    Although they are important components of forest communities, the general ecology and spatiotemporal patterns of temperate lianas during forest regeneration are largely unknown. The dependence of lianas on other plants for physical support makes them a potentially important driver of community dynamics. We examined 50 years of vegetation data from an old-field succession study to determine the dynamics and community controls on liana expansion within the Piedmont region of New Jersey, USA. Four lianas, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis spp., occurred in enough abundance for detailed analyses. In general, liana cover peaked during mid-succession (20-30 years post-abandonment) when community composition was mostly herbaceous with scattered trees and shrubs. Liana cover began to decrease as trees became dominant and the canopy closed. Temporal patterns of cover dynamics of abundant species indicated three early- and one late-successional liana species within the community. In contrast to cover, frequency of lianas increased throughout succession, indicating that liana populations persisted despite dramatic declines in cover for the three early-successional species. Temporal dynamics between native and nonnative lianas were similar but spatially distinct as cover of native species dispersed and expanded near the forest edge while the nonnative species preferentially grew far from the forest. These dynamics indicate that successional processes may ultimately lead to the decline of most lianas. However, the persistence of lianas as high numbers of suppressed individuals suggests that they may rebound quickly following canopy disturbance.

  11. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  12. FOUR NEW STILBENE DIMERS FROM THE LIANAS OF GNETUM HAINANENSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING-HONG WANG; KAI-SHENG HUANG; MAO LIN

    2001-01-01

    Four new stilbene dimers, gnetuhainins P (1), Q (2), K (3) and L (4), were isolated from the lianas of Gnetum hainanense C. Y. Cheng. Their structures and relative configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  13. Wood anatomy of lianas of sapindaceae commercially used in São Paulo - SP

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We performed an anatomical survey of Sapindaceae species growing on the private property that supplies liana fragments to the Adere (Association for the Development and Recovery for the Intellectually Disabled), one of the major producer of art wood marquetry made from the lianas from Sao Paulo. Based on species identification, we carried out both morphological and microscopic analyses of the transversal section of lianas stems, with the aim of separating the species based on wood characters....

  14. Giving blood donors something to drink before donation can prevent fainting symptoms: is there a physiological or psychological reason?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavic, Nataša; Pagliariccio, Antonella; Bulajic, Milica; Dinić, Radovan; Marinozzi, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The vasovagal reaction has been widely studied but its anatomic and physiological nature remains uncertain. The mechanisms underlying vasovagal reaction related to blood donation are not completely understood either. Does its occurrence depend on the blood donors' physical characteristics and health variables or psychological factors? On the basis that a psychological approach considerably prevents donor reactions, the effect of fruit juice ingestion was studied in a group of 1849 first-time high-school students as a simple strategy to avoid systemic reactions at blood donation. The reasons for the psychological effect of this hydration protocol are stressed also in light of previous physiological studies on the hemodynamic effects of water or carbohydrate drinks.

  15. Classifying Taiwan Lianas with Radiating Plates of Xylem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Zehn Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiating plates of xylem are a lianas cambium variation, of which, 22 families have this feature. This study investigates 15 liana species representing nine families with radiating plates of xylem structures. The features of the transverse section and epidermis in fresh liana samples are documented, including shapes and colors of xylem and phloem, ray width and numbers, and skin morphology. Experimental results indicated that the shape of phloem fibers in Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. hancei is gradually tapered and flame-like, which is in contrast with the other characteristics of this type, including those classified as rays. Both inner and outer cylinders of vascular bundles are found in Piper kwashoense, and the irregularly inner cylinder persists yet gradually diminishes. Red crystals are numerous in the cortex of Celastrus kusanoi. Aristolochia shimadai and A. zollingeriana develop a combination of two cambium variants, radiating plates of xylem and a lobed xylem. The shape of phloem in Stauntonia obovatifoliola is square or truncate, and its rays are numerous. Meanwhile, that of Neoalsomitra integrifolia is blunt and its rays are fewer. As for the features of a stem surface within the same family, Cyclea ochiaiana is brownish in color and has a deep vertical depression with lenticels, Pericampylus glaucus is greenish in color with a vertical shallow depression. Within the same genus, Aristolochia shimadai develops lenticels, which are not in A. zollingeriana; although the periderm developed in Clematis grata is a ring bark and tears easily, that of Clematis tamura is thick and soft.

  16. Critérios para a amostragem de lianas: comparação e estimativa da abundância e biomassa de lianas no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Guimarães Carvalho; Juliano van Melis

    2013-01-01

    Lianas (trepadeiras lenhosas) desempenham papel vital na dinâmica de florestas tropicais, contribuindo para abundância, diversidade e estrutura da comunidade. Técnicas para realizar o censo e estimar a biomassa de lianas têm sido usadas principalmente em florestas tropicais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a abundância e biomassa de lianas utilizando medidas de diâmetro tomadas em diferentes alturas do caule. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Cerrado localizado em Itirapina (ca ...

  17. Taxonomic Diversity of Lianas in Tropical Forests of Northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maradana TARAKESWARA NAIDU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important in forest ecosystem and strongly influence the forest dynamics and diversity. Lianas are common in the tropical moist deciduous and rain forests, which are competing with other forest trees. Little information is known on the habitat specialization in tropical lianas diversity and the root causes for variation among forests in liana species composition. A total of 170 liana species (≥ 1.5 cm girth at breast height representing 109 genera and 43 families were reported in 5×5 m quadrate samples along with their climbing modes in the tropical forests of northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. A total of 210 grids were sampled in study area and reported that Convolvulaceae was the dominant family with 23 species followed by Papilionaceae, 22 species and Asclepiadaceae, 19 species and Ipomoea was the largest genera. Woody lianas were dominated by 128 species and these are classified into six climbing modes consisting in stem climbers (53.5% that were the most predominant followed by stragglersunarmed (14.7%, stragglers armed and tendril climbers (13.5% each, root climbers (2.9% and hook climbers (1.8%. The most dominant liana species in the northern Eastern Ghats were Acacia sinuata and Bauhinia vahlii. The results of this investigation suggests that better management and protection is an important for in situ conservation of liana diversity and involving local people is emphasized.

  18. Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests are experiencing large-scale structural changes, the most apparent of which may be the increase in liana (woody vine) abundance and biomass. Lianas permeate most lowland tropical forests, where they can have a huge effect on tree diversity, recruitment, growth and survival, which, i

  19. Annual Rainfall and Seasonality Predict Pan-tropical Patterns of Liana Density and Basal Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWalt, S.J.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Chave, J.; Bongers, F.; Cai, Z.Q.; Ewango, C.E.N.; Parren, M.P.E.

    2010-01-01

    We test the hypotheses proposed by Gentry and Schnitzer that liana density and basal area in tropical forests vary negatively with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and positively with seasonality. Previous studies correlating liana abundance with these climatic variables have produced conflicting res

  20. Effects of light and nutrients on seedlings of tropical Bauhinia lianas and trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Poorter, L.; Han, Q.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Lianas differ from trees in many life history characteristics, and we predicted that they are phenotypically more responsive to environmental variation than trees. We analyzed responsiveness to light and nutrient availability of five Bauhinia species (three lianas and two trees). Seedlings were grow

  1. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Mareike; Ferraz, Isolde D. K.; Hölscher, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark) and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C) was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g) and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches. PMID:27137363

  2. Seed and Germination Characteristics of 20 Amazonian Liana Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, and may reach their highest densities in disturbed areas. However, information on seed and germination characteristics is scarce. Twenty Amazon liana species were screened for their germination characteristics, including light dependence, tolerance of desiccation and of alternating temperatures; these characteristics are considered important for the germination success in areas with relatively open canopies. Between 31–1,420 seeds per species were available, as 15 species seeds came from one mother plant. We studied seed biometry and conducted germination trials with fresh seeds (12 h light daily, or dark and desiccated seeds at 25 °C. Germination at alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 15/35 °C was analyzed for nine species. Of the 20 species, eight species with the largest seeds had desiccation sensitive seeds; this is the first record for species of four genera and one family, where only desiccation tolerant seeds are otherwise recorded. Light-dependent germination was found in three species (0.01–0.015 g and is the first record for two; however, results were based on seeds from one plant per species. Alternating temperatures of 15/35 °C decreased final germination of four out of nine species, and response to 20/30 °C cycles varied compared to constant 25 °C. Seed and germination characteristics of the species ranged from pioneer to climax traits indicating that establishment of lianas from seeds may be confined to species specific niches.

  3. Species divergence and phylogenetic variation of ecophysiological traits in lianas and trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Rios

    Full Text Available The climbing habit is an evolutionary key innovation in plants because it is associated with enhanced clade diversification. We tested whether patterns of species divergence and variation of three ecophysiological traits that are fundamental for plant adaptation to light environments (maximum photosynthetic rate [A(max], dark respiration rate [R(d], and specific leaf area [SLA] are consistent with this key innovation. Using data reported from four tropical forests and three temperate forests, we compared phylogenetic distance among species as well as the evolutionary rate, phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic signal of those traits in lianas and trees. Estimates of evolutionary rates showed that R(d evolved faster in lianas, while SLA evolved faster in trees. The mean phylogenetic distance was 1.2 times greater among liana species than among tree species. Likewise, estimates of phylogenetic distance indicated that lianas were less related than by chance alone (phylogenetic evenness across 63 species, and trees were more related than expected by chance (phylogenetic clustering across 71 species. Lianas showed evenness for R(d, while trees showed phylogenetic clustering for this trait. In contrast, for SLA, lianas exhibited phylogenetic clustering and trees showed phylogenetic evenness. Lianas and trees showed patterns of ecophysiological trait variation among species that were independent of phylogenetic relatedness. We found support for the expected pattern of greater species divergence in lianas, but did not find consistent patterns regarding ecophysiological trait evolution and divergence. R(d followed the species-level pattern, i.e., greater divergence/evolution in lianas compared to trees, while the opposite occurred for SLA and no pattern was detected for A(max. R(d may have driven lianas' divergence across forest environments, and might contribute to diversification in climber clades.

  4. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  5. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  6. Gnetupendin C, a New Stilbene Dimer from the Lianas of Gnetum Pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gnetupendin C, a new dimer coupled by a resveratrol and an oxyresveratrol unit, was isolated from the lianas of Gnetum pendulum C.Y. Cheng (Gnetaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D techniques.

  7. Time lags between crown and basal sap flows in tropical lianas and co-occurring trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Bongers, Frans; Tomlinson, Kyle; Fan, Ze-Xin; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Shu-Bin; Zheng, Yu-Long; Li, Yang-Ping; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Water storage in the stems of woody plants contributes to their responses to short-term water shortages. To estimate the contribution of water storage to the daily water budget of trees, time lags of sap flow between different positions of trunk are used as a proxy of stem water storage. In lianas, another large group of woody species, it has rarely been studied whether stored water functions in their daily water use, despite their increasing roles in the carbon and water dynamics of tropical forests caused by their increasing abundance. We hypothesized that lianas would exhibit large time lags due to their extremely long stems, wide vessels and large volume of parenchyma in the stem. We examined time lags in sap flow, diel changes of stem volumetric water content (VWC) and biophysical properties of sapwood of 19 lianas and 26 co-occurring trees from 27 species in 4 forests (karst, tropical seasonal, flood plain and savanna) during a wet season. The plants varied in height/length from 60 m. The results showed that lianas had significantly higher saturated water content (SWC) and much lower wood density than trees. Seven of 19 liana individuals had no time lags; in contrast, only 3 of 26 tree individuals had no time lags. In general, lianas had shorter time lags than trees in our data set, but this difference was not significant for our most conservative analyses. Across trees and lianas, time lag duration increased with diurnal maximum changeable VWC but was independent of the body size, path length, wood density and SWC. The results suggest that in most lianas, internal stem water storage contributes little to daily water budget, while trees may rely more on stored water in the stem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  9. Biomass allocation and long-term growth patterns of temperate lianas in comparison with trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Ryuji; Tateno, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    The host-dependent support habit of lianas is generally interpreted as a strategy designed to reduce resource investment in mechanical tissues; this allows preferential allocation to leaf and stem extension, thereby enhancing productivity and competitive abilities. However, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. We examined the aboveground allometries regarding biomass allocation (leaf mass and current-year stem mass (approximated as biomass allocated to extension growth) vs total aboveground mass) and long-term apparent growth patterns (height and aboveground mass vs age, i.e. numbers of growth rings) for nine deciduous liana species in Japan. Lianas had, on average, three- and five-fold greater leaf and current-year stem mass, respectively, than trees for a given aboveground mass, whereas the time course to reach the forest canopy was comparable and biomass accumulation during that period was only one-tenth that of co-occurring canopy trees. The balance between the lengths of yearly stem extension and existing older stems indicated that lianas lost c. 75% of stem length during growth to the canopy, which is probably a consequence of the host-dependent growth. Our observations suggest that, although lianas rely on hosts mechanically, allowing for short-term vigorous growth, this habit requires a large cost and could limit plant growth over protracted periods.

  10. Above- and below-ground competition in high and low irradiance: tree seedling responses to a competing liana Byttneria grandifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.Y.; Bongers, F.; Cao, K.F.; Cai, Z.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In tropical forests, trees compete not only with other trees, but also with lianas, which may limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana effects may depend on the availability of above- and below-ground resources and differ between tree species. We conducted a shade house experiment to test

  11. Giving presentations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  12. Richness and Abundance of Lianas with Different Diameter Classes in Permanent Plots in the Amazon in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ferraz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of the structure and diversity of tropical forests and the Amazon biome is one of few natural protected areas that still support the highest level of biodiversity in the world. Generally in disturbed forests high densities of lianas are found than mature forests. The aim of this study is to investigate the richness among families and lianas abundance with different diameter classes in permanent plots in the Amazon of Mato Grosso. To the survey were placed 8 plots of 40 x 250 in a forest fragment that has been management for 30 years, where we sampled lianas species with diameter breast height (DBH ≥ 1 cm. There were sampled 3970 stems in the permanent plots, and the two most abundant were 2 and 6 with 594 and 573 individuals respectively. The richest families were Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Menispermaceae and Fabaceae. These results confirm the hypothesis that disturbed areas have more density of lianas with small DBH.

  13. Short and Long-Term Soil Moisture Effects of Liana Removal in a Seasonally Moist Tropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Pignatello Reid

    Full Text Available Lianas (woody vines are particularly abundant in tropical forests, and their abundance is increasing in the neotropics. Lianas can compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources, including water. As tropical forests experience longer and more intense dry seasons, competition for water is likely to intensify. However, we lack an understanding of how liana abundance affects soil moisture and hence competition with trees for water in tropical forests. To address this critical knowledge gap, we conducted a large-scale liana removal experiment in a seasonal tropical moist forest in central Panama. We monitored shallow and deep soil moisture over the course of three years to assess the effects of lianas in eight 0.64 ha removal plots and eight control plots. Liana removal caused short-term effects in surface soils. Surface soils (10 cm depth in removal plots dried more slowly during dry periods and accumulated water more slowly after rainfall events. These effects disappeared within four months of the removal treatment. In deeper soils (40 cm depth, liana removal resulted in a multi-year trend towards 5-25% higher soil moisture during the dry seasons with the largest significant effects occurring in the dry season of the third year following treatment. Liana removal did not affect surface soil temperature. Multiple and mutually occurring mechanisms may be responsible for the effects of liana removal on soil moisture, including competition with trees, and altered microclimate, and soil structure. These results indicate that lianas influence hydrologic processes, which may affect tree community dynamics and forest carbon cycling.

  14. Wood anatomy of lianas of sapindaceae commercially used in São Paulo - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Tamaio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an anatomical survey of Sapindaceae species growing on the private property that supplies liana fragments to the Adere (Association for the Development and Recovery for the Intellectually Disabled, one of the major producer of art wood marquetry made from the lianas from Sao Paulo. Based on species identification, we carried out both morphological and microscopic analyses of the transversal section of lianas stems, with the aim of separating the species based on wood characters. Only one of the seven analyzed species had no cambial variant (Paullinia trigonia Vell.; the rest presented cambial variant of the compound vascular cylinder type. Also, the six remaining species belong to the following genera: Serjania (Serjania caracasana (Jacq. Willd., Serjania lethalis A. St.-Hill., Serjania laruotteana Cambess., and Serjania multiflora Cambess. These genera could be distinguished by pith configuration, arrangement and quantity of peripheral vascular cylinders, as well as two statistically significant quantitative features: the diameter and frequency of vessel elements. In this work, a key for species identification and illustrations are presented, in addition to comments about the extractivism carried out by Adere.

  15. Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study developed allometric equations for estimating liana stem and total above-ground biomass in primary and secondary forests in the Penang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Using biomass-diameter-length data of 60 liana individuals representing 15 species, allometric equations were developed for liana stem biomass and total above-ground biomass (TAGB. Three types of allometric equations were developed: models fitted to untransformed, weighted, and log-transformed (log10 data. There was a significant linear relationship between biomass and the predictors (diameter, length, and/or their combinations. The same set of models was developed for primary and secondary forests due to absence of differences in regression line slopes of the forests (ANCOVA: . The coefficients of determination values of the models were high (stem: 0.861 to 0.990; TAGB: 0.900 to 0.992. Generally, log-transformed models showed better fit (Furnival's index, FI 0.5. A comparison of the best TAGB model in this study (based on FI with previously published equations indicated that most of the equations significantly ( overestimated TAGB of lianas. However, a previous equation from Southeast Asia estimated TAGB similar to that of the current equation (. Therefore, regional or intracontinental equations should be preferred to intercontinental equations when estimating liana biomass.

  16. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between...... conspecific trees affects pollination efficiency and seed predation intensity, and may therefore indirectly affect the long-term sustainability of selective logging. Here we investigate how reproductive status and the number of seeds dispersed per tree are affected by liana load, distance to the nearest...... and positively with tree diameter. In C. ianeirensis the most liana-infested trees dispersed fewer seeds. In T. oblonga the intensity of pre-dispersal seed predation decreased with distance to the nearest conspecifics. There was no evidence that seed viability or seed production decreased with distance...

  17. Response of an invasive liana to simulated herbivory: implications for its biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, S.; Dhileepan, K.; Treviño, M.

    2006-05-01

    Pre-release evaluation of the efficacy of biological control agents is often not possible in the case of many invasive species targeted for biocontrol. In such circumstances simulating herbivory could yield significant insights into plant response to damage, thereby improving the efficiency of agent prioritisation, increasing the chances of regulating the performance of invasive plants through herbivory and minimising potential risks posed by release of multiple herbivores. We adopted this approach to understand the weaknesses herbivores could exploit, to manage the invasive liana, Macfadyena unguis-cati. We simulated herbivory by damaging the leaves, stem, root and tuber of the plant, in isolation and in combination. We also applied these treatments at multiple frequencies. Plant response in terms of biomass allocation showed that at least two severe defoliation treatments were required to diminish this liana's climbing habit and reduce its allocation to belowground tuber reserves. Belowground damage appears to have negligible effect on the plant's biomass production and tuber damage appears to trigger a compensatory response. Plant response to combinations of different types of damage did not differ significantly to that from leaf damage. This suggests that specialist herbivores in the leaf-feeding guild capable of removing over 50% of the leaf tissue may be desirable in the biological control of this invasive species.

  18. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between

  19. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between cons

  20. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Tohver, Ingrid Marisa; Ray, David; Moutinho, Paulo; Cardinot, Georgina

    2007-09-01

    Severe drought episodes such as those associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events influence large areas of tropical forest and may become more frequent in the future. One of the most important forest responses to severe drought is tree mortality, which alters forest structure, composition, carbon content, and flammability, and which varies widely. This study tests the hypothesis that tree mortality increases abruptly during drought episodes when plant-available soil water (PAW) declines below a critical minimum threshold. It also examines the effect of tree size, plant life form (palm, liana, tree) and potential canopy position (understory, midcanopy, overstory) on drought-induced plant mortality. A severe, four-year drought episode was simulated by excluding 60% of incoming throughfall during each wet season using plastic panels installed in the understory of a 1-ha forest treatment plot, while a 1-ha control plot received normal rainfall. After 3.2 years, the treatment resulted in a 38% increase in mortality rates across all stems >2 cm dbh. Mortality rates increased 4.5-fold among large trees (>30 cm dbh) and twofold among medium trees (10-30 cm dbh) in response to the treatment, whereas the smallest stems were less responsive. Recruitment rates did not compensate for the elevated mortality of larger-diameter stems in the treatment plot. Overall, lianas proved more susceptible to drought-induced mortality than trees or palms, and potential overstory tree species were more vulnerable than midcanopy and understory species. Large stems contributed to 90% of the pretreatment live aboveground biomass in both plots. Large-tree mortality resulting from the treatment generated 3.4 times more dead biomass than the control plot. The dramatic mortality response suggests significant, adverse impacts on the global carbon cycle if climatic changes follow current trends.

  1. Selective logging in tropical forests decreases the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks to the loss of host tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Senior, Rebecca A; Rogers, Andrew; Nurdin, Deddy; Benedick, Suzan; Laurance, William F; Santamaria, Luis; Edwards, David P

    2016-03-16

    Selective logging is one of the major drivers of tropical forest degradation, causing important shifts in species composition. Whether such changes modify interactions between species and the networks in which they are embedded remain fundamental questions to assess the 'health' and ecosystem functionality of logged forests. We focus on interactions between lianas and their tree hosts within primary and selectively logged forests in the biodiversity hotspot of Malaysian Borneo. We found that lianas were more abundant, had higher species richness, and different species compositions in logged than in primary forests. Logged forests showed heavier liana loads disparately affecting slow-growing tree species, which could exacerbate the loss of timber value and carbon storage already associated with logging. Moreover, simulation scenarios of host tree local species loss indicated that logging might decrease the robustness of liana-tree interaction networks if heavily infested trees (i.e. the most connected ones) were more likely to disappear. This effect is partially mitigated in the short term by the colonization of host trees by a greater diversity of liana species within logged forests, yet this might not compensate for the loss of preferred tree hosts in the long term. As a consequence, species interaction networks may show a lagged response to disturbance, which may trigger sudden collapses in species richness and ecosystem function in response to additional disturbances, representing a new type of 'extinction debt'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Caracterização anatômica das madeiras de lianas de Sapindaceae utilizadas comercialmente em São Paulo - SP

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda o estudo anatômico das espécies de Sapindaceae que ocorrem em uma propriedade particular, fornecedora de fragmentos de lianas para a Associação para o Desenvolvimento Educação e Recuperação do Excepcional (Adere), um dos maiores produtores de peças de artesanato com lianas de São Paulo. A partir da identificação das espécies, procedeu-se a uma análise morfológica dos caules das lianas e à análise microscópica da secção transversal, com o objetivo de separar as espécies pe...

  3. Short-term spatial variation in the demography of a common Neotropical liana is influenced by environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franci, Luciana De Campos; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    We used matrix models to investigate the relation between population dynamics of the liana Mansoa difficilis and environmental factors in frag- mented Atlantic forest in Brazil. The fate (growth and mortality) of individuals and the number of new individuals were recorded for 3 years in 100 plots...... of light availability on k was less important than tree community structure, which allowed high population growth rates only in a small part of the forest. These findings support the notion that tree community characteristics are the key to understand and predict the observed recent increase in the density...

  4. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos Médicos ...

  5. Giving Medication to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Giving Medication to Children Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the upper limit. back to top Q: Are medications that are intended for children clinically tested on ...

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  8. Giving behavior of millionaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.; Bauer, R.; Gneezy, U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the other

  9. Study on the Diversity of Liana in Gannan Jiangxi Province%江西赣南藤本植物资源多样性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘济祥; 吕小林; 李红怀

    2011-01-01

    为了解赣南藤本植物资源的状况,对其藤本植物的物种丰富度、科、属组成、植物地理分布区类型及攀援方式等多样性进行了调查研究。结果表明:(1)赣南共有藤本植物51科、103属、225种(包括变种);(2)以木质藤本属为主(49属),占属总数的47.6%;(3)攀援类型分为4大类,缠绕类种类最多123种,占54.6%;(4)提出具有发展前景的藤本植物22种。%To understand the Liana situation of Gannan region, its liana species richness, family, genus composition, geographical distribution of plant types and diversity of climbing methods was investigated. The results showed that. (1) Gannan total liana 51 families, 103 genera, 225 species (including varieties) (2) lianas are mainly (49 genera), accounting is a total of 47.6 % ; (3) climbing types divided into 4 categories, twining up to 123 species, accounting for 54.6 % (4) proposed the development prospects of liana 22.

  10. Investigation and reflection on giving extracurriulm lecture of physiology among medical students%在生理学教学中开展课外讲座的效果调查与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倞; 谢海滨; 谢犁犁; 关欣; 刘琦; 韩仰; 冯丹丹; 罗自强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the teaching effects of physiology lectures and students' attitude to lectures,their suggestions for contents,forms and other aspects of lectures.Methods Random sampling questionnaire survey was conducted among 500 students of 2008 grade and 2009 grade in Xiangya medical school of central south university.The percentage of the option in the questionnaire was calculated and the findings were directly described.Results All students thought that physiology lectures were necessary.Teachers should arrange lectures which students were interested in,pay attention to inspire thinking and enhance teacher-student interaction.67.6% of students thought that the knowledge learned from lectures can be used in expanding scientific thinking.Conclusions The lectures are popular among most students,playing an important role in cultivating students' ability of strict scientific thinking.%目的 了解生理学课外讲座的教学效果,学生对讲座的态度,对讲座内容、形式等方面的建议.方法 采用典型随机抽样法对中南大学湘雅医学院2008级八年制临床医学专业,2009级五年制临床医学、医学检验、基础改革班、麻醉医学、口腔医学、精神卫生专业500名学生进行问卷调查.计算调查问卷中各选项所占百分比,直接描述调查结果.结果 参加讲座的学生均认为有必要举办生理学讲座;教师应对学生感兴趣的方面安排讲座,注意启迪思维,加强师生互动;67.6%的学生认为讲座上所学知识有利于科研思路的拓展.结论 课外讲座受到学生普遍欢迎,对培养学生严密的科学思维能力有重要作用.

  11. Florística de lianas em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual, Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brasil Floristic of lianas in a fragment of seasonal semidecidual forest State Park of Vassununga, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Junqueira de Azevedo Tibiriçá

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora o conhecimento sobre a florística dos fragmentos de florestas estacionais semideciduais tenha crescido nos últimos anos, ainda sabe-se pouco sobre a comunidade de lianas (lenhosas ou herbáceas nesses fragmentos. Assim, foi realizado o levantamento florístico de lianas na gleba Maravilha, pertencente ao Parque Estadual de Vassununga (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, a fim de colaborar com o conhecimento dessa comunidade e subsidiar futuros trabalhos que envolvam essa forma de vida. A área de estudo compreende 127,08 ha, com inverno seco e temperatura média anual de 22 ºC. Para a coleta do material, percorreu-se mensalmente toda a borda do fragmento e três trilhas no interior da mata, de agosto/2002 a setembro/2003. Foram identificadas 120 espécies de lianas, pertencentes a 30 famílias e 71 gêneros, das quais 51% das espécies são volúveis, 42% apresentam gavinhas e apenas 7% são escandentes. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram: Bignoniaceae (26, Malpighiaceae (14, Sapindaceae (12 e Asteraceae (9. Houve baixa similaridade florística entre as espécies de lianas presentes na gleba Maravilha em relação a outras áreas de florestas estacionais semideciduais do interior paulista.Although the knowledge about the floristic composition of the fragments of seasonal semidecidual forest had grown in the last few years, little is known about the liana communities (woody vines and herbaceous vines in those fragments. To collaborate with the knowledgement of the lianas and subsidize future works involving this life form, a floristic survey of the liana species occurring at the fragment Maravilha of the State Park of Vassununga (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro - SP was carried out. The study area comprised 127.08ha, with average temperature of 22 ºC. The whole border of the forest fragment and three tracks inside the forest were surveyed monthly between August 2002 and September 2003. One hundred and twenty species

  12. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death.

  13. Leaf allocation patterns and 13C and 15N natural abundances of tropical lianas (Passiflora sp.) as dependent on external climbing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Martin; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin; Kazda, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The transformation from self-supporting lianas to host-supported climbing lianas is related to re-allocation of biomass and nutrients among plant organs. Therefore, first, variations in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf carbon and nitrogen allocation and (13)C and (15)N natural abundances were analysed among three tropical Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, and P. tripartita) in a greenhouse study. Second, the influence of a climbing support was considered for each species and parameter. P. ligularis leaves were most enriched in (13)C in both treatments when compared with the other two species. This enrichment was caused by a high LMA, which is related to a high internal resistance to CO(2) diffusion. For P. edulis and P. tripartita, δ(13)C was additionally increasing with nitrogen content per area. Generally, there were no differences when considering carbon and nitrogen allocation to leaves of host-supported and self-supporting lianas. The only hints towards increased investment into leaves after the transition from self-supporting to host-supported stages could be seen by a trend to increased leaf areas and masses. δ(13)C values of supported P. edulis or P. tripartita plants were significantly increasing faster than those of non-supported plants once the interactions of leaf mass or nitrogen content per area were accounted for. Hence, the offer of a climbing support had only a minor impact on δ(13)C or δ(15)N values in vitro, but this could be different with increasing age of lianas in vivo.

  14. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  15. Las lianas de la estación biológica Mosiro Itajura (Caparú, bajo Río Apaporis (Vaupés, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur Julio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el inventario de las lianas presentes en la Estación Biológica Mosiro Itajura, región del bajo río Apaporis, departamento de Vaupés, Colombia. Se encontraron 26 familias, 53 géneros y 86 especies, entre las que se cuentan 18 nuevos registros para la Amazonia colombiana y 23 para el departamento del Vaupés. Las familias con más especies fueron Hippocrateaceae, Bignoniaceae y Menispermaceae. El mayor número de especies se encontró en el bosque de terraza, seguido por el de colina, mientras que el menor se presentó en la catinga. La afinidad florística entre los bosques fue relativamente baja, siendo mayor entre los bosques de terraza y de colina (32% de similitud. Las lianas de la Estación presentan alta afinidad florística con las áreas
    Amazonia occidental y Guayana.

  16. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  17. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  18. Present Action Spurs Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Jerry A.

    1985-01-01

    Examines ways parishes or schools can promote deferred gifts, payable on death to the parish or institution. Suggests that financial planning seminars and will clinics, planned-giving promotion committees, and dissemination of free pamphlets on estate planning are good ways to promote these bequests. (DMM)

  19. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the correct dosage. To give: Check the expiration date to make sure it's not expired. If it ... 3 tablets Reviewed by: Karla R. Hughes, RPh Date reviewed: March 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Headaches ...

  20. (Micro)Financing to Give

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    and workings of microfinance. We illustrate how market-like elements are productively and problematically deployed in philanthropic giving and address the need to consider a broader range of socio-material relations involved in the framing of transactions. A complex network of actors and (trans)actions needs...

  1. Thermal acclimation of leaf respiration of tropical trees and lianas: response to experimental canopy warming, and consequences for tropical forest carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Martijn; Rey-Sánchez, Camilo; Gerber, Stefan; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Winter, Klaus; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2014-09-01

    Climate warming is expected to increase respiration rates of tropical forest trees and lianas, which may negatively affect the carbon balance of tropical forests. Thermal acclimation could mitigate the expected respiration increase, but the thermal acclimation potential of tropical forests remains largely unknown. In a tropical forest in Panama, we experimentally increased nighttime temperatures of upper canopy leaves of three tree and two liana species by on average 3 °C for 1 week, and quantified temperature responses of leaf dark respiration. Respiration at 25 °C (R25 ) decreased with increasing leaf temperature, but acclimation did not result in perfect homeostasis of respiration across temperatures. In contrast, Q10 of treatment and control leaves exhibited similarly high values (range 2.5-3.0) without evidence of acclimation. The decrease in R25 was not caused by respiratory substrate depletion, as warming did not reduce leaf carbohydrate concentration. To evaluate the wider implications of our experimental results, we simulated the carbon cycle of tropical latitudes (24°S-24°N) from 2000 to 2100 using a dynamic global vegetation model (LM3VN) modified to account for acclimation. Acclimation reduced the degree to which respiration increases with climate warming in the model relative to a no-acclimation scenario, leading to 21% greater increase in net primary productivity and 18% greater increase in biomass carbon storage over the 21st century. We conclude that leaf respiration of tropical forest plants can acclimate to nighttime warming, thereby reducing the magnitude of the positive feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Photosynthesis and Influence Factors of 4 Lianas Plants Species%四种藤本植物光合作用及影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仲坚; 熊咏梅

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies photosynthesis and influence factors of 4 main gardens lianas plants species (Clerodendrum thomsoniae, Lonicera japonica,Solandra maxima,Quisqualis indica) in Guangzhou by means of LICOR-6400 photosynthetic system. The results show that the maximum net photosynthetic rates ofClerodendrum thomsoniae andSolandra nitida are higher than others, and the maximum net photosynthetic rate ofQuisqualis indica is the lowest. The light saturation point and the light compensation point ofClerodendrum thomsoniae are higher. Meanwhile the light saturation point and the light compensation point ofQuisqualis indica are lower. As the water contents of 4 main gardens lianas plants species are higher, the maximum net photosynthetic rate and the light compensation point are higher. The similar law exists between the relative chlorophyll value and the light saturation point.%应用LI-6400光合作用测定系统,研究了广州市四种园林常用藤本植物光合作用及影响因子分析。结果表明,龙吐珠Clerodendrum thomsoniae和金杯藤Solandra maxima的最大净光合速率较大,使君子Quisqualis indica的最小。龙吐珠的光补偿点和光饱和点都较高,使君子的光补偿点和光饱和点都较低。植物含水率越高,其最大净光合速率和光补偿点就越高,相对叶绿素值与光饱和点之间亦存在此规律。

  3. Giving them a second chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohn, L.

    Manaties are finding a haven in the warm water discharges from Florida power plants. They and other endangered species are the subject of a short film, A Second Chance, which tells the story of the efforts electric utilities are making to give wildlife another chance. The movie shows 15 programs of participating utilities to identify and promote activities with a positive environmental impact on bald eagles, crocodiles, bighorn sheep, and other threatened species. The film is available in print or broadcast tape form. (DCK)

  4. To Give or Not to Give, That Is the Question : How Methodology Is Destiny in Dutch Giving Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2006-01-01

    In research on giving, methodology is destiny. The volume of donations estimated from sample surveys strongly depends on the length of the questionnaire used to measure giving. By comparing two giving surveys from the Netherlands, the authors show that a short questionnaire on giving not only undere

  5. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  6. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  7. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed)....

  8. Mapping the imaginary of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2012-01-01

    The meaningfulness of charitable giving is largely owed to the imaginary conceptions that underpin this form of giving. Building on Taylor's notion of “social imaginary” and Godelier's work on “gift imaginary,” we theorize the imaginary of charitable giving. Through a combination of qualitative m...... across relatively stable assemblages of conceptions of poverty, donors, end-recipients and charitable giving. These assemblages are suggested to form a multifaceted imaginary that is both cultural (shared) and personal (individually performed)....

  9. Income Tax Policy and Charitable Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Arthur C.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies over the past 20 years have looked at the response of charitable donations to tax incentives--the tax price elasticity of giving. Generally, authors have assumed this elasticity is constant across all types of giving. Using the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data on charitable giving, this paper estimates the tax price elasticity…

  10. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  11. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  12. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  13. Cobertura de lianas no dossel florestal e seus efeitos sobre a regeneração de espécies arbóreas. Liana’s coverture in the forest canopy and its effects on regeneration of tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Martins RODRIGUES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração natural é um bom indicador da capacidade de perpetuação das espécies arbóreas e da manutenção da biodiversidade em fragmentos florestais. O estado de conservação desses remanescentes está diretamente relacionado ao seu tamanho, tipo de vizinhança e grau de perturbação. A abundância de lianas vem sendo apontada como um indicador de degradação afetando diretamente a regeneração natural. Desse modo, é importante a avaliação da presença e cobertura de lianas no dossel das árvores e verificar sua influência na regeneração natural. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a participação das lianas na cobertura do dossel de uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual inserida em uma matriz de pastagem, procurando relacioná-la com a regeneração natural. Para avaliar essa regeneração foram instalados e avaliados doze transectos radiais perpendiculares à borda do fragmento. Observou-se que as maiores densidades de regeneração foram encontradas nas áreas em que a cobertura do dossel estava acima de 80%, independentemente de sua composição (lianas ou árvores, indicando que a cobertura por lianas também contribui positivamente para o desenvolvimento dos regenerantes. Natural regeneration is a good indicator of the perpetuation capacity and maintenance of biodiversity in forest fragments. The state of conservation of forest fragments is directly related to its size, neighborhood type and degree of disturbance. The abundance of lianas has been identified as an indicator of degradation directly affecting the natural regeneration. Thus, it is important to evaluate liana’s presence and cover in the canopy of trees and verify its influence on the natural regeneration. In this study it was evaluated the participation of lianas in the canopy cover of a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest inserted in a grassland matrix and its relationship to natural regeneration. To evaluate this regeneration it were installed and evaluated twelve

  14. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  15. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  16. The Effect of Media on Charitable Giving and Volunteering: Evidence from the "Give Five" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, Baris K.

    2012-01-01

    Fundraising campaigns advertised via mass media are common. To what extent such campaigns affect charitable behavior is mostly unknown, however. Using giving and volunteering surveys conducted biennially from 1988 to 1996, I investigate the effect of a national fundraising campaign, "Give Five," on charitable giving and volunteering patterns. The…

  17. The Luxury of Igniting Change by Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Rosa; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    of distant others by giving them valuable philanthropic gifts and thereby ultimately transforming the self of the giver. The paper shows how giving away economic capital (money and time), social capital (networks and influence), and cultural capital (skills and knowledge) to non-related others can provide...... the giver with a sense of luxury in terms of pleasure, purpose, and connection with humankind. Thus, the findings not only extend the traditional conceptualization of luxury from having to giving, but also challenge current conceptualizations of sharing out as a non-reciprocal pro-social behavior......This study investigates the phenomenon of luxury from a consumer perspective, by means of multisited phenomenological inquiry. The findings expand the pervasive view of luxury as accumulation of highly valued goods by offering a transformative perspective of luxury as transforming the life...

  18. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    or not the contract can be terminated by giving notice. The international UNIDROIT principles and the Lando Commission have included a rule allowing the parties to a contract which is for an indefinite period to give notice, but it can be very difficult to distinguish between indefinite and definite periods....... Furthermore, it is open to question whether the continuation of an expired contract is to be considered as a contract for an indefinite period, and whether contracts for definite periods are irrevocable. Even though these questions are not regulated, it is not recommended that new and more detailed principles......Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether...

  19. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.;

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... in Denmark. The findings are consistent with dictator giving partly being motivated by a desire to signal that one is not entirely selfish or by a desire to follow a social norm that is choice-set dependent....

  20. Conscientious refusals and reason-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering whether a version of the reason-giving requirement can be salvaged despite this important difficulty.

  1. Give and Take in Dictator Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Nielsen, Ulrik Haagen; Sørensen, Erik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that participants in the dictator game are less willing to give money to the other participant when their choice set also includes the option to take money. We examine whether this effect is due to the choice set providing a signal about entitlements in a setting where...... in Denmark. The findings are consistent with dictator giving partly being motivated by a desire to signal that one is not entirely selfish or by a desire to follow a social norm that is choice-set dependent....

  2. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  3. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  4. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  5. CAS paleoichthyologist gives Artedi Lecture in Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prof. ZHANG Miman (CHANG Mee-mann), a CAS Member from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, was invited to give a talk at the Artedi Lectures at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on 5 December, 2008.

  6. Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2013-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  7. The Costs and Benefits of Deferred Giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Norman S.; Metzler, Howard C.

    It is argued in this book that while there can be a significant payoff for deferred giving programs, it is important to determine their cost effectiveness. Modern business methods of cost accounting, benefits analysis, and actuarial and econometric forecasting are applied to the Pomona College plan, whose study was supported by Lilly Endowment,…

  8. Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Giving: Instilling Giving Habits across the Life Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Snell Herzog

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the research question: How do religious youth learn to give? While it is likely that youth learn religious financial giving from a variety of different sources, this investigation focuses primarily on how parents teach giving to their children. Supplementary data are also analyzed on the frequency in which youth hear extra-familial calls to give within their religious congregations. In focusing on parental transmission, the analysis identifies a number of approaches that parents report using to teach their children religious financial giving. It also investigates thoughts and feelings about religious financial giving by the children of these parents as a means of assessing the potential impacts of parental methods. Additionally, congregation member reflections on how they learned to give provide insights on giving as a process that develops across the life course, often instilled in childhood, but not appearing behaviorally until adulthood. As such, this paper contributes to a life course understanding of religious giving and has implications for giving across generations.

  9. Zolotoi Porsche - poddelka? / Liana Nalbandjan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nalbandjan, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Moskva ärimehe sõiduauto Porsche-911 kujundasid kuldseks disainerid Denis Simatshovi moemajast koostöös Moskva aerograafidega. Kommenteerivad vene aerograafide ühenduse esimees Igor Kozinov ja Denis Simatshov

  10. Giving support to others reduces sympathetic nervous system-related responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-04-01

    Social support is a major contributor to the link between social ties and beneficial health outcomes. Research to date has focused on how receiving support from others might be good for us; however, we know less about the health effects of giving support to others. Based on prior work in animals showing that stimulating neural circuitry important for caregiving behavior can reduce sympathetic-related responses to stressors, it is possible that, in humans, giving to others can reduce stressor-evoked sympathetic nervous system responding, which has implications for health outcomes. To test the effect of giving support on the physiological stress response, participants either wrote a supportive note to a friend (support-giving condition) or wrote about their route to school/work (control condition) before undergoing a standard laboratory-based stress task. Physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol), and self-reported stress were collected throughout the protocol. In line with hypotheses, support giving (vs. control) reduced sympathetic-related responses (systolic blood pressure and alpha-amylase) to the stressor. No effects of support giving were found on self-reported psychological stress or cortisol levels. Results add to existing knowledge of the pathways by which support giving may lead to health benefits and highlight the contribution of giving to others in the broader social support-health link.

  11. Giving Reasons, A Contribution to Argumentation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bermejo-Luque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In Giving Reasons: A Linguistic-pragmatic-approach to Argumentation Theory (Springer, 2011, I provide a new model for the semantic and pragmatic appraisal of argumentation. This model is based on a characterization of argumentation as a second order speech-act complex. I explain the advantages of this model respecting other proposals within Argumentation Theory, such as Pragma-dialectics, Informal Logic, the New Rhetoric or the Epistemic Approach.

  12. Role-modeling and conversations about giving in the socialization of adolescent charitable giving and volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering.

  13. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  14. Advice on Giving a Scientific Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.

    2006-04-01

    What makes one speaker exciting and another boring? You have been to good talks and you have sat through far too many poor ones, so what makes the difference? It doesn't really matter whether it is a scientific talk, a public talk or a classroom lecture: Your prime concern is to think about the audience. You are talking to them. You are performing. Look at them; talk to them; think about what they are hearing and seeing. They very much want you to give a good talk -- that is why they have chosen to be your audience. But at the start of your talk they are worried you might not, so they are nervous. Your first job is to relax them and get their trust that you are going to do a good job. Then you will relax and you will be off to a great start. Of course your content matters; if you have a great discovery, they will forgive you anything. But it is still better to make a good presentation. I give some advice here on what to do, and what not to do, when giving any kind of talk, but with emphasis on short scientific talks presented at conferences. You should be a little nervous at the start of a talk - that is caused by your concern to do a good job. With a good start your talk will flow, you will then present your discoveries, and with a good ending your audience will applaud appreciatively and want to ask you questions. You will have enjoyed performing and want to do it again. Speaking can be fun for you, and rewarding for your audiences.

  15. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses.

  16. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  17. Ethics – Information or Giving-Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin MURESAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three ways of introducing and actually using ethics in schools: the informative one, the formative one and the institutional one. The first is theoretical teaching ethics. The second refers to character building. The third is related to the creation of “ethical infrastructures”. We shall advocate here for the second form and put it in contrast with the first which is considered today as the only one practicable in Romania. We refuse to admit that the role of the first years of human living is the most important period in the moral constitution of the child. In Romanian schools „character building” is almost inexistent. The profound root of this situation and the illusion that we did our best to change this state, is our incapacity to distinguish between giving a moral form to a human being and inform her on moral questions. The implications of adopting this distinction are vast: to reconsider the importance of kindergarten and of the initial learning as having a similar importance as higher education and therefore similar budgets and much more political support; rethinking the universities’ mission and the kind of relations they have with the secondary schools; the role of family, church, schools and local community in the formation of strong moral characters; and most difficult, to assure the convergence of all these factors.

  18. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  19. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R

    2017-08-07

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  1. Rethinking the social and cultural dimensions of charitable giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2009-01-01

    Gifts to distant others, such as charitable giving, represent an important segment of contemporary gift-giving that has often been overlooked due to the excessive focus on dyadic giving between intimate individuals. In response, this paper adopts a sociological systemic perspective on gift......-giving and focuses on charitable gifts as an emblem of postmodern gift-giving to distant others. Historical evidence and sociological theory on postmodern solidarity are combined to shed light on the fluid duality of contemporary giving and the importance of the imaginary in charitable giving. The outlined socially...

  2. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  3. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  4. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  5. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  6. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  7. Adaptive characteristics and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China%浙江天童常绿阔叶林香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    通过对芽的类型和活动、攀援茎的形态、径级分布和格局、攀援能力和立体结构及其与支持木关系的测定分析,探讨了香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为。结果如下:①芽按活动时间分为春芽和夏芽;两类芽均可形成长枝(攀援枝)或短枝,但在活动持续时间和抽生攀援的长度方面存在明显差异;林内不定芽(主要为春芽)的活动和适应生长是老藤更新的重要途径。②攀援枝的节数和节间长度分别为短枝的7倍和6.5倍,而且易受光照等条件的影响;林缘攀援枝的分枝率是林内的5倍。③径级分布反映出种群随群落演替而老化,香港黄檀属群落早期藤本。④对支持木种类表现出一定的选择性,马尾松是其中被攀援最多的支持木,这主要与香港黄檀的生理、生长要求和马尾松枝型特点等有较大的关系。⑤具有较强的攀援能力,单株在群落中平均可攀援乔木层大树5株,最多可达15株,水平扩展面积平均为54m2,最大可达260m2;藤本通过攀援与支持木形成的空间结构,构成群落的特殊层片,其群落学意义值得进一步研究。%Based on analysis of types and dynamics of buds,morphology and space structure of branches,the ecological adaptation and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China were studied.The results are as follows:(1)Both spring bud and summer bud may form the climbing or short branch,but there are great differences in the activity duration of bud and the branch length formed.Regeneration of old liana trunk will be mainly completed by adaptive growth of adventitious buds on it.(2)Node number and internode leggth of climbing branch are 7 and 6.5 times more than those of short branch,respectively.And they are easily influenced by light.Branching ratio of climbing brance at the edge of forest is 5 times greater than that in the inner

  8. Who gives? Multilevel effects of gender and ethnicity on workplace charitable giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Lisa M; Snyder, Mark; Glomb, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Research on diversity in organizations has largely focused on the implications of gender and ethnic differences for performance, to the exclusion of other outcomes. We propose that gender and ethnic differences also have implications for workplace charitable giving, an important aspect of corporate social responsibility. Drawing from social role theory, we hypothesize and find that gender has consistent effects across levels of analysis; women donate more money to workplace charity than do men, and the percentage of women in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, at least among men. Alternatively and consistent with social exchange theory, we hypothesize and find that ethnicity has opposing effects across levels of analysis; ethnic minorities donate less money to workplace charity than do Whites, but the percentage of minorities in a work unit is positively related to workplace charity, particularly among minorities. The findings provide a novel perspective on the consequences of gender and ethnic diversity in organizations and highlight synergies between organizational efforts to increase diversity and to build a reputation for corporate social responsibility.

  9. Causality in physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  10. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  11. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  12. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  13. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  14. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  15. Moving from ‘Giving Back’ to Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Bhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Giving Back in Solidarity, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  16. Territorial Entanglements: Ambiguities of Giving Back in Northwestern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Limits to Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  17. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…

  18. Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Private Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher L.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated why private research universities differ in the sources and uses of their annual giving using data from 74 private universities and a subset of 29 private universities. Findings identify some factors that determine giving, but models could explain only part of the differences in funding from different sources. (SLD)

  19. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  20. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  1. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  3. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Komter; J.M.D. Schans

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  4. Validating that palliative care giving is a stressful occupation: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-03

    Feb 3, 2010 ... Results: The study found the following aspects inherent in care giving to be immensely stressful and challenging: ... Inadequate food, psychological support and community support networks. ...... An experimental psychology of.

  5. "To All Stroke Survivors - Never, Ever Give Up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation "To All Stroke Survivors – Never, Ever Give Up." Past Issues / Spring ... have for other Americans who are recovering from strokes and other serious health challenges? What about their ...

  6. Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163391.html Astronaut Twins Give Clues to Health Hazards of Spaceflight NASA ... aboard the International Space Station, and his identical twin Mark, a retired astronaut. Mark remained on Earth ...

  7. developing skills of giving and receiving feedbacks between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the strategies to improve quality of teaching and learning at training institutes could be by developing the skill of giving and receiving feedbacks among the individuals involved in the training .... the two groups; one group of students and.

  8. Who, Who, Who Gives a Hoot about Bones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Describes a mouse skeleton reconstruction activity from owl pellets. Gives information about the materials, directions for students, and a five-day unit schedule. Provides some owl pellet sources. (YP)

  9. Giving Voice: Studies in honour of Christine Anthonissen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Giving Voice: Studies in honour of Christine Anthonissen ... essay on discourse in the novel, defines the novel as “a diversity of social ... harmonious relationship. .... the effects are if the researcher does not share the participants' social class.

  10. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, A.; Schans, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  11. Benefits of Giving (A Book Review Using Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamdar Arraiyyah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a book review. It discusses a book entitled Give and Take. The book introduces a new approach to success. It makes three categories of people in doing interaction or communication. They are takers, matchers, and givers. The writer of the book, Adam Grant, explains the principles and characteristics of each category. He shows a lot of facts to prove that being a giver brings benefits for people and the doer as well. The objects of giving here comprise different kinds help like wealth, ideas, knowledge, skills and information. Therefore, he motivates people to become givers. In this connection, the reviewer would like to show that Islamic religion also motivates its followers to give helps to others. Though, there are some similarities and differences between the benefits of giving mentioned in the book and the verses of the Holy Qur’an and the sayings of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him.

  12. Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162611.html Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost? Climate phenomenon could have helped infection- ... might have aided the explosive spread of the Zika virus throughout South America, a new study reports. ...

  13. Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165622.html Mouse Gives Birth to Pups Using 3-D Printed Ovary Breakthrough ... to use hormone replacement therapies in order to trigger puberty," explained co-researcher Monica Laronda. She's a ...

  14. The accompanying adult: authority to give consent in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Seema Madhur Lata; Parekh, Susan; Mason, Carol; Roberts, Graham

    2007-05-01

    Children may be accompanied by various people when attending for dental treatment. Before treatment is started, there is a legal requirement that the operator obtain informed consent for the proposed procedure. In the case of minors, the person authorized to give consent (parental responsibility) is usually a parent. To ascertain if accompanying persons of children attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Eastman Dental Hospital, London were empowered to give consent for the child's dental treatment. A total of 250 accompanying persons of children attending were selected, over a 6-month period. A questionnaire was used to establish whether the accompanying person(s) were authorized to give consent. The study showed that 12% of accompanying persons had no legal authority to give consent for the child's dental treatment. Clinicians need to be aware of the status of persons accompanying children to ensure valid consent is obtained.

  15. Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About AOA Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside ... Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life ...

  16. We should give love to whoever needs without hesitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彩荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ The text Fog tells us a touching story, in which an old blind man helped a girl out of a thick fog by his unique sense of touch. From the text, we know the girl has never helped the old man, or even she doesn't know him. But he helped her! What's more, he thinks the fog gives him a chance to pay back the help that 'people give to him when it's sunny" .

  17. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  18. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  19. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  20. What drives the gender gap in charitable giving? Lower empathy leads men to give less to poverty relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Wimer, Christopher; Owens, Lindsay A

    2015-07-01

    We draw upon past research on gender and prosocial emotions in hypothesizing that empathy can help explain the gender gap in charitable giving. In a nationally representative survey, we found that men reported less willingness to give money or volunteer time to a poverty relief organization, gaps that were mediated by men's lower reported feelings of empathy toward others. We also experimentally tested how effective a variety of different ways of framing poverty relief were for promoting giving. Framing poverty as an issue that negatively affects all Americans increased men's willingness to donate to the cause, eliminating the gender gap. Mediation analysis revealed that this "aligned self-interest" framing worked by increasing men's reported poverty concern, not by changing their understanding of the causes of poverty. Thus, while men were generally less motivated by empathy, they responded to a framing that recast charitable giving as consistent with their self-interest. Exposure to the same framing, however, led women to report lower willingness to volunteer time for poverty relief, suggesting that framing giving as consistent with self-interest may discourage those who give because of an empathic response to poverty.

  1. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  2. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  3. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  4. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  5. Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Claudia; Bakker, Marta; Rohlfing, Katharina; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-10-01

    This research investigated infants' online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants' gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants' online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants' online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective.

  6. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  7. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  8. Collective Philanthropy: Describing and Modeling the Ecology of Giving

    CERN Document Server

    Gottesman, William L; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective of income and wealth distributions, philanthropic gifting appears to follow an approximate power-law size distribution as measured by the size of gifts received by individual institutions. We explore the ecology of gifting by analysing data sets of individual gifts for a diverse group of institutions dedicated to education, medicine, art, public support, and religion. We find that the detailed forms of gift-size distributions differ across but are relatively constant within charity categories. We construct a model for how a donor's income affects their giving preferences in different charity categories, offering a mechanistic explanation for variations in institutional gift-size distributions. We discuss how knowledge of gift-sized distributions may be used to assess an institution's gift-giving profile, to help set fundraising goals, and to design an institution-specific giving pyramid.

  9. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Colley, Rachel Christine; Saunders, Travis John; Healy, Genevieve Nissa; Owen, Neville

    2010-12-01

    Sedentary behaviour is associated with deleterious health outcomes, which differ from those that can be attributed to a lack of moderate to vigorous physical activity. This has led to the field of "sedentary physiology", which may be considered as separate and distinct from exercise physiology. This paper gives an overview of this emerging area of research and highlights the ways that it differs from traditional exercise physiology. Definitions of key terms associated with the field of sedentary physiology and a review of the self-report and objective methods for assessing sedentary behaviour are provided. Proposed mechanisms of sedentary physiology are examined, and how they differ from those linking physical activity and health are highlighted. Evidence relating to associations of sedentary behaviours with major health outcomes and the population prevalence and correlates of sedentary behaviours are reviewed. Recommendations for future research are proposed.

  10. Gift-giving in the medical student--patient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Yassar Abdullah S

    2012-08-01

    There is paucity in the published literature that provides any ethical guidance guiding gift-giving within the student--patient relationship. This is perhaps because the dynamics of the medical student--patient relationship have not yet been explored as extensively as the doctor--patient relationship. More importantly, however, gift--giving in the doctor-patient relationship has traditionally been from the patient to the doctor and not vice versa. This article examines the literature published in this vicinity reflecting on an encounter with a patient.

  11. American neurophysiology and two nineteenth-century American Physiological Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, J Wayne

    2017-01-01

    This article contrasts two American Physiological Societies, one founded near the beginning of the nineteenth century in 1837 and the other founded near its end in 1887. The contrast allows a perspective on how much budding neuroscience had developed during the nineteenth century in America. The contrast also emphasizes the complicated structure needed in both medicine and physiology to allow neurophysiology to flourish. The objectives of the American Physiological Society of 1887 were (and are) to promote physiological research and to codify physiology as a discipline. These would be accomplished by making physiology much more inclusive than traditionally accepted by raising research standards, by giving prestige to its members, by providing members a source of professional interchange, by protecting its members from antivivisectionists, and by promoting physiology as fundamental to medicine. The quantity of neuroscientific experiments by its members was striking. The main organizers of the society were Silas Weir Mitchell, John Call Dalton, Henry Pickering Bowditch, and Henry Newell Martin. The objective of the American Physiological Society of 1837 was to disperse knowledge of the "laws of life" and to promote human health and longevity. The primary organizers were William Andrus Alcott and Sylvester Graham with the encouragement of John Benson. Its technique was to use physiological information, not create it as was the case in 1887. Its object was to disseminate the word that healthy eating will improve the quality of life.

  12. Trichome structure and evolution in Neotropical lianas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anselmo; Ottra, Juliana Hanna Leite El; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues; Lohmann, Lúcia G

    2013-11-01

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths generally associated with protection against herbivores and/or desiccation that are widely distributed from ferns to angiosperms. Patterns of topological variation and morphological evolution of trichomes are still scarce in the literature, preventing valid comparisons across taxa. This study integrates detailed morphoanatomical data and the evolutionary history of the tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) in order to gain a better understanding of current diversity and evolution of trichome types. Two sampling schemes were used to characterize trichome types: (1) macromorphological characterization of all 105 species currently included in Bignonieae; and (2) micromorphological characterization of 16 selected species. Individual trichome morphotypes were coded as binary in each vegetative plant part, and trichome density and size were coded as multistate. Ancestral character state reconstructions were conducted using maximum likelihood (ML) assumptions. Two main functional trichome categories were found: non-glandular and glandular. In glandular trichomes, three morphotypes were recognized: peltate (Pg), stipitate (Sg) and patelliform/cupular (P/Cg) trichomes. Non-glandular trichomes were uniseriate, uni- or multicellular and simple or branched. Pg and P/Cg trichomes were multicellular and non-vascularized with three clearly distinct cell layers. Sg trichomes were multicellular, uniseriate and long-stalked. ML ancestral character state reconstructions suggested that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular, Pg and P/Cg trichomes, with each trichome type presenting alternative histories of appearance on the different plant parts. For example, the MRCA of Bignonieae probably had non-glandular trichomes on the stems, prophylls, petiole, petiolule and leaflet veins while P/Cg trichomes were restricted to leaflet blades. Sg trichomes were not present in the MRCA of Bignonieae independently of the position of these trichomes. These trichomes had at least eight independent origins in tribe. The patterns of trichome evolution indicate that most morphotypes are probably homologous in Bignonieae and could be treated under the same name based on its morphological similarity and common evolutionary history, in spite of the plethora of names that have been previously designated in the literature. The trichome descriptions presented here will facilitate comparisons across taxa, allowing inferences on the relationsthips between trichome variants and future studies about their functional properties.

  13. A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Anderson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

  14. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  15. Reciprocity Revisited : Give and Take in Dutch and Immigrant Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, Aafke; Schans, Djamila

    2008-01-01

    The idea that reciprocity is the basic principle underlying forms of social organization, among which the family, is as old as classical anthropology and sociology. The essence of the principle is that giving prompts receiving, thereby creating forms of ongoing exchange and durable cooperation. Reci

  16. New Trends in Name-Giving in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sakallı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a brief review of traditional customs of name-giving in Turkey and analyses some recent trends. The observations are based on 1270 Turkish names collected from the author’s students and reflecting naming practices in Turkey over last several decades. The data has been collected randomly regardless of social, regional, religious or ethnic backgrounds, all names being accompanied by the indication of the age of their bearers. The collected data were categorized into three groups: commemorative names, desiderata names and fortuitous names. This categorization shows the distribution of Turkish names and the changes in the stock of personal names over the years. The traditional name-giving customs are still observed in Turkey, however, new trends are becoming more prominent in the country. The author explains the changes with reference to social evolution which incites young educated parents, most of whom are university graduates living in urban areas and having only one child, to adopt new strategies of name-giving testifying their increasing individualism and weakening ties with traditions.

  17. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emo

  18. Formal Speaking——How to Give a Great Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Most successful people in the world are very good at “public speaking”.They know how to get up in front of a crowd and give a “formal speech”. They know how to move people, how to get them to take action. It's not easy to do, but

  19. Undergraduate Financial Aid and Subsequent Giving Behavior. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Kelly; Mullin, Charles H.; Siegfried, John J.

    Data on 2,822 Vanderbilt University graduates were used to investigate alumni giving behavior during the 8 years after graduation. A two-stage model accounting for individual truncation was used first to estimate the likelihood of making a contribution and second to estimate the average gift size conditional on contributing. The type of financial…

  20. Advice-giving in the English lingua franca classroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and, if so, in what way? The results of this study show ... advice-giving a student employs in classroom discourse. ... a school subject form part of the Expanding Circle. ..... In Sulee's class, students responded to her queries about the best way to find a job .... The most obvious limitation of this study is the size of the data set.

  1. Alumni Giving to Elite Private Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, C. T.

    2003-01-01

    Examines patterns of alumni giving, using data on two cohorts of former students from a sample of private colleges and universities. Higher levels of contributions are associated with high income, whether or not the person graduated from the institution where he or she first attended college, and the degree of satisfaction with his or her…

  2. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emo

  3. Reprint of: Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  4. Reprint of : Bidding to give in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, Sander; Schram, Arthur J. H. C.; Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2014-01-01

    In a door-to-door fundraising field experiment, we study the impact of fundraising mechanisms on charitable giving. We approached about 4500 households, each participating in an all-pay auction, a lottery, a non-anonymous voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM), or an anonymous VCM. In contrast to th

  5. It Is Better To Give Than It Is To Receive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2015-01-01

    <正>Intro:In the world millions of people are suffering from hunger especially people in the African areas,while some other people are enjoying some luxuries,such as jewelry,concert tickets,i Pods and so on.Should people give up their luxuries to those who are suffering from hunger?The answer is definitely

  6. 2 Authors Say Routledge Recycled Their Work without Giving Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two authors' work that has been recycled by Routledge without giving credit or royalty. When William E. Deal casually flipped through "Theory for Performance Studies: A Student's Guide," published this year by Routledge, he noticed a few familiar sentences. After taking a closer look, Mr. Deal, a professor of religious…

  7. Tuna comparative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  8. [The ethical aspects of physiological experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bertin, S V

    2014-01-01

    A modern classification of invasive procedures developed according to International Bioethical Principles has been presented. The experimental data convincingly demonstrate that using of noninvasive approaches and techniques give a good opportunity to reduce a number of animals recruited in experiment as well as to keep the normal (not distressful) physiological functions of animals. The data presented stress that development of noninvasive techniques is closely related both to scientific and social aspects of our life, allowing the scientists to provide high validity of experimental data obtained as well as to keep themselves as a human beings.

  9. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  10. Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Vézina, F.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Versteegh, M.; Tieleman, B.I.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study, we examined relatio

  11. Arduino & RepRap - Creating Wealth by Giving it Away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , growth in wealth is longevity and prosperity. Is it possible to grow wealth independently of money? This talk will be from Adrian Bowyer - creator of RepRap, the open-source replicating 3D printer - and from David Cuartielles - creator of Arduino, the open-source microcontroller. Both projects have...... founded significant and growing industries - and hence significant and growing wealth - by giving away all the data required to build RepRaps and Arduinos completely free. They have also short-circuited most conventional industrial infrastructure by placing the ability to create wealth directly...... in the hands of private individuals. The presenters contend that this is the way of the future: companies, and - more importantly - those private individuals will be giving away their primary products and making a living on the sideline activities that such donations attract. Software has been heading...

  12. Beijing Specialists Give Free Medical Treatment in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>To help improve the physical conditions of the people in the Hui ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province, from December 6 to 11,2005, a 10-member medical team of specialists from the Capital went to the Weishan Yi and Hui Ethnic Minority Autonomous County of Dali Prefecture and Xundian Hui and Yi Ethnic Minority Autonomous County of Kunming City to give free medical treatment for 6 days. This activity was

  13. A Conversation Model Enabling Intelligent Agents to Give Emotional Support

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zwaan, J.M.; Dignum, V; Jonker, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently talk to others to help them deal with negative emotions. To some extent, everybody is capable of comforting other people, but so far conversational agents are unable to deal with this type of situation. To provide intelligent agents with the capability to give emotional support, we propose a domain-independent conversational model that is based on topics suggested by cognitive appraisal theories of emotion and the 5-phase model that is used to structure onl...

  14. PC-give and David Hendry's econometric methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Neil R. Ericsson; Julia Campos; Hong-Anh Tran

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes David Hendry's empirical econometric methodology, unifying discussions in many of his and his co-authors' papers. Then, we describe how Hendry's suite of computer programs PC-GIVE helps users implement that methodology. Finally, we illustrate that methodology and the programs with three empirical examples: post­war narrow money demand in the United Kingdom, nominal income determination in the United Kingdom from Friedman and Schwartz (1982), and consumers' expenditure in...

  15. MP I joint giving way--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, H

    2001-02-01

    A case history of a 26 year old international class female 400 m hurdle sprinter is presented. While sprinting she felt a sudden and very intensive pain at her left hallux. After this she was unable to run and had episodes of giving way in the MP I joint elicited by minor activity. Operative investigation revealed a broad disruption of the MP I medial collateral ligament. After periosteal flap repair and early functional aftertreatment she returned to full high level sports ability.

  16. Giving an account of one's pain in the anthropological interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I analyze the illness stories narrated by a mother and her 13-year-old son as part of an ethnographic study of child chronic pain sufferers and their families. In examining some of the moral, relational and communicative challenges of giving an account of one's pain, I focus on what is left out of some accounts of illness and suffering and explore some possible reasons for these elisions. Drawing on recent work by Judith Butler (Giving an Account of Oneself, 2005), I investigate how the pragmatic context of interviews can introduce a form of symbolic violence to narrative accounts. Specifically, I use the term "genre of complaint" to highlight how anthropological research interviews in biomedical settings invoke certain typified forms of suffering that call for the rectification of perceived injustices. Interview narratives articulated in the genre of complaint privilege specific types of pain and suffering and cast others into the background. Giving an account of one's pain is thus a strategic and selective process, creating interruptions and silences as much as moments of clarity. Therefore, I argue that medical anthropologists ought to attend more closely to the institutional structures and relations that shape the production of illness narratives in interview encounters.

  17. Self-Giving as Spiritual Dimension in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benawa, A.; Tarigan, N.; Makmun, S.

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to show that today it is very important to consider the spiritual dimension in leadership, because the absence of the spiritual dimension makes it impossible for a human to evolve. As the leader, whoever should be accountable is not only on the horizontal level and at the vertical level as well. Phenomenological studies and literature about the practice of leadership are faced with a number of theories about leadership and then synthesized into more whole leadership rather than just to brand a leadership itself. Based on the assumption a leader is merely a sociological problem that needs to be completed with a spiritual dimension, while in its historical development of leadership, it is never excluded from the spiritual dimension. This article concludes that self-giving as a spiritual dimension in leadership will give more benefit to develop the life system as well as the purpose of leadership itself rather than the apparent leadership, which actually hurts or even manipulate the members for the sake of egoistic the leader and their inner circle. Therefore, it is very important for education to teach self-giving as a spiritual dimension to all students of the World, especially in Asia.

  18. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  19. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  20. Private Giving Crowding Government Funding in Public Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thomas Sav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Private giving and government funding are critical revenue sources for public colleges and universities. If increased private giving reduces government funding, then that type and extent of crowding out carries important managerial and public policy implications. Approach: The study used a government funding reaction function and an instrumental variable approach to empirically estimate the potential for crowding out. Results: The study examined the extent to which private giving reduces or crowds out state government funding of public colleges and universities. Government free riding was at question and investigated to determine how active it is in terms of private donations partially or wholly displacing state government funding. The findings suggested that the rate of crowding out was 43% on the dollar. That compares to the 45% political substitution of the 1960’s but is much diminished from the 1980’s dollar for dollar crowding out. Those are aggregate comparisons for all public institutions. A disaggregated approach in this study additionally revealed that doctoral universities were victims of the same 43% crowd out but that at two other levels, master degree granting and associate degree granting colleges, there was the opposite effect of crowding in. Those colleges received state funding augmentations of 32-92% on their dollar of privately provided donations. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study’s finding of the existence of both crowding out and crowding in can carry important policy implications for college and university funding. Future managerial and public policy decision making should take that into account. However, political sustainability and economy wide and localized effects over time of crowding out and in could prove fruitful avenues of inquiry for future research.

  1. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  2. A Childhood Rich in Culture Gives a Socioeconomic Bonus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennye Düranc

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen ridser den nyeste forskning op inden for feltet 'art rich learning', altså æstetiske læreprocesser af god kvalitet. In the book ”Art and Culture Give Children a Life that Works” 60 (Danish and non-Danish) experts, practitioners, artists and several Ministers from the Danish Government...... focus on the significance of Art and Culture for children. The book provides lots of inspiration for teachers, pedagogues and cultural mediators and contains many examples of specific cultural activities, links and bibliographic references....

  3. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-01-01

    One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being...

  4. Confounding Issues in the Deadweight Loss of Gift-Giving

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kristl Davison; Bing, Mark N.; E. Bruce Hutchinson; Leila J. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    When a gift is given, someone other than the final consumer makes the consumption choice. Thus there is a possibility that the gift will not match the preferences of the receiver, i.e., the gift will represent a wise use of the money given the gift-giver's tastes but not necessarily a wise use of money given the recipient's tastes. In other words, gift giving can result in a deadweight loss. This paper addresses and clarifies the discrepancy between Waldfogel's (1993) finding of a deadweight ...

  5. Reluctant altruism and peer pressure in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Reyniers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects donate individually (control group or in pairs (treatment group. Those in pairs reveal their donation decision to each other. Average donations in the treatment group are significantly higher than in the control group. Paired subjects have the opportunity to revise their donation decision after discussion. Pair members shift toward each others' initial decisions. Subjects are happier with their decision when their donations are larger, but those in pairs are less happy, controlling for amount donated. These findings suggest reluctant altruism due to peer pressure in charitable giving.

  6. What are the impacts of giving up the driving licence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    in their activities after giving up their licence. In travel frequency, neither the differences between renewers and non-renewers nor the changes over time within the groups were pronounced. The groups differed in their use of transport modes already at the baseline: the renewers drove, while nonrenewers travelled...... as passengers, used public transport, walked or cycled. Not renewing the licence was a strong predictor of unmet mobility needs, especially in relation to leisure activities. The present study indicates that younger seniors’ mobility is not likely to be affected by the strict renewal policies. However, given...

  7. Single Cell Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  8. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  9. Giving Voice to Values: an undergraduate nursing curriculum project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sandra; Hart, Bethne; Costa, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Among the competency standards stipulated by the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council for graduating students are competencies in moral and ethical decision making and ethics education within professions such as nursing has traditionally focussed on these competencies, on raising ethical awareness and developing skills of analysis and reasoning. However, ethics education in tertiary settings places less emphasis on developing students' capacities to act on their values. This paper explains and explores the adoption of Dr. Mary Gentile's curriculum (the Giving Voice to Values curriculum).which specifically focuses on developing students' capacities to act on their values. The curriculum (Gentile, 2010) assists students and professionals to explore, script and rehearse responses which build upon their capacity to respond in accordance with their own values in complex workplace settings in which they face conflicts of value and belief. The paper firstly examines the theoretical underpinnings of the Giving Voice to Values (GVV) curriculum. It then presents the integration and evaluation phase of a Project inspired by the GVV methodology, using a case study approach within two areas of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. As a pilot project, this initiative has provided signposts to further curriculum development and to research pathways within the UNDA School of Nursing, by highlighting students' uncertainties regarding their own professional values, and their intense struggles to voice their values within health care contexts.

  10. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings.

  11. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  12. Network Physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    CERN Document Server

    Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; 10.1038/ncomms1705

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  13. Network physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Amir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is...

  14. Giving Students the Power to Engage with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Kathryn F.; Reinsvold, Lori A.; Hess, Chelsie A.

    2016-11-01

    This critical discourse analysis study identifies and describes power relationships in elementary classrooms that support science engagement by providing students time to think, ask questions, and find their voices to talk about subject matter. The first analyses involved identification and description of classroom episodes showing high levels of student power and engagement associated with learning science. Classroom episodes were grouped into seven power patterns: use of questions, teacher sharing authority, giving students credit for knowledge, legitimate digressions, enhanced feedback, and writing opportunities. The second analyses documented the manner in which these patterns formed more complex classroom engagement processes called power clusters. These examples further our understanding of the dynamics of classroom discourse and the relationships between student power and engagement in subject matter.

  15. Testing the Correlations between Corporate Giving, Performance and Company Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Daniela Hategan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to identify the relationship between the charitable contributions, performance, and market value of Romanian listed companies. To achieve the objective, a panel data analysis was conducted on a group of companies listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange in the period 2011 to 2016, which registered profit for the entire period. The empirical analysis points out, using a logistic regression, which financial and non-financial indicators contribute to the decisions of the companies to make the charitable contributions. It also tests the impact of those indicators and corporate giving activities like Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activities on company value, represented by Tobin’s Q Ratio and on company performance, expressed by Return on Equity (ROE. The results show that there is a positive correlation between the charitable contributions, performance, and market value of the Romanian listed companies.

  16. The Effect of Giving Feedback to Students' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although writing is as important as other skills such as listening, speaking, and reading, it needs more special attention. In order to write well, students need a long process to learn to write and they need continous feedback. The aim of this article is to know whether giving feedback to students' writing has a significant effect or not. Two groups of students, experimental and control, were involved. The compositions of the first group were given feedback, while those of the second group were not given feedback. The study shows that provision of feedback improves student's writing. In light of the result of the study, it is recommended that teachers provide feedback on students' writing.

  17. Nutrition and the brain: what advice should we give?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James K

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge base of nutrition and the brain is steadily expanding. Much of the research is aimed at ways to protect the brain from damage. In adults, the major causes of brain damage are aging and dementia. The most prominent dementia, and the condition that grabs the most public attention, is Alzheimer's disease. The assumption in the field is that possibly some change in nutrition could protect the brain and prevent, delay, or minimize Alzheimer's disease damage. Presented here is a framework for understanding the implications of this research. There is a gap between publishing research results and change in public nutrition behavior. Several influencing elements intervene. These include regulatory agencies and all the organizations and people who advise the public, all with their own perspectives. In considering what advice to give, advisors may consider effectiveness, research model, persuasiveness, and risks, among other factors. Advice about nutrition and Alzheimer's disease today requires several caveats.

  18. Association Analysis of Alumni Giving: A Formal Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ray R.; Le Blanc, Louis A.; Bahar, Mahmood; Traywick, Bryan

    A large sample (initially 33,000 cases representing a ten percent trial) of university alumni giving records for a large public university in the southwestern United States are analyzed by Formal Concept Analysis (FCA). This likely represents the initially attempt to perform analysis of such data by means of a machine learing technique. The variables employed include the gift amount to the university foundation (UF) as well as traditional demographic variables such as year of graduation, gender, ethnicity, marital status, etc. The UF serves as one of the institution's non-profit, fund-raising organizations. It pursues substantial gifts that are designated for the educational or leadership programs of the giver's choice. Although they process gifts of all sizes, the UF focus is on major gifts and endowments.

  19. Paedomorphic facial expressions give dogs a selective advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available How wolves were first domesticated is unknown. One hypothesis suggests that wolves underwent a process of self-domestication by tolerating human presence and taking advantage of scavenging possibilities. The puppy-like physical and behavioural traits seen in dogs are thought to have evolved later, as a byproduct of selection against aggression. Using speed of selection from rehoming shelters as a proxy for artificial selection, we tested whether paedomorphic features give dogs a selective advantage in their current environment. Dogs who exhibited facial expressions that enhance their neonatal appearance were preferentially selected by humans. Thus, early domestication of wolves may have occurred not only as wolf populations became tamer, but also as they exploited human preferences for paedomorphic characteristics. These findings, therefore, add to our understanding of early dog domestication as a complex co-evolutionary process.

  20. GIVE VOICES TO SILENT LEARNERS IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly experienced by teachers that they meet silent learners in speaking class,especiallyin an EFL setting at the tertiary level in China.This paper attempts to diagnose the problems inthe current curriculum,curriculum materials and teaching methods used to teach the productiveskill of speaking,which are supposed to be the direct cause of students in"losing their voices",Itbegins with a brief description of the teaching and learning situation in a teachers’ college which isalso typical at other tertiary levels as well.Concrete examples of modification to the teaching ofthe skill are provided with the hope to give back"voices"to the silent students in speaking class.

  1. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  2. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  3. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  4. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  5. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  6. Hypertension: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; Granger, Joey P; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; George, Eric; Hamza, Shereen; Speed, Joshua; Hall, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  7. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  8. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  9. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  10. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  11. Physiology of Volition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  12. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic summer to return again in the autumn. Seasonal changes in melatonin secretion are involved in the regulation of reproduction, the growth of pelage, thermogenesis, body mass and immune function. Melatonin may exert its effects through gene activation, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. Other hormones that show seasonality are thyroid hormones, insulin and leptin. Thus the observed physiological changes are a result of actions of several hormones. Appetite, energy production and thermogenesis are all vital for survival. During winter, when energy balance is negative, the reindeer uses mainly body fat for energy production. The use of fat stores is economical as the rate of lipolysis is controlled and the use of fatty acids in tissues such as muscle decreases. Only in severe starvation the rate of lipolysis increases enough to give rise to accumulation of ketone bodies. The protein mass is maintained and only in starved individuals muscle protein is used for energy production. The winter feed of the reindeer, the lichens, is poor in nitrogen and the nitrogen balance during winter is strongly negative. Reindeer responds to limited availability of nitrogen by increasing the recycling of urea into rumen. In general the adaptation of reindeer physiology enables the reindeer to survive the winter and although several aspects are known many others require further studies.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Valaistus, lämpötila ja ravinnon saatavuus

  13. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  14. Physiology of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint. We review here the anatomical organization of the visceral sensory innervation that distinguishes the viscera from innervation of all other tissues in the body. The viscera are innervated by two nerves that share overlapping functions, but also possess notably distinct functions. Additionally, the visceral innervation is sparse relative to the sensory innervation of other tissues. Accordingly, visceral sensations tend to be diffuse in character, are typically referred to nonvisceral somatic structures and thus are difficult to localize. Early arguments about whether the viscera were innervated ("sensate") and later, whether innervated by nociceptors, were resolved by advances reviewed here in the anatomical and functional attributes of receptive endings in viscera that contribute to visceral pain (i.e., visceral nociceptors). Importantly, the contribution of plasticity (i.e., sensitization) of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive mechanisms is considered in the context of persistent, chronic visceral pain conditions. The review concludes with an overview of the functional anatomy of visceral pain processing. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1609-1633, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. The good engineer: giving virtue its due in engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    During the past few decades, engineering ethics has been oriented towards protecting the public from professional misconduct by engineers and from the harmful effects of technology. This "preventive ethics" project has been accomplished primarily by means of the promulgation of negative rules. However, some aspects of engineering professionalism, such as (1) sensitivity to risk (2) awareness of the social context of technology, (3) respect for nature, and (4) commitment to the public good, cannot be adequately accounted for in terms of rules, certainly not negative rules. Virtue ethics is a more appropriate vehicle for expressing these aspects of engineering professionalism. Some of the unique features of virtue ethics are the greater place it gives for discretion and judgment and also for inner motivation and commitment. Four of the many professional virtues that are important for engineers correspond to the four aspects of engineering professionalism listed above. Finally, the importance of the humanities and social sciences in promoting these virtues suggests that these disciplines are crucial in the professional education of engineers.

  16. Osteocyte regulation of bone mineral: a little give and take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G J; Findlay, D M

    2012-08-01

    Osteocytes actively participate in almost every phase of mineral handling by bone. They regulate the mineralisation of osteoid during bone formation, and they are also a major RANKL-producing cell. Osteocytes are thus able to liberate bone mineral by regulating osteoclast differentiation and activity in response to a range of stimuli, including bone matrix damage, bone disuse and mechanical unloading, oestrogen deficiency, high-dose glucocorticoid and chemotherapeutic agents. At least some of these activities may be regulated by the osteocyte-secreted product, sclerostin. There is also mounting evidence that in addition to regulating phosphate homeostasis systemically, osteocytes contribute directly to calcium homeostasis in the mature skeleton. Osteocyte cell death and the local loss of control of bone mineralisation may be the cause of focal hypermineralisation of bone and osteopetrosis, as seen in aging and pathology. The sheer number of osteocytes in bone means that "a little give and take" in terms of regulation of bone mineral content translates into a powerful whole organism effect.

  17. Traveller's thrombosis: airlines still not giving passengers the WRIGHT advice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, J R H; Ahmad, N; Thavarajan, D; Fisher, R K

    2010-10-01

    This study has examined the impact of the World Health Organization's Research into Global Hazards of Travel (WRIGHT) Project's phase 1 report on the information given by airlines to their passengers regarding traveller's thrombosis. Official websites of all airlines flying from Heathrow (UK) and John F Kennedy (USA) were located through links on the websites of these two busy international airports. In June 2007, each site was scrutinized by three independent researchers to identify if traveller's thrombosis and its risk factors were discussed and what methods of prevention were advised. This exercise was repeated a year after the publication of the WRIGHT report. One hundred and nineteen international airlines were listed in 2007 (12 were excluded from analysis). A quarter (27/107) of airlines warned of the risk of traveller's thrombosis. A year later, five airlines were no longer operational and there had been no increase in the discussion of traveller's thrombosis (23/102). Additional risk factors discussed in June 2007 versus September 2008: previous venous thromboembolism (16%, 15%); thrombophilia (14%, 15%); family history (11%, 9%); malignancy (12%, 14%); recent surgery (19%, 16%); pregnancy (17%, 16%) and obesity (11%, 12%). Prophylaxis advice given in June 2007 versus September 2008: in-flight exercise (34%, 42%); Hydration (30%, 34%); medical consultation prior to flying (20%, 18%); graduated compression stockings (13%, 12%); aspirin (airlines continue to fail to warn of the risk of traveller's thrombosis or offer appropriate advice. Alerting passengers at risk gives them an opportunity to seek medical advice before flying.

  18. Can Maxwell's fish eye lens really give perfect imaging?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Both explicit analysis and FEM numerical simulation are used to analyze the field distribution of a line current in the so-called Maxwell's fish eye lens [bounded with a perfectly electrical conductor (PEC) boundary]. We show that such a 2D Maxwell's fish eye lens cannot give perfect imaging due to the fact that high order modes of the object field can hardly reach the image point in Maxwell's fish eye lens. If only zeroth order mode is excited, a good image of a sharp object may be achieved in some cases, however, its spot-size is larger than the spot size of the initial object field. The image resolution is determined by the field spot size of the image corresponding to the zeroth order component of the object field. Our explicit analysis consists very well with the FEM results for a fish eye lens. Time-domain simulation is also given to verify our conclusion. Multi-point images for a single object point are also demonstrated.

  19. Does friendship give us non-derivative partial reasons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reisner

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available One way to approach the question of whether there are non-derivative partial reasons of any kind is to give an account of what partial reasons are, and then to consider whether there are such reasons. If there are, then it is at least possible that there are partial reasons of friendship. It is this approach that will be taken here, and it produces several interesting results. The first is a point about the structure of partial reasons. It is at least a necessary condition of a reason’s being partial that it has an explicit relational component. This component, technically, is a relatum in the reason relation that itself is a relation between the person to whom the reason applies and the person whom the action for which there is a reason concerns. The second conclusion of the paper is that this relational component is also required for a number of types of putatively impartial reasons. In order to avoid trivialising the distinction between partial and impartial reasons, some further sufficient condition must be applied. Finally, there is some prospect for a way of distinguishing between impartial reasons that contain a relational component and partial reasons, but that this approach suggests that the question of whether ethics is partial or impartial will be settled at the level of normative ethical discourse, or at least not at the level of discourse about the nature of reasons for action.

  20. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  1. Physiological Factors Analysis in Unpressurized Aircraft Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrao, Luis; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Amateur and sports flight is an activity with growing numbers worldwide. However, the main cause of flight incidents and accidents is increasingly pilot error, for a number of reasons. Fatigue, sleep issues and hypoxia, among many others, are some that can be avoided, or, at least, mitigated. This article describes the analysis of psychological and physiological parameters during flight in unpressurized aircraft cabins. It relates cerebral oximetry and heart rate with altitude, as well as with flight phase. The study of those parameters might give clues on which variations represent a warning sign to the pilot, thus preventing incidents and accidents due to human factors. Results show that both cerebral oximetry and heart rate change along the flight and altitude in the alert pilot. The impaired pilot might not reveal these variations and, if this is detected, he can be warned in time.

  2. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  3. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  4. Elements of plant physiology in theophrastus' botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years the plants were considered only as a source of food and medicine, and as ornamental objects. Only from the fifth century BC, some philosophers of Ancient Greece realized that the plants were living organisms but, unfortunately, their works have come to us as fragments that we often know from the biological works of Aristotle. This eminent philosopher and man of science, however, did not give us a complete work on the plants, which he often promised to write. From scattered fragments of his conspicuous biological work, it emerges a concept of nutritive soul that, in the presence of heat and moisture, allows plants to grow and reproduce. The task of writing a comprehensive botanical work was delegated to his first pupil, Theophrastus, who left us two treatises over time translated into the various languages up to the current versions (Enquiry into plants, On the causes of plants). The plant life is described and interpreted on the basis of highly accurate observations. The physiological part of his botany is essentially the nutrition: According to Theophrastus, plants get matter and moisture from the soil through root uptake and process the absorbed substances transforming them into food, thanks to the heat. The processing (pepsis, coction) of matter into the food represents an extraordinary physiological intuition because individual organs of a plant appear to perform its specific transformation. Despite that Theophrastus did not do scientific experiments or use special methods other than the sharpness of his observations, he can be considered the forerunner of a plant physiology that would take rebirth only after two millennia.

  5. GIVE THE PUBLIC SOMETHING, SOMETHING MORE INTERESTING THAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, Hans D.K.

    2003-02-27

    In the Netherlands the policy to manage radioactive waste is somewhat different from that in other countries, although the practical outcome is not much different. Long-term, i.e. at least 100 years, storage in above ground engineered structures of all waste types is the first element in the Dutch policy. Second element, but equally important, is that deep geologic disposal is foreseen after the storage period. This policy was brought out in the early eighties and was communicated to the public as a practical, logical and feasible management system for the Dutch situation. Strong opposition existed at that time to deep disposal in salt domes in the Netherlands. Above ground storage at principle was not rejected because the need to do something was obvious. Volunteers for a long term storage site did not automatically emerge. A site selection procedure was followed and resulted in the present site at Vlissingen-Oost. The waste management organization, COVRA, was not really welcomed here , but was tolerated. In the nineties facilities for low and medium level waste were erected and commissioned. In the design of the facilities much attention was given to emotional factors. The first ten operational years were needed to gain trust from the local population. Impeccable conduct and behavior was necessary as well as honesty and full openness to the public Now, after some ten years, the COVRA facilities are accepted. And a new phase is entered with the commissioning of the storage facility for high level waste, the HABOG facility. A visit to that facility will not be very spectacular, activities take place only during loading and unloading. Furthermore it is a facility for waste, so unwanted material will be brought into the community. In order to give the public something more interesting the building itself is transformed into a piece of art and in the inside a special work of art will be displayed. Together with that the attitude of the company will change. We are

  6. Understanding the physiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The physiology of schizophrenia includes complex genetic and environmental interactions. Current treatment largely focuses on positive symptoms, but many patients with schizophrenia present with additional symptoms and conditions that hinder their social and occupational functioning. The study of the physiology of this disorder has expanded beyond dopamine dysfunction to include the glutamate, serotonin, and nicotinic/acetylcholine systems, as well as physiologic abnormalities such as diabetes and inflammation. Clinicians who understand these additional problem areas can incorporate them into their assessment and treatment plans for patients with schizophrenia. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Medical electronics and physiological measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T.

    1989-07-01

    This article describes some recent developments in physiological measurement since the last `special issue' in 1978. Nine examples are given covering mature applications, new techniques and some `ideas for the future'. The need for good scientists in this interesting and challenging area is stressed. Physiological measurement is challenging because human physiology is complex. The examples described in this article illustrate some areas where cooperation between basic scientists, engineers, clinicians and, not least, patients has led to remarkable advances in our understanding of man and his physiology. Many challenges still lie ahead. There is no doubt that good quality graduates, with fresh minds and fresh enthusiasm, are needed to build on the foundation that has already been laid.

  8. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  9. Physiology of the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid

    2005-12-01

    Our understanding of fetal circulatory physiology is based on experimental animal data, and this continues to be an important source of new insight into developmental mechanisms. A growing number of human studies have investigated the human physiology, with results that are similar but not identical to those from animal studies. It is time to appreciate these differences and base more of our clinical approach on human physiology. Accordingly, the present review focuses on distributional patterns and adaptational mechanisms that were mainly discovered by human studies. These include cardiac output, pulmonary and placental circulation, fetal brain and liver, venous return to the heart, and the fetal shunts (ductus venosus, foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus). Placental compromise induces a set of adaptational and compensational mechanisms reflecting the plasticity of the developing circulation, with both short- and long-term implications. Some of these aspects have become part of the clinical physiology of today with consequences for surveillance and treatment.

  10. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  11. Survey of Departments of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Presents data of the 1976 survey of departments of physiology. Includes comparison to 1974 and 1975 data for number of academic positions available, department budgets, graduate students and post doctoral fellows, and salaries. (SL)

  12. Physiological Control of Germline Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, E. Jane Albert; Korta, Dorota Z.; Dalfó, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The intersection between developmental programs and environmental conditions that alter physiology is a growing area of research interest. The C. elegans germ line is emerging as a particularly sensitive and powerful model for these studies. The germ line is subject to environmentally regulated diapause points that allow worms to withstand harsh conditions both prior to and after reproduction commences. It also responds to more subtle changes in physiological conditions. Recent studies demons...

  13. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic sum...

  14. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  15. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  16. Substitution or Symbiosis? Assessing the Relationship between Religious and Secular Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan P.; Vaidyanathan, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Research on philanthropy has not sufficiently examined whether charitable giving to religious causes impinges on giving to secular causes. Examining three waves of national panel data, we find that the relationship between religious and secular giving is generally not of a zero-sum nature; families that increase their religious giving also…

  17. Giving USA 1997: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ann E., Ed.

    This report presents a comprehensive review of private philanthropy in the United States during 1996. After a preliminary section, the first section presents data on giving, using text, graphs, and charts. Sections cover: overall 1996 contributions; changes in giving by source and use; total giving (1966-1996); inflation-adjusted giving in 5-year…

  18. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Behrenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  19. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  20. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  1. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  2. Physiological Studies of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gunda

    industrial production by employing flow cytometry for viability assessment, cell size comparison, intracellular pH (pHi) determination and cell sorting. The physiological studies of L. lactis were complemented by examining the growth behavior, glucose consumption, lactate production, culturability on solid...... was found to facilitate the differentiation and accurate quantification of L. lactis cells in different physiological states, which agreed with the reproductive viability of reference samples and of exponential cells. The high viability of one particular L. lactis strain demonstrated its robustness during......, cell size comparison and pHi determination reflected the increasing physiological impairment during this accelerated stability test, while a preincubation in buffer led to inconsistent flow cytometric results. The comparison of reproductive and growth-independent viability suggested the presence...

  3. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  4. In silico modelling of physiologic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Richard B; Colquhoun, Douglas A; Thiele, Robert H

    2011-12-01

    In silico modelling, in which computer models are developed to model a pharmacologic or physiologic process, is a logical extension of controlled in vitro experimentation. It is the natural result of the explosive increase in computing power available to the research scientist at continually decreasing cost. In silico modelling combines the advantages of both in vivo and in vitro experimentation, without subjecting itself to the ethical considerations and lack of control associated with in vivo experiments. Unlike in vitro experiments, which exist in isolation, in silico models allow the researcher to include a virtually unlimited array of parameters, which render the results more applicable to the organism as a whole. In silico modelling is best known for its extensive use in pharmacokinetic experimentation, the best-known example of which is the development of the three-compartment model. In addition, complex in silico models have been applied to pathophysiological problems to provide information which cannot be obtained practically or ethically by traditional clinical research methods. These experiments have led to the development of significant insights in subject matters ranging from pure physiology to congenital heart surgery, obstetric anaesthesia airway management, mechanical ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass/ventricular support devices. The utility of these models is based on both the validity of the model framework as well as the corresponding assumptions. In vivo experimentation has validated some, but not all of the in silico strategies employed. We present a review illustrating by example how in silico modelling has been applied to a number of cardio-respiratory problems in states of health and disease, the purpose of which is to give the reader a sense of the complexity and assumptions which underlie this diverse and underappreciated research strategy, as well as an introduction to a research strategy that will likely continue to grow in

  5. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  6. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  7. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1966-01-01

    Starling's law of the heart states that "the energy of contraction, however measured, is a function of the length of the muscle fibre" (Starling, 1915). This physiological property of myocardial and skeletal muscle enables the heart, within certain limits, to eject during each systole the amount

  8. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...

  9. Physiological specialization of Stagonospora nodorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoriosis is a harmful disease of wheat, widespread all over the world, including Russia. Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Castellani and E.G. Germano is one of the main agents of Septoria wheat diseases. There is no information on physiological specialization of this pathogen. Not many authors stud...

  10. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  11. Reproductive Physiology in Cetaceans (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews some works on reproductive physiology in cetaceans with special reference to dolphins from the following aspects: estrous cycle in female dolphins, hormonal profiles during pregnancy, testosterone levels and seasonality in testicular activity, ovulation induction and sperm collection and freezing.

  12. Applied physiology of water polo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H K

    1998-11-01

    Water polo has been played for over a century. While the rules of the game have evolved considerably over this time, the sport has consistently remained, physiologically, a highly demanding activity. Much attention has been paid to the technical and strategic elements of the game; however, despite the potential for improvements in athletic performance and the maintenance of athletes' health, there are few published studies (particularly in English) on the physical and physiological demands and adaptations to water polo training and competition. Game analyses have demonstrated that water polo is an 'intermittent' sport comprised of intense bursts of activity of movements required for playing water polo also place considerable demands on the neuromuscular system. Observations of the frequency and duration of the different activities, and of the physiological responses to participating in a water polo match, are initial sources of information for designing training programmes specific to the game and to the different playing positions. The physical and physiological attributes of elite water polo players offer some insight into the minimum requirements for participation and the adaptations that result from training and competition. Further systematic documentation and experimentation are required to facilitate the design and specification of individual training programmes and to better understand the long term effects of water polo on athletes' health.

  13. PHYSIOLOGIC BASIS OF NASAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilding, A. C.

    1950-01-01

    To be successful, intranasal operations must be so designed as to restore the normal physiologic function of the nose. It is impossible with impunity to operate upon the interior of the nose as though it were simply an air flue and on the sinuses as though they were boxes. PMID:15400563

  14. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  15. 'Systems biology' in human exercise physiology: is it something different from integrative physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaff, Paul L; Hargreaves, Mark

    2011-03-01

    On first impression the 'whole-istic approach to understanding biology' that has been used to describe Systems Biology bears a striking resemblance to what many of us know as Integrative Physiology. However, closer scrutiny reveals that at the present time Systems Biology is rooted in processes operating at a cellular level ('the study of an organism, viewed as an integrated and interacting network of genes, proteins and biochemical reactions which give rise to life ultimately responsible for an organism's form and functions'; http://www.systemsbiology.org), and appears to have evolved as a direct result of advances in high throughput molecular biology platforms (and associated bioinformatics) over the past decade. The Systems Biology approach is in many ways laudable, but it will be immediately apparent to most exercise or integrative physiologists that the challenge of understanding the whole-animal response to exercise as a network of integrated and interacting genes, proteins and biochemical reactions is unlikely to be realized in the near future. This short review will attempt to clarify conceptual inconsistencies between the fields of Systems Biology and Integrative Physiology in the context of exercise science, and will attempt to identify the challenges to whole-body physiologists wishing to harness the tools of Systems Biology.

  16. Learning About Ethical Leadership Through the Giving Voice to Values Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the Giving Voice to Values curriculum, one innovative approach to integrating ethics into leadership development. The chapter describes how Giving Voice to Values is being used in educational settings across the globe.

  17. Give & Take

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Employees in a negotiation training workshop are chatting happily in a company cafeteria near San Francisco. They're not on break. They're on assignment. Their objective: to discover three things they didn't know--and wouldn't have guessed--about each other. The exercise isn't about the information, though. It's about the methods they used to get…

  18. Transparent Giving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Public trust in charities generally remains low, but the government is taking steps to improve their accountability Chen Xiaozhu, a civil servant in Beijing, follows the development of China's charities and enthusiastically participates in different charitable activities. But she cannot forget an incident at Shanghai's Fudan

  19. Network Physiology: Mapping interactions between complex physiological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where multi-component organ systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact to optimize and coordinate their function. Organ-to-organ interactions occur at multiple levels and spatiotemporal time scales to produce distinct physiologic states: wake and sleep; light and deep sleep; consciousness and unconsciousness. Disrupting organ communications can lead to dysfunction of individual systems or to collapse of the entire organ...

  20. Wearable Systems for Service based on Physiological Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young-Sung; Lee, Jeun-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Many researches for useful status information on humans have been done using the bio-signals. The bio-signal acquisition systems can be used to connect a user and a ubiquitous computing environment. The ubiquitous computing environment has to give various services anywhere, anytime. Consequently, ubiquitous computing requires new technology, such as a new user interface, dynamic service mechanism based on context and mobility support, which is different from technology used in desktop environment. To do this, we developed a wearable system, which can sense physiological data, determine emotional status and execute service based on the emotion. In this paper, we described wearable systems for personalized service based on physiological signals. The wearable system is composed of three subsystems, the physiological data sensing subsystem, the human status awareness subsystem and the service management subsystem. The physiological data sensing subsystem senses PPG, GSR and SKT signals from the data glove and sends the data to a wearable system using Bluetooth. The human status awareness subsystem in the wearable system receives the data from bio-sensors and determines emotional status using nonlinear mapping and rule-base. After determining emotion, the service management subsystem activates proper service automatically, and the service management subsystem can provide personalized service for users based on acquired bio-signals. Also, we presented various feature extraction using bio-signals such as PPG, GSR, SKT considering mobility, and emotion recognition of human status for the ubiquitous computing service.

  1. [Use of Bromocriptin tablets in physiologic and pathologic hyperprolactinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, M; Tárczy, C; Tasiné Tóth, E; Bérczy, J; Gyetvai, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors used Bromocriptine tablet, made by Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd. in 11 cases to alleriate a physiological milk secretion and in 15 cases as a treatment for extra-puerperal galactorrhea. Under treatment the serum prolactin level dropped exponentially while under Norcolut administration a linear regression was shown and the mammary activity abated after 14 days. The best method for treating the physiological hyperprolactinemia is to give the Bromocriptine before starting milk secretion. In cases of extra-puerperal galactorrhea. The patients become free from complaint after 8 weeks. In both cases the dose was 5-7.5 mg Bromocriptine. When galactorrhea and amenorrhoea occur together during the treatments second month menstruation begins and in two cases unwanted pregnancies happened. It has been found that the latent functional hyperprolactinemia can also be galactorrhea. The result were verified in ten cases by testing the metoclopramide-burden.

  2. Physiological characteristics of fungi associated with dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben

    Knowledge about physiological characteristics of food-borne fungi is important in understanding how the environment affects colonization of different foods and feeds. The response of a fungus to changes in the environment will, however, depend on the stage of the life cycle or the physiological...... and production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites represent two other areas of great concern in relation to food spoilage, which might be controlled by different regulation mechanisms. Detailed as well as more general information on behaviour of fungi in relation to important growth controlling...... mode of the mycelium. Germination of spores is a key event in the fungal life cycle giving rise to colonization by a growing mycelium. Understanding of the factors controlling germination are of major importance as no infection of food-stuffs will occur if spores do not germinate. Food spoilage...

  3. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  5. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iype Cherian; Giovanni Grasso; Antonio Bernardo; Sunil Munakomi

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure.This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon.We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works.This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  6. Physiologic characterization of type 2 diabetes-related loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Sparsø, Thomas; Hansen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    of these variants influence pancreatic ß-cell function. However, risk alleles in five loci seem to have a primary impact on insulin sensitivity. Investigations of more detailed physiologic phenotypes, such as the insulin response to intravenous glucose or the incretion hormones, are now emerging and give...... indications of more specific pathologic mechanisms for diabetes-related risk variants. Such studies have shed light on the function of some loci but also underlined the complex nature of disease mechanism. In the future, sequencing-based discovery of low-frequency variants with higher impact on intermediate...

  7. [C-peptide physiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O; Granstrem, O K

    2013-02-01

    In the recent years there were numerous evidences that C-peptide, which was previously considered as a product of insulin biosynthesis, is one of the key regulators of physiological processes. C-peptide via heterotrimeric G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors activates a wide range of intracellular effector proteins and transcription factors and, thus, controls the inflammatory and neurotrophic processes, pain sensitivity, cognitive function, macro- and microcirculation, glomerular filtration. These effects of C-peptide are mainly expressed in its absolute or relative deficiency occurred in type 1 diabetes mellitus and they are less pronounced when the level of C-peptide is close to normal. Replacement therapy with C-peptide prevents many complications of type 1 diabetes, such as atherosclerosis, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and nephropathy. C-peptide interacts with the insulin hexamer complexes and induces their dissociation and, as a result, regulates the functional activity of the insulin signaling system. At the same time, C-peptide at the concentrations above physiological may demonstrate pro-inflammatory effects on the endothelial cells and cause atherosclerotic changes in the vessels, which should be considered in the study of pathogenic mechanisms of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, where the level of C peptide is increased, as well as in the development of approaches for C-peptide application in clinic. This review is devoted contemporary achievements and unsolved problems in the study of C-peptide, as an important regulator of physiological and biochemical processes.

  8. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos eKagias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. Physiological stress can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, which result from an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level.

  9. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  10. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  11. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  13. Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models to give insight into dose-, species-, matrix- and interindividual human variation-dependent effects on bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Subeihi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Methyleugenol, which occurs naturally in various herbs such as tarragon, basil, nutmeg and allspice, is added to food either directly as a flavoring substance or as a constituent of added essential oils (Smith et al., 2002). The interest in the risk of methyleugenol as a food constituent came from i

  14. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  15. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

  16. Four motivations for charitable giving: implications for marketing strategy to attract monetary donations for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1988-06-01

    Medical research foundations can compete more effectively for charitable dollars by being aware of motivations for giving when designing marketing strategy. The study tests the extent to which the motives of reciprocity, income, career, and self-esteem predict monetary giving to medical research. The results indicate that reciprocity and income motives are significant predictors of giving, as are household assets and age. Interpretation of these results leads to several suggestions for marketing strategy.

  17. Charity begins at home: How socialization experiences influence giving and volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become adults; (2) the intensity of youth participation in nonprofit organizations is positively related to current giving and volunteering; (3) that parental volunteering and youth participation promote c...

  18. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  19. Physiologic mastectomy via flank laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Barrington, George M; Parish, Steve M

    2008-11-01

    Physiologic mastectomy can be used as a salvage procedure in cases of chronic suppurative mastitis, gangrenous mastitis, or chronic, severe mastitis associated with organisms liberating endotoxin or exotoxin. The surgical technique involves ligation of the major arterial blood supply (external pudendal artery) to the corresponding half of the mammary gland, which results in decreased systemic absorption of toxins and gland atrophy. The technique is performed with the cow standing, and it is relatively atraumatic. This procedure is a simple, yet effective alternative to radical mastectomy for unresponsive mastitis cases in genetically or otherwise valuable cattle.

  20. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  1. Electrocyte physiology: 50 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform and mormyrid fish generate and detect weak electric fields to image their worlds and communicate. These multi-purpose electric signals are generated by electrocytes, the specialized electric organ (EO) cells that produce the electric organ discharge (EOD). Just over 50 years ago the first experimental analyses of electrocyte physiology demonstrated that the EOD is produced and shaped by the timing and waveform of electrocyte action potentials (APs). Electrocytes of some species generate a single AP from a distinct region of excitable membrane, and this AP waveform determines EOD waveform. In other species, electrocytes possess two independent regions of excitable membrane that generate asynchronous APs with different waveforms, thereby increasing EOD complexity. Signal complexity is further enhanced in some gymnotiforms by the spatio-temporal activation of distinct EO regions with different electrocyte properties. For many mormyrids, additional EOD waveform components are produced by APs that propagate along stalks that connect postsynaptic regions to the main body of the electrocyte. I review here the history of research on electrocyte physiology in weakly electric fish, as well as recent discoveries of key phenomena not anticipated during early work in this field. Recent areas of investigation include the regulation of electrocyte activity by steroid and peptide hormones, the molecular evolution of electrocyte ion channels, and the evolutionary selection of ion channels expressed in excitable cells. These emerging research areas have generated renewed interest in electrocyte function and clear future directions for research addressing a broad range of new and important questions.

  2. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  3. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  4. Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Banks, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    The giving-up density framework is an elegant and widely adopted mathematical approach to measuring animals' foraging decisions at non-replenishing artificial resource patches. Under this framework, an animal should "give up" when the benefits of foraging are outweighed by the costs (e.g., predation risk, energetic, and/or missed opportunity costs). However, animals of many species may forage in groups, and group size is expected to alter perceived predation risk and hence influence quitting decisions. Yet, most giving-up density studies assume either that individuals forage alone or that giving-up densities are not affected by group foraging. For animals that forage both alone and in groups, differences in giving-up densities due to group foraging rather than experimental variables may substantially alter interpretation. However, no research to date has directly investigated how group foraging affects the giving-up density. We used remote-sensing cameras to identify instances of group foraging in two species of Rattus across three giving-up density experiments to determine whether group foraging influences giving-up densities. Both Rattus species have been observed to vary between foraging alone and in groups. In all three experiments, solo foragers left higher giving-up densities on average than did group foragers. This result has important implications for studies using giving-up densities to investigate perceived risk, the energetic costs of searching, handling time, digestion, and missed opportunity costs, particularly if groups of animals are more likely to experience certain experimental treatments. It is critically important that future giving-up density studies consider the effects of group foraging.

  5. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  6. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny P Bartsch

    Full Text Available We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS, we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  7. Giving and Receiving Social Support at Work: The Roles of Personality and Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Nathan A.; Beehr, Terry A.; Swader, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Social support is an important variable in occupational stress research and theory, yet little is know about the factors that influence the amount of social support one gives, and receives at work. We examined personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness) and reciprocity as potential antecedents to giving and receiving support from…

  8. 33 CFR 83.16 - Action by give-way vessel (Rule 16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action by give-way vessel (Rule....16 Action by give-way vessel (Rule 16). Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear....

  9. 20 CFR 416.1321 - Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contact financial institutions. 416.1321 Section 416.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1321 Suspension for not giving us permission to contact financial institutions. (a) If you don't give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records about you...

  10. 20 CFR 416.207 - You do not give us permission to contact financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial institutions. 416.207 Section 416.207 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... institutions. (a) To be eligible for SSI payments you must give us permission to contact any financial institution and request any financial records that financial institution may have about you. You must give...

  11. Grids for Kids gives next-generation IT an early start

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    "Grids for Kids gives children a crash course in grid computing," explains co-organiser Anna Cook of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project. "We introduce them to concepts such as middleware, parallel processing and supercomputing, and give them opportunities for hands-on learning.

  12. Charity begins at home : How socialization experiences influence giving and volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that charity begins at home. Using retrospective reports on youth experiences from the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey (n=1,964, 2001) I find that (1) parents who volunteer when their children are young promote giving and volunteering of their children once they have become a

  13. The meaning of "not giving in". Lived experiences among women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Pryds; Bäck-Pettersson, Siv; Segesten, K

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the meaning to women with breast cancer of "not giving in". Giorgi's phenomenological method was applied, and data were collected through open interviews.......This article explores the meaning to women with breast cancer of "not giving in". Giorgi's phenomenological method was applied, and data were collected through open interviews....

  14. Students Can Give Psychology Away: Oral Presentations on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M.; Emmerton, Ashley J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a novel assignment involving students giving a presentation on YouTube about how to apply behavior-modification principles to change a specific type of behavior, chosen by each student. The presentations covered topics such as how to end nail biting and how to reduce anxiety about public speaking. Giving an oral presentation…

  15. The Straightforwardness of Advice: Advice-Giving in Interactions Between Swedish District Nurses and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    A study examined advice-giving interactions between Swedish district nurses and patients, comparing these sequences with parallel interactions between British health visitors and first-time mothers in previous research. Analysis focused on how advice-giving is organized in the settings, including how advice is initiated and designed, its…

  16. The Sources and Uses of Annual Giving at Selective Private Research Universities and Liberal Arts Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg. R. G.; Smith, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    Econometric analysis uses data from a panel of selected private research universities and liberal-arts colleges that span a 31-year period to provide explanations for differences across institutions in the sources and uses of giving. Finds, for example, that richer institutions devote a larger share of their annual giving to further building their…

  17. Giving form to computational things: developing a practice of interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2014-01-01

    between states. Thus, an interaction design practice needs to encompass this temporal form giving in combination with physical form giving and performances of the interaction gestalt. In this paper, I propose this trinity of forms as a framework to unfold the practice of interaction design. I further...

  18. Conceptual analysis of Physiology of vision in Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Praveen; Ashwini, M J

    2014-07-01

    The process by which the world outside is seen is termed as visual process or physiology of vision. There are three phases in this visual process: phase of refraction of light, phase of conversion of light energy into electrical impulse and finally peripheral and central neurophysiology. With the advent of modern instruments step by step biochemical changes occurring at each level of the visual process has been deciphered. Many investigations have emerged to track these changes and helping to diagnose the exact nature of the disease. Ayurveda has described this physiology of vision based on the functions of vata and pitta. Philosophical textbook of ayurveda, Tarka Sangraha, gives certain basics facts of visual process. This article discusses the second and third phase of visual process. Step by step analysis of the visual process through the spectacles of ayurveda amalgamated with the basics of philosophy from Tarka Sangraha has been analyzed critically to generate a concrete idea regarding the physiology and hence thereby interpret the pathology on the grounds of ayurveda based on the investigative reports.

  19. Nanocomposite Membranes Enhance Bone Regeneration Through Restoring Physiological Electric Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehui; Zhang, Chenguang; Lin, Yuanhua; Hu, Penghao; Shen, Yang; Wang, Ke; Meng, Song; Chai, Yuan; Dai, Xiaohan; Liu, Xing; Liu, Yun; Mo, Xiaoju; Cao, Cen; Li, Shue; Deng, Xuliang; Chen, Lili

    2016-08-23

    Physiological electric potential is well-known for its indispensable role in maintaining bone volume and quality. Although implanted biomaterials simulating structural, morphological, mechanical, and chemical properties of natural tissue or organ has been introduced in the field of bone regeneration, the concept of restoring physiological electric microenvironment remains ignored in biomaterials design. In this work, a flexible nanocomposite membrane mimicking the endogenous electric potential is fabricated to explore its bone defect repair efficiency. BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BTO NPs) were first coated with polydopamine. Then the composite membranes are fabricated with homogeneous distribution of Dopa@BTO NPs in poly(vinylidene fluoridetrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) matrix. The surface potential of the nanocomposite membranes could be tuned up to -76.8 mV by optimizing the composition ratio and corona poling treatment, which conform to the level of endogenous biopotential. Remarkably, the surface potential of polarized nanocomposite membranes exhibited a dramatic stability with more than half of original surface potential remained up to 12 weeks in the condition of bone defect. In vitro, the membranes encouraged bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) activity and osteogenic differentiation. In vivo, the membranes sustainably maintained the electric microenvironment giving rise to rapid bone regeneration and complete mature bone-structure formation. Our findings evidence that physiological electric potential repair should be paid sufficient attention in biomaterials design, and this concept might provide an innovative and well-suited strategy for bone regenerative therapies.

  20. Proteomics applied to exercise physiology: a cutting-edge technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriz, Bernardo A; Gomes, Clarissa P; Rocha, Luiz A O; Rezende, Taia M B; Franco, Octávio L

    2012-03-01

    Exercise research has always drawn the attention of the scientific community because it can be widely applied to sport training, health improvement, and disease prevention. For many years numerous tools have been used to investigate the several physiological adaptations induced by exercise stimuli. Nowadays a closer look at the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic pathways and muscular and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise are among the new trends in exercise physiology research. Considering this, to further understand these adaptations as well as pathology attenuation by exercise, several studies have been conducted using molecular investigations, and this trend looks set to continue. Through enormous biotechnological advances, proteomic tools have facilitated protein analysis within complex biological samples such as plasma and tissue, commonly used in exercise research. Until now, classic proteomic tools such as one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used as standard approaches to investigate proteome modulation by exercise. Furthermore, other recently developed in gel tools such as differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and gel-free techniques such as the protein labeling methods (ICAT, SILAC, and iTRAQ) have empowered proteomic quantitative analysis, which may successfully benefit exercise proteomic research. However, despite the three decades of 2-DE development, neither classic nor novel proteomic tools have been convincingly explored by exercise researchers. To this end, this review gives an overview of the directions in which exercise-proteome research is moving and examines the main tools that can be used as a novel strategy in exercise physiology investigation.

  1. Conceptual analysis of Physiology of vision in Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process by which the world outside is seen is termed as visual process or physiology of vision. There are three phases in this visual process: phase of refraction of light, phase of conversion of light energy into electrical impulse and finally peripheral and central neurophysiology. With the advent of modern instruments step by step biochemical changes occurring at each level of the visual process has been deciphered. Many investigations have emerged to track these changes and helping to diagnose the exact nature of the disease. Ayurveda has described this physiology of vision based on the functions of vata and pitta. Philosophical textbook of ayurveda, Tarka Sangraha, gives certain basics facts of visual process. This article discusses the second and third phase of visual process. Step by step analysis of the visual process through the spectacles of ayurveda amalgamated with the basics of philosophy from Tarka Sangraha has been analyzed critically to generate a concrete idea regarding the physiology and hence thereby interpret the pathology on the grounds of ayurveda based on the investigative reports.

  2. Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges.

  3. Why Feminism? How Feminist Methodologies Can Aid Our Efforts to ‘Give Back’ Through Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekia Ellen Golden Bodwitch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, the authors take a critical stance to the notion of giving back. They emphasize that giving back should be a model of solidarity and movement building, not charity. They push us to consider the ways in which the framework of giving back may actually reinforce hierarchical relationships between the researcher and the researched. In doing so, they offer new ways of thinking about the relationship between researchers and their communities of subjects. The strategies employed by these authors resonate with work from feminist activists and scholars whose approaches bring us alternative theories and methods through which to address the potentially dangerous effects of speaking for others through research. Examined alongside the giving back pieces in this section, these feminist contributions illuminate ways that we can give back by advancing the anti-oppression agendas of marginalized subjects through our research.

  4. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...... include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...

  5. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  6. Children's physiological responses to childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J; Groeneveld, Marleen G

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on children's physiological responses to out-of-home childcare. The finding that children's cortisol levels are higher at childcare than at home has been well-replicated. Here we summarize recent evidence examining possible correlates of elevated cortisol levels. Reviewed studies suggest that childcare quality matters, whereas group sizes and type of care do not. As for child characteristics, elevated cortisol at childcare is more pronounced in toddlers than in infants, and in inhibited and aggressive children. We discuss recent advances focusing on hair cortisol analysis and immunomarkers of stress, and suggest that there is a need for experimental and longitudinal studies to examine causal relations and possible negative long-term consequences for children's health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  8. Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels. Here, we highlight studies that include physiological measurements of coral reef fishes and those that give advice for their conservation. A literature search using combined physiological, conservation and coral reef fish key words resulted in ~1900 studies, of which only 99 matched predefined requirements. We observed that, over the last 20 years, the combination of physiological and conservation aspects in studies on coral reef fishes has received increased attention. Most of the selected studies made their physiological observations at the whole organism level and used their findings to give conservation advice on population dynamics, habitat use or the potential effects of climate change. The precision of the recommendations differed greatly and, not surprisingly, was least concrete when studies examined the effects of projected climate change scenarios. Although more and more physiological studies on coral reef fishes include conservation aspects, there is still a lack of concrete advice for conservation managers, with only very few published examples of physiological findings leading to improved management practices. We conclude with a call to action to foster better knowledge exchange between natural scientists and conservation managers to translate physiological findings more

  9. Ventricular hypertrophy--physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Williams, E M

    1986-01-01

    Adult cardiac myocytes are incapable of mitosis. Dead cells are replaced by connective tissue so that after myocardial infarction (MI), function can only be restored by compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In physiological hypertrophy in response to exercise, high altitude, or mild hypertension, additional myoplasm expands cell diameter in an orderly fashion; Z-lines are in register and the normal ratio of volume densities of contractile elements, mitochondria, and capillaries is conserved. In hypertrophy induced by aortic or pulmonary artery banding or by experimental or congenital hypertension, the borderline between physiological and pathological hypertrophy may be crossed, causing disorganization of fibers and an unfavourable contractile element to capillary ratio. There was, therefore, a need for a graded model of hypertrophy, which involves simulating an altitude of 6,000 m at sea level by supplying rabbits with appropriate nitrogen/oxygen mixtures. In this environment, 50% right ventricular hypertrophy can be achieved without alteration of left ventricular weight or hematocrit. Longer exposures produced 100% right ventricular hypertrophy, with only moderate increases in hematocrit and left ventricular weight. It is well known that adrenergic stimulation causes cardiac hypertrophy, and it has been suggested that release of a trophic factor from sympathetic nerves, either noradrenaline or a protein, might be a necessary stimulus for growth. If so, long-term treatment of post-MI patients with beta-adrenergic blocking agents could inhibit a desirable compensatory hypertrophy of the surviving myocardium. In the above model it has been found, however, that neither beta-blockade nor chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine had any effect on the hypertrophy, nor did treatment with verapamil or nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  11. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  12. Social support and ambulatory blood pressure: an examination of both receiving and giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piferi, Rachel L; Lawler, Kathleen A

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between the social network and physical health has been studied extensively and it has consistently been shown that individuals live longer, have fewer physical symptoms of illness, and have lower blood pressure when they are a member of a social network than when they are isolated. Much of the research has focused on the benefits of receiving social support from the network and the effects of giving to others within the network have been neglected. The goal of the present research was to systematically investigate the relationship between giving and ambulatory blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded every 30 min during the day and every 60 min at night during a 24-h period. Linear mixed models analyses revealed that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were related to giving social support. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that participants with a higher tendency to give social support reported greater received social support, greater self-efficacy, greater self-esteem, less depression, and less stress than participants with a lower tendency to give social support to others. Structural equation modeling was also used to test a proposed model that giving and receiving social support represent separate pathways predicting blood pressure and health. From this study, it appears that giving social support may represent a unique construct from receiving social support and may exert a unique effect on health.

  13. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  14. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  15. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Pandian; K. P. Safeer; Pragati Gupta; D. T. Shakunthala; B. S. Sundersheshu; V. C. Padaki

    2008-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acqui...

  16. Occupational care giving conditions and human rights: A study of elderly caregivers in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore and discuss the occupational care giving conditions pitting them against human rights. The article′s objective is to initiate discussions and generate literature pertaining to occupational care giving load and assessing the human rights challenge it poses. The article uses analysis of the literature review from an array of eclectic data sources. The following factors were found besetting the caregivers′ human rights: (1 Aging; (2 Cultural and community attitudes towards care giving; (3 Risk of contagion; (4 Health hazards and lack of compensation. Recommendations: (1 Adoption of grandparents/grandchildren care symbiosis system; (2 Government remuneration policy for caregivers; (3 Mainstreaming of gender education to encourage men and youth develop an interest in care giving; (4 Institution of laws and policies by countries to provide for the compensation of caregivers′ occupational hazards and risks.

  17. An Excel sheet for inferring children's number-knower levels from give-N data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W; Lee, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Number-knower levels are a series of stages of number concept development in early childhood. A child's number-knower level is typically assessed using the give-N task. Although the task procedure has been highly refined, the standard ways of analyzing give-N data remain somewhat crude. Lee and Sarnecka (Cogn Sci 34:51-67, 2010, in press) have developed a Bayesian model of children's performance on the give-N task that allows knower level to be inferred in a more principled way. However, this model requires considerable expertise and computational effort to implement and apply to data. Here, we present an approximation to the model's inference that can be computed with Microsoft Excel. We demonstrate the accuracy of the approximation and provide instructions for its use. This makes the powerful inferential capabilities of the Bayesian model accessible to developmental researchers interested in estimating knower levels from give-N data.

  18. Factors influencing trainers' feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, E.A.M.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature provides some insight into the role of feedback givers, but little information about within-trainer factors influencing 'feedback-giving behaviours'. We looked for relationships between characteristics of feedback givers (self-efficacy, task perception, neuroticism,

  19. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Special Features Use Caution When Giving Cough and Cold Products to Kids Share Tweet Linkedin ... age should not be given any kind of cough and cold product that contains a decongestant or ...

  20. Patterns of Giving to One's Alma Mater among Young Graduates from Selective Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2003-01-01

    Examines individual characteristics correlated with alumni giving by graduates from 28 highly selective institutions of higher education. Finds satisfaction with undergraduate experience the single biggest determinant of the generosity of alumni donations. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  1. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful--mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed...... by meaning condensation. The mothers experienced that giving up breastfeeding was a crucial but necessary decision for the child’s health and well-being. They tried to “be on the side of the angels” by caring for and bonding with the child. The mothers were divided between expressing milk or formula feeding...

  2. Talking to Honourable Members: advice for academics on giving evidence to Parliamentary committees

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Iain

    2011-01-01

    How do Parliamentary committees treat academics? What is like to feel ambushed when you hoped your opinion might make an impact in policy making? Iain McLean, Professor of Politics at Oxford University, offers some insight into the experience of giving evidence as an expert witness to Parliamentary committees, and gives some essential advice for academics who might consider offering their opinions in the future.

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due « Image designed by Diane Fleischer... Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule Its Due Chad Dacus and Col Stephen Hagel, USAF (Ret.) Conceptual

  4. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU.

  5. Våde enge kan give iltmangel i vandløb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Jens-Ole; Iversen, Niels; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Våde enge oprettes i disse år mange steder i det danske landskab. I nogle tilfælde vil områderne give den positive tiltænkte ændring til glæde for naturen, andre steder kan det give problemer og føre til betydelig iltmangel i vandløbene. denne artikel beskriver et sådant tilfælde, og vi forsøger...

  6. REASON-GIVING IN COURT PRACTICE: THE EXAMPLE OF FRENCH IMMIGRATION LITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Cohen, Columbia Law School-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article examines the thesis according to which the practice of giving reasons for decisions is a central element of liberal democracies. In this view, public institutions’ practice—and sometimes duty—to give reasons is required so that each individual may view the state as reasonable and therefore, according to deliberative democratic theory, legitimate. Does the giving of reasons in actual court practice achieve these goals?  Drawing on empirical research carried out in a French administrative court, this Article argues that, in practice, reason-giving often falls either short of democracy or beyond democracy. Reasons fall short of democracy in the first case because they are transformed from a device designed to “protect” citizens from arbitrariness into a professional norm intended to “protect” the judges themselves and perhaps further their career goals. In the second case, reasons go beyond democracy because judges’ ambitions are much greater than to merely provide petitioners with a ground for understanding and criticizing the decision: they aim at positively—and paternalistically in some instances—guiding people’s conduct.  The discussion proceeds by drawing attention to social aspects that are often neglected in theoretical discussions on reason-giving. A skeptical conclusion is suggested: one can rarely guarantee that any predetermined value will be achieved by the giving of reasons. The degree to which individuals are empowered by the reasons given to them is dependent on the way in which decision-givers envision their reason-giving activity, and this representation is itself conditioned by the social setting of the court. Keywords: Arbitrariness. Reason-giving. Judges.

  7. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  8. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  9. Physiological demands of competitive basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, K; Berg, K; Stergiou, N; Chen, B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.

  10. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC. Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma.

  11. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. Methods We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. Results We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. Conclusions The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines. PMID:28581890

  12. A comparison between willingness to pay and willingness to give up time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helvoort-Postulart, Debby; Dirksen, Carmen D; Kessels, Alfons G H; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Myriam Hunink, M G

    2009-02-01

    We compared the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods to assess preferences for digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Respondents were hypertensive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis. Data were gathered using telephone interviews. Both the willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time methods revealed that patients preferred CTA to MRA in order to avoid DSA. The agreement between willingness-to-pay and willingness to give up time responses was high (kappa 0.65-0.85). The willingness-to-pay method yielded relatively more protest answers (12%) as compared to willingness to give up time (2%). So, our results provided evidence for the comparability of willingness to pay and willingness to give up time. The high percentage of protest answers on the willingness-to-pay questions raises questions with respect to the application of the willingness-to-pay method in a broad decision-making context. On the other hand, the strength of willingness-to-pay is that the method directly arrives at a monetary measure well founded in economic theory, whereas the willingness to give up time method requires conversion to monetary units.

  13. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergene, Elin Høien; Rø, Torstein Baade; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines.

  14. The term nevestnina – A contribution to the terminology of matrimonial gift giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Stanimirović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to bring more order to terminology of matrimonial gift giving – the ever more complicated area in the past couple of decades. Furthermore, it reaffirms the idea of the evolution of matrimonial gift giving, and after many decades in which historians of law and ethnologists focused their research on particularities of matrimonial gift giving in certain cultures and epochs, points out the need of their systematization. Connecting history of law with ethnology, the author offers more precise references of the term brideprice, giving it back its usability, linking it with all the matrimonial gift givings the groom’s side presents to the bride’s father who possesses the exclusive authority to handle it as he pleases. On the other hand, the paper emphasizes the unjust disregard and neglect of another type of matrimonial gift giving in science, or perhaps its erroneous definitions by some authors. Namely, all those matrimonial gift giving from the groom’s side directly or indirectly intended for the girl herself. Girl’s father no longer controls the matrimonial gift giving and he bestows most or all of it to the girl on the wedding. It is what girl brings into marriage under the veil of trousseau, and later partially of dowry. Later on, these symbolic matrimonial gift givings were no longer given to girl’s father not even symbolically, but rather went straight into her hands. These new matrimonial gift givings can no longer be assigned to a category of buying the bride, while the term indirect dowry proposed by Goody is inappropriate for it creates a false picture of these matrimonial gift givings. That is why, in the absence of an appropriate name, the author took the liberty of coining the term nevestnina to cover both aspects of these matrimonial gift-giving. The term bridewealth used in the English speaking areas to replace the politically incorrect term brideprice is proper for the term nevestnina. For the later

  15. Desjatiletije galerei pri russkom teatre 11 maja / Liana Turpakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turpakova, Liana

    2006-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii korraldatud näituse "Natüürmort" avamine juveeligaleriis Bindes sõnas ja pildis. Fotod Aleksei Belovilt. Näitusega tähistati galerii kümnendat aastapäeva ja galerist Olga Ljubaskina sünnipäeva

  16. Desjatiletije galerei pri russkom teatre 11 maja / Liana Turpakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Turpakova, Liana

    2006-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii korraldatud näituse "Natüürmort" avamine juveeligaleriis Bindes sõnas ja pildis. Fotod Aleksei Belovilt. Näitusega tähistati galerii kümnendat aastapäeva ja galerist Olga Ljubaskina sünnipäeva

  17. Elegantnõi issledovatel / Toomas Vitsut ; interv. Liana Turpakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vitsut, Toomas, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna volikogu esimees Toomas Vitsut oma poliitikasse astumise ajendist, tööpäeva pikkusest ja vabast ajast, rõivastusest, harrastustest, lemmikrestoranidest ja -toitudest ning vanematest. Lisa: CV

  18. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  19. Aristotle on physiology of logos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benéitez Prudencio, José Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view of Aristotle’s understanding of the relation of human intellect to human body. Given that for Aristotle intellect is a ‘psychic’ capacity or power: does Aristotle think of human understanding as a part or aspect of form (ειδος of the human body, in the way that the other powers (i.e. sensitive and nutritive are both parts of the form of an animal body? This question is still in dispute, but the objective in my inquiry is to justify the possibilities of an Aristotelian’s physiology of mind or thought.

    El presente artículo trata de estudiar la relación del entendimiento humano con el cuerpo en el pensamiento aristotélico. Dado que para Aristóteles la inteligencia constituye una capacidad o facultad ‘psíquica’, podríamos preguntarnos si no piensa, entonces, que sea una parte o un aspecto de la forma (ειδος del cuerpo humano, de la misma manera que se da esta relación con los otras facultades (así, por ejemplo, con la sensación y la nutrición. La cuestión es motivo todavía de disputa. El objetivo de mi investigación radica en justificar las posibilidades de una fisiología aristotélica de la mente o del pensamiento.

  20. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  1. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  2. Teaching Stress Physiology Using Zebrafish ("Danio Rerio")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael; Dhawale, Shree; Mustafa, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive laboratory experiment is presented that investigates the physiological stress response of zebrafish after a 5 degree C increase in water temperature. This experiment is designed for an undergraduate physiology lab and allows students to learn the scientific method and relevant laboratory techniques without causing…

  3. Physiological Coping: A Model for Teaching Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Carol M.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the use of a teaching model she developed for use in a pathophysiology. The model is based on the physiological component of C. Roy's adaptation model, which encourages students to look for physiological cues and apply relevant knowledge in patient care through a problem-solving approach. (TA)

  4. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  5. Towards Individualized Physiology Lecturing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    physiology slides, animations, diagrams and problem illustrations and real life case films in digital form. ... Patient-based physiology learning. Ripatti and Hänninen ... source leaving still a deeper cognitive understanding aside. This is to ... throughout the whole school time. ... now the on-line computerized systems provide.

  6. Physiological Bases of Bulimia, and Antidepressant Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzfeld, Andrew R.

    This paper reviews the literature on the physiological causes of bulimia and investigates the rationale behind the usage of antidepressant medication in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. No definite conclusions can be stated regarding the physiology of bulimia, but a number of hypotheses are suggested. It appears that the hypothalamus is involved…

  7. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  8. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Pandian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acquisition hardware by wires woven into the fabric. The drawbacks associated with these systems are the cables woven in the fabric pickup noise such as power line interference and signals from nearby radiating sources and thereby corrupting the physiological signals. Also repositioning the sensors in the fabric is difficult once integrated. The problems can be overcome by the use of physiological sensors with miniaturized electronics to condition, process, digitize and wireless transmission integrated into the single module. These sensors are strategically placed at various locations on the vest. Number of sensors integrated into the fabric form a network (Personal Area Network and interacts with the human system to acquire and transmit the physiological data to a wearable data acquisition system. The wearable data acquisition hardware collects the data from various sensors and transmits the processed data to the remote monitoring station. The paper discusses wireless sensor network and its application to wearable physiological monitoring and its applications. Also the problems associated with conventional wearable physiological monitoring are discussed.

  9. Physiological Activity and Attitudes toward Disabled Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Michael D.; Deichmann, John

    1980-01-01

    Investigated whether physiological reactions of college students viewing videotapes showing three scene types (disabled people, able-bodied people, and neutral scenes) could be discriminated by scene type. Participants for the study were selected by their scores on the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (ATDP) Scale. Physiological measures showed…

  10. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  11. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  12. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  13. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  14. Care-giving as a Canadian-Vietnamese tradition: 'it's like eating, you just do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Rhonda; Williams, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how Vietnamese family caregivers (FCGs) perceive, manage and experience end-of-life care-giving for seriously ill family members. Using an instrumental case study design, this longitudinal qualitative research employed the use of cultural brokers/language interpreters to help ensure that the research was conducted in a culturally-appropriate manner. Participants (n = 18) discussed their experiences of care-giving within the context of a traditional cultural framework, which was found to influence their motivations and approaches to care-giving, as well as their propensities towards the use of various supports and services. The study was carried out in southern Ontario, Canada, and participants were providing home-based care-giving in the community. Data were collected throughout 2010 and 2011. The ways in which care-giving was perceived and expressed are reflected in three themes: (i) Natural: identity and care work; (ii) Intentional: whole-person care; and (iii) Intensive: standards, struggle and the context of care. This research confirms the need for culturally-appropriate services and supports while illustrating that Vietnamese FCGs not only value, but are also likely to use healthcare and social services if they are language-accessible, built on trust and demonstrate respect for their values as individuals, regardless of culture.

  15. Partitioning the effects of mating and nuptial feeding on the microbiome in gift-giving insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction that has the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that diff...

  16. Assessing the psychophysics of posture control and its physiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Robinson, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    Graphical visualization methods are described that enable psychophysical detection data to be quantitatively correlated with underlying physiological data in postural control studies. Stitched, raster and ensemble averaged time-series plots are graphical tools that can guide later quantitative analysis. The examples presented point out the role that early Tibialis Anterior and later Gastrocnemius EMG activation might play in the 2-Alternative Forced Choice psychophysical detection of 16 mm horizontal anterior perturbations of a sliding platform on which a subject stands, and their linkage to AP and ML Center of Pressure changes brought about by a perturbation. These methods also give a preliminary indication that differing or no response patterns were seen at 4 and 1 mm.

  17. Relationships between nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant responses during bathing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Yang, Luke; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Meei-Horng; Chao, Shih-Ching

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between specific nurse care-giving behaviours and preterm infant behavioural responses during bathing and to identify nurse behaviours associated with infant 'stress'. Although recent advances in medical technology have improved neonatal intensive care, the high mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants have not decreased proportionally. As caregivers strive to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, a factor for consideration is which caregiver behaviours are associated with preterm infant well-being. A descriptive correlational design. Convenience samples of 24 preterm infants and 12 nurses were recruited. A total of 120 baths were videotaped. Infant and nurse behaviours were measured using the coding schemes developed by the researchers. Pearson coefficient correlation, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and generalised linear models were methods for data analysis. As nurses provided more support, stress was reduced in the infants, and their self-regulation during the bath was enhanced especially by the use of 'containment' and 'positional support'. Conversely, non-therapeutic caregiver behaviours including 'rapid and rough handling' of the baby, 'chatting with other people' and 'inappropriate handling' increased infant 'stress' during the bath. The findings provide new information about the link between care-giving and infant responses and how caregivers can better interact with preterm infants during a very sensitive period of brain development. How nurses take care of the preterm infants influences their responses to care-giving stimuli. To interact better with the infant during care-giving procedures, nurses need to provide more supportive care-giving behaviours especially 'position support' and 'containment' based on the infant's needs, and avoid care-giving that may be too rough and occur too quickly without attending the baby's stressful signals, positioning the baby in

  18. Gift-Giving in the Podiatric Medical Student-Patient Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel López; Pazo, Paula Torreiro; Iglesias, Marta E Losa; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2016-09-02

    We sought to explore the relationship between the podiatric medical student and the patient as it relates to the act of gift-giving as a sign of gratefulness for the services provided. This article presents the clinical case of a man who visited a podiatric medical student because of pain in his feet and subsequently presented the student with several gifts. Philanthropy, empathy, a positive attitude, treatment instructions, and the time devoted to the patient are some of the reasons why patients offer gifts to podiatric medical students. The relationship between the podiatric medical student and the patient and the act of gift-giving by patients are of ethical concern.

  19. Impure and Multiple! Taking Full Advantage of Belk’s Extensions of Giving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    to be a person that extends and shares himself ‘out’ profusely. Following his generous example, I wish to share some thoughts on the ‘extensions’ that Belk’s work on gift giving and sharing achieves and/or helps us envision. I discuss five papers, beginning with the ‘Agapic love’ paper (Belk and Coon, 1993......) and the ‘Perfect gift’ paper (Belk, 1996), which I discuss primarily in relation to ‘pure giving’. Next, I move to the more recent triplet of papers on ‘Sharing’ (Belk, 2007, 2010; Belk and Llamas, 2012) which I discuss in light of the multiplicity of giving....

  20. Biomechanical and physiological analyses of a luggage-pulling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Chul; Haight, Joel M; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of physical stresses on two-wheeled carry-on luggage users in terms of biomechanics and work physiology. Based on 3D kinematics, a 3D inverse dynamic biomechanical model having fifteen segments was developed to evaluate a one-hand pulling task. Joint reaction forces, joint moments and physiological variables (energy expenditure and heart rate) were measured from four subjects who performed 32 luggage-pulling tasks on a doublewide treadmill in the configurations of handle height (100 cm and 110 cm), handle rotation (0 degrees and 90 degrees ), pole angle (0 degrees and 10 degrees ), wheel diameter (8 cm and 15 cm), load weight (15 kg or 23 kg), center of mass (low and middle), carpeting (no and yes), trial day (first and second) and subject height (short and tall). ANOVA revealed that wheel diameter, center of mass and subject height were highly associated with the physical stresses of luggage users, especially their right arm. Although the task seems light work, users should place heavy belongings at the bottom of luggage when packing and manufacturers should give a priority to large wheels for ergonomic design.

  1. Determinants of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Evans

    Full Text Available AIMS: Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. METHOD: In a stratified sample of 363 children (7-12 years and 344 adolescents (13-20 years from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. RESULTS: Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness.

  2. Quantitative Circulatory Physiology: an integrative mathematical model of human physiology for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Sean R; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Summers, Richard L; Coleman, Thomas G; Hester, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    We have developed Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP), a mathematical model of integrative human physiology containing over 4,000 variables of biological interactions. This model provides a teaching environment that mimics clinical problems encountered in the practice of medicine. The model structure is based on documented physiological responses within peer-reviewed literature and serves as a dynamic compendium of physiological knowledge. The model is solved using a desktop, Windows-based program, allowing students to calculate time-dependent solutions and interactively alter over 750 parameters that modify physiological function. The model can be used to understand proposed mechanisms of physiological function and the interactions among physiological variables that may not be otherwise intuitively evident. In addition to open-ended or unstructured simulations, we have developed 30 physiological simulations, including heart failure, anemia, diabetes, and hemorrhage. Additional stimulations include 29 patients in which students are challenged to diagnose the pathophysiology based on their understanding of integrative physiology. In summary, QCP allows students to examine, integrate, and understand a host of physiological factors without causing harm to patients. This model is available as a free download for Windows computers at http://physiology.umc.edu/themodelingworkshop.

  3. Conceptual Learning: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Micah J.

    Students are leaving undergraduate science programs without the knowledge and skills they are expected to have. This is apparent in professional programs, such as medical and veterinary school, where students do not possess the critical thinking skills necessary to be successful. Physiology is a required discipline for these professional programs and often before, as a pre-requisite. Physiology classrooms are an excellent place to teach critical thinking skills because the content consists of integrated processes. Therefore, in one study, it was investigated whether focusing on physiological concepts improved student understanding of physiology in both a non-physiological science course, Invertebrate Zoology, and in an undergraduate physiology course. An educational intervention was used in Invertebrate Zoology, where students were exposed to human physiology concepts that were similar to comparative physiology concepts they had learned during the semester. A pre-/post-test was used to assess learning gains. In a second study, the use of multimedia file usage was correlated to student exam scores in a physiology course. This was done to see if providing additional study materials that focused on specific concepts improved student understanding, as assessed using exam scores. Overall these studies indicate that encouraging assimilation of new concepts that expand upon material from lecture may help students gain a more complete understanding of a concept. The integration of these concepts into pre-existing conceptual frameworks may serve to teach students valuable critical thinking skills such as evaluation of new ideas within their current understanding and synthesizing the new content with the existing information. Focusing on this type of conceptual learning may enable students to apply content knowledge and think through problems. Additionally, focusing on concepts may enable students to improve their understanding of material without being overwhelmed by

  4. Mobilized adult pituitary stem cells contribute to endocrine regeneration in response to physiological demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoti, Karine; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2013-10-03

    Pituitary hormone deficiencies, with Growth Hormone deficiency being most frequent (1 in 3,500-10,000 births), cause significant morbidity. Regeneration of missing endocrine cells would be a significant improvement over hormone replacement therapies, which incur side effects and do not mimic physiological secretion patterns. Recent in vitro studies have identified a population of adult pituitary progenitors that express the HMG box transcription factors SOX2 and SOX9. Here, we apply cell-lineage tracing analysis to demonstrate that SOX2- and SOX9-expressing progenitors can self-renew and give rise to endocrine cells in vivo, suggesting that they are tissue stem cells. Moreover, we show that they can become mobilized and differentiate into the appropriate endocrine cell types in response to physiological stress. Our results highlight the pituitary as a model for exploring how physiological changes influence stem cell behavior and suggest that manipulation of endogenous pituitary stem cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for pituitary deficiencies.

  5. [Claude Bernard, founder of experimental physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y; Li, X; Xu, W

    2001-07-01

    Claude Bernard was a famous French physiologist and philosopher in the 19th century. His experimental researches almost involved all fields of physiology. It is generally recognized by physiologists that in the research of Bernard in the digestion of pancreas, glucogenesis in the liver, and the vasomotor mechanism and the mechanism of action of curari and carbon monoxide were all at the lead. His researches established the foundation for modern physiology, modern biochemistry and the works of Pavlov, and were the initiation of experimental physiology.

  6. A literature review of empirical studies of philanthropy : eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Wiepking, Pamala

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an overview of the academic literature on charitable giving based on a literature review of more than 500 articles. They structure their review around the central question of why people donate money to charitable organizations. We identify eight mechanisms as the most important f

  7. Iris Marion Young's Imaginations of Gift Giving: Some Implications for the Teacher and the Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses Iris Marion Young's idea of asymmetric reciprocity that rethinks typical understandings of gift giving. Iris Marion Young's proposals for asymmetric ethical relationships have important implications for democratic contexts that seek to take differences seriously. Imagining oneself in the place of the other or expecting from the…

  8. Giving Time and/or Money : Trade-off or Spill-over?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2002-01-01

    The relation of giving money to charitable causes and volunteering for an association is examined in a sample of 612 respondents living in The Netherlands. In contrast to the expectation that check writing activism is used as a compensation for a lack of active involvement in civil society, voluntee

  9. Dead bodies matter: Gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  10. Does Generosity Beget Generosity? Alumni Giving and Undergraduate Financial Aid. NBER Working Paper No. 17861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how undergraduates' financial aid packages affect their subsequent donative behavior as alumni. The empirical work is based upon micro data on alumni giving at an anonymous research university. We focus on three types of financial aid, scholarships, loans, and campus jobs. A novel aspect of our modeling strategy is that, consistent…

  11. I'm Giving You the Chocolate Factory! 2017 President's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the newly elected 2017-2018 President of the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA), Edward M. Reeve, presents his welcome message in the format of Willy Wonka giving Charlie the Chocolate Factory. Upon becoming a member of ITEEA, one automatically gets a "golden ticket" as a professional…

  12. Understanding Care Giving and Care Receiving Experiences throughout the Life Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Makiko

    and expectations for the future. Guided by life course approach, the analysis focuses on older couples in Denmark and Japan, and explores the following questions; how have older Danish and Japanese couples experienced care giving and care taking over the life course? How do they perceive these experiences? How...

  13. Whose Expertise?: An Analysis of Advice Giving in Early Childhood Parent-Teacher Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood and early childhood special education programs have a focus on parent-educator partnerships. Parent-teacher conferences are a context for these partnerships, and advice giving is one type of exchange occurring within conferences. Parent-teacher conference advice was investigated through participant interviews and the methodology of…

  14. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  15. A Principal's View: Giving Up My Traditional Ship. Personal Reflections of Shared Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Cecil T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes one Florida principal's pursuit of school-based management and shared decision making for the wrong reason--to escape from central office domination. Although chosen as the lesser of two evils, the new committee structure has worked well for Myrtle Grove School. Since giving up veto power to gain staff trust and commitment, teacher…

  16. 76 FR 60455 - The White House Council for Community Solutions Gives Notice of Their Following Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE Sunshine Act Meeting Notice The White House Council for Community Solutions Gives Notice... to the Council's electronic mailbox at WhiteHouseCouncil@cns.gov . The public can also follow the...: Leslie Boissiere, Executive Director, White House Council for Community Solutions, Corporation...

  17. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  18. Identification of matrix conditions that give rise to the linear coupling resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner,C.J.

    2009-03-01

    General definitions of horizontal and vertical amplitudes for linear coupled motion are developed from the normal form of the one-turn matrix. This leads to the identification of conditions on the matrix that give rise to the linear coupling sum and difference resonances. The correspondence with the standard hamiltonian treatment of the resonances is discussed.

  19. Factors influencing trainers' feedback-giving behavior: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, E.A.M.; Kramer, A.W.M.; Mokkink, H.G.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The literature provides some insight into the role of feedback givers, but little information about within-trainer factors influencing 'feedback-giving behaviours'. We looked for relationships between characteristics of feedback givers (self-efficacy, task perception, neuroticism, extrav

  20. IV Iron: To Give or to Hold in the Presence of Infection in Adults Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Debra; Braun, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) iron is often given to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults undergoing hemodialysis. Evidence supports an association between IV iron and infection exits, which often create a clinical dilemma: whether to give or to hold in the presence of infection. This article presents the best available evidence regarding the risk of IV iron and infection along with nephrology nursing practice implications.

  1. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  2. How do models give us knowledge? The case of Carnot’s ideal heat engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Boon, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    Our concern is to explain how and why models give us useful knowledge. We argue that if we are to understand how models function in the actual scientific practice the representational approach to models proves either misleading or too minimal—depending on how representation is defined. By ‘represent

  3. The role of personal values in children's costly sharing and non-costly giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Lior; Daniel, Ella; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2017-04-22

    This study examined whether children's values, global and abstract motivations serving as guiding principles, are organized similarly to those of adults, whether values can predict individual differences in children's sharing behaviors, and whether the normative nature of the situation influences the expression of these individual differences. Children (N=243, ages 5-12years) participated in a values ranking task as part of a visit to a science museum. The majority of children (n=150) also participated in a task examining costly sharing (i.e., sharing that results in giving up part of one's own resources) and non-costly giving (i.e., giving that does not influence one's own share). Starting from 5years of age, children showed a structure of values similar to that of adolescents and adults, specifically contrasting preferences for opposing values (i.e., self-transcendence with self-enhancement and openness to change with conservation). Importance given to self-transcendence values related positively to costly sharing but not to non-costly giving, indicating that in situations where it is more normative to share, individual differences in values are less expressed in children's actual sharing. In addition, children's sex and age moderated the relation between values and behavior. Children's values are an important aspect of their developing personalities. Taking them into consideration can greatly promote the research of prosocial and normative development as well as our understanding of individual differences in children's behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching Techniques: Give or Take? Test Review in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2016-01-01

    This article describes "Give or Take?", a fun game that teachers can use to review vocabulary in the English as a second language or foreign language (ESL/EFL) classroom. This game is easy to prepare, and it is a fun and efficient way to review for quizzes or larger midterm or final exams. It can be adapted to almost any grade level or…

  5. Alumni Satisfaction with Their Undergraduate Academic Experience and the Impact on Alumni Giving and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Scott

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis for this research was that the higher the level of academic satisfaction, the more likely it is for alumni to be involved with the university. Alumni involvement was defined as alumni giving and/or alumni participating with their alma mater within the last three years. There were 1,608 alumni from a large state university who…

  6. Effectiveness of a television advertisement campaign on giving cigarettes in a chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement "Giving cigarettes is giving harm" were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18-45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort.

  7. What does phenomenology offer to the study of care-giving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Norman; Reed, Val

    2006-01-01

    Care giving to a dementia sufferer is complex (Parsons, 1997) and inherently stressful (Baldwin et al 1989). It is suggested that the predominance of the care-giver stressor-burden research paradigm during the last thirty years has frequently been uni-dimensional, objectively oriented, generally equivocal, and unconvincing in its findings. Dillehay and Sandys (1990), suggest that preoccupation w ith such typically narrow approaches has delayed the much-needed development of a more accurate understanding of the lived experience (the phenomenology of care-giving). Researching the experience of care giving to a dementing relative requires a research strategy, which acknowledges the intricacies, complexities, subjectivity and humanness of that experience. That is the premise behind this paper. A multi-dimensional phenomenological PhD study is presented. The focus is on understanding care giving from the individual and collective perspectives of forty-six spouse caregivers. The methodological implications (including influences of Husserl and Heidegger) are outlined before the phenomenological research findings are presented and discussed. Ethical approval was given by the Bassetlaw Hospital and Community NHS Trust Ethics Committee (now part of the Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust).

  8. Giving Peace a Chance: Gandhi and King in the English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one high school English teacher developed and taught a unit that would give students the opportunity to see how violence and nonviolence affects their lives. Notes the unit involves discussing the lives and careers of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., viewing film clips and film, reading, writing in journals, and writing a…

  9. The identifiable victim effect in charitable giving: evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Tine; Rasmussen, O. D.

    2014-01-01

    We design a natural field experiment to enhance our understanding of the role of the identifiable victim effect in charitable giving. Using direct mail solicitations to 25797 prior donors of a nonprofit charity, we tested the responsiveness of donors to make a contribution to either an identifiab...

  10. The Mathematics of Tithing: A Study of Religious Giving and Mathematical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edd V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine children's mathematical understandings related to participation in tithing (giving 10% of earnings to the church). Observations of church services and events, as well as interviews with parents, children, and church leaders, were analyzed in an effort to capture the ways in which mathematical problem…

  11. On the Verbs of"Giving"Class of English Ditransitive Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂红梅

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most frequently used sentence patterns in various languages,ditransitive construction has been a hot issue argued by many linguists and scholars.This thesis discusses the verbs of"Giving" class of Ditransitive Construction in English and the relationship between verbs and constructions,in attempt to reveal the features of this structure.

  12. Playful vs. serious instruction giving in a 3D game environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer Rookhuiszen, Roan; Theune, Mariët

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two NLG systems that we developed for the GIVE challenge, which was aimed at the evaluation of natural language generation (NLG) systems. The Challenge involved automatically generating instructions for users to carry out a task in a 3D game environment. One of our systems

  13. The partial catalytic oxidation of methane to give oxygen-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Oleg V.

    1992-11-01

    The three principal paths of the partial oxidation of methane, to give methanol, formaldehyde, and synthesis gas, have been reviewed. The kinetics and mechanism of the processes have been described. The possible oxidation of methane using different oxidising agents — oxygen and carbon dioxide — has been examined. The bibliography includes 139 references.

  14. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the Factors that Predict Caregivers’ Intention to Give Them to Schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abizari, A.R.; Pilime, N.; Armar-Klemesu, M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Methods and Findings We p

  15. A Survey on Acupuncture for Giving Up Heroin and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie; Wang Lanqiong; Zeng Lin; Liao Qishun; Chen Ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ This paper summarizes the study of acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of withdrawal syndrome in China from 1995 to 2003, which includes the selection of acupoints, the evaluation of the therapeutic effects, studies of acupoints and application of relevant instruments, as well as treatment of the withdrawal syndromes of heroin with acupuncture.

  16. Self-sacrifice and self-affirmation within care-giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nistelrooy, Inge

    2014-11-01

    According to the ethics of care, practices of care are sources of moral knowledge that take human relatedness into account. However, caregivers may also find themselves in situations that demand sacrifices, even to the point where their own self is at stake. This may not only be cause for concern about the risks of caregivers, the result of an unequal distribution of power, but it may as well be a chance for affirmation of one's identity, of self-attestation. As Ricoeur argues, giving of the self or even giving one's life may be the ultimate expression of one's belonging, in friendship, devotion or loyalty. Ricoeur also considers the meaning of giving a gift, which to him does not lie in any return gift, but rather in the gift as offering, as generosity. Giving is first of all a risk, a sacrifice, with only the hope that it will be received. In this article I aim to extend his argument to the realm of caregiving, thereby supporting my claim that some sort of self-sacrifice is implied in the very act of caring for others.

  17. An Investigation of the Influence Acknowledgement Programs Have on Alumni Giving Behavior: Implications for Marketing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frank G., Jr.; Quigley, Charles J., Jr.; Murray, Keith B.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence alumni giving is a critical task of institutional marketers and development officers. To better understand the factors that influence alumni support, this research reports the results of a field experiment in which the effect that acknowledgement of alumni contributions has on their subsequent donation…

  18. ''Show me, how does it look now'': Remote Help-giving in Collaborative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Norros, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of visual information in a remote help-giving situation involving the collaborative physical task of designing a prototype remote control. We analyze a set of video recordings captured within an experimental setting. Our analysis shows that using gestures and relevant

  19. Where Are the Facts? "Jason's Gold" Gives Meaning to the Yukon Gold Rush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Lott, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how fictional works can give a purposeful context and an appropriate venue for developing essential social studies concepts in middle-school students. The author uses the example of a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) notable book, "Jason's Gold" that blends history with story to become historical…

  20. Dead bodies matter: Gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  1. Parental care-giving and home environment predicting offspring's temperament and character traits after 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-30

    Although many personality theories emphasize the role of parental behaviors in shaping personality development, empirical data from longitudinal studies remain scarce. It is also not known, if parental behaviors affect character development more strongly than temperament or vice versa. In a prospective study, 1083 volunteer participants of the Young Finns study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Parents of the participants had answered questions about parenting attitudes, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and role satisfaction 18 years before. We studied the univariate and the cumulative effects of parental care-giving and family environment on offspring's personality traits. Parental care-giving and home-environment were more strongly associated with offspring character traits reflecting personality maturity (Self-directedness and Cooperativeness) than with offspring temperament traits (Novelty seeking, Harm avoidance, Reward dependence and Persistence) reflecting emotional and behavioral tendencies. The differences were most evident in the cumulative effects model. Maternal variables were stronger predictors than paternal variables. The present findings suggest that not all personality traits are similarly predicted by parental care-giving and home-environment. In particular, character development is more strongly related to such measures than temperament. Parental care-giving and home-environment are more strongly related to psychological maturity (character) than emotional and behavioral tendencies (temperament).

  2. The impact of culture and recipient perspective on direction giving in the service of wayfinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hund, Alycia M.; Schmettow, Martin; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert

    2012-01-01

    We examined how culture and recipient perspective affect direction giving during wayfinding. Participants from the United States and the Netherlands provided directions from starting locations to destinations for fictional recipients driving through a town (route perspective) or looking at a map of

  3. Now or never! The effect of deadlines on charitable giving: Evidence from a natural field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mette Trier; Gravert, Christina Annette

    that a reminder increases both the likelihood of making a donation and the amount donated. We find no effect of the deadlines on the propensity to give. Instead we observe a “now-or-never” effect; either donations are made immediately or not at all. In line with the “avoiding-the-ask” theory, both shorter...

  4. Automating annotation of information-giving for analysis of clinical conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Elijah; Laws, M Barton; Wilson, Ira B; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn

    2014-02-01

    Coding of clinical communication for fine-grained features such as speech acts has produced a substantial literature. However, annotation by humans is laborious and expensive, limiting application of these methods. We aimed to show that through machine learning, computers could code certain categories of speech acts with sufficient reliability to make useful distinctions among clinical encounters. The data were transcripts of 415 routine outpatient visits of HIV patients which had previously been coded for speech acts using the Generalized Medical Interaction Analysis System (GMIAS); 50 had also been coded for larger scale features using the Comprehensive Analysis of the Structure of Encounters System (CASES). We aggregated selected speech acts into information-giving and requesting, then trained the machine to automatically annotate using logistic regression classification. We evaluated reliability by per-speech act accuracy. We used multiple regression to predict patient reports of communication quality from post-visit surveys using the patient and provider information-giving to information-requesting ratio (briefly, information-giving ratio) and patient gender. Automated coding produces moderate reliability with human coding (accuracy 71.2%, κ=0.57), with high correlation between machine and human prediction of the information-giving ratio (r=0.96). The regression significantly predicted four of five patient-reported measures of communication quality (r=0.263-0.344). The information-giving ratio is a useful and intuitive measure for predicting patient perception of provider-patient communication quality. These predictions can be made with automated annotation, which is a practical option for studying large collections of clinical encounters with objectivity, consistency, and low cost, providing greater opportunity for training and reflection for care providers.

  5. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  6. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  7. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  8. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  9. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  10. Neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and stress : Physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Schaik, M.G. van; Korteling, J.E.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  11. Some Recent Advances in Plant Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A popular review of plant physiological research, emphasizing those apsects of plant metabolism where there has been a recent shift in emphasis that is not yet reflected in secondary school advanced texts. (AL)

  12. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Schaik, van Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming perf

  13. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were... sleep deprivation , physiological regulating systems are relatively unaffected by sleep loss. (Author)

  14. Physiology of the fetal and transitional circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnemore, Anna; Groves, Alan

    2015-08-01

    The fetal circulation is an entirely transient event, not replicated at any point in later life, and functionally distinct from the pediatric and adult circulations. Understanding of the physiology of the fetal circulation is vital for accurate interpretation of hemodynamic assessments in utero, but also for management of circulatory compromise in premature infants, who begin extrauterine life before the fetal circulation has finished its maturation. This review summarizes the key classical components of circulatory physiology, as well as some of the newer concepts of physiology that have been appreciated in recent years. The immature circulation has significantly altered function in all aspects of circulatory physiology. The mechanisms and significance of these differences are also discussed, as is the impact of these alterations on the circulatory transition of infants born prematurely.

  15. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  16. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  17. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Stress: Physiological Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Schaik, Martin G.; Korteling, J.E. (Hans); van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    High extraversion and conscientiousness and low neuroticism predict successful performance during and after stressful conditions. We investigated whether these personality factors are linked to stress sensitivity and to baseline physiology. Stress was induced through negative feedback on gaming

  18. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  19. Physiological, Psychological, and Social Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The physiological, and behavioral effects of noise on man are investigated. Basic parameters such as definitions of noise, measuring techniques of noise, and the physiology of the ear are presented prior to the development of topics on hearing loss, speech communication in noise, social effects of noise, and the health effects of noise pollution. Recommendations for the assessment and subsequent control of noise is included.

  20. Physiological and Growth Characteristics of Shewanella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    282–287. 29. Dawood B. 1998. Corrosion-enhancing potential of Shewanella putrefaciens isolated from industrial cooling waters. J Appl Microbiol. 84...AFCEC-CX-TY-TR-2016-0016 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF SHEWANELLA SPECIES Karen Farrington, D. Matthew Eby, Susan Sizemore...Technical Report 01 March 2012 - 01 March 2014 Physiological and growth characteristics of Shewanella species FA4819-11-C-0003 Karen Farrington (1

  1. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virio...

  2. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  3. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felipe; Díez-delhoyo; Enrique; Gutiérrez-Iba?es; Gerard; Loughlin; Ricardo; Sanz-Ruiz; María; Eugenia; Vázquez-álvarez; Fernando; Sarnago-Cebada; Rocío; Angulo-Llanos; Ana; Casado-Plasencia; Jaime; Elízaga; Francisco; Fernández; Avilés; Diáz

    2015-01-01

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology.

  4. Anatomy and physiology of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybel, David I

    2005-10-01

    In this article, key concepts in gastric anatomy and physiology are reviewed. Attention is given to historical development of concepts of acid secretion, to the role of stomach in digestion, and to the mechanisms that protect gastric mucosa from acid and hostile luminal conditions. Evolving ideas that may influence understand-ing of the physiologic consequences of emerging therapeutics, and procedures that target anatomy or function of the stomach are also reviewed.

  5. Do simple models give a correct description of the wind condition in a coastal area ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellstrand, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    When the surface conditions changes at a coastline, an internal boundary layer evolves, with a wind speed and turbulence intensity influenced by these new conditions. Aircraft measurements across the coastline, performed during near neutral conditions, are compared with a model and thirteen more simple expressions for the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL). The majority of the expressions overestimate the IBL height, while other underestimate it. Some of the expressions give reasonable result close to the coast. The model gives good agreement, even for larger distances. The vertical potential temperature gradient turned out to be an important parameter for the growth of the IBL, even with this near neutral conditions. 21 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones.

  7. Giving feedback in medical teaching: a case of lung function laboratory/spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in medical teaching is an important part of medical education, it encourages and enhances the learners' knowledge, skills and professional performance at various stages of their schooling. A constructive feedback enhances the awareness of strength and areas for improvement. An adequate, meaningful and fruitful feedback needs motivation, emphasis, objectivity, expertise, and active participation in the session. Before giving feedback, the instructor should be well prepared and must have practice on the task. The instructor should utilize all means such as good oral presentation, eye contact, visual cues, utilize body language to actively involve the learners in a session, all these activities enhance the knowledge, skill and attitude of the learners. The aim of this commentary is to highlight the basic issues in giving an appropriate feedback in medical teaching with special emphasis on a lung function laboratory / Spirometry.

  8. For the sake of whom: conversation analysis of advice giving in offender counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-ying, Guo

    2013-08-01

    Regarded as beneficial and preferable to the clients, advice delivery has been an integral part of counseling; however, there are controversies over the suitability of giving advice in counseling services, including counseling conducted in the context of prisons. Based on conversation analysis, this article tries to explore when and how police counselors in two Chinese prisons give advice and how inmate clients respond to and seek advice in offender counseling. It is found that advice delivery, supposed to be for the inmate clients' sake, only serves a phatic function in the context of prisons in which security is a priority, and transforming inmates into law-abiding citizen is the overall goal of prison rehabilitation and correction. Hence, offender counselors, intending to alleviate depression and anxiety in inmate clients, are caught in a dilemma.

  9. A survey on acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Lanqiong; Zeng, Lin; Liao, Qishun; Chen, Ping

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the study of acupuncture for giving up heroin and treatment of withdrawal syndrome in China from 1995 to 2003, which includes the selection of acupoints, the evaluation of the therapeutic effects, studies of acupoints and application of relevant instruments, as well as treatment of the withdrawal syndromes of heroin with acupuncture. The therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion is definite and indispensable, especially at the time when there is no specific remedy for heroin addition.

  10. Personal and household care giving for adult children to parents and social stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasa Urdiola, Sebastià; Billingsley, Sunnee

    2008-01-01

    Using SHARE database the paper explores the factors conditioning personalcare giving from adult children to their parents. Frequency and intensity ofpersonal care is contrasted with the reciprocal expectations that children haveabout wealth inheritance from their parents and with the opportunity costs of helping, as well as with the capacity of parents of getting help from othersources of personal care. The results may help to understand how inequalitiesin accessing to formal services relate ...

  11. Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

    2000-06-01

    City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem.

  12. Cowpeas in Northern Ghana and the factors that predict caregivers' intention to give them to schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Abizari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cowpeas are important staple legumes among the rural poor in northern Ghana. Our objectives were to assess the iron and zinc content of cowpea landraces and identify factors that predict the intention of mothers/caregivers to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed biochemical analysis on 14 landraces of cowpeas and assessed the opinion of 120 caregiver-child pairs on constructs based on the combined model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model. We used correlations and multiple regressions to measure simple associations between constructs and identify predictive constructs. Cowpea landraces contained iron and zinc in the range of 4.9-8.2 mg/100 g d.w and 2.7-4.1 mg/100 g d.w respectively. The landraces also contained high amounts of phytate (477-1110 mg/100 g d.w and polyphenol (327-1055 mg/100 g d.w. Intention of mothers was strongly associated (rs = 0.72, P<0.001 with and predicted (β = 0.63, P<0.001 behaviour. The constructs, barriers (β = -0.42, P = 0.001 and attitudes towards behaviour (β = 0.25, P<0.028, significantly predicted intention albeit the predictive ability of the model was weak. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that some cowpea landraces from northern Ghana have appreciable amounts of iron and zinc but probably with poor bioavailability. Attitudes towards giving cowpeas and perception of barriers are important predictors of caregivers' intention to give cowpeas to their schoolchildren. Finally our results suggest that increasing knowledge on nutritional benefits of cowpeas may increase health values caregivers hold for their children in support of giving cowpeas to schoolchildren.

  13. Giving support to others reduces sympathetic nervous system-related responses to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, TK; Eisenberger, NI

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Social support is a major contributor to the link between social ties and beneficial health outcomes. Research to date has focused on how receiving support from others might be good for us; however, we know less about the health effects of giving support to others. Based on prior work in animals showing that stimulating neural circuitry important for caregiving behavior can reduce sympathetic-related responses to stressors, it is possible that,...

  14. Gender Differences In Giving Directions: A Case Study Of English Literature Students At Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjoo Hong Sing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have said that there are differences in the ways people give direction between males and females, especially in spatial task (cardinal directions, topography, mileage, building, right/left markers (e.g., Lawton, 2001; Dabbs et al., 1998. Here, the thesis investigates what differences occur between both genders in giving direction. The respondents are 25 females and 25 males of fifth semester Binus University students majoring in English Literature. The respondents answered with a certain route from Binus’s Anggrek Campus to Senayan City. The study was conducted by qualitative and quantitative method. From the data analysis, the writer discovered that gender does affect in selecting the key words in explaining direction it is found that there were differences in choosing key words in giving direction between females and males. The difference is women use more than twice spatial references than men do. In terms of verbal abilities, it was confirmed that female use longer explanation. However, in other aspects such as serial orientation and maintenance words, the result is inconclusive. 

  15. Security giving in surrogacy motherhood process as a caring model for commissioning mothers: A theory synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albo Maria J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested male mating success in the following experimental groups: protein enriched fly gift (PG, regular fly gift (FG, worthless gift (WG, or no gift (NG. Results Males that offered worthless gifts acquired similar mating success as males offering nutritional gifts, while males with no gift experienced reduced mating success. The results suggest that strong selection on the nuptial gift-giving trait facilitates male deception by donation of worthless gifts. Females terminated matings faster when males offered worthless donations; this demonstrate a cost of deception for the males as shorter matings lead to reduced sperm transfer and thus give the deceiving males a disadvantage in sperm competition. Conclusion We propose that the gift wrapping trait allows males to exploit female foraging preference by disguising the gift content thus deceiving females into mating without acquiring direct benefits. Female preference for a genuine prey gift combined with control over mating duration, however, counteracts the male deception.

  17. The information-giving skills of resident physicians: relationships with confidence and simulated patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Son, Daisuke; Eto, Masato; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2017-02-08

    Sharing information is crucial for discussion of problems and treatment decision making by patients and physicians. However, the focus of communication skills training in undergraduate medical education has been on building the relationship and gathering information; thus, resident physicians tend to be less confident about sharing information and planning treatment. This study evaluated the medical interviews conducted by resident physicians with a focus on information giving, and investigated its relationships with their confidence in communication and simulated patient (SP) satisfaction. Among 137 junior resident physicians at a university hospital in Japan who participated in a survey of communication skills, 25 volunteered to conduct simulated medical interviews. The medical interviews were video-recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System, together with additional coding to explore specific features of information giving. The SPs evaluated their satisfaction with the medical interview. Resident physicians who were more confident in their communication skills provided more information to the patients, while SP satisfaction was associated only with patient-prompted information giving. SPs were more satisfied when the physicians explained the rationales for their opinions and recommendations. Our findings underscore the importance of providing relevant information in response to the patient requests, and explaining the rationales for the opinions and recommendations. Further investigation is needed to clinically confirm our findings and develop an appropriate communication skills training program.

  18. Reproducibility of physiologic parameters obtained using functional computed tomography in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Stantz, Keith M.; Steinmetz, Rosemary; Hutchins, Gary D.; Liang, Yun

    2004-04-01

    High-speed X-ray computed tomography (CT) has the potential to observe the transport of iodinated radio-opaque contrast agent (CA) through tissue enabling the quantification of tissue physiology in organs and tumors. The concentration of Iodine in the tissue and in the left ventricle is extracted as a function of time and is fit to a compartmental model for physiologic parameter estimation. The reproducibility of the physiologic parameters depend on the (1) The image-sampling rate. According to our simulations 5-second sampling is required for CA injection rates of 1.0ml/min (2) the compartmental model should reflect the real tissue function to give meaning results. In order to verify these limits a functional CT study was carried out in a group of 3 mice. Dynamic CT scans were performed on all the mice with 0.5ml/min, 1ml/min and 2ml/min CA injection rates. The physiologic parameters were extracted using 4 parameter and 6 parameter two compartmental models (2CM). Single factor ANOVA did not indicate a significant difference in the perfusion, in the kidneys for the different injection rates. The physiologic parameter obtained using the 6-parameter 2CM model was in line with literature values and the 6-parameter significantly improves chi-square goodness of fits for two cases.

  19. A Brief History of Bacterial Growth Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moselio eSchaechter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid 19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers of the chemical changes in the environment that result from microbial activities. Later, during the first half of the 20th century, microbial physiology became the basis for much of the elucidation of central metabolism.Bacterial physiology then became a handmaiden of molecular biology and was greatly influenced by the discovery of cellular regulatory mechanisms. Microbial growth, which had come of age with the early work of Hershey, Monod, and others, was later pursued by studies on a whole cell level by what became known as the Copenhagen School. During this time, the exploration of physiological activities became coupled to modern inquiries into the structure of the bacterial cell.Recent years have seen the development of a further phase in microbial physiology, one seeking a deeper quantitative understanding of phenomena on a whole cell level. This pursuit is exemplified by the emergence of systems biology, which is made possible by the development of technologies that permit the gathering of information in huge amounts. As has been true through history, the research into microbial physiology continues to be guided by the development of new methods of analysis. Some of these developments may well afford the possibility of making stunning breakthroughs.

  20. A brief history of bacterial growth physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, microbial physiology started when Leeuwenhoek became fascinated by observing a Vorticella beating its cilia, my point being that almost any observation of microbes has a physiological component. With the advent of modern microbiology in the mid-19th century, the field became recognizably distinctive with such discoveries as anaerobiosis, fermentation as a biological phenomenon, and the nutritional requirements of microbes. Soon came the discoveries of Winogradsky and his followers of the chemical changes in the environment that result from microbial activities. Later, during the first half of the 20th century, microbial physiology became the basis for much of the elucidation of central metabolism. Bacterial physiology then became a handmaiden of molecular biology and was greatly influenced by the discovery of cellular regulatory mechanisms. Microbial growth, which had come of age with the early work of Hershey, Monod, and others, was later pursued by studies on a whole cell level by what became known as the "Copenhagen School." During this time, the exploration of physiological activities became coupled to modern inquiries into the structure of the bacterial cell. Recent years have seen the development of a further phase in microbial physiology, one seeking a deeper quantitative understanding of phenomena on a whole cell level. This pursuit is exemplified by the emergence of systems biology, which is made possible by the development of technologies that permit the gathering of information in huge amounts. As has been true through history, the research into microbial physiology continues to be guided by the development of new methods of analysis. Some of these developments may well afford the possibility of making stunning breakthroughs.

  1. [Psycho-physiological effects of pop music on cardiovascular parameters at rest and during exertion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V

    1979-05-30

    The effects of pop music on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest, during exercise on a bicycle ergometer and in the recovery phase were investigated. The psychological effects of the music were analysed by means of a question sheet and correlated with the physiological effects. The psychological effects of the music points to a reduction of monotony and of fatigue. During exercise, especially during low physical strain, there was a good correlation between the psychological and the physiological parameters. The significant decrease of the cardiovascular parameters in the recovery phase demonstrates, that emotional stimuli are influencing the heart rate not only at rest and work, but also in the recovery phase. The results of the psycho-physiological experiments give rise to the conclusion, that individual attitude to music doesn't primarily influence the effects of music on physiological reactions.

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.60 - Are Federal agencies required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias? 102-74.60 Section 102-74.60 Public....60 Are Federal agencies required to give blind vendors priority in operating cafeterias? Yes. Federal agencies are required to give Randolph-Sheppard vendors priority in the operation of cafeterias when the...

  3. Exploring states of panacea and perfidy of family and community volunteerism in palliative care giving in Kanye CHBC program, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kangethe

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations: The study recommends: (1 Socializing boys early enough in life into care giving; (2 Offering incentives to the caregivers; (3 Use of public forums to persuade men to accept helping women in carrying out care giving duties; (4 And enlisting support of all leaders to advocate for men′s involvement in care giving.

  4. O Ato de Presentear em Relacionamentos Comerciais [Gift-giving in Business Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Assis Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo compreender o ato de presentear que ocorre em relacionamentos comerciais entre provedores de serviços e consumidores. Dois métodos qualitativos foram utilizados na pesquisa: (i entrevistas ficcionais e (ii técnica do incidente crítico. A partir deste estudo, observou-se que a motivação para o ato de presentear em relacionamentos comercias decorreu, principalmente, da satisfação dos consumidores em relação aos serviços prestados pelos profissionais. Os tipos de presentes citados variaram bastante, sendo os itens de uso pessoal os mais citados em relacionamentos comerciais, o que permite maior intimidade entre a díade. Os clientes narraram como data escolhida para o ato de presentear, dias comuns que sucederam o recebimento de favores ou de atendimentos satisfatórios. Os provedores de serviços, por outro lado, narraram o recebimento de presentes em datas comemorativas. Em relação ao realinhamento do relacionamento após o ato de presentear, também foram identificadas divergências nas respostas da díade. Enquanto a maior parte dos clientes fez referência ao efeito de fortalecimento do relacionamento, os profissionais mostraram-se relutantes em admitir mudanças comportamentais após o recebimento de presentes. ---- Gift-giving in Business Relationships ---- Abstract ---- This study aimed at understanding the gift giving in business relations between service providers and consumers. Two qualitative methods were conducted: fiction interviews and critical incident technique. From this study, we observed that motivation for the act of giving in commercial relationships was mainly due to consumer satisfaction in relation to services provided. The kind of gifts mentioned varied widely and may be perceived, however, that personal items were most often cited in business relationships that allow greater dyad closeness. Ordinary days were pointed out by clients as being the chosen date for gift giving

  5. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down′s syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  6. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenemase-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  7. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  8. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  9. EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance [EPSP] Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the biomedical and technological challenges of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The topics covered include: 1) Prebreathe Protocols; 2) Lunar Suit Testing and Development; and 3) Lunar Electric Rover and Exploration Operations Concepts.

  10. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  11. Epigenetics and transgenerational transfer: a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D H; Burggren, W W

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics, the transgenerational transfer of phenotypic characters without modification of gene sequence, is a burgeoning area of study in many disciplines of biology. However, the potential impact of this phenomenon on the physiology of animals is not yet broadly appreciated, in part because the phenomenon of epigenetics is not typically part of the design of physiological investigations. Still enigmatic and somewhat ill defined is the relationship between the overarching concept of epigenetics and interesting transgenerational phenomena (e.g. 'maternal/parental effects') that alter the physiological phenotype of subsequent generations. The lingering effect on subsequent generations of an initial environmental disturbance in parent animals can be profound, with genes continuing to be variously silenced or expressed without an associated change in gene sequence for many generations. Known epigenetic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon include chromatin remodeling (DNA methylation and histone modification), RNA-mediated modifications (non-coding RNA and microRNA), as well as other less well studied mechanisms such as self-sustaining loops and structural inheritance. In this review we: (1) discuss how the concepts of epigenetics and maternal effects both overlap with, and are distinct from, each other; (2) analyze examples of existing animal physiological studies based on these concepts; and (3) offer a construct by which to integrate these concepts into the design of future investigations in animal physiology.

  12. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of nutrients, during epithelial absorption/secretion processes, following hormonal/autocrine stimulation, and during induction of apoptosis, but also under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. hypoxia, ischaemia and hyponatremia....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...... are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize...

  13. Financial Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Planning Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from this exploratory clinical study indicate that financial anxiety—holding an unhealthy attitude about one’s financial situation—and physiological arousal—the physical precursor to behavior—play important roles in shaping consumer intention to engage in future financial planning activity. Findings suggest that those who are most likely to engage the services of a financial adviser exhibit low levels of financial anxiety and moderate to high levels of physiological arousal. The least likely to seek the help of a financial adviser are those who exhibit high financial anxiety and low physiological arousal. Results support findings documented in the literature that high anxiety levels often lead to a form of self-imposed helplessness. In order to move those experiencing financial anxiety towards financial solutions, financial advisers ought to take steps to simultaneously reduce financial stressors and stimulate arousal as a way to promote behavioral change and help seeking.

  14. From growth physiology to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2006-09-01

    As it focuses on the integrated behavior of the entire cell, systems biology is a powerful extension of growth physiology. Here, I briefly trace some of the origins of modern-day bacterial growth physiology and its relevance to systems biology. I describe how growth physiology emerged from the foggy picture of the growth curve as a self-contained entity. For this insight, we can thank Henrici, Hershey, Monod, Maaløe, and others. As a result of their work, growth rate is understood to be the unitary manifestation of the response to nutritional conditions and to the control condition for studies on the effect of environmental stresses. For this response to be usefully reproducible, cultures must be in the steady state known as balanced growth. I point out that present-day experimenters are not always aware of this imperative and thus do not always use conditions that ensure the balanced growth of their control cultures.

  15. Physiological assessment of long pepper seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pacheco Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental and economic potential of long pepper (Piper hispidinervum requires the development of methodology to evaluate seed potential physiological. The work aimed to evaluate the physiological potential of long pepper seeds (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. through different tests and accelerated aging. Seeds were harvested in four different commercial planting and evaluated to water content (%, germination (G%, germination speed index (GSI, seedling emergence (SE%, emergence rate index (ERI and accelerated aging (AA 41 and 45 °C during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with a simple scheme for G, GSI, SE and ERI, and 4 x 4 factorial (lots and times at each temperature for AA. Physiological potential of long pepper seeds can be evaluated by germination test, germination speed index, seedling emergence, seedlings emergence speed index and accelerated aging at 41 °C during 24 hours.

  16. New concept of physiologic anchorage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Molar anchorage loss in extraction case is believed due to the reaction of mechanical force applied to retract anterior teeth. While it may be close to truth in adult patients, it is certainly not true in adolescents. Studies on molar growth show upper molar move forward as mandible growing forward, probably through intercuspation force. Hence, for adolescents, molar anchorage loss shall consist of two parts. One is from retraction force - mechanical anchorage loss; another from biologic force - physiologic anchorage loss. Since physiologic anchorage loss is caused by the continuous biologic force, the strategy of physiologic anchorage control (PAC is different from the strategy of mechanical anchorage control. A new PAC method is introduced in this article that can reduce the headgear and temporary anchorage device used as sagittal anchorage dramatically in orthodontic clinic.

  17. Improving the physiological realism of experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Kalyan C; Cha, Chae Y; Rorsman, Patrik; Balaban, Robert S; La Gerche, Andre; Wade-Martins, Richard; Beard, Daniel A; Jeneson, Jeroen A L

    2016-04-06

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) project aims to develop integrative, explanatory and predictive computational models (C-Models) as numerical investigational tools to study disease, identify and design effective therapies and provide an in silico platform for drug screening. Ultimately, these models rely on the analysis and integration of experimental data. As such, the success of VPH depends on the availability of physiologically realistic experimental models (E-Models) of human organ function that can be parametrized to test the numerical models. Here, the current state of suitable E-models, ranging from in vitro non-human cell organelles to in vivo human organ systems, is discussed. Specifically, challenges and recent progress in improving the physiological realism of E-models that may benefit the VPH project are highlighted and discussed using examples from the field of research on cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes and Parkinson's disease.

  18. [The role of physiology in modern surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Through the analysis of recent achievements in the field of surgery we have demonstrated convincingly that physiological studies in both humans and animal models are the keystone of modern surgery. Physiological studies of blood circulation, respiration, digestion and other functions have laid the foundations for major fields of surgery. Their role is the most evident in the development of cardiac surgery. Notably, one of the outstanding breakthroughs in the medical science of the 20th century--the extracorporeal blood circulation--was made by the Russian physiologist S. S. Bryukhovenko. We have shown that noninvasive diagnostic procedures such as echocardiography are of outmost significance on all stages of the surgical treatment (pre- and intraoperational diagnostics and medical rehabilitation). The great impact of physiology on the development of surgery has also led to the progress of related fields of medicine--anesthesiology, intensive care, functional diagnostics, transplantation, rehabilitation, and many others.

  19. Physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Dehydration (body water deficit) is a physiologic state that can have profound implications for human health and performance. Unfortunately, dehydration can be difficult to assess, and there is no single, universal gold standard for decision making. In this article, we review the physiologic basis for understanding quantitative dehydration assessment. We highlight how phenomenologic interpretations of dehydration depend critically on the type (dehydration compared with volume depletion) and magnitude (moderate compared with severe) of dehydration, which in turn influence the osmotic (plasma osmolality) and blood volume-dependent compensatory thresholds for antidiuretic and thirst responses. In particular, we review new findings regarding the biological variation in osmotic responses to dehydration and discuss how this variation can help provide a quantitative and clinically relevant link between the physiology and phenomenology of dehydration. Practical measures with empirical thresholds are provided as a starting point for improving the practice of dehydration assessment.

  20. [Autopharmacology, sloths and physiology. Opinions on certain historical aspects and potential developments in physiology in Liege].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, J

    2001-07-01

    We recall the works of Bacq, Lecomte and Goffart, three physiologists from the University of Liège, on neurohumoral transmission, autacoids, sloths and monkeys in order to stress first that Physiology is a natural science of its own, and secondly that physiological studies aim at the understanding of the general mechanisms concurring to homeostasis.

  1. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American Physiology Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological…

  2. Herpetological diversity along Andean elevational gradients: links with physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A

    2002-11-01

    A well-defined macroecological pattern is the decline in biodiversity with altitude. However, this decline is taxa-specific. For example, amphibians are more diverse than squamates at extreme elevations in the tropical Andes, but this pattern is reversed at extreme elevations in the southern latitudes. Several ecophysiological and evolutionary factors may be related to this difference. At high-elevations in southern latitudes temperature differs dramatically among seasons and dry soils dominate, characteristics that appear to favor lizard physiological ecology. Tropical high altitudes, in contrast, are humid and offer abundant and diverse water resources. These characteristics allow for a richer anuran community but might complicate lizard egg development through temperature and oxygen constrains. Differences in strategies of thermal adaptation might also modulate diversity patterns. The thermal physiology of anurans is extremely labile so that behavioral and physiological performance is maintained despite an altitudinal decrease in field body temperature. Lizards, in contrast, exhibit a conservative thermal physiology and rely on behavioral thermoregulation to face cold and variable temperatures. Both, lizard behavioral strategies and anuran physiological adjustments seem equally efficient in allowing ecological success and diversification for both groups in the tropics up to approximately 3000 m. At higher elevations physiological thermal adaptation is required, and lizards are ecologically constrained, perhaps at various ontogenetic stages. Patterns of biodiversity along environmental clines can be better understood through a physiological approach, and can help to refine and propose hypotheses in evolutionary physiology.

  3. Charitable giving for HIV and AIDS: results from a Canadian national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Allman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a national survey of adults in Canada posed questions on charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. The objective of this analysis was to explore the behaviour and attitudes of this population in terms of charitable giving. METHODS: In 2011, individuals in Canada 16 years of age or older were recruited for a survey from an online panel supplemented by random digit dial telephone interviewing. The margin of error was +/-2.1 percentage points (95%. Chi-square tests were used to detect bivariate associations. A multivariate logistic regression model was fit to compare those who had donated to HIV and AIDS in the past 12 months with those who had donated to other disease or illness charities. RESULTS: 2,139 participated. 82.5% had donated to a charitable cause in the past 12 months. 22.2% had ever donated to HIV and AIDS, with 7.8% doing so in the past 12 months. Individuals who had donated to HIV and AIDS versus other disease or illness charities tended to be younger (p<0.05, single (p<0.005, more highly educated (p<0.001 and to self-identify as a member of a sexual minority group (p<0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed individuals who self-identified as a member of a sexual minority group were significantly much more likely to have donated to HIV and AIDS than to other disease or illness charities in the past 12 months (OR, 7.73; p<0.001; CI 4.32-13.88. DISCUSSION: Despite a generally philanthropic orientation, relatively few respondents had ever been involved in charitable giving for HIV and AIDS. Those who had could be understood relationally as individuals at closer social proximity to HIV and AIDS such as members of sexual minority groups.

  4. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  5. Knowledge generation about care-giving in the UK: a critical review of research paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alisoun; Larkin, Mary

    2015-01-01

    While discourse about care and caring is well developed in the UK, the nature of knowledge generation about care and the research paradigms that underpin it have been subjected to limited critical reflection and analysis. An overarching synthesis of evidence - intended to promote debate and facilitate new understandings - identifies two largely separate bodies of carer-related research. The first body of work - referred to as Gathering and Evaluating - provides evidence of the extent of care-giving, who provides care to whom and with what impact; it also focuses on evaluating policy and service efficacy. This type of research tends to dominate public perception about caring, influences the type and extent of policy and support for carers and attracts funding from policy and health-related sources. However, it also tends to be conceptually and theoretically narrow, has limited engagement with carers' perspectives and adopts an atomistic purview on the care-giving landscape. The second body of work - Conceptualising and Theorising - explores the conceptual and experiential nature of care and aims to extend thinking and theory about caring. It is concerned with promoting understanding of care as an integral part of human relationships, embedded in the life course, and a product of interdependence and reciprocity. This work conceptualises care as both an activity and a disposition and foregrounds the development of an 'ethic of care', thereby providing a perspective within which to recognise both the challenges care-giving may present and the significance of care as a normative activity. It tends to be funded from social science sources and, while strong in capturing carers' experiences, has limited policy and service-related purchase. Much could be gained for citizens, carers and families, and the generation of knowledge advanced, if the two bodies of research were integrated to a greater degree. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Space physiology and psychology: long missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorthes, G

    1989-06-01

    Until now spatial physiology and medicine concern mainly disturbances caused by life in microgravity during short stay (days, weeks). Neuro-sensorial, cardiovascular, osteo-muscular manifestations are well known; their prophylaxis is in great part established. It is shortly speak of them. Consequence of long stay (months or years) are not so well known; they are physiologic and psychologic. These long flights are now rare but they would probably be more numerous in next future. Authors present successively physics dangers: radiations, meteorites, composition of screw, number and selective tests, alimentation, fry time, habitation, biologic rhythms, psychism... We meet the same psychologic problems as great explorations have known.

  7. Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals presents the most widely used techniques in signal and system analysis. Specifically, the book is concerned with methods of characterizing signals and systems. Author Charles Lessard provides students and researchers an understanding of the time and frequency domain processes which may be used to evaluate random physiological signals such as brainwave, sleep, respiratory sounds, heart valve sounds, electromyograms, and electro-oculograms.Another aim of the book is to have the students evaluate actual mammalian data without spending most or all

  8. Physiological Disorders in Closed, Controlled Environment Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the physiological disorders that affect crops grown in closed controlled environments. A physiological disorder is understood to be a problem resulting from the influence of environmental and horticultural factors on plan development other than a problem caused by a pathogen or some other abiotic cause. The topics that are addressed are: (1) Calcium-Related Disorders (2) Oedema (Intumescence) (3) Long-Photoperiod Injury (4) Light Spectral Quality Effects (5) Super-Elevated CO2 Injuries (6) Ethylene (7) Other Disorders (8) Considerations for Closed Space Environments. Views of plant with the disorders are shown.

  9. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  10. Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Dr. Kishor

    2008-01-01

    ‘Human Physiology’, or the study of functional aspects of human body, is designated by the term ‘Śarīra Vicaya’ in Ayurvedic literature. The word ‘Vicaya’ means the special or detailed knowledge. Detailed knowledge of normal human body i.e., ‘Śarīra’, is considered helpful in understanding the factors influencing the health. Though most of the basic concepts of human physiology explained in Ayurveda are strikingly similar to the concepts of modern physiology, some concepts like ‘Ātmā’, ‘Ma...

  11. Online simulation of classical inorganic analysis - interactive, self instructive simulations give more lab-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory exercises, investigations, and experiments are invariably included in university chemistry teaching. The learning of empirical facts, chemical procedures and methods in chemistry depends heavily on the experience, which may be obtained from such teaching activities [1]. Experimental work...... (and in university programmes it often isn’t), but rather to give them experience with chemicals and methods, a computer-based laboratory simulation may function as a cheap and fast extension of student lab time. Virtual investigations seem to be a promising kind of tool [6,7,8] for several reasons...

  12. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2017-03-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering.

  13. Comments on reactions of oxide derivatives of uranium with hexachloropropene to give UCl4

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, D.; Wooles, A J; Hashem, E; Omorodion, H; Baker, R J; Liddle, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED DOI: 10.1039/c5nj00476d We report that U3O8, UO2(NO3)2·6H2O, and UO2Cl2 react with hexachloropropene (HCP) to give UCl4 in 60, 100, and 92% yields, respectively, and report a protocol to recycle the HCP. This renders the preparation of UCl4 more accessible and sustainable. 2,5-Dichlorohexachlorofulvene has been identified as a significant by-product from these reactions The authors are grateful to the Royal Society, EPSRC, ERC, University of Nottingham, UK National Nucle...

  14. The First Eight Years ~ Giving Kids a Foundation for a Lifetime Success Resource Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dawson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The First Eight Years: Giving Kids a Foundation for a Lifetime Success” is a recent KIDS COUNT policy report from the Annie E. Casey Foundation. The report discusses how a child’s early development from birth through age 8 is critical in one’s transition into elementary school as well as long-term academic success. The report also provides broad policy recommendations to help America’s children succeed and data on early childhood development for every state.

  15. Explaining the HERA Anomaly Without Giving Up R-parity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, B.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Nandi, S

    1997-01-01

    We point out that in extended supersymmetric models such as supersymmetric left-right models, it is possible to have leptoquarks that explain the HERA high $Q^2$ anomaly without giving up R-parity conservation. The leptoquarks belong to vectorlike $(2, 2, \\pm{4/3}, 3 or 3^*) $ representations of $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}\\times SU(3)_c$ (denoted $G_{2213}$). Unlike the R-parity violating scenario, the leptoquarks are accompanied by new superpartners,the leptoquarkino which leads ...

  16. Giving toys to children reduces their anxiety about receiving premedication for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Leonard; Pagala, Murali; Sukhavasi, Sujatha; Nagpal, Dheeraj; Ahmad, Ayeesha; Mahanta, Aruna

    2006-04-01

    Children have increased anxiety during the preoperative period. The administration of oral premedication to children is often met with apprehension, reluctance, or refusal. We sought to determine whether giving a small toy to the children would decrease the anxiety associated with taking oral premedication. This was a prospective study involving 100 children 3-6 yr of age randomized into two equal groups. The anxiety of each child was assessed using the Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. The results showed significantly less anxiety in children who received a toy before oral administration of midazolam.

  17. Macromolecular crowding gives rise to microviscosity, anomalous diffusion and accelerated actin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rafi; Chee, Stella Min Ling; Raghunath, Michael; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-05-01

    Macromolecular crowding (MMC) has been used in various in vitro experimental systems to mimic in vivo physiology. This is because the crowded cytoplasm of cells contains many different types of solutes dissolved in an aqueous medium. MMC in the extracellular microenvironment is involved in maintaining stem cells in their undifferentiated state (niche) as well as in aiding their differentiation after they have travelled to new locations outside the niche. MMC at physiologically relevant fractional volume occupancies (FVOs) significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during chemically induced adipogenesis. The mechanism by which MMC produces this enhancement is not entirely known. In the context of extracellular collagen deposition, we have recently reported the importance of optimizing the FVO while minimizing the bulk viscosity. Two opposing properties will determine the net rate of a biochemical reaction: the negative effect of bulk viscosity and the positive effect of the excluded volume, the latter being expressed by the FVO. In this study we have looked more closely at the effect of viscosity on reaction rates. We have used fluorimetry to measure the rate of actin polymerization and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure diffusion of various probes in solutions containing the crowder Ficoll at physiological concentrations. Similar to its effect on collagen, Ficoll enhanced the actin polymerization rate despite increasing the bulk viscosity. Our FCS measurements reveal a relatively minor component of anomalous diffusion. In addition, our measurements do suggest that microviscosity becomes relevant in a crowded environment. We ruled out bulk viscosity as a cause of the rate enhancement by performing the actin polymerization assay in glycerol. These opposite effects of Ficoll and glycerol led us to conclude that microviscosity becomes relevant at the length scale of the reacting

  18. The Role of Nature in Coping with Psycho-Physiological Stress: A Literature Review on Restorativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Berto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical settings can play a role in coping with stress; in particular experimental research has found strong evidence between exposure to natural environments and recovery from physiological stress and mental fatigue, giving support to both Stress Recovery Theory and Attention Restoration Theory. In fact, exposure to natural environments protects people against the impact of environmental stressors and offer physiological, emotional and attention restoration more so than urban environments. Natural places that allow the renewal of personal adaptive resources to meet the demands of everyday life are called restorative environments. Natural environments elicit greater calming responses than urban environments, and in relation to their vision there is a general reduction of physiological symptoms of stress. Exposure to natural scenes mediates the negative effects of stress reducing the negative mood state and above all enhancing positive emotions. Moreover, one can recover the decrease of cognitive performance associated with stress, especially reflected in attention tasks, through the salutary effect of viewing nature. Giving the many benefits of contact with nature, plans for urban environments should attend to restorativeness.

  19. The role of nature in coping with psycho-physiological stress: a literature review on restorativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Rita

    2014-10-21

    Physical settings can play a role in coping with stress; in particular experimental research has found strong evidence between exposure to natural environments and recovery from physiological stress and mental fatigue, giving support to both Stress Recovery Theory and Attention Restoration Theory. In fact, exposure to natural environments protects people against the impact of environmental stressors and offer physiological, emotional and attention restoration more so than urban environments. Natural places that allow the renewal of personal adaptive resources to meet the demands of everyday life are called restorative environments. Natural environments elicit greater calming responses than urban environments, and in relation to their vision there is a general reduction of physiological symptoms of stress. Exposure to natural scenes mediates the negative effects of stress reducing the negative mood state and above all enhancing positive emotions. Moreover, one can recover the decrease of cognitive performance associated with stress, especially reflected in attention tasks, through the salutary effect of viewing nature. Giving the many benefits of contact with nature, plans for urban environments should attend to restorativeness.

  20. The Meaning of Giving Birth: Voices of Hmong Women Living in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cheryl A; Callister, Lynn Clark; Gettys, Jamie Peterson; Hickman, Jacob R

    2017-02-27

    Increasing knowledge about the sociocultural context of birth is essential to promote culturally sensitive nursing care. This qualitative study provides an ethnographic view of the perspectives on birthing of Hmong mothers living in the highlands of Vietnam. Unique cultural beliefs exist in Hmong culture about the spiritual and physical world as well as ritual practices associated with childbearing. This includes variations of ancestor worship, reincarnation, and healing practices by shamans. Traditionally, Hmong families take an active role in childbirth with birth frequently occurring in the home. Situated within a large collaborative anthropology project, a convenience sample of 8 Hmong women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed regarding the perinatal experience. In addition, ethnic traditional birth attendants (midwives) and other village women contributed perspectives providing richly descriptive data. This ethnographic study was conducted during 6 weeks of immersed participant observation with primary data collection carried out through fieldwork. Data were analyzed to derive cultural themes from interviews and observations. Significant themes included (1) valuing motherhood, (2) laboring and giving birth silently, (3) giving birth within the comfort of home and family, (4) feeling capable of birthing well, (5) feeling anxiety to provide for another child, and (6) embracing cultural traditions. Listening to the voices of Hmong women enhances understanding of the meaning of childbirth. Gaining greater understanding of Hmong cultural beliefs and practices can ensure childbearing women receive respectful, safe, and quality care.