WorldWideScience

Sample records for physical inactivity obtained

  1. The economic cost of physical inactivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Chaaban, Jad

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the total economic burden of physical inactivity in China. The costs of physical inactivity combine the medical and non-medical costs of five major Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) associated with inactivity. The national data from the Chinese Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Surveys (2007) and the National Health Service Survey (2003) are used to compute population attributable risks (PARs) of inactivity for each major NCD. Costs specific to inactivity are obtained by multiplying each disease costs by the PAR for each NCD, by incorporating the inactivity effects through overweight and obesity. Physical inactivity contributes between 12% and 19% to the risks associated with the five major NCDs in China, namely coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity is imposing a substantial economic burden on the country, as it is responsible alone for more than 15% of the medical and non-medical yearly costs of the main NCDs in the country. The high economic burden of physical inactivity implies the need to develop more programs and interventions that address this modifiable behavioral risk, in order to curb the rising NCDs epidemic in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O

    2016-01-01

    leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1...... inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition...

  3. Burden of physical inactivity and hospitalization costs due to chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro da; Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Silva, Shana Ginar da

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physical inactivity-related inpatient costs of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study used data from 2013, from Brazilian Unified Health System, regarding inpatient numbers and costs due to malignant colon and breast neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In order to calculate the share physical inactivity represents in that, the physical inactivity-related risks, which apply to each disease, were considered, and physical inactivity prevalence during leisure activities was obtained from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio(Brazil's National Household Sample Survey). The analysis was stratified by genders and residing country regions of subjects who were 40 years or older. The physical inactivity-related hospitalization cost regarding each cause was multiplied by the respective share it regarded to. In 2013, 974,641 patients were admitted due to seven different causes in Brazil, which represented a high cost. South region was found to have the highest patient admission rate in most studied causes. The highest prevalences for physical inactivity were observed in North and Northeast regions. The highest inactivity-related share in men was found for osteoporosis in all regions (≈ 35.0%), whereas diabetes was found to have a higher share regarding inactivity in women (33.0% to 37.0% variation in the regions). Ischemic heart diseases accounted for the highest total costs that could be linked to physical inactivity in all regions and for both genders, being followed by cerebrovascular diseases. Approximately 15.0% of inpatient costs from Brazilian Unified Health System were connected to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity significantly impacts the number of patient admissions due to the evaluated causes and through their resulting costs, with different genders and country regions representing different shares.

  4. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference.

  5. Socioeconomic Determinants of Physical Inactivity among Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Narimasa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Half of Japanese workers are physically inactive, but there are no studies on the relation between the leisure-time physical inactivity of Japanese workers and their socioeconomic status. The proportion of female workers who are physically inactive has been larger than that of male workers. Objectives: Using micro-data from nationwide surveys in Japan, this study explored the gender differences in socioeconomic determinants of leisure-time physical inactivity. Methods: We first es...

  6. Educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity: a descriptive and explanatory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C T; van de Mheen, H; Mackenbach, J P

    1998-12-01

    In this study we aim to explain educational differences in leisure-time physical inactivity in terms of psychosocial and material factors. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the baseline of the Dutch GLOBE study in 1991, including 2598 men and women, aged 15-74 years. Physical inactivity during leisure time was defined as not participating in any activity, such as sports, gardening, walking or cycling. Psychosocial factors included in the study were coping resources, personality, and stressors. Material factors were financial situation, employment status, and living conditions. Logistic regression models were used to calculate educational differences in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was more prevalent in lower educational groups. Psychosocial factors related to physical inactivity were locus of control, parochialism, neuroticism, emotional social support, active problem focussing, optimistic and palliative coping styles. Material factors associated with physical inactivity were income, employment status and financial problems. All correlates of physical inactivity were unequally distributed over educational groups, except optimistic and palliative coping. Personality and coping style were the main contributors to the observed educational differences in physical inactivity. That is to say, parochialism, locus of control, neuroticism and active problem focussing explained about half of elevated odds ratios of physical inactivity in the lower educational groups. The material factors, equivalent income and employment status explained about 40% of the elevated odds ratios. Psychosocial and material correlates together reduced the odds ratios of lower educational groups by on average 75%. These results have practical consequences for the design of more effective interventions to promote physical activity. In particular, personality and coping style of risk groups, such as lower educational groups, should be taken into consideration at the future

  7. Shifting the Physical Inactivity Curve Worldwide by Closing the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore M; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Brown, Wendy J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program. Absolute and relative gender differences were calculated for countries according to four HDI categories. The potential effects of increasing women's activity levels on achievement of the WHO physical inactivity target were computed. Overall inactivity prevalence was higher in women (27%) than in men (20%). Women were more inactive than men in all except eight countries. Absolute gender differences [median 7.5% (range -10.1 to 33.2)] did not vary by HDI category, but there was a small negative correlation between relative gender difference in inactivity and HDI (rho -0.19; p = 0.02), which was mostly influenced by three outlier countries with low HDI. A decrease in inactivity levels of 4.8% points among women across the world would achieve the WHO target of reducing global levels of inactivity by 10%. Gender differences in the prevalence of physical inactivity were highly variable, both within and across categories of HDI. Interventions which result in small changes in inactivity prevalence in women would achieve the 2025 WHO global target for inactivity, without any change to the prevalence in men.

  8. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  9. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated in humans, and further studies are required to substantiate this hypothesis, which could expand our knowledge of the potential link between lifestyle-related diseases and muscle oxidative capacity. Furthermore, even though a large body of literature reports the effect of physical training on muscle oxidative capacity, the adaptations that occur with physical inactivity may not always be opposite to that of physical training. Thus, it is concluded that studies on the effect of physical inactivity per se on muscle oxidative capacity in functional human skeletal muscle are warranted.

  10. Physical inactivity and muscle oxidative capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Dahl, Rannvá; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and is an independent predictor of mortality. It is possible that the detrimental effects of physical inactivity are mediated through a lack of adequate muscle oxidative capacity. This short review will cover the present...... literature on the effects of different models of inactivity on muscle oxidative capacity in humans. Effects of physical inactivity include decreased mitochondrial content, decreased activity of oxidative enzymes, changes in markers of oxidative stress and a decreased expression of genes and contents...... of proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation. With such a substantial down-regulation, it is likely that a range of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent pathways such as calcium signalling, respiratory capacity and apoptosis are affected by physical inactivity. However, this has not been investigated...

  11. Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Paul Daniel; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.; Shinogle, Judith Ann

    2004-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Obesity and physical inactivity are common in the United States, but few studies examine this issue within rural populations. The present study uses nationally representative data to study obesity and physical inactivity in rural populations. Methods: Data came from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult and…

  12. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  13. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Jané; Norman, Rosana; Lambert, Estelle V; Groenewald, Pam; Schneider, Michelle; Bull, Fiona; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2007-08-01

    To quantify the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in persons 15 years or older, by age group and sex, in South Africa for 2000. The global comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology of the World Health Organization was followed to estimate the disease burden attributable to physical inactivity. Levels of physical activity for South Africa were obtained from the World Health Survey 2003. A theoretical minimum risk exposure of zero, associated outcomes, relative risks, and revised burden of disease estimates were used to calculate population-attributable fractions and the burden attributed to physical inactivity. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. South Africa. Adults >or= 15 years. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, breast cancer, colon cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overall in adults >or= 15 years in 2000, 30% of ischaemic heart disease, 27% of colon cancer, 22% of ischaemic stroke, 20% of type 2 diabetes, and 17% of breast cancer were attributable to physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was estimated to have caused 17,037 (95% uncertainty interval 11,394 - 20,407), or 3.3% (95% uncertainty interval 2.2 - 3.9%) of all deaths in 2000, and 176,252 (95% uncertainty interval 133,733 - 203,628) DALYs, or 1.1% (95% uncertainty interval 0.8 - 1.3%) of all DALYs in 2000. Compared with other regions and the global average, South African adults have a particularly high prevalence of physical inactivity. In terms of attributable deaths, physical inactivity ranked 9th compared with other risk factors, and 12th in terms of DALYs. There is a clear need to assess why South Africans are particularly inactive, and to ensure that physical activity/inactivity is addressed as a national health priority.

  14. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  15. The Global Physical Inactivity Pandemic: An Analysis of Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe; Bairner, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, "The Lancet" announced a pandemic of physical inactivity and a global call to action to effect change. The worldwide pandemic is said to be claiming millions of lives every year. Asserting that physical inactivity is pandemic is an important moment. Given the purported scale and significance of physical inactivity around…

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  17. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  18. LIFETIME PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LUNG CANCER RISK AND MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; LaMonte, Michael J; Ray, Andrew D; Joseph, Janine M; Al Qassim, Emad; Eng, Kevin H; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the independent associations of physical inactivity with cancer endpoints have been mounting in the epidemiological literature, in part due to the high prevalence of physical inactivity among cancer patients and to evidence that inactivity associates with carcinogenesis via pathways independent of obesity. Yet, physical inactivity is not currently recognized as a well-established risk or prognostic factor for lung cancer. As such, we examined the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with lung cancer risk and mortality in a hospital-based, case-control study. Materials and Methods: The analyses included data from 660 lung cancer patients and 1335 matched cancer-free controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk, and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the association between lifetime physical inactivity and mortality among lung cancer cases. Results: We observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer risk: [Odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.81]; the association remained significant among never smokers (OR=3.00, 95% CI:1.33-6.78) and non-smokers (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.79-3.02). We also observed a significant positive association between lifetime physical inactivity and lung cancer mortality [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.71]; the association remained significant in non-smokers (HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.16-1.95). These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity is an independent risk and prognostic factor for cancer. Additional research utilizing prospectively collected data is needed to substantiate the current findings.

  19. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  20. Mapping the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity in U.S. States, 1984-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Xiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Yan; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. This study aimed to map the prevalence of physical inactivity across U.S. states over the past three decades, and estimate the over-time adjusted changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity in each state. Individual-level data (N = 6,701,954) were taken from the 1984-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of state-representative adult population. Prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical inactivity was estimated by state and survey year, accounting for the BRFSS sampling design. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the changes in the prevalence of physical inactivity over the study period for each state, adjusting for individual characteristics including sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity varied substantially across states and survey years. In general, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity gradually declined over the past three decades in a majority of states. However, a substantial proportion of American adults remain physically inactive. Among the 50 states and District of Columbia, 45 had over a fifth of their adult population without any leisure-time physical activity, and 8 had over 30% without physical activity in 2015. Moreover, the adjusted prevalence of physical inactivity in several states (Arizona, North Carolina, North Dakota, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming) remained largely unchanged or even increased (Minnesota and Ohio) over the study period. Although the prevalence of physical inactivity declined over the past three decades in a majority of states, the rates remain substantially high and vary considerably across states. Closely monitoring and tracking physical activity level using the state physical activity maps can help guide policy and program

  1. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  2. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  3. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  4. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low socioeconomic status. Special attention should be given to girls and to those who do not engage in any physical activity during the leisure time, so that they can adopt a more active lifestyle.

  5. The metabolite beta-aminoisobutyric acid and physical inactivity among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfino, Alessio; Amabile, Maria Ida; Ammann, Thomas; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Lai, Silvia; Laviano, Alessandro; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Chiappini, Maria Grazia; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), and represents a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a contraction-induced myokine, the plasma levels of which increase with exercise and are inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether physical inactivity and clinical parameters relate to plasma BAIBA levels in this patient population. Adult patients on HD were included, and the presence of physical inactivity was assessed. BAIBA levels were measured in these patients and in healthy individuals. We assessed barriers to physical activity, including 23 items regarding psychophysical and financial barriers. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometer. Nonparametric tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-nine patients on HD were studied; 49% were physically active and 51% were inactive. Of the patients, 43 reported barriers to physical activity and 61% of inactive patients reported three or more barriers. BAIBA levels were lower in patients on HD with respect to controls (P HD patients as active and inactive, both groups showed significantly lower BAIBA levels versus controls (P = 0.0005, P HD showed increased BAIBA levels compared with diabetic patients (P HD endorsing the two most frequent barriers showed lower BAIBA levels than those not reporting these barriers (P = 0.006). Active patients showed higher intracellular water (%) (P = 0.008), and active and inactive patients showed significant correlation between total body muscle mass and handgrip strength (P = 0.04, P = 0.005, respectively). Physical inactivity is highly prevalent among patients on HD and BAIBA correlates with barriers to physical activity reported by inactive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  7. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  8. Assessment of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students, south-western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, N J; Aboelyazed, A E; Hassanein, M A; Khalil, S N; Aftab, R; Gaballa, I I; Mahfouz, A A

    2014-10-20

    Physical inactivity is a public health problem in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among health college students in King Khalid University. A total of 1257 students (426 males and 831 females) were recruited. The Arabic short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Overall, 58.0% of the students were physically inactive. Only 13.4% of the students performed vigorous physical activity, 14.8% moderate-intensity physical activity and 29.9% walking activities which met World Health Organization criteria of health-enhancing physical activities. The prevalence of inactive leisure time was 47.5%. The independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership of sports clubs and being a medical student. The top reported barrier to physical activity among inactive students was time limitations (51.3%). Overcoming perceived barriers may increase physical activity among students.

  9. Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenton Lippert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish

  10. Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Contributes to Physical Inactivity in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Devarakonda, Kavya; O'Neal, Timothy J; Skirzewski, Miguel; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Kaplan, Alanna R; Liow, Jeih-San; Guo, Juen; Rane, Sushil G; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Alvarez, Veronica A; Hall, Kevin D; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-07

    Obesity is associated with physical inactivity, which exacerbates the health consequences of weight gain. However, the mechanisms that mediate this association are unknown. We hypothesized that deficits in dopamine signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity. To investigate this, we quantified multiple aspects of dopamine signaling in lean and obese mice. We found that D2-type receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum, but not D1-type receptor binding or dopamine levels, was reduced in obese mice. Genetically removing D2Rs from striatal medium spiny neurons was sufficient to reduce motor activity in lean mice, whereas restoring G i signaling in these neurons increased activity in obese mice. Surprisingly, although mice with low D2Rs were less active, they were not more vulnerable to diet-induced weight gain than control mice. We conclude that deficits in striatal D2R signaling contribute to physical inactivity in obesity, but inactivity is more a consequence than a cause of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Cumming, Toby B; Sheppard, Lauren; Pearce, Dora C; Carter, Rob; Magnus, Anne

    2011-09-24

    Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%). Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000), days of home-based production (180,000) while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs. Lifetime potential opportunity cost savings in

  12. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002-2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n = 196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. Economic development (GDP/c), degree of urbanization, and the Human Development Index (HDI) were used to measure country-level variables and physical inactivity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association among country-level factors, individual occupational status, and physical inactivity. Overall, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity in 2002-2003 was 23.7%. Individuals working in the white-collar industry compared to agriculture were 84% more likely to be physically inactive (OR: 1.84, CI: 1.73-1.95). Among low- and middle-income countries increased HDI values were associated with decreased levels of physical inactivity (OR: 0.98, CI: 0.97-0.99). This study is one of the first to adjust for within-country differences, specifically occupation while analyzing physical inactivity. As countries experience economic development, changes are also seen in their occupational structure, which result in increased countrywide physical inactivity levels.

  13. A population-based survey on physical inactivity and leisure time physical activity among adults in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanamee, Sanhapan; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Wattanapisit, Apichai; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Thaikla, Kanittha; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri

    2017-01-01

    Reducing physical inactivity among the population is a challenge for many nations. Targeting leisure time physical activity (LTPA) may be useful in increasing overall physical activity as it is assumed it is associated with a higher degree of free choice and personal preference than physical activity at work and during travel. The study explored the prevalence of physical inactivity and focused on the overall level of energy expenditure and energy level spent during leisure time among those who were physically inactive and assessed the stages of change for LTPA among those who were physically inactive. A population-based survey was conducted in 2014 in Chiang Mai, Thailand using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect the data on physical activity. Sufficient levels of physical activity (PA) were defined as ≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity PA or ≥75 min/week of vigorous-intensity PA or ≥600 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes/week. Weighted analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity, the total energy expenditure and expenditure during LTPA as well as stages of change among the physically inactive population. A total of 1744 people (808 men and 936 women), aged 15 to 64 years, participated in the study. We estimated that a quarter (26%) of the population were physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more commonly found among women than men in most age groups. LTPA contributed a small proportion of overall PA. On average, physically inactive men spent 132.8 MET-minutes/week and inactive women spent 208.2 MET-minutes/week in overall PA which is well below the 600 MET-minutes/week recommend by the World Health Organization. Around 75% of physically inactive people had no intention of engaging in regular LTPA. About a quarter of the investigative population were physically inactive. Most physically inactive members of the population

  14. Geographical Variations in the Environmental Determinants of Physical Inactivity among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Li, Xinye; Jiang, Ning

    2017-10-31

    Physical inactivity is a major modifiable risk factor for morbidity, disability and premature mortality worldwide. This study assessed the geographical variations in the impact of environmental quality on physical inactivity among U.S. adults. Data on county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. County environment was measured by the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), a comprehensive index of environmental conditions that affect human health. The overall EQI consists of five subdomains-air, water, land, social, and built environment. Geographically weighted regressions (GWRs) were performed to estimate and map county-specific impact of overall EQI and its five subdomains on physical inactivity prevalence. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among U.S. counties was 25% in 2005. On average, one standard deviation decrease in the overall EQI was associated with an increase in county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity by nearly 1%. However, substantial geographical variations in the estimated environmental determinants of physical inactivity were present. The estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the overall EQI ranged from an increase of over 3% to a decrease of nearly 2% across U.S. counties. Analogous, the estimated changes of county-level prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity resulted from one standard deviation decrease of the EQI air, water, land, social, and built environment subdomains ranged from an increase of 2.6%, 1.5%, 2.9%, 3.3%, and 1.7% to a decrease of 2.9%, 1.4%, 2.4%, 2.4%, and 0.8% across U.S. counties, respectively. Given the substantial heterogeneities in the environmental determinants of physical inactivity, locally customized physical activity interventions are warranted to address the most concerning area-specific environmental issue.

  15. Clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household domains among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, G F; Nahas, M V; de Sousa, T F; Mota, J; Hallal, P C; Peres, K G

    2013-06-01

    To identify the clustering of physical inactivity in leisure, work, commuting and household contexts, and the sociodemographic factors associated with the clustering of inactive behaviour in different domains among Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional population-based study. The study was performed in Florianopolis, capital of Santa Catarina, one of the southern states of Brazil, from September 2009 to January 2010. Adults aged 20-59 years were interviewed. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as non-participation in specific physical activities, using a validated Brazilian questionnaire. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified by the ratio between observed prevalence and expected prevalence of 16 different combinations. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the analysis of sociodemographic factors associated with clustering of physical inactivity. Of the 1720 interviewees, the greatest differences between the observed and expected proportions were observed in simultaneous physical inactivity in the leisure and household domains for men, and physical inactivity in the leisure domain alone for women (59% and 88%, respectively); these differences were higher than expected if the behaviours were independent. Physical inactivity in two or more domains was observed more frequently in men and in individuals with a higher per-capita family income. Ageing was associated with physical inactivity in three or four domains. Physical inactivity was observed in different domains according to gender. Men and older individuals with a higher per-capita family income were more likely to exhibit physical inactivity when all domains were considered together. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  17. Physical inactivity among older adults across Europe based on the SHARE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos; Figueiredo, Daniela; Teixeira, Laetitia; Poveda, Verónica; Paúl, Constança; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2017-01-20

    Regular physical activity is one of the key components of a healthy lifestyle. It is associated with better physical and cognitive functioning in later life and with increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of, and factors related to, physical inactivity among older adults across Europe. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used data from participants aged 55 or older in Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) database, a multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database covering health, socioeconomic status, and social and family networks. Individuals included in this study were classified as physically active or physically inactive. Clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were evaluated for their association with physical inactivity. From the total of 58,489 individuals in SHARE, we selected 19,298 people age 55 or older (mean age 67.8 ± 8.9 years; 11,430 (59.2%) female). The overall prevalence of inactivity among individuals age 55 or older in the 16 included countries was 12.5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity varied between countries, ranging from 4.9% (Sweden) to 29% (Portugal). Increasing age, depression, physical limitations, poor sense of meaning in life, social support and memory loss were significant variables associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity can be explained by physical, cognitive and psychological conditions. Interventions aimed at promoting physical activity among older people are needed to address this diversity of factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  19. The economic benefits of reducing physical inactivity: an Australian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumming Toby B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity has major impacts on health and productivity. Our aim was to estimate the health and economic benefits of reducing the prevalence of physical inactivity in the 2008 Australian adult population. The economic benefits were estimated as 'opportunity cost savings', which represent resources utilized in the treatment of preventable disease that are potentially available for re-direction to another purpose from fewer incident cases of disease occurring in communities. Methods Simulation models were developed to show the effect of a 10% feasible, reduction target for physical inactivity from current Australian levels (70%. Lifetime cohort health benefits were estimated as fewer incident cases of inactivity-related diseases; deaths; and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs by age and sex. Opportunity costs were estimated as health sector cost impacts, as well as paid and unpaid production gains and leisure impacts from fewer disease events associated with reduced physical inactivity. Workforce production gains were estimated by comparing surveyed participation and absenteeism rates of physically active and inactive adults, and valued using the friction cost approach. The impact of an improvement in health status on unpaid household production and leisure time were modeled from time use survey data, as applied to the exposed and non-exposed population subgroups and valued by suitable proxy. Potential costs associated with interventions to increase physical activity were not included. Multivariable uncertainty analyses and univariate sensitivity analyses were undertaken to provide information on the strength of the conclusions. Results A 10% reduction in physical inactivity would result in 6,000 fewer incident cases of disease, 2,000 fewer deaths, 25,000 fewer DALYs and provide gains in working days (114,000, days of home-based production (180,000 while conferring a AUD96 million reduction in health sector costs

  20. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs.

  2. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is

  3. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Leisure Physical Inactivity among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88.6%). Fifty-six point eight percent of boys had experienced at least 1 lifetime traumatic event, with a 20.5% prevalence of PTS symptoms, and 5.4% were inactive during leisure time. In the logistic regression models, leisure physical inactivity was associated with lifetime traumatic experiences (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.09-4.98). Sense of coherence and posttraumatic stress symptoms did not mediate those associations. Less-than-daily consumption of fresh fruit showed an independent effect, while smoking and weekly consumption of alcohol did not. Consistent associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys indicate that the presence of lifetime traumatic events should be taken into account when employing intervention and prevention programs on unhealthy lifestyles (physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol).

  4. Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior: Overlooked risk factors in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Bonfá, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This review aims to (1) summarize the estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases; (2) describe the relationship between physical (in)activity levels and disease-related outcomes; (3) contextualize the estimates and impact of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune diseases compared to other rheumatic diseases and chronic conditions; and (4) discuss scientific perspectives around this theme and potential clinical interventions to attenuate these preventable risk factors. We compiled evidence to show that estimates of physical inactivity and sedentary behavior in autoimmune rheumatic diseases are generally comparable to other rheumatic diseases as well as to other chronic conditions (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity), in which a lack of physical activity and excess of sedentary behavior are well-known predictors of morbimortality. In addition, we also showed evidence that both physical inactivity and sedentary behavior may be associated with poor health-related outcomes (e.g., worse disease symptoms and low functionality) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Thus, putting into practice interventions to make the patients "sit less and move more", particularly light-intensity activities and/or breaking-up sedentary time, is a simple and prudent therapeutic approach to minimize physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, which are overlooked yet modifiable risk factors in the field of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  6. Examination of race disparities in physical inactivity among adults of similar social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Frederick, Shondelle M; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Bleich, Sara N; Ford, Jean G; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether race disparities in physical inactivity are present among urban low-income Blacks and Whites living in similar social context. This analysis included Black and White respondents ( > or = 18 years) from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB; N=1350) Study and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; N = 67790). Respondents who reported no levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity, during leisure time, over a usual week were considered physically inactive. After controlling for confounders, Blacks had higher adjusted odds of physical inactivity compared to Whites in the national sample (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-1.51). In EHDIC-SWB, Blacks and Whites had a similar odds of physical inactivity (OR = 1.09; 95% CI .86-1.40). Social context contributes to our understanding of racial disparities in physical inactivity.

  7. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  8. Accumulation of Domain-Specific Physical Inactivity and Presence of Hypertension in Brazilian Public Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and physical inactivity is a risk factor predisposing to its occurrence and complications. However, it is still unclear the association between physical inactivity domains and hypertension, especially in public healthcare systems. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between physical inactivity aggregation in different domains and prevalence of hypertension among users of Brazilian public health system. 963 participants composed the sample. Subjects were divided into quartiles groups according to 3 different domains of physical activity (occupational; physical exercises; and leisure-time and transportation). Hypertension was based on physician diagnosis. Physical inactivity in occupational domain was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (OR = 1.52 [1.05 to 2.21]). The same pattern occurred for physical inactivity in leisure-time (OR = 1.63 [1.11 to 2.39]) and aggregation of physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.46 [1.14 to 5.32]). However, the multivariate-adjusted model showed significant association between hypertension and physical inactivity in 3 domains (OR = 2.57 [1.14 to 5.79]). The results suggest an unequal prevalence of hypertension according to physical inactivity across different domains and increasing the promotion of physical activity in the healthcare system is needed.

  9. Relationship between Physical Inactivity and Health Characteristics among Participants in an Employee Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Byrne, Daniel W.; McGown, Paula W.; Rothman, Russell L.; Rolando, Lori A.; Holmes, Marilyn C.; Yarbrough, Mary I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize factors associated with physical inactivity among employees with access to workplace wellness program. Methods We examined data on physical inactivity, defined as exercise less than once a week, from the 2010 health risk assessment (HRA) completed by employees at a major academic institution (n=16,976). Results Among employees, 18% individuals reported physical activity less than once a week. Individuals who were physically inactive as compared with physically active reported higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (AOR 1.36 [1.23–1.51], fair or poor health status (AOR 3.52 [2.97–4.17]) and absenteeism from work (AOR 1.59 [1.41–1.79]). Overall, physically inactive employees as compared to physically active employees reported more interest in health education programs. Conclusions Future research is needed to address barriers to physical inactivity to improve employee wellness and potentially lower health utility costs. PMID:23618884

  10. Correlates of Leisure Time Physical Inactivity in a Scandinavian Population: A Basis for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Schelin, Maria E C

    2016-11-01

    Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insufficiently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 42% of participants were classified as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defined by specific factors associated with physical inactivity could be an efficient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.

  11. Physical inactivity: the "Cinderella" risk factor for noncommunicable disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian E

    2011-08-01

    There is strong evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect pathways by which physical activity prevents many of the major noncommunicable diseases (NCD) responsible for premature death and disability. Physical inactivity was identified as the 4th leading risk factor for the prevention of NCD, preceded only by tobacco use, hypertension, and high blood glucose levels, and accounting for more than 3 million preventable deaths globally in 2010. Physical inactivity is a global public health priority but, in most countries, this has not yet resulted in widespread recognition nor specific physical activity-related policy action at the necessary scale. Instead, physical inactivity could be described as the Cinderella of NCD risk factors, defined as "poverty of policy attention and resourcing proportionate to its importance." The pressing question is "Why is this so?" The authors identify and discuss 8 possible explanations and the need for more effective communication on the importance of physical activity in the NCD prevention context. Although not all of the issues identified will be relevant for any 1 country, it is likely that at different times and in different combinations these 8 problems continue to delay national-level progress on addressing physical inactivity in many countries. The authors confirm that there is sufficient evidence to act, and that much better use of well-planned, coherent communication strategies are needed in most countries and at the international level. Significant opportunities exist. The Toronto Charter on Physical Activity and the Seven Investments that Work are 2 useful tools to support increased advocacy on physical activity within and beyond the context of the crucial 2011 UN High-Level Meeting on NCDs.

  12. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  13. Physical inactivity of adults and 1-year health care expenditures in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codogno, J.S.; Turi, B.C.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Monteiro, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between physical inactivity in different domains and direct public healthcare expenditures in adults and to identify whether the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains would contribute to increased public healthcare. Methods: The sample composed

  14. Human development, occupational structure and physical inactivity among 47 low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Kaitlin; Lowe, Samantha; Moore, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) assess the relationship between a person's occupational category and their physical inactivity, and (b) analyze the association among country-level variables and physical inactivity. The World Health Survey (WHS) was administered in 2002?2003 among 47 low- and middle-income countries (n?=?196,742). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to collect verbal reports of physical activity and convert responses into measures of physical inactivity. ...

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

  16. Addressing physical inactivity in Omani adults: perceptions of public health managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Ruth M; Al-Busaidi, Zakiya Q; Reeves, Marina M; Owen, Neville; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2014-03-01

    To explore barriers and solutions to addressing physical inactivity and prolonged sitting in the adult population of Oman. Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews that took place from October 2011 to January 2012. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process; later interviews explored emerging themes. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed and continued until data saturation; this occurred by the tenth interviewee. Thematic content analysis was carried out, guided by an ecological model of health behaviour. Muscat, Oman. Ten mid-level public health managers. Barriers for physical inactivity were grouped around four themes: (i) intrapersonal (lack of motivation, awareness and time); (ii) social (norms restricting women's participation in outdoor activity, low value of physical activity); (iii) environment (lack of places to be active, weather); and (iv) policy (ineffective health communication, limited resources). Solutions focused on culturally sensitive interventions at the environment (building sidewalks and exercise facilities) and policy levels (strengthening existing interventions and coordinating actions with relevant sectors). Participants' responses regarding sitting time were similar to, but much more limited than those related to physical inactivity, except for community participation and voluntarism, which were given greater emphasis as possible solutions to reduce sitting time. Given the increasing prevalence of chronic disease in Oman and the Arabian Gulf, urgent action is required to implement gender-relevant public health policies and programmes to address physical inactivity, a key modifiable risk factor. Additionally, research on the determinants of physical inactivity and prolonged sitting time is required to guide policy makers.

  17. Recreational physical inactivity and mortality in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki A.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Kelemen, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about modifiable behaviours that may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) survival. We conducted a pooled analysis of 12 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic physical inactivity...... and mortality. Methods: Participants included 6806 women with a primary diagnosis of invasive EOC. In accordance with the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. We utilised Cox proportional hazard models...... to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) representing the associations of inactivity with mortality censored at 5 years. Results: In multivariate analysis, inactive women had significantly higher mortality risks, with (HR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.18-1.52) and without (HR=1.22, 95% CI: 1...

  18. Physical inactivity, gender and culture in Arab countries: a systematic assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Eman; Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Makhlouf Obermeyer, Carla

    2018-05-18

    Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. We synthesize the evidence on physical inactivity and its social determinants in Arab countries, with special attention to gender and cultural context. We searched MEDLINE, Popline, and SSCI for articles published between 2000 and 2016, assessing the prevalence of physical inactivity and its social determinants. We also included national survey reports on physical activity, and searched for analyses of the social context of physical activity. We found 172 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Standardized data are available from surveys by the World Health Organization for almost all countries, but journal articles show great variability in definitions, measurements and methodology. Prevalence of inactivity among adults and children/adolescents is high across countries, and is higher among women. Some determinants of physical inactivity in the region (age, gender, low education) are shared with other regions, but specific aspects of the cultural context of the region seem particularly discouraging of physical activity. We draw on social science studies to gain insights into why this is so. Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions.

  19. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009. An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  20. Physical inactivity displays a mediator role in the association of diabetes and poverty: A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Li, Xiao; Staudt, Amanda

    2017-11-03

    Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors of diabetes. In addition, physical inactivity is attributed to urbanization-related factors, such as poverty, which is also one of the risk factors of diabetes. We hypothesized that physical inactivity is a mediator in the association between diabetes and poverty, and that spatial heterogeneity exists in these relationships. This study adopted a spatiotemporal modelling approach to conduct this mediator analysis. From 2004-2011, data were collected at the county level in 48 contiguous states (with a total of 3,109 counties) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and American Community Survey. Poverty percentage significantly affected physical inactivity prevalence and diabetes prevalence in two separate models. Using a model with both physical inactivity and poverty percentages as independent variables, we verified that physical inactivity prevalence is a significant mediator. In this model, physical inactivity prevalence resulted in a significant positive association with diabetes prevalence, and the influence of poverty percentage on diabetes prevalence was significantly reduced (P=0.0009). An advanced spatiotemporal analysis revealed that 32.65% of counties having a significant positive association between diabetes prevalence and physical inactivity prevalence also had a significant positive association between physical inactivity prevalence and poverty percentage. Those counties were also likely located in the South and Southeast of USA. In summary, the findings of this study demonstrate the mediating effect of physical inactivity between diabetes and poverty. When implementing diabetes prevention in communities with higher poverty, appropriate strategies to reduce the cost burden of physical activity programmes should be considered.

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF AXIAL MOTOR IMPAIRMENT TO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Mon S; Hou, Jyhgong Gabriel; Collins, Robert L; Protas, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and activity limitations in persons with PD. Design/Methods Cross-sectional study of persons with mild to moderate PD (N=90). Associations among axial motor features, limb motor signs, the Physical Activity Scale for Elders (PASE), the ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and level of ADL dependency were studied. A composite score of axial motor features included the following UPDRS items: speech, rigidity of the neck, arising from chair, posture, gait and postural stability. A composite score of limb motor signs included the following UPDRS items: tremor at rest of all extremities, action tremor, rigidity of all extremities, finger taps, hand movement, rapid alternating hand movements and foot tapping. Results Axial motor features of PD were significantly correlated with physical inactivity (pphysical inactivity. After controlling for age, gender, disease duration and comorbidity, axial motor features contributed significantly to physical inactivity, decreased ADL and increase in ADL dependency, whereas the limb motor signs did not. Conclusions Axial motor impairment contributed to physical inactivity and decreased ability to perform ADLs in persons with PD. PMID:26368837

  2. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, M; Melkevik, O; Holstein, B E; Rasmussen, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11-15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32-1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92-2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971). Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle) social class.

  3. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  4. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  5. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  6. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Hallal, Pedro Rodrigues Curi; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Kohl, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Methods. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of ...

  7. Associations between physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents in 10 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Zheng, Zhonghui; Yi, Jinyao; Yao, Shuqiao

    2014-07-22

    Studies in western countries have revealed that excessive sedentary behavior is a major risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescents. This study was performed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity in Chinese adolescents using a large-scale cross-sectional survey design. This study was part of the 2011 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Between March and September 2011, 10,214 11-18-year-olds were recruited for survey participation in 18 schools in 10 cities in China. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the prevalences of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors, were examined. Correlations between sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were analyzed using baseline logistic regression. Among the final 9,901 students, physical inactivity (~80%) and sedentary behaviors (television viewing, 43%; computer use, 30.2%) were prevalent. More male than female students reported sedentary behaviors (television viewing > 2 h: 5.5% vs. 3.9%; computer use > 2 h: 7.2% vs. 3.5%; both p physically active than females (25.1% vs.14.6%; p physical activity (No PA) in males [0-2 h: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.96; >4 h: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18-0.64], but not in females. A similar pattern between insufficient physical activity and >4 h TV viewing (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.76) and >4 h computer use (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78) was observed in males. In females, 0-2 h daily computer use was associated with higher odds of physical inactivity (No PA: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.10-1.82; Insufficient PA: AOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.24-2.01), while TV viewing was not associated with No PA or Insufficient PA. The probability of physical inactivity significantly increased with grade and decreased with socioeconomic status. Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors were prevalent in Chinese adolescents. Further support, including parental guidance and the provision of

  8. Barrier-beliefs about physical activity in active and inactive adults : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Adrie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Perceived barriers are often a reason why people do not start physical activity or relapse to inactivity. From a psychological perspective, barriers can be seen as beliefs about what is obstructing people’s behavior. To understand inactivity and relapse from physical activity, this study

  9. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Johanna G; Volkers, Karin M; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H; Goossens, Richard H M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-04-28

    Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors that influence the amount of inactivity. The aim of this review was to review setting-related factors (including the social and physical environment) that may contribute to the amount of older adults' physical inactivity in a wide range of residential care settings (e.g., nursing homes, assisted care facilities). Five databases were systematically searched for eligible studies, using the key words 'inactivity', 'care facilities', and 'older adults', including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Additional studies were selected from references used in articles included from the search. Based on specific eligibility criteria, a total of 12 studies were included. Quality of the included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Based on studies using different methodologies (e.g., interviews and observations), and of different quality (assessed quality range: 25-100%), we report several aspects related to the physical environment and caregivers. Factors of the physical environment that may be related to physical inactivity included, among others, the environment's compatibility with the abilities of a resident, the presence of equipment, the accessibility, security, comfort, and aesthetics of the environment/corridors, and possibly the presence of some specific areas. Caregiver-related factors included staffing levels, the available time, and the amount and type of care being provided. Inactivity levels in residential care settings may be reduced by improving several features of the physical environment and with the help of caregivers. Intervention studies could be performed in order to gain more insight into causal effects of improving setting-related factors on

  10. Cancer incidence due to excess body weight and leisure-time physical inactivity in Canada: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R

    2014-09-01

    This analysis aimed to estimate the number of incident cases of various cancers attributable to excess body weight (overweight, obesity) and leisure-time physical inactivity annually in Canada. The number of attributable cancers was estimated using the population attributable fraction (PAF), risk estimates from recent meta-analyses and population exposure prevalence estimates obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000). Age-sex-site-specific cancer incidence was obtained from Statistics Canada tables for the most up-to-date year with full national data, 2007. Where the evidence for association has been deemed sufficient, we estimated the number of incident cases of the following cancers attributable to obesity: colon, breast, endometrium, esophagus (adenocarcinomas), gallbladder, pancreas and kidney; and to physical inactivity: colon, breast, endometrium, prostate, lung and/or bronchus, and ovarian. Overall, estimates of all cancer incidence in 2007 suggest that at least 3.5% (n=5771) and 7.9% (n=12,885) are attributed to excess body weight and physical inactivity respectively. For both risk factors the burden of disease was greater among women than among men. Thousands of incident cases of cancer could be prevented annually in Canada as good evidence exists for effective interventions to reduce these risk factors in the population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14...... European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years....... In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low...

  12. Interaction of a genetic risk score with physical activity, physical inactivity, and body mass index in relation to venous thromboembolism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Kraft, Peter; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Harrington, Laura B; Lindstroem, Sara; Kabrhel, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is highly heritable. Physical activity, physical inactivity and body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors, but evidence of interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors is limited. Data on 2,134 VTE cases and 3,890 matched controls were obtained from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with VTE risk in published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Data on three risk factors, physical activity (metabolic equivalent [MET] hours per week), physical inactivity (sitting hours per week) and BMI, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. VTE cases were incident since cohort inception; controls were matched to cases on age, cohort, and genotype array. Using conditional logistic regression, we assessed joint effects and interaction effects on both additive and multiplicative scales. We also ran models using continuous wGRS stratified by risk-factor categories. We observed a supra-additive interaction between wGRS and BMI. Having both high wGRS and high BMI was associated with a 3.4-fold greater risk of VTE (relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.69, p = 0.046). However, we did not find evidence for a multiplicative interaction with BMI. No interactions were observed for physical activity or inactivity. We found a synergetic effect between a genetic risk score and high BMI on the risk of VTE. Intervention efforts lowering BMI to decrease VTE risk may have particularly large beneficial effects among individuals with high genetic risk. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Associations of Smoking, Physical Inactivity, Heavy Drinking, and Obesity with Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy among US Adults with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haomiao; Zack, Matthew M; Gottesman, Irving I; Thompson, William W

    2018-03-01

    To examine associations between four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity) and three health indices (health-related quality of life, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE)) among US adults with depression. Data were obtained from the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) health preference scores were estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's healthy days measures. Depression scores were estimated using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Life expectancy estimates were obtained from US life tables, and QALE was estimated from a weighted combination of the EQ-5D scores and the life expectancy estimates. Outcomes were summarized by depression status for the four health behaviors (smoking, physical inactivity, heavy alcohol drinking, and obesity). For depressed adults, current smokers and the physically inactive had significantly lower EQ-5D scores (0.040 and 0.171, respectively), shorter life expectancy (12.9 and 10.8 years, respectively), and substantially less QALE (8.6 and 10.9 years, respectively). For nondepressed adults, estimated effects were similar but smaller. Heavy alcohol drinking among depressed adults, paradoxically, was associated with higher EQ-5D scores but shorter life expectancy. Obesity was strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores but only weakly associated with shorter life expectancy. Among depressed adults, physical inactivity and smoking were strongly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, life expectancy, and QALE, whereas obesity and heavy drinking were only weakly associated with these indices. These results suggest that reducing physical inactivity and smoking would improve health more among depressed adults. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Validity and reliability of a physical activity/inactivity questionnaire in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. We sought to determine the validity and reliability of a self-report physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) measuring physical activity/inactivity in South African schoolgirls of different ethnic origins. Methods. Construct validity of the PAQ was tested against physical activity energy expenditure estimated from an ...

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  16. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tunaiji, Hashel; Davis, Jennifer C; Mackey, Dawn C; Khan, Karim M

    2014-05-18

    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of 'sport' or absence of 'exercise'.

  17. Prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among public hospital employees in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Cheng, Minna; Zhang, Hao; Ke, Ting; Chen, Yisheng

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to explore the prevalence and determinations of physical inactivity among hospital employees in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study of 4612 employees aged 19 to 68 years was conducted through stratified cluster sampling from different classes of Shanghai hospitals in 2011. The total physical activity was evaluated using the metabolic equivalent according to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Among the participants, 38.5%, 32.3%, and 64.6% of the employees are inactive at work, commuting, and taking leisure time, respectively. Up to 41.8% of the men and 37.8% of the women (P = 0.012) are physically inactive. When the age and educational level are adjusted, male doctors and medical technicians show a higher percentage of physical inactivity than male workers in logistics (P = 0.001). Among females, employees who are working in second- and third-class hospitals show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than those who are working in community health care centers. Logistic regression analyses show that the odds ratios (ORs) of leisure-time physical inactivity associated with the intensity of physical activity at work are 2.259, 2.897, and 4.266 for men (P physical inactivity in either sex (OR = 2.116 for men and 2.173 for women, P employees, particularly doctors and medical technicians, show a higher proportion of physical inactivity than other inhabitants in Shanghai. The time and intensity of activity at work and commuting are associated with leisure-time activities.

  18. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with head and neck cancer: a hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Alexis J; Cannioto, Rikki A; Etter, John Lewis; Kim, Jae; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; Callahan, Emily; Khachatryan, Edgar; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Brian Szender, J; Singh, Anurag K; Danziger, Iris; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-10-01

    Despite mounting epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association between recreational physical activity and cancer risk, evidence associated with head and neck cancer is scant. We conducted a case-control analysis to examine the associations of lifetime physical inactivity with the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We utilized data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Participants included 246 patients with HNSCC and 504 cancer-free controls who received medical services at RPCI between 1990 and 1998. Participants were considered physically inactive if they did not participate in any regular, weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime, prior to diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the association between lifetime physical inactivity and HNSCC risk. We observed a significant positive association between recreational physical inactivity and HNSCC risk (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.87-3.99, p physical inactivity associates with HNSCC independent of BMI. In addition, physical inactivity may be a modifiable risk factor among never smokers. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an independent risk factor for cancer.

  19. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Johnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,974 participants. In summary, 8.0% of the adolescents reported to be physically inactive, i.e. spend zero hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65 in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47 in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data collection waves (p=0.971. Although the gap in physical inactivity between social classes does not seem to be widening in Danish adolescents, there are still considerable differences in the activity levels between high, middle and low social class adolescents. Consequently, there is a need for a targeted physical activity intervention among adolescents from low (and middle social class.

  20. Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sedentary behaviour and physical activity and their role in the development of health conditions is an ongoing topic of research. This debate paper presents arguments in favour and against the statement: “Is sedentary behaviour just physical inactivity by another name?” The paper finishes with recommendations for future research in the field of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and public health.

  1. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  2. CHANGES IN MENTAL HEALTH AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DURING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Dimec Časar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated weightlessness by bed rest model represents an important method to study the consequences of physical inactivity and sedentarism on the human body. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity on psychological distress, depressive symptoms and satisfaction with life of healthy male adults. Participants were ten volunteers, aged between 21 and 28 years who were subjected to a 35-day head-down bed rest. Psychological state of the participants was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. Participants completed psychological inventories before, during and after the experiment. The results revealed no significant differences in mental health and satisfaction with life of participants following the head-down bed rest, however there was a tendency towards an increase in neurotic and depressive symptoms at the end of the experiment. The obtained results are interpreted in the light of stimulative living conditions in which the experiment was carried out, as well as the amount and quality of social interactions during the period of extended physical inactivity.

  3. The Body Image Of Physically Active And Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guszkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the image of the body, the level of its acceptance and satisfaction with it, as well as anxiety about one’s physical appearance and overall self-esteem in a group of adult women who did fitness exercise and those who were physically inactive.

  4. The effects of smoking and physical inactivity on advancing mortality in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the rate advancement period (RAP) by which deaths for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality is advanced by smoking and physical inactivity among U.S. adults aged 18 years or more who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were followed to December 31, 2006. Mortality status was determined using the underlying cause of death. Cox regression was used to calculate the advanced time of deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality among exposed adults relative to their nonexposed counterparts. Deaths for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were advanced by 7.9 and 5.1 years among current smoker adults. For physically inactive adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality were 4.0 and 2.4 years, respectively. The joint effects of current smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity resulted in early all-cause and CVD-specific deaths of 14.2 and 12.2 years. For current smokers, physically inactive, and overweight adults, the RAPs for all-cause and CVD-specific deaths were 7.9 and 8.9 years, respectively. Our findings suggest that smoking and physical inactivity could significantly advance the time of death associated with all-cause and CVD-specific mortality by at least 2.4 years among U.S. adults. Moreover, the advancement death period for the joint effects of smoking, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity could be at least 7.9 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjective neighborhood assessment and physical inactivity: An examination of neighborhood-level variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Buschmann, Robert N; Jupiter, Daniel; Mutambudzi, Miriam; Peek, M Kristen

    2018-06-01

    Research suggests a linkage between perceptions of neighborhood quality and the likelihood of engaging in leisure-time physical activity. Often in these studies, intra-neighborhood variance is viewed as something to be controlled for statistically. However, we hypothesized that intra-neighborhood variance in perceptions of neighborhood quality may be contextually relevant. We examined the relationship between intra-neighborhood variance of subjective neighborhood quality and neighborhood-level reported physical inactivity across 48 neighborhoods within a medium-sized city, Texas City, Texas using survey data from 2706 residents collected between 2004 and 2006. Neighborhoods where the aggregated perception of neighborhood quality was poor also had a larger proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive. However, higher degrees of disagreement among residents within neighborhoods about their neighborhood quality was significantly associated with a lower proportion of residents reporting being physically inactive (p=0.001). Our results suggest that intra-neighborhood variability may be contextually relevant in studies seeking to better understand the relationship between neighborhood quality and behaviors sensitive to neighborhood environments, like physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decomposing socio-economic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity: the case of Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Almorox, Eduardo; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M

    2016-07-12

    Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and entails a substantial economic burden for health systems. Also, the analysis of inequality in lifestyles for young populations may contribute to reduce health inequalities during adulthood. This paper examines the income-related inequality regarding leisure-time physical inactivity in Spanish children. In this cross-sectional study based on the Spanish National Health Survey for 2011-12, concentration indices are estimated to measure socioeconomic inequalities in leisure-time physical inactivity. A decomposition analysis is performed to determine the factors that explain income-related inequalities. There is a significant socioeconomic gradient favouring the better-off associated with leisure-time physical inactivity amongst Spanish children, which is more pronounced in the case of girls. Income shows the highest contribution to total inequality, followed by education of the head of the household. The contribution of several factors (education, place of residence, age) significantly differs by gender. There is an important inequity in the distribution of leisure-time physical inactivity. Public policies aimed at promoting physical activity for children should prioritize the action into the most disadvantaged subgroups of the population. As the influence of determinants of health styles significantly differ by gender, this study points out the need of addressing the research on income-related inequalities in health habits from a gender perspective.

  7. Physical inactivity and associated factors among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Kassean, Hemant Kumar; Tsala Tsala, Jacques Philippe; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of physical inactivity among university students in 23 low-, middle- and high-income countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect data from 17,928 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 24 universities in 23 countries. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 41.4 %, ranging from 21.9 % in Kyrgyzstan to 80.6 % in Pakistan. In multivariate logistic regression, older age (22-30 years), studying in a low- or lower middle-income country, skipping breakfast and lack of social support were associated with physical inactivity. In men, being underweight, being overweight or obese, not avoiding fat and cholesterol, not having severe depression symptoms, low beliefs in the health benefits of physical activity, low personal control and knowledge of exercise-heart link, and in women, not trying to eat fibre, low personal mastery and medium personal control were additionally associated with physical inactivity. Four in each ten students are physically inactive, calling for strategic interventions by relevant professionals in higher educational institutions.

  8. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  9. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, Francois; de Bie, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    through decreased physical activity. OBJECTIVE: To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. METHODS: Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients...... with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. RESULTS: About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were...... found in 14% of the respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds for being physically inactive were almost doubled in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes 1.74 (95% CI 1.32-2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of depressive symptoms almost doubles the likelihood of physical inactivity...

  11. Changes in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in US counties, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Linda S; Kirtland, Karen; Lin, Ji; Shrestha, Sundar; Thompson, Ted; Albright, Ann; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the United States reached a plateau or slowed around 2008, and that this change coincided with obesity plateaus and increases in physical activity. However, national estimates can obscure important variations in geographic subgroups. We examine whether a slowing or leveling off in diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure time physical inactivity prevalence is also evident across the 3143 counties of the United States. We used publicly available county estimates of the age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, obesity, and leisure-time physical inactivity, which were generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using a Bayesian multilevel regression that included random effects by county and year and applied cubic splines to smooth these estimates over time, we estimated the average annual percentage point change (APPC) from 2004 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2012 for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity prevalence in each county. Compared to 2004-2008, the median APPCs for diabetes, obesity, and physical inactivity were lower in 2008-2012 (diabetes APPC difference = 0.16, 95%CI 0.14, 0.18; obesity APPC difference = 0.65, 95%CI 0.59, 0.70; physical inactivity APPC difference = 0.43, 95%CI 0.37, 0.48). APPCs and APPC differences between time periods varied among counties and U.S. regions. Despite improvements, levels of these risk factors remained high with most counties merely slowing rather than reversing, which suggests that all counties would likely benefit from reductions in these risk factors. The diversity of trajectories in the prevalence of these risk factors across counties underscores the continued need to identify high risk areas and populations for preventive interventions. Awareness of how these factors are changing might assist local policy makers in targeting and tracking the impact of efforts to reduce diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.

  12. Overweight and Physical Inactivity Among African American Students at a Historically Black University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Heimdal, James; Sbrocco, Tracy; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about correlates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American students at historically Black colleges and universities. To assess overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among African American college students at a historically Black university in Maryland in the USA. Data were collected from 268 African American college students in 2013. Data were analyzed with percentage difference z-tests, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression. Cross-sectional survey (student response rate = 49.9%). The overweight/obesity rate of participants was 47.5%, which was higher than that of the U.S. college student population overall (34.1%) and a representative sample of African American college students (38.3%). When age and sex were controlled, a family history of obesity, skipping breakfast, drinking caffeinated drinks, lower family income, and smoking a pipe, cigars, or cigarettes daily were significant correlates of overweight (obesity included). The percentage of physical inactivity was 68.3, and physical inactivity was higher among women and overweight or obese students. Given the high overweight and obesity prevalence among African American college students, historically Black colleges and universities in the USA should increase health promotion efforts targeting weight-related behaviors, particularly physical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. From physical inactivity to immobilization: Dissecting the role of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Nicolas; Appriou, Zephyra; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette; Derbré, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    In the literature, the terms physical inactivity and immobilization are largely used as synonyms. The present review emphasizes the need to establish a clear distinction between these two situations. Physical inactivity is a behavior characterized by a lack of physical activity, whereas immobilization is a deprivation of movement for medical purpose. In agreement with these definitions, appropriate models exist to study either physical inactivity or immobilization, leading thereby to distinct conclusions. In this review, we examine the involvement of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle insulin resistance and atrophy induced by, respectively, physical inactivity and immobilization. A large body of evidence demonstrates that immobilization-induced atrophy depends on the chronic overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). On the other hand, the involvement of RONS in physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance has not been investigated. This observation outlines the need to elucidate the mechanism by which physical inactivity promotes insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  15. Back and neck pain prevalence and their association with physical inactivity domains in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabottolo, Catarina Covolo; Pinto, R Z; Oliveira, C B; Zanuto, E F; Cardoso, J R; Christofaro, D G D

    2017-09-01

    Back pain affects people of all ages. This may be associated with physical inactivity, and in the case of physical activity in different domains, the relationship with back pain is not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of low back and neck pain and investigate their association in different domains of physical inactivity. 1011 randomly selected students participated in this study. Neck and back pain were assessed using the Nordic questionnaire, whereas the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire was used to measure physical activity domains. Separate Binary Logistic Regression models were performed to investigate the association of physical activity domains with neck or back pain. 17.4% of the students reported cervical pain, while 18.0% reported low back pain. Older adolescents had a higher prevalence of cervical pain (24.4%) than younger adolescents (11.9%) (p value pain, being 25.1% in older adolescents and 12.4% in younger (p value pain in the cervical region [OR 0.67 (0.44-0.99)] or back pain [OR 0.60 (0.40-0.91)]. Being inactive in occupational activities was associated with cervical pain [OR 1.49 (1.06-2.10)]. Being inactive in the sports environment presented a marginal relationship with pain in the cervical region [OR 1.41 (0.99-2.02)]. The prevalence of neck and low back pain was higher in older adolescents and physical inactivity in the sporting context and occupational activities could be a risk factor to increase the chances of back pain.

  16. Clustering of Physical Inactivity in Leisure, Work, Commuting, and Household Domains: Data From 47,477 Industrial Workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Giovâni F; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Shana Ginar; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Oliveira, Elusa S; Barros, Mauro V; Nahas, Markus V

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity in each domain (leisure, work, commuting, and household) is not completely independent. This study aimed to describe the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains and its association with sociodemographic factors among Brazilian industrial workers. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District collected via questionnaires between 2006 and 2008. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as nonparticipation in specific physical activities. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified using the ratio of the observed (O) and expected (E) percentages of each combination. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors with the outcome. Among the 44,477 interviewees, most combinations exceeded expectations, particularly the clustering of physical inactivity in all domains among men (O/E = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30; 1.44) and women (O/E = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.36; 1.60). Physical inactivity in 2 or more domains was observed more frequently in women, older age groups, individuals living without a partner, and those with higher education and income levels. Physical inactivity tends to be observed in clusters regardless of gender. Women and workers with higher income levels were the main factors associated with to be physically inactive in 2 or more domains.

  17. Setting-related influences on physical inactivity of older adults in residential care settings : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Johanna G.; Volkers, Karin M.; Engels, Gwenda; Sonneveld, Marieke H.; Goossens, Richard H. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the detrimental effects of physical inactivity for older adults, especially aged residents of residential care settings may spend much time in inactive behavior. This may be partly due to their poorer physical condition; however, there may also be other, setting-related factors

  18. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross...... hours of vigorous leisure time physical activity per week. The proportion of physically inactive adolescents was 5.4% in high social class and 7.8% and 10.8%, respectively, in middle and low social class. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class...... did not change systematically across the observation period from 1991 to 2014. Compared to high social class, OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 1.48 (1.32–1.65) in middle social class and 2.18 (1.92–2.47) in lower social class. This relative social inequality was similar in the seven data...

  19. Back pain in physically inactive students compared to physical education students with a high and average level of physical activity studying in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędra, Agnieszka; Kolwicz-Gańko, Aleksandra; Kędra, Przemysław; Bochenek, Anna; Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2017-11-28

    The aim of the study was (1) to characterise back pain in physically inactive students as well as in trained (with a high level of physical activity) and untrained (with an average level of physical activity) physical education (PE) students and (2) to find out whether there exist differences regarding the declared incidence of back pain (within the last 12 months) between physically inactive students and PE students as well as between trained (with a high level of physical activity) and untrained (with an average level of physical activity) PE students. The study included 1321 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-year students (full-time bachelor degree course) of Physical Education, Physiotherapy, Pedagogy as well as Tourism and Recreation from 4 universities in Poland. A questionnaire prepared by the authors was applied as a research tool. The 10-point Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain intensity. Prior to the study, the reliability of the questionnaire was assessed by conducting it on the group of 20 participants twice with a shorter interval. No significant differences between the results obtained in the two surveys were revealed (p education (p > 0.05). Back pain was more common in the group of trained students than among untrained individuals (p education students (p > 0.05). The trained students declared back pain more often than their untrained counterparts (p < 0.05).

  20. Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Adult Urban Population of Puducherry, India: A Population Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newtonraj, Ariarathinam; Murugan, Natesan; Singh, Zile; Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Velavan, Anandan; Mani, Manikandan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry. The level of physical inactivity was measured by using WHO standard Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Overall prevalence of physical inactivity in our study was 49.7% (CI: 45.6-53.8). Among the physically active people, contribution of physical activity by work was 77.4%, leisure time activities were 11.6% and transport time was 11%. Both men and women were equally inactive {Physically inactive among women was 50% (CI:44.1-55.9)} and {Physically inactive among men was 49.5% (CI:43.8-55.2)}. Prevalence of physical inactivity was increasing with increasing age. Non tobacco users were two times more active than tobacco users {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.183 (1.175- 4.057)}. Employed were more active as compared to retired {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.412 (0.171-0.991)}, students {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.456 (0.196-1.060)}, house wives {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.757 (0.509-1.127)} and unemployed {Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.538 (0.271-1.068)}. Non alcoholics were only 0.34 times as active as alcoholics. Level of physical activity was found to be insufficient among adult urban population of Puducherry. Working adult population found to be active, that too due to their work pattern. There is a need to promote leisure time and travelling time physical activity.

  1. Motor proficiency and physical fitness in active and inactive girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In modern day society physical activity levels diminish rapidly among girls and may be a direct consequence of girls experiencing motor difficulties. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare motor proficiency levels and physical fitness levels among active and inactive girls (N=97), aged 12 to 13 years. The BOTMP ...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF PROLONGED PHYSICAL INACTIVITY INDUCED BY BED REST ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN HEALTHY MALE PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that physical activity beneficially influences cognitive functioning. Less thoroughly investigated are the cognitive outcomes of reduced physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of prolonged physical inactivity induced by bed rest on the participant’s cognitive functioning. Bed rest is a well-accepted method by which an acute stage of human adaptation to weightlessness in space flights is simulated, as well as an important model to study the consequences of extreme physical inactivity in humans. The subjects participating in the study consisted of fifteen healthy males aged between 19 and 65 years who were exposed to 14-day horizontal bed rest in a strict hospital environment. To assess the cognitive functions of the participants, a neuropsychological test battery was administered before and after the bed rest experiment. There was no significant impairment in cognitive performance after the 14-day bed rest on all tests, except in the measurements of delayed recall in the group of older adults. The results suggest that cognitive functions remained relatively stable during the period of physical immobilization. The obtained results have been discussed taking the possible contributing factors into account such as the practice effect, the relatively short duration of bed rest, and the choice of the cognitive measures administered. The study also provides evidence that favourable living and psychosocial conditions can protect one against cognitive decline in the case of extreme physical inactivity.

  3. Self-reported physical inactivity and health complaints: a cross-sectional study of Lithuanian adolescent schoolgirls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdas Malinauskas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical inactivity and health complaints in relation to posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms, behavioral and nutritional factors, and sense of coherence (SOC in eighth-grade girls enrolled in secondary schools in Kaunas, Lithuania. A random sample of girls (N = 862 was interviewed anonymously on health complaints, physical activity level, PTS symptoms, Antonovsky’s SOC scale, health behaviors, and dietary patterns. All health complaints were significantly associated with physical inactivity. Crude odds ratio (OR for physical inactivity and health complaints was 1.67 (95%CI: 1.09-2.56; after adjusting for PTS symptoms, the OR decreased to 1.57 (95%CI: 0.95-2.45; further adjustment for smoking, daily alcohol intake, daily consumption of fresh vegetables, and SOC decreased the OR to 1.25 (95%CI: 0.76-2.04. The effect of PTS symptoms and sense of coherence remained stable after all adjustments. The significant association between physical inactivity and health complaints was mediated by PTS symptoms.

  4. Suspected Motor Problems and Low Preference for Active Play in Childhood Are Associated with Physical Inactivity and Low Fitness in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Purtsi, Jarno; Taanila, Anja M.; Remes, Jouko; Viholainen, Helena; Rintala, Pauli; Ahonen, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective longitudinal study investigates whether suspected motor problems and low preference for active play in childhood are associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample consisted of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) composed of 5,767 children whose parents responded to a postal inquiry concerning their children's motor skills at age 8 years and who themselves reported their physical activity at age 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer test at age 16 years. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the level of physical activity and fitness were obtained from multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for socio-economic position and body mass index. Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity (boys: OR 3.31, 95% CI 2.42–4.53; girls: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36–2.36) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.27–2.74; girls: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09–2.11) in adolescence. Suspected gross (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.33–3.49) and fine (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35–2.60) motor problems were associated with physical inactivity among boys. Children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Conclusions/Significance Low preference for active play in childhood was associated with physical inactivity and low cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Furthermore, children with suspected motor problems and low preference for active play tended to have an even higher risk of physical inactivity in adolescence. Identification of children who do not prefer active play and who have motor problems may allow targeted interventions to support their motor learning and participation in active play and thereby promote their physical activity and fitness in later life

  5. Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joshua Z; Moon, Yeseon P; Kulick, Erin R; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-01-01

    Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regression was performed to examine the associations between physical inactivity and future gait speed adjusted for confounders. Among 711 participants with MRI and gait speed measures (62% women, 71% Hispanic, mean age 74.1 ± 8.4), the mean gait speed was 1.02 ± 0.26 m/s. Physical inactivity was associated with a greater odds of gait speed in the lowest quartile (Physical inactivity is associated with slower gait speed independently of osteoarthritis, grip strength, and subclinical ischemic brain injury. Modifying sedentary behavior poses a target for interventions aimed at reducing decline in mobility. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320

  7. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a systematic review and critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy; Nguyen, Binh; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pratt, Michael; Lawson, Kenny D

    2017-10-01

    To summarise the literature on the economic burden of physical inactivity in populations, with emphases on appraising the methodologies and providing recommendations for future studies. Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016047705). Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched, followed by reference searching and consultation with experts. Studies that examined the economic consequences of physical inactivity in a population/population-based sample, with clearly stated methodologies and at least an abstract/summary written in English. Of the 40 eligible studies, 27 focused on direct healthcare costs only, 13 also estimated indirect costs and one study additionally estimated household costs. For direct costs, 23 studies used a population attributable fraction (PAF) approach with estimated healthcare costs attributable to physical inactivity ranging from 0.3% to 4.6% of national healthcare expenditure; 17 studies used an econometric approach, which tended to yield higher estimates than those using a PAF approach. For indirect costs, 10 studies used a human capital approach, two used a friction cost approach and one used a value of a statistical life approach. Overall, estimates varied substantially, even within the same country, depending on analytical approaches, time frame and other methodological considerations. Estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity is an area of increasing importance that requires further development. There is a marked lack of consistency in methodological approaches and transparency of reporting. Future studies could benefit from cross-disciplinary collaborations involving economists and physical activity experts, taking a societal perspective and following best practices in conducting and reporting analysis, including accounting for potential confounding, reverse causality and

  8. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  9. Lifetime physical inactivity is associated with increased risk for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Cannioto, Rikki; Soh, Kah Teong; Alquassim, Emad; Almohanna, Hani; Dunbar, Zachary; Joseph, Janine M; Balderman, Sophia; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-03-27

    Although physical activity is a well-established risk factor for several cancer types, studies evaluating its association with lymphoma have yielded inconclusive results. In such cases where physical activity is not clearly associated with cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner, investigators have begun examining physical inactivity as an independent exposure of interest. Associations of self-reported, lifetime physical inactivity with risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a hospital-based case control study using data from the Patient Epidemiology Data System at Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center. Participants included 87 patients with HL and 236 patients with NHL as well as 348 and 952 cancer-free controls, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimating the association between physical inactivity and lymphoma risk. We observed significant, positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and risk of both HL (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.15-3.15) and NHL (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.82). The current analysis provides evidence for a positive association between physical inactivity and risk of both HL and NHL. These results add to a growing body of research suggesting that lifetime physical inactivity may be an important independent, modifiable behavioral risk factor for cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a common risk factor for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Increasing physical activity could reduce the burden of disease due to major NCDs and increase life expectancy. Undergraduate physiotherapy students represent a group of young-adults expected to have a good knowledge of physical activity. We evaluated physical activity levels of undergraduate physiotherapy students of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and determined their motives and barriers for participation in physical activity. All physiotherapy undergraduates studying at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2013 were invited for the study. Phase one was a quantitative study to evaluate the physical activity levels and phase two was a qualitative study to identify motives and barriers for physical activity and sports in the same cohort. Physical activity levels (phase 1) were assessed using the interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long-version). The qualitative study (phase 2) was conducted in the same population using Focus Group Discussions ( n  = 3) and individual In-depth Interviews ( n  = 5). Sample size in phase 1 and phase 2 were 113 (response rate = 98%; [N-115]) and 87 (response rat = 97%; [N-90]) respectively. Mean age (±SD) of participants was 23.4 ± 1 years. The mean weekly total MET minutes (±SD) of the study population was 1791.25 ± 3097. According to the IPAQ categorical score a higher percentage of participants were 'inactive' (48.7%), while only 15.9% were in the 'Highly active' group. Lack of support and encouragement received during childhood to engage in sports activity seem to have played an important role in continuing their exercise behavior through to the adult life. Academic activities were given priority by both parents and teachers. The environment and support from teachers, family and friends were important to initiate and adhere to sports and physical activity. A higher

  11. The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongsavan Philayrath

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC. The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4 aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4% of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97 and high household

  12. Prevalence, social and health correlates of physical inactivity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...

  13. Relation between body mass index, physical inactivity and use of prescription drugs: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, I E J; Klungel, O H; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; Verschuren, W M M; Bemelmans, W J E

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal complaints, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer and depression. However, few data are available on the specific types of medication associated with obesity and physical inactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of body mass index (BMI) and physical inactivity with use of specific classes of prescription drugs, and the interaction between BMI and physical inactivity. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a population-based longitudinal study. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 1703 men and 1841 women, examined between 1998 and 2002, for whom drug-dispending data were available from the PHARMO database. Drugs were coded according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Body weight was measured during the physical examination. Physical activity was assessed using an extensive questionnaire. Persons were defined as a user of a certain drug class if they filed at least one prescription in the year around (+/-6 months) the examination. Compared with normal weight persons (BMI 18.5-25 kg m(-2)), obese persons (BMI>30 kg m(-2)) had a higher use of prescription drugs of several drug classes, especially cardiovascular drugs (OR (95% CI): 3.83 (2.61-5.64) in men and 2.80 (2.03-3.86) in women) and diabetes drugs (OR (95% CI): 5.72 (2.32-14.14) in men and 3.92 (1.80-8.54) in women). In women, physical inactivity was also associated with higher use of certain drug classes, such as drugs for blood and blood-forming organs (OR (95% CI): 2.11 (1.22-3.65)) and musculoskeletal drugs (OR (95% CI): 2.07 (1.45-2.97)), whereas in men this was not the case. We found no interaction between BMI and physical inactivity with respect to use of prescription drugs. In both men and women, obesity was associated with a higher use of several types of prescription drugs, whereas physical inactivity was only

  14. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  15. The association of lifetime physical inactivity with bladder and renal cancer risk: A hospital-based case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; Etter, John Lewis; Guterman, Lauren Beryl; Joseph, Janine M; Gulati, Nicholas R; Schmitt, Kristina L; LaMonte, Michael J; Nagy, Ryan; Minlikeeva, Albina; Szender, James Brian; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-08-01

    Recreational physical inactivity has been gaining recognition as an independent epidemiological exposure of interest in relation to cancer endpoints due to evidence suggesting that it may associate with cancer independent of obesity. In the current analyses, we examined the associations of lifetime recreational physical inactivity with renal and bladder cancer risk. In this hospital-based case-control study, we identified N=160 renal cancer patients, N=208 bladder cancer patients, and N=766 age frequency-matched controls without cancer. Participants self-reporting never participating in any regular/weekly recreational physical activity throughout their lifetime were classified as physically inactive. Utilizing unconditional multivariable logistic regression analyses, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to represent the associations between lifetime physical inactivity and renal and bladder cancer risk. In multivariable logistic regression models, we observed significant positive associations between lifetime recreational physical inactivity and renal cancer and bladder cancer risk: odds ratio=1.77 (95% CI: 1.10-2.85) and odds ratio=1.73 (95% CI: 1.13-2.63), respectively. Similar associations also persisted among individuals who were not obese for both renal and bladder cancer: odds ratio=1.75 (95% CI: 1.03-2.98) and odds ratio=1.70 (95% CI: 1.08-2.69), respectively. In this case-control study, we observed evidence of a positive association between renal and bladder cancer with lifetime recreational physical inactivity. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that physical inactivity may be an important independent risk factor for cancer. However, additional studies using a larger sample and prospectively collected data are needed to substantiate the current findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  17. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Physical Inactivity Among Adolescents Living in Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E.; Cradock, Angie; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether the socioeconomic environment was associated with no participation in physical activity among adolescents in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods. We used cross-sectional data from 1878 urban adolescents living in 38 neighborhoods who participated in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a biennial survey of high school students (aged 14–19 years). We used multilevel multiple regression models to determine the association between neighborhood-level exposures of economic deprivation, social fragmentation, social cohesion, danger and disorder, and students’ reports of no participation in physical activity in the previous week. Results. High social fragmentation within the residential neighborhood was associated with an increased likelihood of being inactive (odds ratio = 1.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.14, 2.05). No other neighborhood exposures were associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions. Social fragmentation might be an important correlate of physical inactivity among youths living in urban settings. Interventions might be needed to assist youths living in unstable neighborhoods to be physically active. PMID:25211727

  18. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  19. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  20. Predictors of physical inactivity in men and women with type 2 diabetes from the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret M; Davey, Janice; Wackers, Frans J Th; Chyun, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine changes in physical inactivity from baseline to 5 years and to identify factors associated with and predictive of physical inactivity among individuals with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics (DIAD) study. DIAD was a prospective randomized screening trial that assessed the prevalence of silent ischemia in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects were recruited from diabetes and primary care practices at 14 centers throughout the United States and Canada. This is a secondary data analysis of the physical activity data (type and hours/week) collected. No intervention was conducted. In all subjects, physical inactivity rose from 24% at baseline to 33% at 5 years (S = 28.93; P physical inactivity as well as in factors predictive of physical inactivity at 5 years. Important factors associated at both time points included lower level of education, current employment, presence of peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and indicators of overweight/obesity. Baseline physical inactivity was strongly predictive of physical inactivity at 5 years (odds ratio, 3.27; 95% confidence interval, 2.36-4.54; P physical inactivity. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, S. Boyd; Eaton, Stanley B.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity (and unhealthy nutrition) has distorted body composition and, in turn, reordered the proportions of myocyte and adipocyte insulin receptors. Insulin acting on adipocyte receptors produces less glucose uptake than does comparable interaction with myocyte receptors. Accordingly, in individuals with disproportionate muscle/fat…

  2. Topical thermal therapy with hot packs suppresses physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tatsuki; Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Mizumura, Kazue; Hori, Kiyomi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Koeda, Tomoko

    2017-10-12

    We focused on the analgesic effect of hot packs for mechanical hyperalgesia in physically inactive rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, physical inactivity (PI), PI + sham treatment (PI + sham), and PI + hot pack treatment (PI + hot pack) groups. Physical inactivity rats wore casts on both hind limbs in full plantar flexed position for 4 weeks. Hot pack treatment was performed for 20 min a day, 5 days a week. Although mechanical hyperalgesia and the up-regulation of NGF in the plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle were observed in the PI and the PI + sham groups, these changes were significantly suppressed in the PI + hot pack group. The present results clearly demonstrated that hot pack treatment was effective in reducing physical inactivity-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and up-regulation of NGF in plantar skin and gastrocnemius muscle.

  3. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Wraae, Kristian; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. DESIGN: Population-based, cross...... men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity...... was 31.7 and 7.9%, respectively (World Health Organization criteria). Using waist circumference (WC) cutoffs of 94 and 102 cm, the prevalence was 16.2 and 10.6%, respectively; 24.4% were physically inactive. BMI and WC increased significantly from age 20 to 29 years. Physical activity decreased...

  4. Childhood and contemporaneous correlates of adolescent leisure time physical inactivity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosalina; Poulton, Richie; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila

    2009-03-01

    Although concurrent influences on adolescent physical activity are well documented, longitudinal studies offer additional insights about early life antecedents of participation. The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood and contemporaneous factors and patterns of physical activity participation during adolescence. Physical activity participation at ages 15 and 18 was assessed among members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort using the interview-based Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood factors (socioeconomic status, family "active-recreation" orientation, home activities, motor ability, intelligence, and psychiatric disorder), contemporaneous factors (parental health, body mass index, predicted VO(2 max), general health, television viewing, smoking, and alcohol use) and "persistent inactivity," "declining participation," or "persistent activity" during adolescence. In multivariate models, persistent inactivity during adolescence was associated with lower childhood family active-recreation orientation, and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness and general health during adolescence. Declining participation was more likely among those who reported fewer activities at home during childhood. Persistent activity was associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and watching less television during adolescence. This study found that childhood and contemporaneous factors were associated with persistent inactivity, persistent activity and declining participation during adolescence. The findings highlight several factors from the family and home environment of potential importance in early intervention programs to support adolescent participation in physical activity.

  5. Leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress in female-dominated occupations in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-12-27

    Poor mental health, manifesting as psychological distress, has become a leading problem recently; therefore, determining associated factors is important, especially in female-dominated occupations, as women are more prone to psychological distress than men, in part due to demands of both professional and domestic tasks. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical inactivity and psychological distress, accounting for the possible relation of psychosocial factors at work (job demands, job control, social support at work, workplace bullying) and life events in representative samples of family physicians, internal medicine department nurses and secondary-school teachers in Lithuania. In total, 323 family physicians, 748 internal medicine department nurses and 517 secondary-school teachers were interviewed during 2012-2014 in Lithuania. Godin leisure-time exercise, Goldberg General Health, Job content, and Negative acts questionnaires were administered. Logistic regression was used. A high proportion of family physicians, nurses and teachers were physically inactive during leisure. Leisure-time physical inactivity was strongly associated with psychological distress, adjusting for age, workplace bullying, job demands, job control, social support at work and traumatic life events in all three female-dominated occupations. Efforts to increase leisure-time physical activity level in medical occupations could be beneficial.

  6. Physical self-esteem and personality traits in Swedish physically inactive female high school students: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.

  7. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms are risk factors for obesity and physical inactivity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalife, Natasha; Kantomaa, Marko; Glover, Vivette; Tammelin, Tuija; Laitinen, Jaana; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Rodriguez, Alina

    2014-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom-obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity

  8. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  9. Medical cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to physical inactivity in the United States in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyank; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh; Kohl, Harold W

    Type 2 diabetes has grown to epidemic proportions in the U.S. and physical activity levels in the population continues to remain low, although it is one of the primary preventive strategies for diabetes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to physical inactivity in the U.S. in 2012. This was a cross sectional study that used physical activity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate the population attributable risk percentage for type 2 diabetes. These data were combined with the prevalence and cost data of type 2 diabetes to estimate the cost of type 2 diabetes attributable to not meeting physical activity Guidelines and to inactivity in 2012. The cost of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. in 2012, attributable to not meeting physical activity guidelines was estimated to be $18.3 billion, and that attributable to physical inactivity was estimated to be $4.65 billion. Based on sensitivity analyses, these estimates ranged from $10.19 billion to $27.43 billion for not meeting physical activity guidelines and $2.59 billion-$6.98 billion for physical inactivity in the year 2012. This study shows that billions of dollars could be saved annually just in terms of type 2 diabetes cost in the U.S., if the entire adult population met physical activity guidelines. Physical activity promotion, particularly at the environmental and policy level should be a priority in the population. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina

    2016-08-04

    Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945-1957 (59 % women), of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %). The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR) with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects) regression models. Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99) in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00) and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98), respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding) of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual-level analyses. Adjustment for multiple covariates did not change these associations. Higher education is associated with lower odds of leisure-time physical inactivity during the three-decade follow

  11. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  12. Social identity, perceived urban neighborhood quality, and physical inactivity: A comparison study of China, Taiwan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Lin, Yi-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Asian countries are currently witnessing unprecedented increase in physical inactivity and subsequent negative health outcomes; however, few cross-country studies documenting this trend exist. This paper presents the findings of a nationally representative sample, based on the East Asian Social Survey in 2011. The study sought to examine the association of social identity factors, such as objective socio-economic position, perceived social status and neighborhood quality with physical inactivity, while controlling for psychosocial and physical health. A sample of 5222 adults living in urban areas across China, Taiwan, and South Korea were surveyed. Multivariate nested logistic regressions were constructed. Perceived social status was positively associated with physical activity. Gender difference in physical activity was significant, and this difference widened as educational levels increased. Class division in physical activity was also found. Perceived physical and social features of neighborhood such as suitability for walking and jogging, air quality, and help from neighbors were to different degrees associated with physical inactivity. Gender, marital status, education and perceived social status were common factors associated with physical inactivity in East Asian countries. Perceived urban neighborhood quality is particularly important for Chinese people to stay physically active. Cultural-behavioral norms for physical activity associated with gender and social status call for more studies on cultural perspective for health behaviors in cross-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: the epidemic has arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, A R; Lauder, W; Jones, M C; Kirk, A; Agyemang, C; Bhopal, R S

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of, and trends in, physical inactivity and diabetes in adult West African populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases. Journal hand searches and examination of citations of relevant articles were also undertaken. To be included, studies had to be population based, use clearly defined criteria for measuring diabetes and physical inactivity, present data that allowed calculation of the prevalence of diabetes or physical inactivity, and sample adult participants. Studies retrieved were appraised critically. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random effect model. Twenty-one reports were retrieved for diabetes and 15 reports were retrieved for physical in/activity. Most studies (10 for diabetes and six for physical activity) were conducted solely among urban populations. The prevalence of diabetes in West Africa was approximately 4.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-9.0] in urban adults and 2.6% (95%CI 1.5-4.4) in rural adults, and was similar in men and women [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.36, 95%CI 0.96-1.92]. Cumulative time trend analyses suggested an increase in the prevalence of diabetes among adults in urban West Africa, from approximately 3.0% (95%CI 1.0-7.0) to 4.0% (95%CI 2.0-9.0) in the past 10 years. The prevalence of inactivity in West Africa was 13% (95%CI 9.0-18.0). An association was found between physical inactivity and being older (> or = 50 years) (PR 1.82, 95%CI 1.36-2.44), female gender (PR 1.62, 95%CI 1.41-1.87) and urban residence (PR 2.04, 95%CI 1.58-2.63). Diabetes and physical inactivity are important public health issues in urban West Africa, with similar prevalences to wealthy industrialized countries. There is an urgent need for policy makers, politicians and health promotion experts to put measures in place to encourage active lifestyles and control diabetes in urban West Africa.

  14. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  15. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  16. Using a novel environmental quality measure to understand population-level physical inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Understanding the role of the overall ambient environment in population inactivi...

  17. Association between education and future leisure-time physical inactivity: a study of Finnish twins over a 35-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Piirtola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education is associated with health related lifestyle choices including leisure-time physical inactivity. However, the longitudinal associations between education and inactivity merit further studies. We investigated the association between education and leisure-time physical inactivity over a 35-year follow-up with four time points controlling for multiple covariates including familial confounding. Methods This study of the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort consisted of 5254 twin individuals born in 1945–1957 (59 % women, of which 1604 were complete same-sexed twin pairs. Data on leisure-time physical activity and multiple covariates was available from four surveys conducted in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011 (response rates 72 to 89 %. The association between years of education and leisure-time physical inactivity (<1.5 metabolic equivalent hours/day was first analysed for each survey. Then, the role of education was investigated for 15-year and 35-year inactivity periods in the longitudinal analyses. The co-twin control design was used to analyse the potential familial confounding of the effects. All analyses were conducted with and without multiple covariates. Odds Ratios (OR with 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated using logistic and conditional (fixed-effects regression models. Results Each additional year of education was associated with less inactivity (OR 0.94 to 0.95, 95 % CI 0.92, 0.99 in the cross-sectional age- and sex-adjusted analyses. The associations of education with inactivity in the 15- and 35-year follow-ups showed a similar trend: OR 0.97 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.00 and OR 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.98, respectively. In all co-twin control analyses, each year of higher education was associated with a reduced likelihood of inactivity suggesting direct effect (i.e. independent from familial confounding of education on inactivity. However, the point estimates were lower than in the individual

  18. Abdominal obesity and physical inactivity are associated with erectile dysfunction independent of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Peter M; Janssen, Ian; Ross, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common among men with an elevated body mass index (BMI). However, a high waist circumference (WC) and low levels of physical activity may predict ED independently of BMI. We investigated the independent relationships between BMI, WC, and physical activity with ED. Subjects consisted of 3,941 adult men (age > or = 20 years) with no history of prostate cancer from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relative odds of ED association with categories of BMI, WC, and physical activity. Established thresholds were used to divide subjects into three WC and BMI categories. Physical activity level was divided into active (> or =150 min/week), moderately active (30-149 min/week), and inactive (inactive men had an approximately 40-60% greater odds of ED compared with active men. When all three predictors (WC, BMI, and physical activity level) were entered into the same logistic regression model, both a high WC and low physical activity level (moderately active and inactive) were independently associated with a greater odds of ED, whereas BMI level was not. Maintaining a WC level below 102 cm and achieving the recommended amount of moderate-intensity physical activity (>or =150 min/week) is associated with the maintenance of proper erectile function, regardless of BMI level. These findings suggest that the clinical screening for ED risk should include the assessment of WC and physical activity level in addition to BMI.

  19. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  20. Anthropometric measurements of students athletes in relation to physically inactive students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Trtak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometry is a method of anthropology that refers to the measuring and testing the human body and to the relationship between the size of its individual parts.The task of anthropometry is as accurately as possible quantitatively characterize the morphological features of the human body.Measurements are made due to the anthropometric points which can be: fixed (standard on the site of prominence and virtual (change due to the bodyposition. Goals of research: To evaluate the impact of basketball on the growth and development of seventeen years old adolescents and prevention of deformities of the spinal column and chest.Methods: The study included 40 respondents. Criteria for inclusion: male respondents aged 17 years who played basketball for more than one year, male respondents aged 17 years who are physically inactive. Criteria for exclusion: female respondents, respondents who played basketball for less than one year, respondents who are engaged in some other sport professionally or recreationally, respondents younger and olderthan 17 years. In the study,there were made measurements of thorax scope in the axillary and mamilar level, measurements of body weight and height and measurements of Body mass index.Results of research: Out of 40 respondents 20 are basketball players and 20 physically inactive. Compared to the average value between the two groups of respondents certain differences were observed, which aremost noticeable in body weight (basketball players had more weigh about, 5 kg on average and height (basketball players are taller, about 7 cm on average. During the anthropometric measurements of thoraxdeformities of the spinal column have been observed which affect the deformation of the thorax. Of the 20 players one has a deformity of the spinal column, and out of the same number of physically inactive studentseven 12 have deformed spine.Conclusion: Basketball has a positive effect on the proper growth and development

  1. Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Xiang, X

    2015-12-01

    There is mounting evidence documenting the adverse health effects of short- and long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, but population-based evidence linking PM2.5 and health behaviour remains lacking. This study examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and leisure-time physical inactivity among US adults 18 years of age and above. Retrospective data analysis. Participant-level data (n = 2,381,292) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2003-2011 surveys were linked with Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research air quality data by participants' residential county and interview month/year. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the effect of ambient PM2.5 air pollution on participants' leisure-time physical inactivity, accounting for various individual and county-level characteristics. Regressions were estimated on the overall sample and subsamples stratified by sex, age cohort, race/ethnicity and body weight status. One unit (μg/m(3)) increase in county monthly average PM2.5 concentration was found to be associated with an increase in the odds of physical inactivity by 0.46% (95% confidence interval = 0.34%-0.59%). The effect was similar between the sexes but to some extent (although not always statistically significant) larger for younger adults, Hispanics, and overweight/obese individuals compared with older adults, non-Hispanic whites or African Americans, and normal weight individuals, respectively. Ambient PM2.5 air pollution is found to be associated with a modest but measurable increase in individuals' leisure-time physical inactivity, and the relationship tends to differ across population subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening for physical inactivity among adults: the value of distance walked in the six-minute walk test. A cross-sectional diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Bianchim, Mayara Silveira; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometry provides objective measurement of physical activity levels, but is unfeasible in clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to identify physical fitness tests capable of predicting physical inactivity among adults. Diagnostic test study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. 188 asymptomatic subjects underwent assessment of physical activity levels through accelerometry, ergospirometry on treadmill, body composition from bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic muscle function, postural balance on a force platform and six-minute walk test. We conducted descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression including age, sex, oxygen uptake, body fat, center of pressure, quadriceps peak torque, distance covered in six-minute walk test and steps/day in the model, as predictors of physical inactivity. We also determined sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and area under the curve of the main predictors by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 14%. The mean number of steps/day (≤ 5357) was the best predictor of physical inactivity (S = 99%; Sp = 82%). The best physical fitness test was a distance in the six-minute walk test and ≤ 96% of predicted values (S = 70%; Sp = 80%). Body fat > 25% was also significant (S = 83%; Sp = 51%). After logistic regression, steps/day and distance in the six-minute walk test remained predictors of physical inactivity. The six-minute walk test should be included in epidemiological studies as a simple and cheap tool for screening for physical inactivity.

  3. Physical Inactivity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…

  4. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  5. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status: the Odense Androgen Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K; Brixen, K; Hermann, A P; Andersen, M; Hagen, C

    2006-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old men and to analyze whether sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status are independent correlates of obesity and physical inactivity. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and eighty-three Caucasian, Danish men, aged 20-29 years recruited from 2042 respondents in a questionnaire survey of 3000 men, randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. Questionnaire, interview and physical examination. The 783 included men and the 2042 questionnaire respondents matched the background population demographically. The 783 men matched the questionnaire respondents as regards BMI, physical activity, chronic disease, medication, smoking, sociodemography and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 31.7 and 7.9%, respectively (World Health Organization criteria). Using waist circumference (WC) cutoffs of 94 and 102 cm, the prevalence was 16.2 and 10.6%, respectively; 24.4% were physically inactive. BMI and WC increased significantly from age 20 to 29 years. Physical activity decreased significantly with age and correlated inversely with WC, but not with BMI. Occupation, geography, partner status, fatherhood and tobacco exposure were independently related with obesity and physical inactivity. Obesity was also related to musculoskeletal complaints, whereas chronic diseases and low educational level were associated with physical inactivity. Age was not independently related with either outcome. In affluent societies, sociodemographic changes may partly explain the age-related decrease in physical activity and the parallel increase in WC and BMI.

  6. Impact of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakubo, Sho; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Hotta, Ryo; Bae, Seongryu; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the combination of subjective sleep quality and physical activity is associated with cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional data on 5381 older adults who participated in part of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes were analyzed. We assessed general cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination, and also assessed story memory, attention, executive function and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Functional Assessment Tool. Physical activity was assessed using two questionnaires, and participants were categorized as active or inactive. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and participants were categorized as having poor (PS) or good sleep quality (GS). Participants in the inactive + PS group had worse performances than those in the active + GS group in all cognitive measures (Mini-Mental State Examination: P = 0.008, story memory: P = 0.007, other cognitive measures: P performances than those in the inactive + GS and active + PS groups in the trail-making test, part B, and the symbol digit substitution test (P performances than in the active + GS in the trail-making test, part B, and the symbol digit substitution test (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Inactivity and poor sleep quality were associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling older adults. The combination of poor sleep quality and physical inactivity also worsened cognitive performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1823-1828. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Trends in prevalence of leisure time physical activity and inactivity: results from Australian National Health Surveys 1989 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine; Chey, Tien; Burks-Young, Sarah; Engelen, Lina; Bauman, Adrian

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in leisure time physical activity and inactivity in Australians aged 15 years or older from 1989 to 2011. We used data from six Australian National Health Surveys conducted from 1989/90 to 2011/12 in which physical activity was assessed using comparable questions. Analyses examined trends in the prevalence of sufficient physical activity (≥150 minutes/week moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and of inactivity (benefits from sufficient physical activity. Maintenance of consistent physical activity questions in future National Health Surveys will facilitate long term tracking of physical activity levels in the Australian population. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. How many steps are enough to avoid severe physical inactivity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    OpenAIRE

    DePew, Zachary S.; Novotny, Paul J.; Benzo, Roberto P.

    2012-01-01

    While prognostically valuable, physical activity monitoring is not routinely performed for patients with COPD. We aimed to determine the number of daily steps associated with severe physical inactivity (physical activity level

  9. When Physical Activity Participation Promotes Inactivity: Negative Experiences of Spanish Adolescents in Physical Education and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Brown, David H. K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses negative experiences in physical education and sport reported during qualitative interviews of a group of inactive adolescent Spanish boys and girls. The purpose of this analysis is twofold. First and most important, it seeks to give voice to these young people reporting negative experiences and connect them to contexts of…

  10. Screening for physical inactivity among adults: the value of distance walked in the six-minute walk test. A cross-sectional diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Accelerometry provides objective measurement of physical activity levels, but is unfeasible in clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to identify physical fitness tests capable of predicting physical inactivity among adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Diagnostic test study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 188 asymptomatic subjects underwent assessment of physical activity levels through accelerometry, ergospirometry on treadmill, body composition from bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic muscle function, postural balance on a force platform and six-minute walk test. We conducted descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression including age, sex, oxygen uptake, body fat, center of pressure, quadriceps peak torque, distance covered in six-minute walk test and steps/day in the model, as predictors of physical inactivity. We also determined sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and area under the curve of the main predictors by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 14%. The mean number of steps/day (≤ 5357 was the best predictor of physical inactivity (S = 99%; Sp = 82%. The best physical fitness test was a distance in the six-minute walk test and ≤ 96% of predicted values (S = 70%; Sp = 80%. Body fat > 25% was also significant (S = 83%; Sp = 51%. After logistic regression, steps/day and distance in the six-minute walk test remained predictors of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The six-minute walk test should be included in epidemiological studies as a simple and cheap tool for screening for physical inactivity.

  11. Perceived benefits and barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy in previously inactive and active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Deborah; Ireland, Kierla

    2013-01-01

    This study compared perceived benefits and barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy among women who were insufficiently active or inactive before pregnancy. Eighty-two pregnant women completed questionnaires assessing leisure-time physical activity benefits/barriers, exercise self-efficacy, social support, depressed mood, pre-pregnancy and current physical activity and fatigue. Multivariable regression analyses identified factors associated with exercise benefits/barriers for the two pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity groups. Both pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity groups reported more benefits than barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Previously inactive women reported fewer perceived benefits and greater perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy. Higher self-efficacy for exercise during pregnancy was significantly associated with greater benefits of leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy for both groups. Less family support for exercise and lower self-efficacy for exercise were significantly related to greater leisure-time physical activity barriers during pregnancy for previously inactive women. Lower self-efficacy for exercise, higher depressed mood scores, and younger age were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity barriers for active women. Findings suggest that the intensities of perceived leisure-time physical activity benefits and barriers during pregnancy differ for women, depending on their pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity status. Consideration of pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity status may thus be important when tailoring strategies to overcome barriers to promote initiation and maintenance of physical activity during pregnancy.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA and commuting (CPA among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21.5% exercised occasionally. Main reasons for not taking up LTPA included: high general physical activity (36.4%, lack of time (28.1%, no willingness to exercise (25.4%. Close to 82% of the surveyed population did not practice commuting physical activity (CPA. The men had higher risk for inactivity during LTPA compared to the women (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11–1.65; p ≤ 0.05. Higher odds of CPA inactivity were associated with unemployment, moderate and heavy drinking and having a number of health problems. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the social assistance recipients is much higher than it is in the general population. Promotion of an active lifestyle should take into consideration substantial differences between the general population and disadvantaged individuals and their various needs.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity during Leisure-Time and Commuting among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kalucka, Sylwia; Szatko, Franciszek; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2017-09-26

    Physical activity (PA) has well-documented health benefits helping to prevent development of non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity during leisure-time (LTPA) and commuting (CPA) among adult social assistance beneficiaries in Piotrkowski district. The studied sample consisted of 1817 respondents. Over 73% of the study population did not meet the recommended levels of LTPA. Fifty two % of the respondents had none leisure-time physical activity and 21.5% exercised occasionally. Main reasons for not taking up LTPA included: high general physical activity (36.4%), lack of time (28.1%), no willingness to exercise (25.4%). Close to 82% of the surveyed population did not practice commuting physical activity (CPA). The men had higher risk for inactivity during LTPA compared to the women (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.11-1.65; p ≤ 0.05). Higher odds of CPA inactivity were associated with unemployment, moderate and heavy drinking and having a number of health problems. The prevalence of physical inactivity among the social assistance recipients is much higher than it is in the general population. Promotion of an active lifestyle should take into consideration substantial differences between the general population and disadvantaged individuals and their various needs.

  14. Physical inactivity post-stroke: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Burnett, Malcolm; Ashburn, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To explore change in activity levels post-stroke. We measured activity levels using the activPAL™ in hospital and at 1, 2 and 3 years' post-stroke onset. Of the 74 participants (mean age 76 (SD 11), 39 men), 61 were assessed in hospital: 94% of time was spent in sitting/lying, 4% standing and 2% walking. Activity levels improved over time (complete cases n = 15); time spent sitting/lying decreased (p = 0.001); time spent standing, walking and number of steps increased (p = 0.001, p = 0.028 and p = 0.03, respectively). At year 3, 18% of time was spent in standing and 9% walking. Time spent upright correlated significantly with Barthel (r = 0.69 on admission, r = 0.68 on discharge, both p inactive for the majority of time. Time spent upright improved significantly by 1 year post-stroke; improvements slowed down thereafter. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify predictors of activity levels. Implications for Rehabilitation Activity levels (measured using activPAL™ activity monitor), increased significantly by 1 year post-stroke but improvements slowed down at 2 and 3 years. People with stroke were inactive for the majority of their day in hospital and in the community. Poor activity levels correlated with physical and psychological measures. Larger studies are indicated to identify the most important predictors of activity levels.

  15. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  16. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  17. Physical inactivity and obesity: Using a novel environmental quality measure to control confounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity is well-established as a contributor to obesity prevalence in the US. Many aspects of the ambient environment (e.g., air pollution, food deserts, neighborhood socioeconomics) have also been associated with obesity. Yet, controlling for the overall ambient envi...

  18. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...... subjects who are nonobese FDRs show signs of low-grade inflammation before or after exposure to short-term physical inactivity....

  19. The association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity adjusted for individual attributes: evidence from a Japanese occupational cohort survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity, adjusting for individual time-invariant attributes. We used data from a Japanese occupational cohort survey, which included 31 025 observations of 9871 individuals. Focusing on the evolution of job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity within the same individual over time, we employed fixed-effects logistic models to examine the association between job stress and leisure-time physical inactivity. We compared the results with those in pooled cross-sectional models and fixed-effects ordered logistic models. Fixed-effects models showed that the odds ratio (OR) of physical inactivity were 22% higher for those with high strain jobs [high demands/low control; OR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.43] and 17% higher for those with active jobs (high demands/high control; OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34) than those with low strain jobs (low demands/high control). The models also showed that the odds of physical inactivity were 28% higher for those with high effort/low reward jobs (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) and 24% higher for those with high effort/high reward jobs (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43) than those with low effort/high reward jobs. Fixed-effects ordered logistic models led to similar results. Job stress, especially high job strain and effort-reward imbalance, was modestly associated with higher risks of physical inactivity, even after controlling for individual time-invariant attributes.

  20. The cost of physical inactivity to a nation: the role of sports medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cost up to $1 trillion in health care and lost production costs. Physi- cal inactivity ... than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases'. ... and the dissemination of a clear, simple, yet effective message. 5. The Agita São ...

  1. Screen time by different devices in adolescents: association with physical inactivity domains and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Leandro D; Dos Santos Silva, Diego A; Tebar, William R; Zanuto, Edner F; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Christofaro, Diego G

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behaviors in adolescents are associated with using screen devices, analyzed as the total daily time in television viewing, using the computer and video game. However, an independent and clustered analysis of devices allows greater understanding of associations with physical inactivity domains and eating habits in adolescents. Sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (N.=1011) from public and private schools, randomly selected. The use of screen devices was measured by hours per week spent in each device: TV, computer, videogames and mobile phone/tablet. Physical inactivity domains (school, leisure and sports), eating habits (weekly food consumption frequency) and socioeconomic status were assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of high use of mobile phone/tablet was 70% among adolescents, 63% showed high use of TV or computer and 24% reported high use of videogames. High use of videogames was greater among boys and high use of mobile phone/tablet was higher among girls. Significant associations of high use of TV (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.99), computer (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.02), videogames (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.13-2.69) and consumption of snacks were observed. High use of computer was associated with fried foods consumption (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75) and physical inactivity (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.03-1.95). Mobile phone was associated with consumption of sweets (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.80). Cluster using screen devices showed associations with high consumption of snacks, fried foods and sweets, even after controlling for confounding variables. The high use of screen devices was associated with high consumption of snacks, fried foods, sweets and physical inactivity in adolescents.

  2. Physical inactivity and associated factors in Iranian children and adolescents: the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Djalalinia, Shirin; Sheidaei, Ali; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Safiri, Saeid; Asayesh, Hamid; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to assess the associated factors of physical inactivity among Iranian children and adolescents at national level. The second objective is to assess the relationship of physical inactivity with anthropometric measures. Methods: Along with a national surveillance program, this survey on weight disorders was conducted among a nationally-representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years. Students were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity (PA). Using PAQ-A instrument, PA of past week categorized as; low PA level, that included those who scored between 1 to 1.9 on the PAQ-A instrument and high PA level that included participants with estimated scores between 2-5 PAQ-A. Results: Participants were 23183 school students (50.8% boys) with a mean age of 12.55 ± 3.3 years, without significant difference in terms of gender. Totally, 23.48% of participants (13.84% of boys and 33.42% of girls) were physically inactive. In multivariate logistic regression model, with increased age in children and adolescence, the odds of a physically inactivity increased (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07-1.10). The odds of prevalence of both obesity and underweight were high in children and adolescents with low PA. There was a decreasing trend in PA in higher school grades. Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian children and adolescents, with higher rates among girls and older ages. However, we did not find correlation between PA and socioeconomic status (SES). Because of the positive relationship between PA and ST, future studies should consider the complex interaction of these two items. Multidisciplinary policies should be considered in increasing PA programs among children and adolescents.

  3. Early-life predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity in midadulthood: findings from a prospective British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Much adult physical inactivity research ignores early-life factors from which later influences may originate. In the 1958 British birth cohort (followed from 1958 to 2008), leisure-time inactivity, defined as activity frequency of less than once a week, was assessed at ages 33, 42, and 50 years (n = 12,776). Early-life factors (at ages 0-16 years) were categorized into 3 domains (i.e., physical, social, and behavioral). We assessed associations of adult inactivity 1) with factors within domains, 2) with the 3 domains combined, and 3) allowing for adult factors. At each age, approximately 32% of subjects were inactive. When domains were combined, factors associated with inactivity (e.g., at age 50 years) were prepubertal stature (5% lower odds per 1-standard deviation higher height), hand control/coordination problems (14% higher odds per 1-point increase on a 4-point scale), cognition (10% lower odds per 1-standard deviation greater ability), parental divorce (21% higher odds), institutional care (29% higher odds), parental social class at child's birth (9% higher odds per 1-point reduction on a 4-point scale), minimal parental education (13% higher odds), household amenities (2% higher odds per increase (representing poorer amenities) on a 19-point scale), inactivity (8% higher odds per 1-point reduction in activity on a 4-point scale), low sports aptitude (13% higher odds), and externalizing behaviors (i.e., conduct problems) (5% higher odds per 1-standard deviation higher score). Adjustment for adult covariates weakened associations slightly. Factors from early life were associated with adult leisure-time inactivity, allowing for early identification of groups vulnerable to inactivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Leisure-time physical inactivity and association with body mass index: a Finnish Twin Study with a 35-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Waller, Katja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Kujala, Urho M; Ropponen, Annina

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the stability and change of leisure-time physical inactivity in adult men and women during a 35-year follow-up. We also analysed the impact of long-term physical inactivity on the development of body mass index (BMI). : In this population-based cohort study, 5254 Finnish twin individuals (59% women) participated in four surveys in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011. Mean age at baseline was 23.9 years. Individual long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was categorized into seven classes varying from 'persistently inactive' to 'persistently active'. We used the multivariate multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model and paired-sample t-test in the analyses. Co-twin control design was used for examining within-pair associations. : Of men 11%, and of women 8%, were persistently inactive. Among both sexes, the mean BMI slope trajectories were steeper among the persistently inactive and those who became inactive than among those who were persistently active. Overall, the inactive participants gained 1.4 kg/m 2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.7] more in weight than did the active participants from 1975 to 2011. Among twin pairs discordant for LTPA, the corresponding difference was 1.4 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.83 to 2.0) in dizygotic pairs and 0.68 kg/m 2 (95% CI 0.05 to1.3) in monozygotic pairs. Over a 35-year time span from young adulthood, persistently inactive participants and those who had become inactive had greater weight increases than those who were persistently active. This association was also found in twin-pair analyses, although attenuated in monozygotic pairs. This may support the importance of LTPA in weight management, although further causal inference is required. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  5. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inact...

  6. Leisure-time physical inactivity among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Araújo, Tania Maria

    2018-01-15

    To estimate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI) and associated factors among healthcare workers. The cross-sectional study carried out with 2684 healthcare workers from 4 municipalities from the northeast region, Brazil. The LTPI was assessed by dichotomous question. The association between LTPI and the various independent variables was examined through the multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted). The prevalence of LTPI was 47.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 46.01-48.80). The adjusted analysis (sociodemographic and occupational characteristics) showed that women and individuals with higher levels of education were more LTPI (p = 0.05). The prevalence of LTPI was high among the population investigated, especially among women and individuals with higher education. These results show the importance of developing actions to encourage adherence to physical activity during leisure time among workers, especially among the most vulnerable groups (people with higher education and women), given the benefits of this behavior to health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):251-260. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Self-Esteem in People with Physical Disabilities: Differences between Active and Inactive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemček Dagmar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186 was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88 and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.

  8. The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nien-Chih; Chen, Jong-Dar; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2016-05-01

    To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

  9. Physical inactivity mediates the association between the perceived exercising behavior of social network members and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janette S; Moore, Spencer; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Social networks influence the spread of depression, health behaviors, and obesity. The social networks of older urban-dwelling adults were examined to assess whether physical inactivity mediated the association between social networks and obesity. Data come from the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging study (n=2707). Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) with obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 30. A name generator/interpreter instrument was used to elicit participants' core ties (i.e., alters), and assess whether alters exercised regularly and resided in participants' neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical inactivity. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for younger (18-54 years) and older (55 years plus) age groups to examine the association between the exercising behavior of alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses examined whether the residential location of alters was associated with obesity. Mediation analyses assessed whether physical inactivity mediated the association between alter exercising behavior and obesity. Models adjusted for participant socio-demographic and -economic characteristics. Among the older age stratum (55 years plus), physically inactive individuals were more likely obese (OR 2.14; 95% CIs: 1.48-3.10); participants who had more exercising alters were less likely obese (OR: 0.85; 95% CIs: 0.72-0.99). Physical inactivity mediated the association between exercising alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses showed that having exercising alters in the neighborhood compared to other locations tended to reduce the odds of obesity. This work demonstrates the importance of social networks among older adults in facilitating a physically active lifestyle and reducing the odds of obesity. Such findings can inform the design of public health interventions that seek to improve the environmental conditions supporting the physical

  10. Physical inactivity mediates the association between the perceived exercising behavior of social network members and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette S Leroux

    Full Text Available Social networks influence the spread of depression, health behaviors, and obesity. The social networks of older urban-dwelling adults were examined to assess whether physical inactivity mediated the association between social networks and obesity.Data come from the Montreal Neighborhood Networks and Healthy Aging study (n=2707. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI with obesity defined as a BMI ≥ 30. A name generator/interpreter instrument was used to elicit participants' core ties (i.e., alters, and assess whether alters exercised regularly and resided in participants' neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical inactivity. Separate multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted for younger (18-54 years and older (55 years plus age groups to examine the association between the exercising behavior of alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses examined whether the residential location of alters was associated with obesity. Mediation analyses assessed whether physical inactivity mediated the association between alter exercising behavior and obesity. Models adjusted for participant socio-demographic and -economic characteristics.Among the older age stratum (55 years plus, physically inactive individuals were more likely obese (OR 2.14; 95% CIs: 1.48-3.10; participants who had more exercising alters were less likely obese (OR: 0.85; 95% CIs: 0.72-0.99. Physical inactivity mediated the association between exercising alters and obesity. Ancillary analyses showed that having exercising alters in the neighborhood compared to other locations tended to reduce the odds of obesity.This work demonstrates the importance of social networks among older adults in facilitating a physically active lifestyle and reducing the odds of obesity. Such findings can inform the design of public health interventions that seek to improve the environmental conditions supporting the

  11. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, N F; Toftager, Mette; Melkevik, Ole; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Rasmussen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from theDanish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representativesamples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent onvigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 30,97...

  12. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanhol, L.C.; Pillay, J.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. Objective: The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Data

  13. Trends in social inequality in physical inactivity among Danish adolescents 1991–2014

    OpenAIRE

    N.F. Johnsen; M. Toftager; O. Melkevik; B.E. Holstein; M. Rasmussen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social inequality in physical inactivity among adolescents from 1991 to 2014 and to describe any changes in inequality during this period. The analyses were based on data from the Danish part of the HBSC study, which consists of seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11–15-year old adolescents. The available data consisted of weekly time (hours) spent on vigorous physical activity and parental occupation from 3...

  14. Patterns of association between environmental quality and physical inactivity vary across the rural-urban continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical inactivity has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including obesity, heart disease, and depression, and is considered a major contributor to all-cause mortality worldwide. Many studies have shown associations between specific environmental features (la...

  15. Effect of enforced physical inactivity induced by 60-day of bed rest on hepatic markers of NAFLD in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudwill, Floriane; Bergouignan, Audrey; Gastebois, Caroline; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Lefai, Etienne; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Physical inactivity leads to a cluster of metabolic disorders that have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. We tested whether physical inactivity increases hepatic biomarkers of NAFLDs. Sixteen normal-weight healthy women (body mass index = 21.2 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) ) were studied under controlled energy balance conditions during a previous 60-day bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) a combined aerobic/resistive exercise protocol. Stored samples were retrospectively used to measure plasma hepatic markers, i.e. steatosis-related alanine and aspartate transaminases, cytokeratin 18 and angiopoietin-like 3, at baseline, after 30 and 60 days of bed rest. Fasting insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline and after 30 days of bed rest. Two indexes were calculated, one combining alanine and aspartate transaminase and cytokeratin 18 and another cytokeratin 18, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and aspartate aminotransferase. Sixty days of bed rest increased all hepatic markers (P inactive conditions. Physical inactivity increases, independent of fat mass, hepatic markers of steatosis and steatohepatitis. Regular exercise can limit these physical inactivity-induced metabolic alterations. Future studies need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Is early rehabilitation a myth? Physical inactivity in the first week after myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Sarah; Bernhardt, Julie; West, Tanya; Churilov, Leonid; Dart, Anthony; Hayes, Kate; Cumming, Toby B

    2015-12-18

    To compare physical activity levels of patients in the first week after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We conducted an observational study using behavioural mapping. MI patients were consecutively recruited from Alfred Hospital, Melbourne. Data for stroke patients (Royal Perth Hospital or Austin Hospital, Melbourne) were retrieved from an existing database. Patients were observed for 1 min every 10 min from 8 am to 5 pm. At each observation, the patient's highest level of physical activity, location and people present were recorded. Details of physiotherapy and occupational therapy sessions were recorded by the therapists. Proportion of the day spent physically inactive was lower in MI (n = 32, median 48%) than stroke (n = 125, median 59%) patients, but this difference was not significant in univariate or multivariate (adjusting for age, walking ability and days post-event) regression. Time spent physically active was higher in MI (median 23%) than stroke (median 10%) patients (p = 0.009), but this difference did not survive multivariate adjustment (p = 0.67). More stroke patients (78%) than MI patients (19%) participated in therapy. This study provides the first objective data on physical activity levels of acute MI patients. While they were more active than acute stroke patients, the difference was largely attributable to walking ability. Implications for rehabilitation In the first week after myocardial infarction, patients spent about half the day physically inactive (even though 81% were able to walk independently). Similar levels of inactivity were seen in a comparable cohort of acute stroke patients, suggesting that environmental factors play an important role. There appears to be wide scope for increasing levels of physical rehabilitation after acute cardiovascular events, though optimal timing and dose remain unclear.

  17. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  18. Physical activity and inactivity in primary and secondary school boys' and girls' daily program

    OpenAIRE

    Romana Hubáčková; Dorota Groffik; Lukasz Skrzypnik; Karel Frömel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's and youth education is becoming more and more demanding. In conjunction with development of information technology, this fact negatively affects lifestyle of children and youth. Apart from families, schools should play a crucial role in healthy lifestyle promotion in children and youth. Objective: The present study aimed to assess differences in physical activity (PA) and physical inactivity (PI) among primary and secondary school boys and girls in specific segments of ...

  19. Running from Disease: Molecular Mechanisms Associating Dopamine and Leptin Signaling in the Brain with Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Accelerometry data suggest that a majority of US adults fail to perform substantial levels of physical activity needed to improve health. Thus, understanding the molecular factors that stimulate physical activity, and physical inactivity, is imperative for the development of strategies to reduce sedentary behavior and in turn prevent chronic disease. Despite many of the well-known health benefits of physical activity being described, little is known about genetic and biological factors that may influence this complex behavior. The mesolimbic dopamine system regulates motivating and rewarding behavior as well as motor movement. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that obesity may mechanistically lower voluntary physical activity levels via dopamine dysregulation. In doing so, we review data that suggest mesolimbic dopamine activity is a strong contributor to voluntary physical activity behavior. We also summarize findings suggesting that obesity leads to central dopaminergic dysfunction, which in turn contributes to reductions in physical activity that often accompany obesity. Additionally, we highlight examples in which central leptin activity influences physical activity levels in a dopamine-dependent manner. Future elucidation of these mechanisms will help support strategies to increase physical activity levels in obese patients and prevent diseases caused by physical inactivity.

  20. Physical Inactivity in U.S. Adolescents: Family, Neighborhood, and Individual Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Concern about physical inactivity among U.S. youth has been mounting in recent years, in light of studies suggesting that few adolescents (about one out of three) engage in recommended levels of physical activity. Although much attention has been paid to individual factors that may contribute to this problem, such as television viewing and…

  1. Mediators effecting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and inactivity for girls from an intervention program delivered in an organised youth sports setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliano, Justin M; Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Parker, Philip D; Agho, Kingsley E; Kolt, Gregory S

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether coaches' physical activity levels, contextual variables, and coaches' behavioural variables mediated the effect of an intervention on female basketball players' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity in an organised youth sport (OYS) setting. Randomised controlled trial Data for the current study were derived from a two-armed, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. This study ran over the course of a 5-day OYS basketball program in 2 sports centres in Sydney, Australia. A convenience sample of 76 female players and 8 coaches were recruited. Coaches allocated to the intervention condition attended 2 coach education sessions, where strategies to increase MVPA and decrease inactivity were taught. There was a significant effect between changes in coach MVPA and player MVPA (unstandardised regression coefficient [B] = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.38) which coincided with a significant indirect effect (B = 1.80, 95% CI = 0.85 to 2.85). There was also a significant effect between changes in coach inactivity and player inactivity (B = -0.23, 95% CI = -0.14 to -0.31), which coincided with a significant indirect effect (B = -3.20, 95% CI = -0.14 to -0.31). No significant indirect effects were found for lesson context and coaches' behaviours variables. Coaches' MVPA and inactivity significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on player MVPA and inactivity, respectively. Consequently, coaches' physical activity levels appear to be important for influencing their players' physical activity levels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990-2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990-2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states.

  3. Antigenic fractions from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriela B; Nunes, Daniela S; de Sousa, José Eduardo N; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the total extract of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (TC) and its antigenic fractions obtained by Triton X-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (DC) and aqueous (AC), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) NCC, and Group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 CSF samples from patients who had another neurological disorder, were suffering from other infectious diseases of the brain or had other parasitic infections. The total extracts and antigenic fractions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect human IgG anti-Taenia solium. T. crassiceps fractions (DC and AC) showed the same value of sensitivity (Se), 100%, for active and inactive NCC and a specificity (Sp) of 97.4%. The DS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for active NCC, 95% Se for inactive NCC and a 92.3% Sp. The AS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for both active and inactive NCC and a 94.9% Sp. There was a positive correlation between the total saline extract of T. crassiceps (TC) and T. solium (TS) and their fractions (DC, AC, DS and AS). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic efficiency and Youden index were calculated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that detergent and aqueous fractions obtained from T. crassiceps metacestodes are important sources of specific antigens and are efficient for immunodiagnosis of active and inactive NCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional outlook on life predicts increases in physical activity among initially inactive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Marcus, Bess H; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical activity level and emotional outlook on life. Emotional outlook on life was significantly and positively related to physical activity participation at the follow-up visit in men but not women. Men who were usually very happy and optimistic at baseline had significantly greater increases in physical activity compared to men who were not happy. Men with a more positive outlook on life (e.g., happier) may be more likely to increase physical activity levels. Physical activity interventions targeting men may be more successful if they first increase happiness.

  5. Factors associated with physical inactivity among school-going adolescents: data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharudin, Azli; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Cheong, Siew Man; Ying, Chan Ying; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2014-09-01

    The importance of physical activity to health is well recognized. Good health habits should begin from a young age. This article aims to explore physical activity among Malaysian school adolescents and factors associated with it. Data from the Malaysian School-Based Nutrition Survey (MSNS), comprising a nationally representative sample of school-going children aged 10 to 17 years, were used. The overall prevalence of physically inactive adolescents was 57.3%. Age in years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.16-1.23), gender - females (adjusted odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.66-3.10), afternoon school session, breakfast consumption (no breakfast and irregular breakfast), body mass index status (obese and underweight), and body weight perception (underweight perceivers) were significant factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, there is evidence that programs to promote physical activity in this group should consider the combination of the aforementioned factors at the household, school, and community levels. © 2014 APJPH.

  6. Running from Disease: Molecular Mechanisms Associating Dopamine and Leptin Signaling in the Brain with Physical Inactivity, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N. Ruegsegger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Accelerometry data suggest that a majority of US adults fail to perform substantial levels of physical activity needed to improve health. Thus, understanding the molecular factors that stimulate physical activity, and physical inactivity, is imperative for the development of strategies to reduce sedentary behavior and in turn prevent chronic disease. Despite many of the well-known health benefits of physical activity being described, little is known about genetic and biological factors that may influence this complex behavior. The mesolimbic dopamine system regulates motivating and rewarding behavior as well as motor movement. Here, we present data supporting the hypothesis that obesity may mechanistically lower voluntary physical activity levels via dopamine dysregulation. In doing so, we review data that suggest mesolimbic dopamine activity is a strong contributor to voluntary physical activity behavior. We also summarize findings suggesting that obesity leads to central dopaminergic dysfunction, which in turn contributes to reductions in physical activity that often accompany obesity. Additionally, we highlight examples in which central leptin activity influences physical activity levels in a dopamine-dependent manner. Future elucidation of these mechanisms will help support strategies to increase physical activity levels in obese patients and prevent diseases caused by physical inactivity.

  7. The challenge of preserving cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive patients with colon or breast cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy: a randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Christian; Andersen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Anti-neoplastic treatment is synonymous with an inactive daily life for a substantial number of patients. It remains unclear what is the optimal setting, dosage and combination of exercise and health promoting components that best facilitate patient adherence and symptom management...... in order to support cardio-respiratory fitness and lifestyle changes in an at-risk population of pre-illness physically inactive cancer patients.Methods Patients with breast or colon cancer referred to adjuvant chemotherapy and by the oncologists pre-screening verified as physically inactive were eligible...... to enter a randomised three-armed feasibility study comparing a 12-week supervised hospital-based moderate to high intensity exercise intervention or alternate an instructive home-based12-week pedometer intervention, with usual care.Results Using a recommendation based physical activity screening...

  8. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990–2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990–2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Methods Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Results Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Conclusions Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states. PMID:29390002

  9. Predictors of increase in physical activity during a 6-month follow-up period among overweight and physically inactive healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mutikainen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: A strong sense of meaningfulness and better recovery from stress predict an increase in PA among physically inactive and overweight young adults. Therefore, participants with a low sense of meaningfulness and low recovery from stress may require support from other interventions to be able to increase their PA.

  10. Interdependence of physical inactivity, loss of muscle mass and low dietary intake: Extrapulmonary manifestations in older chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sato, Susumu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Minoru; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Mishima, Michiaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-01-01

    Extrapulmonary manifestations, such as reductions in skeletal muscle and physical inactivity, are important clinical features of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and might depend on the severity of COPD. As it is still unclear whether the relationship between muscle loss and physical inactivity is dominated by a disease-specific relationship or caused by patient factors, including physiological aging, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary or extrapulmonary factors associated with physical inactivity among older COPD patients. A total of 38 older male COPD patients (aged ≥65 years) were enrolled, and were evaluated cross-sectionally. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance, and physical activity and energy intake were recorded for 2 weeks using a pedometer and diary. Daily step counts were successfully evaluated in 28 participants (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [%predicted; %FEV 1 ]; 49.5%), and ranged widely. The mean step counts was 5166 steps/day, and found to have a significant relationship with dyspnea (r = -0.46), diffusing capacity (r = 0.47), %FEV1 (r = 0.44), skeletal muscle index (r = 0.59) and total dietary intake (r = 0.47), but not with age (P = 0.14). A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that the skeletal muscle index (β = 0.50) and total dietary intake (β = 0.35) were significant determinants of the daily step count (R 2 = 0.46, p physical activity, skeletal muscle mass and dietary intake are more closely correlated with physical activity in COPD patients. Because physical inactivity might be the strongest predictor of prognosis, the present results suggest that a comprehensive treatment strategy must be considered for older COPD patients to improve their extrapulmonary manifestations and pulmonary dysfunction. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 88-94. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Early adulthood determinants of mid-life leisure-time physical inactivity stability and change: Findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Power, Chris

    2018-07-01

    Physical inactivity is highly prevalent. Knowledge is needed of influences on inactive lifestyles. We aimed to establish whether early adult factors predict subsequent inactivity patterns in mid-adulthood. Leisure-time inactivity (activity frequencyphysical status, mental function, social, family and neighbourhood circumstances with four 33-50y patterns (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating or improving) using multinomial logistic regression with and without adjustment for childhood factors (e.g. social class). Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33y and 50y (∼31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. Factors associated with persistent vs never inactive were: limiting illness (relative risk ratio (RRR):1.21(1.04,1.42) per number of ages exposed (0,1 or 2 times across ages 23y and 33y), obesity (1.33(1.16,1.54) per number of ages exposed), height (0.93(0.89,0.98) per 5cm), depression (1.32(1.19,1.47) per number of ages exposed); education (1.28(1.20,1.38) per decrease on 5-point scale) and neighbourhood (1.59(1.37,1.86) in 'industrial/local authority housing areas' and 1.33(1.12,1.58) in 'growth/metropolitan inner areas' vs 'suburbs, service, rural or seaside areas'). Associations were broadly similar for inactivity deterioration. Industrial/local authority housing areas (0.75(0.61,0.91)) and longer obesity exposure (0.78(0.64,0.95)) were associated with lower RRRs for improvement. Number of children was associated with improvement, although associations varied by age. Associations remained after adjustment for childhood factors. Several early adult factors are associated with inactivity persistence and deterioration; fewer with improvement. Obesity duration and neighbourhood lived in during young adulthood had long-lasting associations with inactivity patterns in mid-life. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A physically active occupation does not result in compensatory inactivity during out-of-work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigbe, William W; Lean, Michael E J; Granat, Malcolm H

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in non-occupational physical activity behaviour in workers who engage in high and low occupational physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of 112 otherwise comparable volunteers in active (56 walking postal delivery workers) or inactive (56 administrative postal workers) occupations in Glasgow (Scotland) in 2007. Twenty four-hour physical activity (steps and time standing, walking and sedentary) patterns were measured using activPAL™ for seven days. Comparisons were made during 8-hour work-shifts, during non-work hours on work-days and during the 2 non-work days. Age and body mass index of delivery and office staff, respectively, were (means (SD)) 38 (9) years versus 40 (7) years and 26.3 (3) kg m(-2) versus 27.4 (4) kg m(-2). Delivery staff spent substantially longer time than office staff upright (6.0 (1.1) h versus 3.9 (1.5) h) and walking (3.1 (0.7) h versus 1.6 (0.7) h) and amassed more steps (16,035 (4264) versus 6709 (2808)) during 8-hour work-shifts and over 24h on work days. During non-work hours of work-days and during non-work days, there were no significant differences in physical activity between the groups. The results were unchanged when the 15 women were excluded. Having a more active occupation is not associated with more inactivity during non-work hours. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Theorell, Töres; Suominen, Sakari; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Siegrist, Johannes; Sabia, Séverine; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Nielsen, Martin L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lunau, Thorsten; Leineweber, Constanze; Kumari, Meena; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Joensuu, Matti; Houtman, Irene L.; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Burr, Hermann; Borritz, Marianne; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Alfredsson, Lars; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23144364

  14. The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 2006-07 NHS costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin K; Allender, Steve; Foster, Charlie; Rayner, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease to the NHS provide evidence for prioritization of resources for prevention and public health. Previous comparable estimates of the economic costs of poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were based on economic data from 1992-93. Diseases associated with poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were identified. Risk factor-specific population attributable fractions for these diseases were applied to disease-specific estimates of the economic cost to the NHS in the UK in 2006-07. In 2006-07, poor diet-related ill health cost the NHS in the UK £5.8 billion. The cost of physical inactivity was £0.9 billion. Smoking cost was £3.3 billion, alcohol cost £3.3 billion, overweight and obesity cost £5.1 billion. The estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease presented here are based on recent financial data and are directly comparable. They suggest that poor diet is a behavioural risk factor that has the highest impact on the budget of the NHS, followed by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity.

  15. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Iovino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. AIMS: Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. METHODS: Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation. Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36, general health (Goldberg's General Health and depression mood (Zung scale questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10 of participants (p=0.03. The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively. Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.

  16. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  17. Physical inactivity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart John-Anker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is associated with several diseases, but studies evaluating the association between chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs and physical exercise have shown conflicting results. The aim of this large-scale prospective population-based study was to investigate the association between self-reported physical exercise at baseline and the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs 11 years later. Methods The results are based upon two consecutive public health studies conducted within the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (The HUNT studies. A total of 39,520 (83% out of 47,556 adults who participated in HUNT 1 and HUNT 2 responded to questions about physical exercise at baseline in 1984–86, and to questions about musculoskeletal complaints 11 years later (1995–97. Chronic MSCs was defined as MSCs ≥ 3 months during the past year, and chronic widespread MSCs such as pain ≥ 15 days during the last month from the axial region, above the waist, and below the waist. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. All the final analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and education level. Results At follow-up 20,223 (51% reported chronic MSCs, and among these 2,318 (5.9% reported chronic widespread MSCs. Individuals who exercised at baseline were less likely to report chronic MSCs 11 years later (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97 than inactive persons. Among individuals who exercised more than three times per week, chronic widespread MSCs were 28% less common (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88 compared to inactive individuals. Conclusion In this large-scale population-based study, physical exercise was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. Future studies should try to clarify whether chronic MSCs are a cause or a consequence of inactivity.

  18. An inactive lifestyle and low physical fitness are associated with functional somatic symptoms in adolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Bonvanie, Irma J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Objective: An inactive lifestyle has been associated with functional somatic symptoms (FSS), but findings are contradictory. Moreover, mediating factors in this relationship are unclear. We examined whether low physical activity was related to FSS in adolescents, and whether this association was

  19. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  20. Physical activity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prevalence of inactivity and perceived barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Joanna; Ingles, Jodie; Timperio, Anna; Patterson, Jillian; Ball, Kylie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to physical activity among individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and to determine potential demographic, clinical and health-related factors influencing likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients (n=198) with HCM attending a specialist HCM centre from July 2014 to November 2015. The primary outcome measure was physical activity (minutes per day), as measured by self-report (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)) and objective means (ActiGraph accelerometer). For both, participants were classified as meeting guidelines if they did at least 150 min per week of physical activity. Quality of life (Short Form-36 V.2, SF-36v2), barriers to exercise and clinical–demographic data were also collected. Results In total, 54.8% of participants did not meet physical activity recommendations based on IPAQ, and 12.7% did not meet guidelines based on accelerometer data. The most commonly identified barriers to exercise were ‘pain interferes with my exercise’ (33%) and ‘I have an injury/disability that stops me’ (29%). Independent factors associated with meeting guidelines included older age (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.85, p=0.002), higher education level (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.93, p=0.03), better physical quality of life (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.09, p=0.05) and more reported barriers (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.91, p=0.01). Conclusions More than half of the patients with HCM did not meet minimum physical activity recommendations. Several barriers to exercise among individuals with HCM exist, and provide the basis for targeted interventions to promote physical activity and improve overall health in patients with HCM. PMID:27547438

  1. Environmental quality modifies the relationship between county-level leisure-time physical inactivity and obesity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Aim More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, making them vulnerable to multiple poor outcomes including diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and death. Physical inactivity is a well-established mechanism contributing to obesity that can be promoted or hindered by nume...

  2. Hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction associated with physical inactivity in community-dwelling elderly subjects: The Sefuri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Nogami, Kohjiro; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Physical activities were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We evaluated the degree of hippocampal atrophy (z-score-referred to as ZAdvance hereafter), using a free software program-the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 plus Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through an Exponentiated Lie algebra. Routine magnetic resonance imaging findings were as follows: silent brain infarction, n  = 24 (11.3%); deep white matter lesions, n  = 72 (33.8%); periventricular hyperintensities, n  = 35 (16.4%); and cerebral microbleeds, n  = 14 (6.6%). Path analysis based on SEM indicated that the direct paths from leisure-time activity to hippocampal atrophy (β = -.18, p  physical inactivity, and hippocampal atrophy appeared to cause memory dysfunction, although we are unable to infer a causal or temporal association between hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction from the present observational study.

  3. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  4. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  5. Modelo hierárquico multivariado da inatividade física em crianças de escolas públicas Multivariate hierarchical model for physical inactivity among public school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario M. Bracco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores biológicos e sociodemográficos atribuíveis à inatividade física em crianças de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas, através de questionário auto-relatado pelos pais, 2.519 crianças (49,3% meninas, de 7 a 10 anos (média = 7,6±0,9 anos, de oito escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo. Aplicamos a análise de correspondência múltipla para identificar grupos de respostas relacionadas com padrões de atividade e inatividade física e a geração de uma escala ótima. A análise de agrupamento identificou os grupos de crianças ativas e inativas. A análise de curva ROC (receiver operator characteristic, para o estudo das propriedades diagnósticas de uma escala simplificada de inatividade física derivada da escala ótima, mostrou o ponto de corte = 3 como o de melhor sensibilidade e especificidade, sendo utilizado como a variável de resposta no modelo de regressão. Um modelo hierárquico multivariado foi construído, assumindo variáveis categóricas como distais e proximais, adotando-se p OBJECTIVE: To identify biological and sociodemographic factors associated with physical inactivity in public school children. METHODS: Parents of 2,519 children (49.3% of whom were girls, aged 7 to 10 years (mean = 7.6±0.9 years, from eight public schools in São Paulo, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. We used multiple correspondence analysis to identify groups of responses related to levels of physical activity and inactivity and to obtain an optimal scale. The cluster analysis identified groups of active and inactive children. The analysis of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve, for the study of diagnostic properties of a simplified scale for physical inactivity derived from the optimal scale, revealed that a cutoff point of 3 had the best sensitivity and specificity, being therefore used as outcome variable in the regression model. A multivariate hierarchical model was

  6. Inaction inertia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, M.; Zeelenberg, M.; van Dijk, E.; Tykocinski, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Inaction inertia occurs when bypassing an initial action opportunity has the effect of decreasing the likelihood that subsequent similar action opportunities will be taken. This overview of the inaction inertia literature demonstrates the impact of inaction inertia on decision making. Based on

  7. Insulin resistance induced by physical inactivity is associated with multiple transcriptional changes in skeletal muscle in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, A C; Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a risk factor for insulin resistance. We examined the effect of 9 days of bed rest on basal and insulin-stimulated expression of genes potentially involved in insulin action by applying hypothesis-generating microarray in parallel with candidate gene real-time PCR approaches...... contribute to the development of insulin resistance induced by bed rest. Lack of complete normalization of changes after 4 wk of retraining underscores the importance of maintaining a minimum of daily physical activity....

  8. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  9. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Member States, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old, coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  10. [A PARADIGM SHIFT IN THE PERCEPTION OF HEALTH MAINTENANCE FROM INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TO DECREASING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Dani; Constantini, Naama

    2016-06-01

    Modern man spends most of his waking hours (50-70%) in one form or another of sedentary behavior, defined as activity conducted in a sitting or reclining position involving low energy expenditure. The remaining waking hours are spent performing low intensity physical activity (25-45%) and medium-high intensity physical activity (less than 5%): Despite this distribution, medical research has focused on the impact of increasing medium-high intensity physical activity and many health organizations' recommendations are in accordance. In recent years, research conducted has begun to examine the effect inactivity has on health and has shown that excess sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for a wide range of medical problems such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, poor cardiovascular health profile, diabetes mellitus, and possibly cancer. Although the higher risk brought on by sedentary behaviour is partially reduced by increasing medium-high intensity physical activity, it is not completely neutralized. One way to diminish the harm caused by long hours of sitting is to take short breaks during periods of prolonged sitting in order to walk. According to these findings, it is worthwhile to recommend reducing the hours spent in sedentary behaviour, or at least to take frequent short breaks ("activity snacks") during periods of prolonged sitting to get up and walk around.

  11. [Physical inactivity behavior: is this an adaptive answer that is normal and inappropriate to public health in the 21st century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittarame, Frédéric; Golay, Alain

    2013-03-27

    Physical inactivity or sedentary behavior is more and more widespread, a fairly recent worldwide health phenomenon. It currently takes the shape of a chronic illness with dire consequences. Its factors are influenced by personal motivation and the social and physical environments in which people live. Screening for physical inactivity or sedentary behavior enables patients and caregivers to become fully aware of its risks. The health benefits of simply adding walking to our everyday activities or adding low-impact movement in oureveryday lives would improve the health, the quality of life and longevity for most adults. Caregivers can successfully assist patients in changing their behavior. For certain patients suffering from diseases or complex cases, interdisciplinary specialized surveillance care is useful. There is a need to put this issue at the forefront of public health and adopt a positive stance towards strategies in our places of work, our schools, our means of transportation and overall urban planning and development.

  12. Factors associated with leisure time physical inactivity in black individuals: hierarchical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A number of studies have shown that the black population exhibits higher levels of leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI, but few have investigated the factors associated with this behavior.Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze associated factors and the explanatory model proposed for LTPI in black adults.Methods. The design was cross-sectional with a sample of 2,305 adults from 20–96 years of age, 902 (39.1% men, living in the city of Salvador, Brazil. LTPI was analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. A hierarchical model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPI, distributed in distal (age and sex, intermediate 1 (socioeconomic status, educational level and marital status, intermediate 2 (perception of safety/violence in the neighborhood, racial discrimination in private settings and physical activity at work and proximal blocks (smoking and participation in Carnival block rehearsals. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR using logistic regression.Results. The variables inversely associated with LTPI were male gender, socioeconomic status and secondary/university education, although the proposed model explains only 4.2% of LTPI.Conclusions. We conclude that male gender, higher education and socioeconomic status can reduce LTPI in black adults.

  13. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Group studio cycling; an effective intervention to improve cardio-metabolic health in overweight physically inactive individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, SH; Pugh, JK; Hood, TM; Menon, K; King, JA; Nimmo, MA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Supervised, laboratory based studies of high intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving health markers in groups at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Studio cycling, incorporating aerobic and high intensity exercise, may offer a platform for the implementation of HIIT within the wider community. \\ud Methods: Eight, overweight, physically inactive (95%. Mean and peak intensity were equivalent to 83% and 97% of HRmax·VO2max increased from 27.1 ± 4.7 m...

  15. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  16. Inatividade física e fatores associados em adultos, São Paulo, Brasil Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Margarete Zanchetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar prevalências de inatividade física e fatores associados, e exercícios e esportes praticados segundo escolaridade em 2.050 adultos de 18 a 59 anos de idade - Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra estratificada e em múltiplos estágios. A inatividade física global foi aferida pelo International Physical Activity questionary - IPAQ short version, e por questão sobre prática regular de atividade física no lazer. A análise dos dados levou em conta o desenho amostral. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer foi maior entre as mulheres. Já a inatividade física pelo IPAQ foi maior entre os homens. Modelos de regressão múltipla de Poisson indicaram, nos homens, menor inatividade física pelo IPAQ nos solteiros e separados, estudantes e aqueles que não possuíam carro. A inatividade física no lazer foi maior nos homens acima de 40 anos e com menor escolaridade ou apenas estudantes. A inatividade física pelo IPAQ, nas mulheres, foi mais prevalente entre as com maior escolaridade, ocupações menos qualificadas e viúvas; a inatividade física no lazer diminuiu com o aumento da idade e da escolaridade. Entre as modalidades praticadas no lazer, a caminhada foi a mais prevalente nas mulheres e o futebol nos homens. A maioria das modalidades foi diretamente associada à escolaridade; aproximadamente 25% dos indivíduos com mais de 12 anos de estudo praticava caminhada. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que intervenções e políticas públicas de promoção da atividade física devem considerar diferenças socioeconômicas, de gênero, bem como as modalidades e o contexto em que a atividade física é praticada.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo

  17. Muscle inflammatory signaling in response to 9 days of physical inactivity in young men with low compared to normal birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Mortensen, Brynjulf

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The molecular mechanisms linking physical inactivity and muscle insulin resistance in humans has been suggested to include increased muscle inflammation, possibly associated with impaired oxidative metabolism. We employed a human bed rest study including 20 young males with normal birth...

  18. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. [Obesity, physical activity and inactivity among adolescents in Morelos, Mexico: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Claudia; Hernández, Bernardo; Moreno, Hortensia; Hernández-Girón, Carlos; Campero, Lourdes; Cruz, Aurelio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence has increased in Mexico. This increase can be explained partly by a decrease in physical activity. The objective of this study was to assess the association between the prevalence of obesity and overweight with physical activity and inactivity among Mexican adolescents. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study with baseline and follow-up measures in 446 adolescents 12 to 17 years old, attending public schools in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. We collected information on weight, physical activity and demographic characteristics. Obesity and overweight were determined using as indicador the body mass index, and the cutoff points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The baseline prevalence of obesity or overweight was 37.22% (42.99% for males and 30.95% for females), and in the final measure 34.30% (38.46% for males and 32.28% for females). The median time of TV viewing was 3.90 h/d, with 0.73 h/d dedicated to vigorous physical activity and 0.58 h/d to moderate physical activity. Using logistic regression, after adjustment for obesity in the baseline measure, sex and clustering by school, we found no significant associations between the prevalence of obesity or overweight with time dedicated to TV viewing, vigorous or moderate physical activity. However, when conducting the analysis with an interaction term by sex, we found significantly lower risk of obesity or overweight associated with an increase in vigorous physical activity among males only (beta = 0.22, 95% CI (0.05, 0.89). Results suggest that vigorous physical activity may reduce the risk of obesity or overweight among male adolescents.

  20. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zderic Theodore W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A, a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions

  1. Identification of hemostatic genes expressed in human and rat leg muscles and a novel gene (LPP1/PAP2A) suppressed during prolonged physical inactivity (sitting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partly because of functional genomics, there has been a major paradigm shift from solely thinking of skeletal muscle as contractile machinery to an understanding that it can have roles in paracrine and endocrine functions. Physical inactivity is an established risk factor for some blood clotting disorders. The effects of inactivity during sitting are most alarming when a person develops the enigmatic condition in the legs called deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or “coach syndrome,” caused in part by muscular inactivity. The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle expresses genes with roles in hemostasis and if their expression level was responsive to muscular inactivity such as occurs in prolonged sitting. Methods Microarray analyses were performed on skeletal muscle samples from rats and humans to identify genes associated with hemostatic function that were significantly expressed above background based on multiple probe sets with perfect and mismatch sequences. Furthermore, we determined if any of these genes were responsive to models of physical inactivity. Multiple criteria were used to determine differential expression including significant expression above background, fold change, and non-parametric statistical tests. Results These studies demonstrate skeletal muscle tissue expresses at least 17 genes involved in hemostasis. These include the fibrinolytic factors tetranectin, annexin A2, and tPA; the anti-coagulant factors TFPI, protein C receptor, PAF acetylhydrolase; coagulation factors, and genes necessary for the posttranslational modification of these coagulation factors such as vitamin K epoxide reductase. Of special interest, lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1/PAP2A), a key gene for degrading prothrombotic and proinflammatory lysophospholipids, was suppressed locally in muscle tissue within hours after sitting in humans; this was also observed after acute and chronic physical inactivity conditions in rats, and exercise was

  2. Physical inactivity is associated with decreased growth differentiation factor 11 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka R

    2018-04-01

    related to GDF11, the multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity was significantly associated with the levels of plasma GDF11. Conclusion: Physical inactivity was significantly related to the decreased GDF11 levels in COPD, which might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of COPD. Clarifying the relationships between the physical inactivity and GDF11 may reveal a potentially attractive therapeutic approach in COPD via increasing the plasma levels of GDF11. Keywords: physical activity, muscle strength, rejuvenating factor, COPD

  3. Skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity as risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescents : results of the E-MOVO project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croezen, S.; Visscher, T. L. S.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Veling, M. L.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2

  4. Adapted yoga to improve physical function and health-related quality of life in physically-inactive older adults: a randomised controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Garry A; Howsam, Jenny; Hardy, Matthew; Bissell, Laura

    2017-06-23

    Yoga is a holistic therapy of expanding popularity, which has the potential to produce a range of physical, mental and social benefits. This trial evaluated the feasibility and effects of an adapted yoga programme on physical function and health-related quality of life in physically-inactive older adults. In this randomised controlled pilot trial, 52 older adults (90% female; mean age 74.8 years, SD 7.2) were randomised 1:1 to a yoga programme or wait-list control. The yoga group (n = 25) received a physical activity education booklet and were invited to attend ten yoga sessions during a 12-week period. The control group (n = 27) received the education booklet only. Measures of physical function (e.g., Short Physical Performance Battery; SPPB), health status (EQ-5D) and mental well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; WEMWBS) were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Feasibility was assessed using course attendance and adverse event data, and participant interviews. Forty-seven participants completed follow-up assessments. Median class attendance was 8 (range 3 to 10). At the 3-month follow-up, the yoga group had a higher SPPB total score compared with the control group (mean difference 0.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3 to 2.0), a faster time to rise from a chair five times (mean difference - 1.73 s, 95% CI -4.08 to 0.62), and better performance on the chair sit-and-reach lower-limb flexibility test (mean difference 5 cm, 95% CI 0 to 10). The yoga group also had superior health status and mental well-being (vs. control) at 3 months, with mean differences in EQ-5D and WEMWBS scores of 0.12 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.21) and 6 (95% CI, 1 to 11), respectively. The interviews indicated that participants valued attending the yoga programme, and that they experienced a range of benefits. The adapted yoga programme appeared to be feasible and potentially beneficial in terms of improving mental and social well-being and aspects of physical function in

  5. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  6. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  7. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity as predictors of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, Sari; Head, Jenny; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Zaninotto, Paola; Magnuson Hanson, Linda; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi

    2016-08-01

    Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the co-occurrence of these behaviour-related risk factors predict healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy in four European cohort studies. Data were drawn from repeated waves of four cohort studies in England, Finland, France and Sweden. Smoking status, physical inactivity and obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 ) were examined separately and in combination. Health expectancy was estimated by using two health indicators: suboptimal self-rated health and having a chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes). Multistate life table models were used to estimate sex-specific healthy life expectancy and chronic disease-free life expectancy from ages 50 to 75 years. Compared with men and women with at least two behaviour-related risk factors, those with no behaviour-related risk factors could expect to live on average8 years longer in good health and 6 years longer free of chronic diseases between ages 50 and 75. Having any single risk factor was also associated with reduction in healthy years. No consistent differences between cohorts were observed. Data from four European countries show that persons with individual and co-occurring behaviour-related risk factors have shorter healthy life expectancy and shorter chronic disease-free life expectancy. Population level reductions in smoking, physical inactivity and obesity could increase life-years lived in good health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC visits.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714831.

  9. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  10. Physical inactivity and associated factors in Iranian children and adolescents: the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian children and adolescents, with higher rates among girls and older ages. However, we did not find correlation between PA and socioeconomic status (SES. Because of the positive relationship between PA and ST, future studies should consider the complex interaction of these two items. Multidisciplinary policies should be considered in increasing PA programs among children and adolescents.

  11. Reliability of smartphone-based gait measurements for quantification of physical activity/inactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota

    2017-11-25

    Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.

  12. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  13. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pillay, Julian David; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-10-01

    In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Electronic searches were conducted in October 2014 on PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Cochrane Library and LILACS, with no limits of date and language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (with a minimum of 8 weeks of running training) that included physically inactive but healthy adults (18-65 years) were selected. The studies needed to compare intervention (i.e. endurance running) and control (i.e., no intervention) groups. Two authors evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias; a third author resolved any uncertainties. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to summarise the estimates for length of training and sex. A dose-response analysis was performed with random-effects meta-regression in order to investigate the relationship between running characteristics and effect sizes. After screening 22,380 records, 49 articles were included, of which 35 were used to combine data on ten biomedical indices of health. On average the running programs were composed of 3.7 ± 0.9 sessions/week, 2.3 ± 1.0 h/week, 14.4 ± 5.4 km/week, at 60-90% of the maximum heart rate, and lasted 21.5 ± 16.8 weeks. After 1 year of training, running was effective in reducing body mass by 3.3 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-2.5], body fat by 2.7% (95% CI 5.1-0.2), resting heart rate by 6.7 min(-1) (95% CI 10.3-3.0) and triglycerides by 16.9 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 28.1-5.6). Also, running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 7.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (95% CI 5.0-9.1) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 3.3 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 1.2-5.4). No significant effect was found for lean body mass, body mass index, total cholesterol and low

  14. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients’ transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients’ prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. Design An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Setting Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist’s PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist’s counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Results Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients’ daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. Conclusion The patients’ attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients’ daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients’ treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address

  15. From inactive to regular jogger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Brinkmann Løite, Vibeke; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    study was conducted using individual semi-structured interviews on how a successful long-term behavior change had been achieved. Ten informants were purposely selected from participants in the DANO-RUN research project (7 men, 3 women, average age 41.5). Interviews were performed on the basis of Theory...... of Planned Behavior (TPB) and The Transtheoretical Model (TTM). Coding and analysis of interviews were performed using NVivo 10 software. Results TPB: During the behavior change process, the intention to jogging shifted from a focus on weight loss and improved fitness to both physical health, psychological......Title From inactive to regular jogger - a qualitative study of achieved behavioral change among recreational joggers Authors Pernille Lund-Cramer & Vibeke Brinkmann Løite Purpose Despite extensive knowledge of barriers to physical activity, most interventions promoting physical activity have proven...

  16. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  17. Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors in Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in Korea: Higher Alcohol Drinking, Lower Smoking, and Physical Inactivity Pattern in Survivors with Higher Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeol; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eun Sook

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in cancer survivors and examined the sociodemographic factors affecting these health-related behaviors.We used data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2007 and 2012, which identified 1153 cancer cases and 36,451 people without a history of cancer ≥20 years of age. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information concerning cancer diagnosis, health-related behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics.The proportion of cancer survivors who were current drinkers, heavy drinkers, current smokers, or engaged in physical activity were 49.1, 9.0, 9.2, or 50.7%, respectively. Compared with people with no history of cancer, cancer survivors were less likely to be current drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.56), heavy drinkers (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.78), current smokers (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.24-0.55), or physically inactive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Cancer survivors with higher household incomes had higher odds of current drinking and heavy drinking (P trend = 0.039 and 0.033, respectively) and were less likely to be current smokers or physically inactive (P trend = 0.016 and 0.046, respectively). Age, sex, sites of cancer, and the time since diagnosis affected the health behaviors in cancer survivors. Furthermore, we confirmed that these unhealthy behaviors are interrelated.We found that household income had a bidirectional effect on health behaviors and confirmed an aggregation of unhealthy lifestyles. Identification of survivors vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles, focusing on household income level would allow intervention programs to be more effective.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  19. Amplitude mediated chimera states with active and inactive oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rupak; Sen, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    The emergence and nature of amplitude mediated chimera states, spatio-temporal patterns of co-existing coherent and incoherent regions, are investigated for a globally coupled system of active and inactive Ginzburg-Landau oscillators. The existence domain of such states is found to shrink and shift in parametric space with the increase in the fraction of inactive oscillators. The role of inactive oscillators is found to be twofold—they get activated to form a separate region of coherent oscillations and, in addition, decrease the common collective frequency of the coherent regions by their presence. The dynamical origin of these effects is delineated through a bifurcation analysis of a reduced model system that is based on a mean field approximation. Our results may have practical implications for the robustness of such states in biological or physical systems where age related deterioration in the functionality of components can occur.

  20. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  1. Inatividade física no lazer de adultos e fatores associados Inactividad física en ocio de adultos y factores asociados Leisure-time physical inactivity in adults and factors associated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Gaudencio Martins

    2009-10-01

    between leisure-time physical inactivity and sociodemographic factors and risk or protection factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases among adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study comprising adults aged 18 years and older (n = 1,996. Data was obtained from the Surveillance System for Risk Factors for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases (CNCDs, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey carried out in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, in 2005. There were studied sociodemographic, and behavioral protective and risk factors. Results of the multivariate analysis of the association between leisure-time physical inactivity and independent variables were expressed as prevalence ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.6% (47.3% among men, 61.4% among women. After adjustment, among men, higher physical inactivity was positively associated with older age, lower schooling, and inversely associated with working status; and lower physical inactivity was associated with alcohol abuse, regardless of age, schooling, and work status. Among women, higher leisure-time physical inactivity was positively associated with schooling (less than 12 years of education and working status. The analyses adjusted for schooling and work status showed higher physical inactivity among those women reporting consuming fruits and vegetables less than five times a day and whole milk. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with leisure-time physical inactivity were different among men and women. Among women, physical inactivity was associated to risk factors for chronic diseases, especially eating habits. Among men, physical inactivity was associated to sociodemographic factors.

  2. Physical Inactivity and Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kokkinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.

  3. A theory for fluidelastic instability of tube-support-plate-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.; Chandra, S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes, vibrating in a tube support plate (TSP)-inactive mode, is suspected to be one of the main causes of the tube failure in some operating steam generators and heat exchangers. This paper presents a mathematical model for fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes exposed to nonuniform crossflow. the model incorporates all motion-dependent fluid forces based on the unsteady-flow theory. In the unstable region associated with a TSP-inactive mode, tube motion can be described by two linear models: TSP-inactive mode when tubes do not strike the TSP, and TSP-active mode when tubes do strike the TSP. The bilinear model (consisting of these linear models) presented here simulates the characteristics of fluidelastic instability of loosely supported tubes in stable and unstable regions associated with TSP-inactive modes. Analytical results obtained with the model are compared with published experimental data; they agree reasonably well. The prediction procedure presented for the fluidelastic instability response of loosely supported tubes is applicable to the stable and unstable regions of the TSP-inactive mode

  4. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  5. Cardiovascular risk in active, insufficiently active and inactive users of public parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernades de Oliveira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p170 Physical activity has been recommended for heart disease prevention and rehabilitation. However, when performed incorrectly, which is more common when practiced without supervision and in public places, the risk of cardiovascular events increases. The objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular risk factors among users of São Paulo´s public parks with differing levels of physical activity – active, insuffi ciently active, and inactive. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire about cardiovascular diseases, symptoms and risk factors; physical activity practice; and anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements. There was no difference between the groups in terms of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease or controllable risk factors. However, inactive people had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms (35%. With regard to uncontrollable cardiovascular risk factors, there was a higher prevalence of the gender/age factor among active (50% and insuffi ciently active (45% subjects, and heredity was more prevalent among inactive people (35%. There was no difference in obesity or blood pressure between the groups. The study also showed that active and insuffi ciently active subjects have a better knowledge of their health status, and a higher prevalence of being prescribed physical activity by physicians. The results demonstrate that most of the people who exercise in public parks are elderly and are at a moderate to high cardiovascular risk from this practice, which suggests that a physical education professional should be present.

  6. Prevalência de inatividade física e fatores associados em estudantes do ensino médio de escolas públicas estaduais Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among high school students from state's public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio L. Ceschini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência de inatividade física e os fatores associados em estudantes do ensino médio de escolas públicas estaduais da cidade de São Paulo (SP. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente 16 escolas públicas estaduais considerando as regiões geográficas da cidade de São Paulo (norte, sul, leste e oeste. A amostra foi de 3.845 estudantes do ensino médio no ano de 2006. Inatividade física foi mensurada com o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ curto e definida como praticar atividade física moderada e/ou vigorosa por um período menor que 300 minutos por semana. As variáveis independentes analisadas foram: gênero, idade, nível socioeconômico, região geográfica da cidade de São Paulo, conhecimento do programa Agita São Paulo, participação nas aulas de educação física escolar, uso de tabaco, ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas e tempo diário assistindo televisão. Foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson com três níveis para entrada de variáveis, com nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among high school students from state's public schools in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Sixteen state's public schools were randomly selected according to the geographic areas of the city (North, South, East, and West. The sample consisted of 3,845 high school students in 2006. Physical inactivity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short IPAQ and was defined as practicing moderate and/or vigorous physical activity for a period of less than 300 minutes per week. The independent variables analyzed were: gender, age, socioeconomic level, geographic area of the city, awareness of the "Agita São Paulo" program, participation in physical education classes, smoking, alcohol intake and time spent per day watching television. Three-level Poisson regression was used for

  7. Association between leisure-time physical inactivity and hospital care in adult in the city of Salvador-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospital inpatient care is a significant source of expense for the healthcare system. In this study the objectivewas to verify the existence of an association between physical inactivity during free time (IFTL and IHTC (hospital admissionsfor whatever cause, due to cardiac problems (IHPC and diabetes (IHD in adults in the city of Salvador in Brazil. Thiswas a cross-sectional study of a sample of 2290 adults ≥ 20 years of age, 1021 (44.6% being men. Subjects were definedas IFTL if they stated that they did not take part in physical activity during leisure time, while hospital admissions wereself-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR between IFTL, IHTC, IHPC and IHDto a confidence interval of 95%. Multivariate analysis was then applied and detected an association between IFTL, IHTC,IHPC and IHD in men, while among the women there was only an association between IFTL and IHD. The results of thisstudy are of importance for public health, to the extent that they could be used to facilitate the management of programs toencourage participation in physical activities with a view to preventing hospital admissions and consequently to reducingthe costs to the health system.

  8. Association between leisure-time physical inactivity and hospital care in adult in the city of Salvador-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2008-01-01

    Hospital inpatient care is a significant source of expense for the healthcare system. In this study the objectivewas to verify the existence of an association between physical inactivity during free time (IFTL and IHTC (hospital admissions for whatever cause, due to cardiac problems (IHPC and diabetes (IHD in adults in the city of Salvador in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of 2290 adults ≥ 20 years of age, 1021 (44.6% being men. Subjects were defined as IFTL if they stated that they did not take part in physical activity during leisure time, while hospital admissions were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR between IFTL, IHTC, IHPC and IHD to a confidence interval of 95%. Multivariate analysis was then applied and detected an association between IFTL, IHTC, IHPC and IHD in men, while among the women there was only an association between IFTL and IHD. The results of this study are of importance for public health, to the extent that they could be used to facilitate the management of programs to encourage participation in physical activities with a view to preventing hospital admissions and consequently to reducing the costs to the health system.

  9. Invited Commentary: Little Steps Lead to Huge Steps-It's Time to Make Physical Inactivity Our Number 1 Public Health Enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(9):621-632) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices. The masses are already equipped to routinely quantify their activity, and now we have the opportunity and responsibility to provide evidenced-based, tailored physical activity goals. We have evidenced-based physical activity guidelines, mass distribution of devices to track activity, and now scientific support indicating that meeting the physical activity goal, as assessed by these devices, has substantial health benefits. All of the pieces are in place to make physical inactivity a national priority, and we now have the opportunity to positively affect the health of millions of Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [The association between physical inactivity and other behavioural risk factors of the development of chronic non-communicative diseases among the students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, A P; Arkhangel'skaya, A N; Pustovalov, D A; Rogoznaya, E V; Urakov, A L; Gurevich, K G

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between the physical inactivity and other behavioural risk factors of the development of chronic non- communicable diseases among the young persons. A total of 216 1-2 grade students at the mean age of 18.8±1.3 years including 136 women and 80 men educated at A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State Medical Stomatological University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, were recruited for the examination. The participants in the study were found to be at high risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases associated with their behavioral patterns, such as smoking and delivery (37.5% among the young men and 42.6% among the women). The bioimpedance observations revealed the augmentation of the body fat weight, the reduction of muscle mass, and the impairment of basal metabolism under the influence of hypodynamia that was also responsible for the change of homeostasis parameters revealed based on the results of the complete blood cell count. The sex-specific differences and those associated with physical activity were apparent in the prevalence of selected risk factors. The majority of the men characterized by the normal level of physical activity show the lowest occurrence of nutrition-related risk factors. However, it is the girls having no signs of hypodynamia that most frequently tend to calculate the nutritional value of their diet and follow the healthy meal strategies. The girls exhibiting the signs of physical inactivity present with the enlarged hip circumference whereas the hypodynamic men tend to show the enlarged waist circumference. The present study has demonstrated that nutritional motivation of the students depends on the level of their physical activity and smoking habits. Low physical activity appears to be responsible for the changes in the body composition and affects the parameters of homeostasis determined from the complete blood cell count. At the same time, the

  11. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  13. Physical activity among type-2 diabetic adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, Olufemi O; Odusan, Olatunde; Oritogun, Kolawole S; Idowu, Akolade O

    2014-01-01

    Regular participation in physical activity (PA) programs is a key concept included in current public health guidelines. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine PA level among adult with type 2 diabetes. A cross-section of 122 participants selected consecutively were categorized as physically inactive or active using International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data was assessed using descriptive and inferential statistics. About 31% of the respondents were physically inactive. Residential areas were significantly associated with PA. A high proportion of those who lived in the metropolitan area were physically inactive. Less likely to be physically inactive were married (odds ratios [OR] =0.29, confidence interval [CI] =0.09-0.93) and living in an urban area (OR = 0.19, CI = 0.40-0.87). The degree holders are least physically inactive while the primary school leavers are highest. The median energy expenditure for walking, moderate and vigorous PA was 280.5, 80 and 0 MET-min/week respectively. The sedentary behavior of the respondents was 288 min/day, behavior which increases with age. This study suggests that the prevalence of physical inactivity was high among type 2 diabetics and their sedentary behavior is over 4 h/day. This group of people should be encouraged to participate regularly in PA.

  14. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  15. Supporting healthcare professionals to encourage patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Barbara Sassen

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of cardiovascular diseases are substantial and include increasing numbers of morbidity and mortality. With a population getting more and more inactive and having a sedentary lifestyle, the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rises. This dissertation reports on people

  16. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13?15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking ...

  17. Validation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The results of many studies confirm the positive effect of physical activity during pregnancy on the health of both mother and child. Due to this, it is important to use standardised methods of its assessment. In 2004, Chasan-Taber et al. developed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, taking into account household/caregiving activities, occupational activities, sports/exercise activities, transportation activities, and inactivity. Aim of the research : The validation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ by determination of its reproducibility. Material and methods : The questionnaire was validated from June 2014 to February 2015 among 164 women. The respondents were surveyed twice in a 2-week interval. The repeatability of the questionnaire was verified by determining the Pearson correlation coefficient between the results obtained for the same people in the first and second interview, thus determining the intra-subject variability. Inter-subject variability was analysed by comparing the average values of physical activity for the whole group using the Student’s t-test for dependent samples. Results : For all levels of physical activity, a high correlation between the results obtained in both interviews was found. The correlation coefficient for total physical activity was r = 0.96. The reproducibility of the results obtained from PPAQ questionnaire was the highest for inactivity and moderate activity (r = 0.96. The analysis according to the type of activity showed that the reproducibility was the highest for occupational activity (r = 0.98. Conclusions : High reproducibility of results obtained using PPAQ questionnaire was found. This allows the assessed questionnaire to be considered as an accurate measurement tool that can be a source of reliable information about physical activity in pregnant women.

  18. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Health Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop a hormonal imbalance What are the health risks of an inactive lifestyle? Having an inactive lifestyle ... By not getting regular exercise, you raise your risk of Obesity Heart diseases, including coronary artery disease ...

  20. High carbohydrate diet and physical inactivity associated with central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-08-23

    Prevalence of obesity and overweight is rising in developing countries, including Sri Lanka at a rapid pace due to dietary and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the association between high carbohydrate diet, physical inactivity and central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. A sample of 100 premenopausal women with home duties aged between 20 to 45 years were selected randomly from two divisional secretariats (DS), representing urban and rural sectors in Sri Lanka. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. We defined central obesity as a waist circumference ≥80 cm, which is the WHO recommended cut-off. Independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to find out the relationship and the magnitude of association between central obesity and percentage of energy contributed from carbohydrate and physical activity level, respectively. The women reported an average of 18 starch portions per day, which was well above the national recommendations. Seventy percent of energy in the diet came from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and waist circumference of total sample was 25.4 kgm-2 and 78.5 cm, respectively. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and centrally obesity among total sample was 38%, 34% and 45%, respectively. A significant positive correlation observed between high carbohydrate diet and waist circumference (r = 0.628, p household level to reverse this trend among the housewives in Sri Lanka.

  1. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V; Graugaard, Christian; Frisch, Morten

    2011-07-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting. To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex. We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women. Obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men ≥102 cm; women ≥88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85). In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier

  2. THREATS OF NEW GENERATION ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN ALBANIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel Jarani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decline in physical activity levels of young children appears to be increased and combined with a high prevalence of obesity in Europe (Wang and Lim, 2012; Lobstein et al., 2004. With the ever-increasing interest in exploring the actual level of children’s physical activity in Albania, a study was carried out aiming to obtain the actual level on physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 9003 children aged 7-year-old to 15-year-old (4513 boys and 4490 girls. The PAQ-C questionnaire was validated in Albanian language and used to assess the current level of PA. Results: The results showed that 42.7% of children fell below the normal level of PA (inactivity. Data split by gender showed a higher percentage of inactivity among girls (49.6% compared to boys (36%. Finally, the results revealed a higher percentage of inactive children living in rural areas (49.2% compared to children in urban areas (45.4%. Discussion: In conclusion, the high percentage of inactive children poses a threat for increased obesity in Albanian children. Another concern emphasized the inactivity in rural areas due to the changes of their lifestyle and behavior. References: Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R and Isoiot (2004. Obes Rev, 5 (Suppl 1, 4–104. Wang Y and Lim H (2012. Int Rev Psychiatry, 24(3, 176–88.

  3. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  4. Step by step: The feasibility of a 16-week workplace lunchtime walking intervention for physically inactive employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Loughren, Elizabeth; Duda, Joan; Fox, Kenneth Richard

    2014-09-01

    A 16-week lunchtime walking intervention was designed to increase physical activity in physically inactive University employees. The program was delivered and monitored twice over 7 months to examine feasibility across different seasons. Seventy-five participants (n = 69 females, n = 6 males; mean age = 47.68) were randomly allocated into a Winter (February start) or Spring group (May start). Participants were asked to complete 3 weekday lunchtime walks and 2 weekend walks. Weeks 1 to 10 were led by walk leaders (group phase) while the participants self-organized their walks during weeks 11 to 16 (independent phase). Yamax pedometers recorded daily step counts and walk group leaders recorded participant attendance in the group phase. Acceptability was assessed via a satisfaction survey and 2 focus groups with participants. A participant pool representative by ethnicity, but not gender was recruited using a range of strategies. The program demonstrated good retention across both groups (73%). The intervention was acceptable to participants. More steps were accumulated in the group-led versus the independent phase. The intervention is feasible in this workplace setting across different seasonal periods. In the future, researchers should examine if the findings can be replicated in a definitive trial and generalize to other workplace settings.

  5. Assessment of physical activity and inactivity in multiple domains of daily life: a comparison between a computerized questionnaire and the SenseWear Armband complemented with an electronic diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheers Tineke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although differences between paper-and-pencil questionnaires and accelerometers have been reported for overall physical activity and time spent in moderate and vigorous activity, few studies have looked at domain-specific behavior. This study compared estimates of domain-specific physical (inactivity obtained with the Flemish physical activity computerized questionnaire (FPACQ with those obtained from a combination of the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the correspondence between the two methods varied with gender and age. Methods Data were obtained from 442 Flemish adults (41.4±9.8 years. Physical activity was questioned with the FPACQ and measured for seven consecutive days using the SenseWear Armband together with an electronic activity diary (SWD. Analogous variables were calculated from the FPACQ and SWD. Mean differences and associations between FPACQ and SWD outcomes were examined with paired t-tests and Pearson correlations. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess the level of agreement between the two methods. Main effects and interaction of gender and age groups (20–34; 35–49; 50–64 years on differences between FPACQ and SWD outcomes were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs. Results All parameters of the FPACQ were significantly correlated with SWD assessments (r = 0.21 to 0.65. Reported activity was significantly different from SWD-obtained values for all parameters, except screen time. Physical activity level, total energy expenditure and time spent in vigorous activities were significantly higher (+0.14 MET, +25.09 METhours·week-1 and +1.66 hours·week-1, respectively, and moderate activities and sedentary behavior significantly lower (-5.20 and -25.01 hours·week-1, respectively with the FPACQ compared to SWD. Time and energy expenditure of job activities and active transport were significantly higher, while household chores, motorized transport

  6. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  7. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-09-06

    Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m 2 and a pant waist size of >38'. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (reference no H

  8. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  9. The inaction effect in the psychology of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Bos, Kees; van Dijk, Eric; Pieters, Rik

    2002-03-01

    Previous research showed that decisions to act (i.e., actions) produce more regret than decisions not to act (i.e., inactions). This previous research focused on decisions made in isolation and ignored that decisions are often made in response to earlier outcomes. The authors show in 4 experiments that these prior outcomes may promote action and hence make inaction more abnormal. They manipulated information about a prior outcome. As hypothesized, when prior outcomes were positive or absent, people attributed more regret to action than to inaction. However, as predicted and counter to previous research, following negative prior outcomes, more regret was attributed to inaction, a finding that the authors label the inaction effect. Experiment 4, showing differential effects for regret and disappointment, demonstrates the need for emotion-specific predictions.

  10. [The CHILT I project (Children's Health Interventional Trial). A multicomponent intervention to prevent physical inactivity and overweight in primary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, C; Dordel, S

    2011-03-01

    Child and juvenile obesity is increasing worldwide; therefore, effective preventive strategies are warranted. The stepwise project CHILT (Children's Health Interventional Trial) was initiated in 2000 and combines in its multicomponent school-based arm CHILT I health education and physical activity for primary school children to prevent physical inactivity and overweight. The effect on obesity and physical performance was studied in 12 primary schools (intervention schools, IS) compared with 5 control schools (CS). Anthropometric data were recorded. Physical performance was measured by a coordination test for children (the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder", KTK) and the 6-minute run. Anthropometric and motoric data of 436 children in IS (55.0% of the population) and 179 children in CS (62.8%) were available at baseline and at follow-up. No difference in the incidence of overweight was found between the IS and CS after 4 years of intervention. Remission of overweight was higher in IS (23.2% versus 19.2%), but not significant. The increase in BMI was significantly lower in IS, in which the program was regularly performed. There was an improvement in selected items of the KTK in IS. In particular, endurance performance tended to be higher at final examination. School-based preventive intervention seems to have a positive influence on physical motor skills and the remission of overweight. To optimize the effects, a consistent and quality assured implementation and the integration of the children's whole environment are warranted.

  11. Temperament, poczucie własnej skuteczności i jakość życia kobiet regularnie uprawiających sport w porównaniu z kobietami nieaktywnymi fizycznie = Temperament, self-efficacy and quality of life of women regularly doing sport in comparison with physically inactive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grześkowiak

    2016-06-01

    Abstract Introduction and purpose The aim of the work was to analyse the differences in subjective quality of life and its domains and, moreover, in the field of temperamental traits and self-efficacy between the women regularly doing sport in comparison to those who do not. The impact of temperament and self-efficacy on the quality of life was also verified. Material and method The research was carried out on two groups of females: 35 active and 35 physically inactive (doing no sports whatsoever. Participants completed self-description questionnaires: Quality of Life Questionnaire, EAS Temperament Questionnaire, SES Self-Efficacy Scale and the form of demographic and sport details. Results Active women had higher self-efficacy and better assessed each of domains of the quality of life than inactive women. More than 57% of inactive women wanted to improve their physical condition. It was shown also that physical activity through self-efficacy improvement can positively influence subjective quality of life. In the field of temperamental traits, active women were characterized by significantly lower emotionality-distress than inactive women. When emotionality-distress decreased with the presence of physical activity, the person's quality of life increased. Conclusions Doing sport is conductive to experiencing of positive changes in one's life. This may result in higher self-efficacy which allows women to think better about themselves and more effectively reach goals that are important for the quality of life.   Keywords: quality of life, temperament, self-efficacy, physical activity, sport.

  12. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity......, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or manifest cardiovascular diseases. Aim To provide recommendations of levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases. Methods In accord with the Preferred Reporting Items...... intensity 4 times per week. Overall, weekly exercise of 160 minutes for 6 months contributes to decreasing erectile problems in men with ED caused by physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases....

  13. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  14. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  15. Using Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus, Physical Inactivity, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hasan; Kamal, Ayeesha K; Sayani, Saleem; Morris, Pamela B; Merchant, Anwar T; Virani, Salim S

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular mortality remains high due to insufficient progress made in managing cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, and smoking. Healthy lifestyle choices play an important role in the management of these modifiable risk factors. Mobile health or mHealth is defined as the use of mobile computing and communication technologies (i.e., mobile phones, wearable sensors) for the delivery of health services and health-related information. In this review, we examine some recent studies that utilized mHealth tools to improve management of these risk factors, with examples from developing countries where available. The mHealth intervention used depends on the availability of resources. While developing countries are often restricted to text messages, more resourceful settings are shifting towards mobile phone applications and wearable technology. Diabetes mellitus has been extensively studied in different settings, and results have been encouraging. Tools utilized to increase physical activity are expensive, and studies have been limited to resource-abundant areas and have shown mixed results. Smoking cessation has had promising initial results with the use of technology, but mHealth's ability to recruit participants beyond those actively seeking to quit has not been established. mHealth interventions appear to be a potential tool in improving control of cardiovascular risk factors that rely on individuals making healthy lifestyle choices. Data related to clinical impact, if any, of commercially available tools is lacking. More studies are needed to assess interventions that target multiple cardiovascular risk factors and their impact on hard cardiovascular outcomes.

  16. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B

    2017-01-01

    middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post......The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive.......2±0.2 mmol·L(-1) ) and HDL cholesterol increased more (0.2±0.7 vs -0.2±0.2 mmol·L(-1) ) in SOC than in CON (Ptraining resulted...

  17. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Ppilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  18. Muscle inactivity and activity patterns after sedentary time--targeted randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2014-11-01

    Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.

  19. Model and Reduction of Inactive Times in a Maintenance Workshop Following a Diagnostic Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Beda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of maintenance workshops in manufacturing factories are hierarchical. This arrangement permits quick response in advent of a breakdown. Reaction of the maintenance workshop is done by evaluating the characteristics of the breakdown. In effect, a diagnostic error at a given level of the process of decision making delays the restoration of normal operating state. The consequences are not just financial loses, but loss in customers’ satisfaction as well. The goal of this paper is to model the inactive time of a maintenance workshop in case that an unpredicted catalectic breakdown has occurred and a diagnostic error has also occurred at a certain level of decision-making, during the treatment process of the breakdown. We show that the expression for the inactive times obtained, is depended only on the characteristics of the workshop. Next, we propose a method to reduce the inactive times.

  20. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity and associated factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Douglas Fernando; Loch, Mathias Roberto; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity in teenagers and to examine the possible association of these barriers with leisure-time physical inactivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and a representative sample of 1,409 high school students from public schools in the city of Londrina/Paraná was selected through multistage sampling. For data collection, the adolescents completed a questionnaire. The relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity (barriers was analyzed by calculating the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression models. "Lack of friends company" was the most prevalent barrier for both girls (75.8%) and boys (58.7%). "Feel lazy" for girls (PR: 1.21; CI 95%: 1.08 to 1.36) and "prefer to do other things" for the boys (PR: 1.48; CI 95%: 1.01 to 2.15) were the barriers most strongly associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. For both genders, a strong dose-response relationship was observed between the number of perceived barriers and leisure-time physical inactivity. The perception of barriers was associated with a higher prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in adolescents and should therefore be considered in actions for promoting physical activity in this population.The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity in teenagers and to examine the possible association of these barriers with leisure-time physical inactivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 and a representative sample of 1,409 high school students from public schools in the city of Londrina/Paraná was selected through multistage sampling. For data collection, the adolescents completed a questionnaire. The relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity (barriers was analyzed by calculating the prevalence ratio (PR) in Poisson regression models. "Lack of friends company" was the most

  1. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity.

  2. Physical activity and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadzov-Nikolic Aleksandra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity in postmenopausal women can slow bone loss and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Purpose: Analysis of the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in relation to physical activity. Methods: This paper represents a retrospective multicenter study of postmenopausal women with newly found osteoporosis from August 2008 until November 2011. All data concerning the patients were taken from the National Register for Osteoporosis. Patients were divided into two groups: in the first group were physically active and in the second, physically inactive patients. Physical activity included dancing, active or recreational sports, fast walking, running, jumping and lifting. Results: The study included 363 respondents, mean age 64.4 ± 8.6 years, of whom 155 (42.7% were physically active, and 208 (57.3% physically inactive. 86 (23.7% patients had spontaneous single fractures, 23 (14.8% in the physically active group and 63 (30.3% in the physically inactive group, which was statistically significant difference in frequency (p = 0.001. Respondents with multiple spontaneous fractures were separated in a special group and were not included in the above analysis. 21 patients had spontaneous multiple fractures, of whom 4 (2.5% physically active and 17 (7.55% physically inactive, which was statistically significant difference in frequency (p = 0.032. Conclusion: Spontaneous single and multiple fractures are significantly more frequent with physically inactive subjects.

  3. Variation in the Gender Gap in Inactive and Active Life Expectancy by the Definition of Inactivity Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Ajay, Shweta; Ma, Stefan; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    To assess variation in gender gap (female-male) in inactive life expectancy (IALE) and active life expectancy (ALE) by definition of inactivity. Inactivity, among older Singaporeans, was defined as follows: Scenario 1-health-related difficulty in activities of daily living (ADLs); Scenario 2-health-related difficulty in ADLs/instrumental ADLs (IADLs); Scenario 3-health-related difficulty in ADLs/IADLs or non-health-related non-performance of IADLs. Multistate life tables computed IALE and ALE at age 60, testing three hypotheses: In all scenarios, life expectancy, absolute and relative IALE, and absolute ALE are higher for females (Hypothesis 1 [H1]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE expands, and in absolute ALE, it contracts in Scenario 2 versus 1 (Hypothesis 2 [H2]); gender gap in absolute and relative IALE decreases, and in absolute ALE, it increases in Scenario 3 versus 2 (Hypothesis 3 [H3]). H1 was supported in Scenarios 1 and 3 but not Scenario 2. Both H2 and H3 were supported. Definition of inactivity influences gender gap in IALE and ALE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Physical (in)activity and depression in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink-Vossen, S.; Collard, R.M.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.; de Vocht, H.M.; Naarding, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about characteristics explaining low level of physical activity in late-life depression is needed to develop specific interventions aimed at improving physical health in depressed people above the age of 60. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Netherlands Study

  5. Smoking and physical inactivity increase cancer prevalence in BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutation carriers: results from a retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Sabine; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Dukatz, Ricarda; Lammert, Jacqueline; Ullrich, Mirjam; Engel, Christoph; Pfeifer, Katharina; Basrai, Maryam; Siniatchkin, Michael; Schmidt, Thorsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Schmutzler, Rita; Bischoff, Stephan C; Halle, Martin; Kiechle, Marion

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this analysis in a pilot study population was to investigate whether we can verify seemingly harmful lifestyle factors such as nicotine and alcohol indulgence, obesity, and physical inactivity, as well as a low socioeconomic status for increased cancer prevalence in a cohort of BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. The analysis data are derived from 68 participants of the lifestyle intervention study LIBRE-1, a randomized, prospective trial that aimed to test the feasibility of a lifestyle modification in BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. At study entry, factors such as medical history, lifestyle behavior, and socioeconomic status were retrospectively documented by interview and the current BMI was determined by clinical examination. The baseline measurements were compared within the cohort, and presented alongside reference values for the German population. Study participants indicating a higher physical activity during their adolescence showed a significantly lower cancer prevalence (p = 0.019). A significant difference in cancer occurrence was observed in those who smoked prior to the disease, and those who did not smoke (p physical activity level than diseased mutation carriers (p = 0.046). The present data in this small cohort of 68 mutation carriers suggest that smoking and low physical activity during adolescence are risk factors for developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Further data of the ongoing LIBRE 2 study are necessary to confirm these findings in a larger cohort of 600 mutation carriers.

  6. 38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Considerations Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.372 Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When... tuberculosis and there is satisfactory evidence that the condition was active previously but is now inactive...

  7. Accelerometer profiles of physical activity and inactivity in normal weight, overweight, and obese U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Brashear, Meghan M; Johnson, William D; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-08-03

    The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to describe an accelerometer-derived physical activity/inactivity profile in normal weight (BMI /= 30 kg/m2) U.S. adults. We computed physical activity volume indicators (activity counts/day, uncensored and censored steps/day), rate indicators (e.g., steps/minute), time indicators (employing NHANES activity counts/minute cut points to infer time in non-wear, sedentary, low, light, moderate, and vigorous intensities), the number of breaks in sedentary time (occasions when activity counts rose from /= 100 activity counts in the subsequent minute), achievement of public health guidelines, and classification by step-defined physical activity levels. Data were examined for evidence of consistent and significant gradients across BMI-defined categories. In 2005-2006, U.S adults averaged 6,564 +/- SE 107 censored steps/day, and after considering non-wear time, they spent approximately 56.8% of the rest of the waking day in sedentary time, 23.7% in low intensity, 16.7% in light intensity, 2.6% in moderate intensity, and 0.2% in vigorous intensity. Overall, approximately 3.2% of U.S. adults achieved public health guidelines. The normal weight category took 7,190 +/- SE 157 steps/day, and spent 25.7 +/- 0.9 minutes/day in moderate intensity and 7.3 +/- 0.4 minutes/day in vigorous intensity physical activity. The corresponding numbers for the overweight category were 6,879 +/- 140 steps/day, 25.3 +/- 0.9 minutes/day, and 5.3 +/- 0.5 minutes/day and for the obese category 5,784 +/- 124 steps/day, 17.3 +/- 0.7 minutes/day and 3.2 +/- 0.4 minutes/day. Across BMI categories, increasing gradients and significant trends were apparent in males for sedentary time and decreasing gradients and significant trends were evident in time spent in light intensity, moderate intensity, and vigorous intensity. For females, there were only consistent gradients and significant trends apparent for decreasing amounts of

  8. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  9. Long Term Inactive Well Program requirements : interim directive ID 97-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and the petroleum industry have agreed that industry must take proactive measures to reduce the number of long term inactive wells in Alberta. This interim directive outlines the requirements of the Long Term Inactive Well Program, and provides a schedule for industry to reduce the number of inactive wells. EUB estimates that there are currently 35,000 inactive wells in Alberta, 10,000 of which have been inactive for more than 10 consecutive years. These wells pose a financial risk to the Abandonment Fund which was established to help fund the abandonment of orphan wells. The Long Term Inactive Well Program was created based on the recommendations of a joint government/industry committee, and will operate for five years. 5 tabs

  10. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  11. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was p = 0.05. High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003), education (p = 0.004), and income (p = 0.003). The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5%) and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%). Respondents with secondary school education (31.6%) are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%), the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%), people who earn less (34.1%) are inactive almost twice as often. Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers of employers to promote healthy lifestyle, management of

  12. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Suchyta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7, the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1.

  13. Watch and Wait Management of Inactive Cystic Echinococcosis - Does the Path to Inactivity Matter - Analysis of a Prospective Patient Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojkovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are rarely discussed in the context of NTDs despite their relevance for patients under the care of health services with limited resources where the risks of therapy induced complications are often disproportionate to the benefit. The advantages of cyst staging-based management of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE are not yet fully explored. Questions are: Do inactive cysts (CE 4 and CE 5 need treatment and is there a difference between cysts which reach CE4 and CE5 naturally or by benzimidazole therapy?Analysis of long-term follow-up data from a prospective CE patient cohort of 223 patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis. The event of interest "relapse" was defined as the reversal of a cyst from an inactive stage (CE4, CE5 back to an active stage. The watch &wait (ww group included 30 patients with 46 inactive cysts who never received medical treatment. The benzimidazole-treated (med group included 15 patients with 17 cysts. There was no relapse in the ww-group whereas 8/17 cysts showed relapse within 18 months after treatment in the med-group. Loss to follow-up was 15.5%.Data from the watch & wait group impressively show how stable naturally inactivated cysts are in contrast to cysts which reach inactivity through treatment with benzimidazoles. A substantial proportion of patients can be spared from treatment through cyst staging. Cysts which inactivated through a natural course do not relapse with very high likelihood. We recommend follow up of 5 years to confirm the stability of the inactive stage. Cysts driven into inactivity through benzimidazole therapy instead need careful monitoring to identify those which reactivate (around 50% within 18 months. 5 years follow-up appears safe to make a final decision on the need for further monitoring.

  14. LLAMA: nuclear stellar properties of Swift-BAT AGN and matched inactive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Davies, R. I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Koss, M.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-02-01

    In a complete sample of local 14-195 keV selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and inactive galaxies, matched by their host galaxy properties, we study the spatially resolved stellar kinematics and luminosity distributions at near-infrared wavelengths on scales of 10-150 pc, using SINFONI on the VLT. In this paper, we present the first half of the sample, which comprises 13 galaxies, eight AGNs and five inactive galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show a disc-like rotating pattern, for which the kinematic position angle is in agreement with the photometric position angle obtained from large scale images. For this set of galaxies, the stellar surface brightness of the inactive galaxy sample is generally comparable to the matched sample of AGN, but extends to lower surface brightness. After removal of the bulge contribution, we find a nuclear stellar light excess with an extended nuclear disc structure, which exhibits a size-luminosity relation. While we expect the excess luminosity to be associated with a dynamically cooler young stellar population, we do not typically see a matching drop in dispersion. This may be because these galaxies have pseudo-bulges in which the intrinsic dispersion increases towards the centre. And although the young stars may have an impact in the observed kinematics, their fraction is too small to dominate over the bulge and compensate the increase in dispersion at small radii, so no dispersion drop is seen. Finally, we find no evidence for a difference in the stellar kinematics and nuclear stellar luminosity excess between these active and inactive galaxies.

  15. Leisure-time physical inactivity among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Vasconcelos Rocha

    2018-01-01

    adherence to physical activity during leisure time among workers, especially among the most vulnerable groups (people with higher education and women, given the benefits of this behavior to health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3:251–260

  16. Inactive Publics: The Forgotten Publics in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Notes that recent public relations theory has largely ignored inactive publics, stakeholder groups that demonstrate low levels of knowledge and involvement in the organization or its products, services, candidates, or causes, but are important to an organization. Examines the nature of inactive publics and proposes a model that locates inactive…

  17. Does leisure-time physical activity attenuate or eliminate the positive association between obesity and high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Gerage, Aline M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Szwarcwald, Célia L; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Danilo R

    2018-04-25

    We examine the joint association of weight status and leisure-time physical activity on high blood pressure in a nationally representative sample of adults and older adults in Brazil. This was a national cross-sectional survey conducted in Brazil in 2013 (Brazilian Health Survey). The sample consisted of 59 402 participants (56% women, aged 18 to 100 years). Outcome was objectively assessed blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI) was objectively measured, while self-reported information on leisure-time physical activity, TV viewing, chronological age, race, educational status, tobacco smoking, sodium consumption, and hypertension medication was obtained using questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratio was conducted to test the joint association of BMI and leisure-time physical activity categories on high blood pressure. Overall, compared to normal weight (NW) and physically active group, the NW/inactive (OR = 1.28; 1.04 to 1.58), overweight/active (OR = 1.38; 1.08 to 1.78), overweight/inactive (OR = 1.89; 1.53 to 2.33), obese/active (OR = 2.19; 1.59 to 3.01) and obese/inactive (OR = 2.54; 2.05 to 3.15) groups were 28% to 254% more likely to have high blood pressure. The attenuation and high blood pressure was greater for women and adults than for men and older adults. Thus, leisure-time physical inactivity and being overweight and obesity were associated with high blood pressure in Brazilian population. Engaging in sufficient level of physical activity during leisure could attenuate, but not eliminate, the negative influence of obesity on high blood pressure in Brazilian adults and older adults. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  19. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  20. Aspects of self differ among physically active and inactive youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore connection between aspects of self and levels of physical activity among adolescents. An international sample of 501 elementary school students (mean age 14.7 ± 0.9 years, 48.5% males) from the Slovak and Czech Republics completed the Self-competence/Self-liking Scale, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and a question on their physical activity. Respondents were divided into three groups: (1) no physical activity; (2) infrequent physical activity; (3) everyday physical activity. Data were explored with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) separately for each gender. Boys with no physical activity had lower self-liking and social self-efficacy in comparison with boys with everyday physical activity. Girls with no physical activity had lower positive self-esteem, self-liking, self-competence, general and social self-efficacy and higher negative self-esteem in comparison with girls with infrequent and everyday physical activity. Regular physical activity is connected with psychological aspects of self among adolescents, especially girls. Incorporating physical activity into the life of youths on a regular basis might lead to the enhancement of their feelings of self-worth and self-efficacy.

  1. Measuring the Physical Activity Practices Used by Parents of Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Amber; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.

    2013-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in shaping children’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors, including those around physical activity and inactivity. Our ability to identify which practices effectively promote children’s physical activity and limit inactivity is limited by existing measurement instruments. This project will present a newly developed physical activity parenting practices survey, the psychometric properties of this survey’s scales, and their association with child physical activity and...

  2. Poverty, urbanisation, physical inactivity and health in African societies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... health, social and psychological benefits of engaging in sufficient, regular physical activities. ... The recreational alternatives brought about by technological advances especially in the ...

  3. A systematic review of school-based eHealth interventions targeting alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, diet, sedentary behaviour and sleep among adolescents: a review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Spring, Bonnie; Wafford, Q Eileen; Parmenter, Belinda J; Teesson, Maree

    2017-12-06

    Six key behavioural risk factors (risky alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy sleep patterns) have been identified as strong determinants of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers. School-based interventions targeting these multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents have the potential to halt the trajectory towards later disease, whilst online and mobile technology interventions offer advantages in terms of student engagement, reach and scalability. Despite this, the efficacy of eHealth school-based interventions targeting these six health risk behaviours among adolescents has not been evaluated. The proposed systematic review aims to address this by determining the nature and efficacy of existing eHealth school-based interventions targeting multiple health risk behaviours among adolescents. A systematic search of the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases will be conducted to identify eligible published papers. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, including cluster randomised controlled trials, of interventions targeting two or more of the following lifestyle risk behaviours: alcohol use, smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and sleep. Eligible studies will be those evaluating interventions delivered in a secondary school setting among participants 11-18 years of age, via an eHealth platform (Internet, computers of mobile technology). Two reviewers will independently screen studies for eligibility, extract data and assess the risk of bias. Study outcomes will be summarised in a narrative synthesis, and meta-analyses will be conducted where it is appropriate to combine studies. It is anticipated that the results from this review will serve to inform the development of future eHealth multiple health behaviour interventions for adolescents by identifying common characteristics of effective programs and highlighting

  4. Excesso de peso e inatividade física em crianças moradoras de favelas na região metropolitana do Recife, PE Overweight and physical inactivity in children living in favelas in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Bezerra Alves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a frequência de excesso de peso em crianças de favelas na cidade do Recife, PE, e sua associação com inatividade física. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal em duas favelas do Recife (Fragoso e Caranguejo, com população total de 9.315 habitantes, sendo 973 crianças na faixa etária compreendida entre 7 e 10 anos, das quais 733 foram incluídas no estudo. Foram consideradas com sobrepeso e obesidade aquelas crianças com índice de massa corporal acima dos percentis 85 e 95, respectivamente, de acordo com as curvas e as tabelas de percentis do Centro de Controle e Prevenção de Doenças (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado através do questionário de atividade física para crianças, aplicado às crianças na presença das mães. Foram consideradas fisicamente ativas as crianças com escore > 3 e sedentárias aquelas com escores OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with physical activity levels in children living in favelas in the city of Recife, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 973 children ranging from 7 to 10 years old, all from two favelas in Recife, Fragoso and Caranguejo (total population of 9,315; of the 973 children assessed, 733 were included in the study. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI equal to or above the 85th percentile, and obesity as BMI equal to or above the 95th percentile, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Physical activity level was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C. Children with scores > 3 were considered active, while those with scores < 3 were considered inactive. RESULTS: Of the 733 children studied, overweight and obesity were observed in 92 (12.6%. There was no statistical association between physical inactivity and sex, income, maternal schooling, number of

  5. Physical fitness and levels of physical activity in people with severe mental illness: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Vera-Garcia, Elisa; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is a crucial variable in people with severe mental illness as these people could be more independent and improve their job opportunities. The present study compared the physical fitness of physically active and inactive people with severe mental illness. Physical fitness was evaluated in sixty-two people with severe mental illness using 11 physical tests that include strength, flexibility, balance and aerobic condition. Significant differences were found between both groups in muscle strength (handgrip test) and balance (single leg balance test and functional reach) with better performance in the group of physically active people. The results of the present study suggest that physical fitness (strength and balance) is higher in people with severe mental illness who practise regular physical activity that those who are inactive people. Physical active people may have a reduced risk of falls and fractures due to their higher levels of physical fitness.

  6. Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Wijesinghe, Namal

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females) was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P degree (P benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.

  7. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP, a longitudinal study assessing social changes in a representative sample of Swiss households since 1999. Methods Data is collected yearly using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Information is obtained from each household member over 14 years of age. Participants between 14 and 24 years entering the SHP between 1999 and 2006 were included (N = 3,068. "Inactive" was defined as less than 1 day/week of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, "no sport" as exercising less than once a week. Age, gender, nationality, linguistic region, household income, education, membership in a sport club, reading, and Internet use were included as potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior change. Results In both young men and young women, the prevalence of inactivity, "no sport", and non-membership in a sport club was increasing with age. Women were less active than men of the same age. From one wave to the following, 11.1% of young men and 12.1% of young women became active, and 11.9% of men and 13.7% of women became inactive, respectively (pooled data over all eight waves. Non-membership in a sport club was the strongest predictor for "no sport" (ORmen 6.7 [4.9-8.9]; ORwomen 8.1 [5.7-11.4], but also for being inactive (OR 4.6 [3.5-6.0]; 4.6 [3.3-6.4]. Leaving a sport club (OR 7.8 [4.4-14.0]; 11.9 [5.9-24.1] and remaining non-member (OR 7.8 [4.7-12.9]; 12.4 [6.4-24.1] were the strongest predictors of becoming "no sport". Effects for becoming inactive were

  8. "No Time to Play": Perceptions toward Physical Activity in Youth with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Schneiderman, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Although physical activity may reduce lung function decline in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF), most patients are inactive. Little is known about why youth with CF are inactive or how to facilitate physical activity. This study explored perceptions toward physical activity in 14 youth with CF at a Canadian Hospital. Qualitative interviews were…

  9. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  10. Consequences of physical inactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Boezen, H Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2010-01-01

    The many health benefits of regular physical activity underline the importance of this topic, especially in this period of time when the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in the population is increasing. Physical activity levels are especially low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  11. [Occupational sedentary behaviors and physical activity at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Ferrières, Jean; Esquirol, Yolande

    Sedentary behaviors are a leading cause of preventable mortality in developed countries. We mainly have sedentary behaviors at work. Sedentary behaviors must be considered as an occupational risk, and therefore must be a major concern for managers and physicians/health researchers. Recreational physical activity only partly compensates for the negative effects of physical inactivity at work. Physical activity at work without excess (walking, standing) is beneficial. Initiatives to reduce physical inactivity and increase physical activity among employees are effective in terms of mental health, physical health, and productivity. Prevention of sedentary behaviors at work is a win-win partnership between employers and employees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Average inactivity time model, associated orderings and reliability properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayid, M.; Izadkhah, S.; Abouammoh, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a new model called 'average inactivity time model'. This new model is specifically applicable to handle the heterogeneity of the time of the failure of a system in which some inactive items exist. We provide some bounds for the mean average inactivity time of a lifespan unit. In addition, we discuss some dependence structures between the average variable and the mixing variable in the model when original random variable possesses some aging behaviors. Based on the conception of the new model, we introduce and study a new stochastic order. Finally, to illustrate the concept of the model, some interesting reliability problems are reserved.

  13. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  14. Physical activity counseling in primary care : Insights from public health and behavioral economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuval, Kerem; Leonard, Tammy; Drope, Jeffrey; Katz, David L.; Patel, Alpa V.; Maitin-Shepard, Melissa; Amir, On; Grinstein, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity has reached epidemic proportions in modern society. Abundant evidence points to a causal link between physical inactivity and increased risk for numerous noncommunicable diseases, such as some types of cancer and heart disease, as well as premature mortality. Yet, despite this

  15. When Action-Inaction Framing Leads to Higher Escalation of Commitment: A New Inaction-Effect Perspective on the Sunk-Cost Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2018-04-01

    Escalation of commitment to a failing course of action occurs in the presence of (a) sunk costs, (b) negative feedback that things are deviating from expectations, and (c) a decision between escalation and de-escalation. Most of the literature to date has focused on sunk costs, yet we offer a new perspective on the classic escalation-of-commitment phenomenon by focusing on the impact of negative feedback. On the basis of the inaction-effect bias, we theorized that negative feedback results in the tendency to take action, regardless of what that action may be. In four experiments, we demonstrated that people facing escalation-decision situations were indeed action oriented and that framing escalation as action and de-escalation as inaction resulted in a stronger tendency to escalate than framing de-escalation as action and escalation as inaction (mini-meta-analysis effect d = 0.37, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.53]).

  16. Broad-spectrum health improvements with one year of soccer training in inactive mildly hypertensive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, P; Skoradal, M-B; Randers, M B; Weihe, P; Uth, J; Mortensen, J; Mohr, M

    2017-12-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that long-term soccer training has positive impact on cardiovascular profile, body composition, bone health, and physical capacity in inactive, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension. The study applied a randomized controlled design in which physically inactive middle-aged women were separated into a soccer training group (n=19; SOC) and a control group (n=12; CON). SOC performed 128±29 (±SD) one-h small-sided soccer training sessions over one year. Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. Over one year, mean arterial pressure decreased more in SOC than in CON (-5±7 vs +4±5 mmHg; Pendurance level 1 (122±105 vs 2±21%) and 20-m sprint performance (6±6 vs -1±2%) increased more (Ptraining resulted in broad-spectrum improvements in the health profile of untrained, pre-menopausal women with mild hypertension, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and musculo-skeletal benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Zhou, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenxi Kevin; Wang, Xiujiang; Yin, Zenong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from seven years and three months to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and EBRBs outside school hours. The response rate was 97%, and the reported rates of overweight and obesity were 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The obesity rates were higher in boys and lower grade children. Most EBRBs varied between boys and girls and with increased grade levels. The amount of time spent on academic-related activities, screen viewing, outdoor activities and sleep was mostly associated with obesity on weekdays and varied by gender. Rate of obesity was alarmingly high in the primary school Chinese children in this cohort, especially in younger children. Excessive time spent on academic-related activities outside school hours, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and higher levels of screen viewing were major contributors to obesity in these Chinese children. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  19. Magnitude and determinants of physical inactivity in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    A mix of sampling approach namely stratified, three-stage cluster sampling, simple random sampling and Kish ... provide concrete picture on the state of NCDs in. Ethiopia. .... Measurement and Operational definitions. Assessing physical ...

  20. Motivators, barriers, and beliefs regarding physical activity in an older adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ellen; Kafchinski, Marcia; Vrazel, JoEllen; Sullivan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) plays an important role in improving and maintaining one's health, especially as one ages. Although many older Americans are aware of the benefits of regular PA, the majority do not participate in regular PA that meets recommended guidelines. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the motivators, barriers, and beliefs regarding PA of independent-living older adults with easy access to fitness facilities. In this qualitative design, focus group interviews were used to explore the individual perceptions of physically active and inactive older adults regarding PA and exercise. Thirty-one older adults, over age 60 participated in focus group discussions regarding PA beliefs and behaviors. Groups were homogenous based on current PA behaviors. Demographic information was collected. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and deidentified. Two researchers independently coded for emergent themes. Interrater reliability was established (κ = 0.89). Peer review was used to further ensure trustworthiness and credibility. No significant differences were noted in age, body mass index, or educational levels between the physically active and inactive groups. Differences in perceptions were noted between the groups regarding the construct of PA, barriers to participation in regular PA, and the components of an ideal PA program. Physically inactive persons had much lower fitness expectations of a physically active older adult, more perceived barriers to regular PA, and required individual tailoring of a PA program if they were going to participate. In addition, inactive persons were intimidated by the fitness facilities and concerned about slowing others down in a group exercise setting. Both groups shared similar motivators to participate in PA, such as maintaining health and socialization; however, inactive persons also described PA as needing to be purposeful and fun. Physically inactive persons perceived themselves to be

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Relationship of Physical Activity with Depression and Cognitive Deficit in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo T, R S; Tribess, Sheilla; Sasaki, Jeffer Eidi; Meneguci, Joilson; Martins, Cristiane A; Freitas, Ismael F; Romo-Perez, Vicente; Virtuoso, Jair S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (physical activity/ week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14-2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01-8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.

  2. 80,000 Inactive Oil Wells: A Blessing or a Curse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Muehlenbachs

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For a century, oil and gas wells have been Alberta’s economic pride. That there could be a hidden cost in maintaining these wells past their productive life is difficult to imagine, much less accept. The financial burden of abandoning a well officially is no doubt why Alberta producers delay doing so as long as possible. Turning a blind eye, they routinely keep non-producing wells in a state of “inactive” suspension and refuse to rule out the possibility that someday oil prices or technology, or both, will change significantly enough to make those wells profitable again. In most cases that will never happen, but the province plays along anyway: It enforces no limit on how long a well can be kept inactive before it must be reactivated or abandoned. While a convenience for well owners, there is no benefit to Albertans. They are exposed to the risk of thousands of inactive wells becoming a hazardous threat to public safety. The longer a well is inactive, the higher the likelihood that its owner may no longer be around to arrange and pay for its official abandonment, a process whereby wells are permanently sealed using regulated methods that insure they cause no environmental damage. Oil and gas producers come and go. Periodic price shocks, like the one that recently ravaged the sector, drive companies into insolvency. When the owner of an inactive well is no longer around to pay for its abandonment costs, the well becomes orphaned. Alberta’s permissive policies have led to a situation where there are now more than 80,000 inactive wells in the province. Some have been inactive for decades. If the possibility existed that they could eventually become economical, those wells might be considered a blessing. However, the simulations that model scenarios where prices are substantially higher or where production technology is significantly improved, clearly show that the vast majority of these wells will never be reactivated, no matter how

  3. Bone mineral density and accelerometer-determined habitual physical activity and inactivity in postmenopausal women [Kostní denzita a habituální pohybová aktivita a inaktivita u postmenopauzálních žen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Kapuš

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, physical activity appears to be important in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis and thus contributes to the reduction of fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the differences in habitual physical activity, physical inactivity and meeting physical activity recommendations between women with normal femoral BMD and women with osteopenia. METHODS: Out of the ninety-two postmenopausal women analyzed in this study, 72.8% women had normal femoral BMD and 27.2% women were osteopenic. Their BMD and body composition were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. The region of interest was the total proximal femur. Seven days of physical activity were objectively assessed by using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Daily activity and inactivity logs were used for the participants to self-record their times (minutes when the accelerometer was worn and follow activity and inactivity patterns. RESULTS: Women with normal BMD spent significantly more hours/day being active than women with osteopenia. On theother hand, women with osteopenia perform significantly more household-related PA. According to the physical inactivity analysis, women with osteopenia spent significantly more minutes/week while doing different mental activities (reading, doing crossword puzzles, etc. in a sitting position than women with normal BMD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results of this study show the differences in physical activity and physical inactivity in women with different femoral BMD.[VÝCHODISKA: U postmenopauzálních žen je pohybová aktivita důležitá jako prevence úbytku kostní denzity a osteoporózy a přispívá tak ke snížování rizika zlomenin. CÍLE: Cílem této průřezové studie bylo zjištění, zda existují rozdíly v habituální pohybové aktivitě, pohybové inaktivitě a v plnění doporučení k pohybové aktivitě mezi ženami s norm

  4. Factors predicting changes in physical activity through adolescence: the Young-HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Bauman, Adrian; Bratberg, Grete H; Kurtze, Nanna; Midthjell, Kristian

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective population-based study was to analyze predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) levels from early to late adolescence. Data presented are from 2,348 adolescents and their parents who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT 2, 1995-1997) and at follow-up in Young-HUNT 2, 2000-2001 Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire and participated in a clinical examination that included measurements of height and weight. Four patterns of PA emerged in the study: active or inactive at both time points (active maintainers, 13%; inactive maintainers, 59%), inactive and became active (adopters, 12%), active and became inactive (relapsers, 16%). Being overweight, dissatisfied with life, and not actively participating in sports at baseline were significant predictors of change regarding PA among boys at follow-up. For girls, smoking, drinking, low maternal education, and physical inactivity predicted relapsers and inactive maintainers. Higher levels of education and more physically active parents at baseline seemed to protect against decreased PA during follow-up for both genders. Predictors of change in, or maintaining PA status during adolescence differed by gender. These results suggest that PA-promoting interventions should be tailored by gender and focus on encouraging activity for inactive adolescents and maintenance of PA in those already active. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Perez, Richard; Sanmartin, Claudia; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Manson, Heather; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C

    2016-08-01

    Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death-the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)-was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867-0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868-0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Multivariable predictive algorithms such as MPoRT can be used

  6. Leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Momenan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people′s participation in physical activities in Iran.

  7. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=-.05), extraversion (β=-.03), and agreeableness (β=-.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories.

  8. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction: The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  9. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  10. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  11. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  12. Leisure time physical activity and subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife Finnish, British and Japanese employees: a follow-up study in three occupational cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Jouni; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Tatsuse, Takashi; Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Lallukka, Tea

    2016-01-06

    The aim of this study was to examine whether leisure time physical activity contributes to subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife employees. The associations were tested in three occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan. Cohort study. Finland, Britain and Japan. Prospective employee cohorts from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (2000-2002 and 2007, n=5958), British Whitehall II study (1997-1999 and 2003-2004, n=4142) and Japanese Civil Servants Study (1998-1999 and 2003, n=1768) were used. Leisure time physical activity was classified into three groups: inactive, moderately active and vigorously active. Mean scores of physical and mental health functioning (SF-36) at follow-up were examined. Physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts, however, with varying magnitude and some gender differences. Differences were the clearest among Finnish women (inactive: 46.0, vigorously active: 49.5) and men (inactive: 47.8, active vigorous: 51.1) and British women (inactive: 47.3, active vigorous: 50.4). In mental health functioning, the differences were generally smaller and not that clearly related to the intensity of physical activity. Emerging differences in health functioning were relatively small. Vigorous physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts with varying magnitude. For mental health functioning, the intensity of physical activity was less important. Promoting leisure time physical activity may prove useful for the maintenance of health functioning among midlife employees. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. The development of social capital through football and running: studying an intervention program for inactive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Laila; Jeppesen, Rikke Schou; Krustrup, Birgitte Rejkjær

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the development of social capital through the use and dynamics of different types of stories (“I,”“we” and “they”) as described by Robert D. Putnam. The data come from a research project in which inactive women participated in a 16-week intervention program of physical...... exercise, either in the form of football or running. The study shows a positive development of social capital in the two different types of physical activity. The I-stories show themselves to be central to bonding within the two groups and bridging outside the groups (developing and/or creating networks...

  14. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons who are ≥ 18 years old. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect five domains of physical activity. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive based on meeting the cut-off value of 600 MET-min/week. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome criteria. Overall prevalence of physically active individuals was 50.1% (CI: 45.6-54.7%). Physical inactivity is significantly more in females (p40 years old (pmetabolic syndrome appeared more likely to be physically active (OR=1.48, CI: 0.71-3.09); physical inactivity showed to exist more among participants who were living in urban area (OR=6.61, CI: 3.40-12.85, pmetabolic syndrome risk factors. The high prevalence of physical inactivity in this study population is a clear indication that concerted efforts to improve physical activity may be required. However, it seems that metabolic syndrome is not improved by being physically active. This suggests that interventions directed at physical activity alone may not produce optimal efficacy in this study population. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vital signs: disability and physical activity--United States, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dianna D; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Stevens, Alissa C; Sloan, Michelle L; Lullo, Carolyn; Visser, Susanna N; Fox, Michael H; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Brown, David R; Dorn, Joan M

    2014-05-09

    Adults with disabilities are less active and have higher rates of chronic disease than the general population. Given the health benefits of physical activity, understanding physical activity, its relationship with chronic disease, and health professional recommendations for physical activity among young to middle-age adults with disabilities could help increase the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Data from the 2009-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the prevalence of, and association between, aerobic physical activity (inactive, insufficiently active, or active) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer) among adults aged 18-64 years by disability status and type (hearing, vision, cognitive, and mobility). The prevalence of, and association between, receiving a health professional recommendation for physical activity and level of aerobic physical activity was assessed using 2010 data. Overall, 11.6% of U.S. adults aged 18-64 years reported a disability, with estimates for disability type ranging from 1.7% (vision) to 5.8% (mobility). Compared with adults without disabilities, inactivity was more prevalent among adults with any disability (47.1% versus 26.1%) and for adults with each type of disability. Inactive adults with disabilities were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases than those who were physically active. Approximately 44% of adults with disabilities received a recommendation from a health professional for physical activity in the past 12 months. Almost half of adults with disabilities are physically inactive and are more likely to have a chronic disease. Among adults with disabilities who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, the majority (56%) did not receive a recommendation for physical activity. These data highlight the need for increased physical activity among persons with disabilities, which might require support across societal sectors, including

  16. Effect of training on physical capacity and physical strain in persons with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Hopman, M T; Angenot, E L; van der Woude, L H

    The effects of quad rugby training on physical capacity and physical strain during standardized activities of daily living were investigated in 9 trained (A) and 5 untrained quad rugby players (B), and 7 inactive persons with tetraplegia (C) at 0, 3 and 6 months after the start of a quad rugby

  17. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=−.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=−.05), extraversion (β=−.03), and agreeableness (β=−.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories. PMID:29651189

  18. Immigration and leisure-time physical inactivity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M; Sundquist, J

    2001-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between migration status and sedentary leisure-time physical activity status in the city of Malmö, Sweden. The public health survey in 1994 is a cross-sectional study. A total of 5,600 individuals aged 20-80 completed a postal questionnaire. The response rate was 71%. The population was categorized according to country of birth. Multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model to investigate the importance of possible confounders for the differences in sedentary leisure-time physical activity status. The prevalence of a sedentary leisure-time physical activity status was 18.1% among men and 26.7% among women. The odds ratio of a sedentary leisure-time physical activity status was significantly higher among men born in Arabic-speaking countries, in All other countries, and among women born in Yugoslavia, Poland, Arabic-speaking countries, and the category all other countries', compared to the reference group born in Sweden. The multivariate analysis including age, sex, and education did not alter these results. There were significant ethnic differences in leisure-time physical activity status. This is a CVD risk factor that could be affected by intervention programs aimed at specific ethnic subgroups of the population.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of offering free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public receiving state benefits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Trend, Verena; Kelly, Barry; Robinson, Nigel; Fox, Paul; Morris, Stephen

    2016-07-22

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the Give-it-a-Go programme, which offers free leisure centre memberships to physically inactive members of the public in a single London Borough receiving state benefits. A decision analytic Markov model was developed to analyse lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of 1025 people recruited to the intervention versus no intervention. In the intervention group, people were offered 4 months of free membership at a leisure centre. Physical activity levels were assessed at 0 and 4 months using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Higher levels of physical activity were assumed to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes mellitus type II, as well as improve mental health. Costs were assessed from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Uncertainty was assessed using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. One-hundred fifty nine participants (15.5 %) completed the programme by attending the leisure centre for 4 months. Compared with no intervention, Give it a Go increased costs by £67.25 and QALYs by 0.0033 (equivalent to 1.21 days in full health) per recruited person. The incremental costs per QALY gained were £20,347. The results were highly sensitive to the magnitude of mental health gain due to physical activity and the duration of the effect of the programme (1 year in the base case analysis). When the mental health gain was omitted from the analysis, the incremental cost per QALY gained increased to almost £1.5 million. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the incremental costs per QALY gained were below £20,000 in 39 % of the 5000 simulations. Give it a Go did not significantly increase life-expectancy, but had a positive influence on quality of life due to the mental health gain of physical activity. If the increase in physical activity caused by Give it a Go lasts for more than 1 year, the programme would be cost-effective given a

  20. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven; Schippers, Mandy

    2012-04-23

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals

  1. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail Steven

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Discussion Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. Summary It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research

  2. 10 CFR 40.2a - Coverage of inactive tailings sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of inactive tailings sites. 40.2a Section 40.2a... Coverage of inactive tailings sites. (a) Prior to the completion of the remedial action, the Commission..., if the site is covered by the remedial action program of title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings...

  3. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of DCE-MRI curve shape patterns in knees of active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Lavini, Cristina; Maas, Mario; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Dolman, Koert M.; Rossum, Marion A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    To compare DCE-MRI parameters and the relative number of time-intensity curve (TIC) shapes as derived from pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis between knees of clinically active and inactive juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. DCE-MRI data sets were prospectively obtained. Patients were classified into two clinical groups: active disease (n = 43) and inactive disease (n = 34). Parametric maps, showing seven different TIC shape types, were created per slice. Statistical measures of different TIC shapes, maximal enhancement (ME), maximal initial slope (MIS), initial area under the curve (iAUC), time-to-peak (TTP), enhancing volume (EV), volume transfer constant (K trans ), extravascular space fractional volume (V e ) and reverse volume transfer constant (k ep ) of each voxel were calculated in a three-dimensional volume-of-interest of the synovial membrane. Imaging findings from 77 JIA patients were analysed. Significantly higher numbers of TIC shape 4 (P = 0.008), median ME (P = 0.015), MIS (P = 0.001) and iAUC (P = 0.002) were observed in clinically active compared with inactive patients. TIC shape 5 showed higher presence in the clinically inactive patients (P = 0.036). The pixel-by-pixel DCE-MRI TIC shape analysis method proved capable of differentiating clinically active from inactive JIA patients by the difference in the number of TIC shapes, as well as the descriptive parameters ME, MIS and iAUC. (orig.)

  4. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  5. Inatividade física e sua associação com estado nutricional, insatisfação com a imagem corporal e comportamentos sedentários em adolescentes de escolas públicas Physical inactivity and its association with nutritional status, body image dissatisfaction and sedentary behavior in adolescents of public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de inatividade física e sua associação com estado nutricional, insatisfação com a imagem corporal e comportamentos sedentários em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e de associação, conduzido em 595 escolares (196 do sexo masculino e 399 do feminino; com 14-18 anos da rede pública de Florianópolis (SC. As variáveis independentes foram: idade, percepção da imagem corporal, estado nutricional e comportamentos sedentários (televisão, videogame, computador. Os adolescentes com menos de 300 minutos de atividade física por semana foram considerados insuficientemente ativos. A regressão logística foi utilizada para verificar possíveis associações entre a inatividade física e as variáveis independentes. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de inatividade física foi de 25,4% (masculino: 21,9%, feminino: 27,1%; p=0,20. Entre os rapazes, não foi encontrada associação entre o desfecho e as variáveis independentes. Em contrapartida, verificou-se que as moças classificadas como insuficientemente ativas apresentaram 2,55 vezes mais chance de ter baixo peso (IC95%=1,36-4,77. Além disso, a chance de apresentar o desfecho foi 1,67 vezes maior entre aquelas que permanecem mais de duas horas diárias assistindo à televisão (IC95%=1,03-2,71. CONCLUSÕES: Um em cada quatro adolescentes foi classificado como insuficientemente ativo. Apresentar baixo peso e permanecer mais de duas horas por dia assistindo à televisão foram fatores associados à inatividade física em adolescentes do gênero feminino. Sugere-se que os adolescentes, principalmente do sexo feminino, sejam orientados sobre a importância da prática regular de atividade física e de uma alimentação saudável.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with nutritional status, body image dissatisfaction and sedentary behavior in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted

  6. Elective Mutism Associated with Selective Inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Scull, John

    1985-01-01

    Effective treatment procedures for a nine-year-old boy with elective mutism and selective inactivity included increasing the frequency of situations in which he could already speak and decreasing the frequency of those in which he seldom spoke (specifically coercive situations). (CL)

  7. Atividade física, horas de assistência à TV e composição corporal em crianças e adolescentes Physical inactivity, TV-watching hours and body composition in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Sedentarismo é fator predisponente ao aparecimento/piora de outros fatores de risco cardiovascular, particularmente obesidade. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer nível de atividade física (NAF e número diário de horas de TV (HTV e a associação e/ou correlação destas variáveis com faixa etária, sexo, classe econômica, escola pública/privada, excesso de peso e obesidade, em crianças/adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, base populacional escolar, ensino público e privado, fundamental e médio. Cálculo da amostra baseado na menor prevalência esperada de inúmeras variáveis, incluindo sedentarismo. Amostragem por conglomerados. Protocolo: Questionário estruturado, incluindo "Physical Activity Questionaire for Older Children" (PAQ-C; medidas de peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC e prega cutânea do tríceps (PCT. Análise estatística: Qui-quadrado; correlação linear. RESULTADOS: Nos 1.253 estudantes, com média de idade de 12,4 ± 2,9 anos, sendo 547 do sexo masculino, observou-se uma prevalência de sedentarismo em 93,5%, mais frequente em adolescentes do sexo feminino; não houve associação entre NAF e excesso de peso ou gordura corporal; futebol e dança foram as atividades mais frequentes em meninos e meninas, respectivamente; 60% dos estudantes não têm aulas de Educação Física. Média e mediana de HTV foram, respectivamente, 3,6 e 3 horas; houve associação significante entre maior HTV e obesidade e correlação significante entre NAF e idade (negativa e entre IMC e PCT (positiva. CONCLUSÃO: O sedentarismo está presente em 93,5% das crianças e adolescentes de Maceió, sendo mais prevalente nos adolescentes e no sexo feminino, não havendo associação ou correlação desta variável com excesso de peso ou gordura corporal; obesidade associou-se a > 3 HTV.BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a predisposing factor to the onset/worsening of other cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity

  8. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Woo Jin; Chung, Soo Kyo; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  9. Hypoxia Aggravates Inactivity-Related Muscle Wasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg, (ii bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P < 0.001 was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027. Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47. Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017 and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P < 0.001 muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P < 0.05. Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

  10. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  11. Inactive Mineral Filler as a Stiffness Modulus Regulator in Foamed Bitumen-Modified Recycled Base Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyński, Przemyslaw; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of a cold recycled mix test with a foam bitumen including the addition of the inactive mineral filler as a dust of basalt. Basalt dust was derived from dedusting system by extraction of aggregates in the mine. Assessment of the impact of a basalt dust on the properties of a recycled base layer was carried out in terms of the amount of mineral filler (basalt) in the composition of the mineral mixture. This experiment involved a dosing of mineral filler in range from 5 to 20% with steps of 7.5% in the mineral mixture composition. The foamed bitumen was performed at optimum foaming process settings (ie. bitumen temperature, air pressure) and at 2.5% of the water content. The amount of a hydraulic binder as a Portland cement was 2.0%. The evaluation of rheological properties allowed to determine whether the addition of inactive mineral fillers can act as a stiffness modulus controller in the recycled base layer. The analysis of the rheological properties of a recycled base layer in terms of the amount of inactive fillers was performed in accordance with given standard EN 12697-26 Annex D. The study was carried out according to the direct tension-compression test methodology on cylindrical samples. The sample was subjected to the oscillatory sinusoidal strain ε0 < 25με. Studies carried out at a specific temperature set-points: - 7°C, 5°C, 13°C, 25°C and 40°C and at the frequency 0.1 Hz, 0.3 Hz, 1 Hz, 3 Hz, 10 Hz and 20 Hz. The obtained results allow to conclude that the use of an inactive filler can reduce the stiffness of an appropriate designed mixes of the cold recycled foundation. In addition, the analysis of the relation E‧-E″ showed a similar behaviour of a recycled base, regardless of the amount of inactive fillers in the mix composition, at high temperatures/high frequency of induced load.

  12. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in active and inactive immunoinflammatory gonarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lorenzen, I; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    examined 16 clinically active (CAG), 7 clinically inactive (CIG) and 4 healthy knees. The synovium of a preselected slice was outlined. Its area and relative signal intensity increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine on T1-SE and FLASH (at each time t) were calculated. The CAG knees showed a mean signal...... intensity increase on early dynamic FLASH images higher by far than the CIG knees, while no significant difference was found on spin-echo images obtained 5 to 15 min after contrast injection. The early signal enhancement probably reflects the perfusion and capillary permeability of the synovium. The area...

  13. How consumers respond to the behavior of missing a free gift promotion: inaction inertia effect on products offered as free gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsung-Chi; Cheng, Ti; Ni, Feng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Inaction inertia describes the phenomenon that an individual is unlikely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive one. The results of two experiments indicate that after missing an initial opportunity to obtain a product as a free gift during a promotional period, the inaction inertia effect reduces the likelihood of consumers buying the product at a discounted price (second, inferior opportunity), particularly if the free gift has a high regular price. Additionally, according to the results of Experiment 2, those consumers are less likely to buy a product that has been offered previously as a free gift when a greater total quantity of the free gift is offered during a promotional period. Moreover, the mediation analysis results indicate that anticipated regret and valuation significantly impact the mediating role of inaction inertia.

  14. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  15. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  16. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  17. Inequality in health and physical inactivity among senior citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous research addressing physical activity among senior citizens tend to focus on the actual benefits of being active hence approaching the topic from a physiological and medical perspective. Addressing a gap in interdisciplinary research combining the physiological with the built...... will be focusing on intervention design in everyday life activities, social community and local urban spaces. Aims: The research seeks to investigate and explore issues linked to health promotion; e.g. how architecture and design can influence and enhance new body cultures and public health among senior citizens...... – both mentally, socially and physically. Theoretical approach: Hypothesizing that in order to address these issues and sustain the solutions local stakeholders and end-users must be engaged in all phases of the process – from identifying and defining the problem, through developing the design...

  18. Physical activity and depression symptom profiles in young men and women with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-05-01

    This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.

  19. Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Qi, Lu; Brage, Soren

    2011-01-01

    Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute......>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were.......20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1...

  20. Socializing Agents for Sport and Physical Activities in Teenage Students: Comparative Studies in Samples From Costa Rica, Mexico, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juan, Francisco; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze a set of socializing agents for sport and physical activities and to establish their relationship with leisure time sport and physical activities behaviors and practice patterns in samples of teenage students with different sociocultural backgrounds. The sample included 2168 students in their first year of secondary education, 423 of them being from Costa Rica, 408 from Mexico, and 1337 from Spain (1052 male students, 1037 female students, and 79 students who did not specify gender) aged 11-16 years old ( M = 12.49; SD = .81). A validated questionnaire with questions about leisure time sport and physical activities and socializing agents was used. Descriptive, inferential, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out with SPSS 17.0 to compare all three countries. Costa Rica had the most active students, best friends' inactivity, and unsupportive parents being the agents predicting inactivity and a low level of sport and physical activities. Mexico has a high dropout rate and inactive students exceed active ones; no agent predicts inactivity or sport and physical activities pattern. Spain has the highest level of sport and physical activities practice, and parents, siblings, and friends are predicting agents of inactivity together with unsupportive parents and friends.

  1. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangul, Vegar; Bauman, Adrian; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Midthjell, Kristian

    2012-12-14

    Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995-97), aged 13-19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006-08), aged 23-31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive maintainers. Active maintainers

  2. Increasing Asian International College Students' Physical Activity Behavior: A Review of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Asian students attending American colleges and universities report relatively low levels of physical activity participation, which may hinder their ability to realize their full human potential (i.e., cognitively, physically, socially). This paper reviewed the possible reasons underlying their generally inactive lifestyle, addressed the importance…

  3. Active life expectancy of Americans with diabetes: risks of heart disease, obesity, and inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2015-01-01

    Few researchers have studied whether diabetes itself is responsible for high rates of disability or mortality, or if factors associated with diabetes contribute importantly. We estimated associations of diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and physical inactivity with life expectancy (LE), the proportion of life with disability (DLE), and disability in the last year of life. Data were from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1999-2011 and 1986, African American and white women and men ages 55+, n=1,980, 17,352 person-years). Activities of daily living defined disability. Multinomial logistic Markov models estimated disability transition probabilities adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and the health factors. Microsimulation measured outcomes. White women and men exemplify results. LE was, for women: 3.5 years less with diabetes than without (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.0), 11.1 less (10.3-12.0) adding heart disease, 21.9 less with all factors (15.3-28.5), all pheart disease, 52.9% (38.9-66.8) with all factors, all pheart disease, obesity, and inactivity, risks that can be modified by health behaviors and medical care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  5. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  6. International perspectives on the physical inactivity crisis--structural solutions over evidence generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Finegood, Diane T; Matsudo, Victor

    2009-10-01

    Many programs to increase physical activity have been evaluated in developed countries, where 'leisure time physical activity' is the most frequent domain for interventions. In developing countries, and also with reference to global obesity prevention, different kinds of interventions targeting 'total physical activity' are needed. This requires efforts across agencies and sectors, and in the domains of work, active transport, reduced sitting time, as well as leisure time physical activity promotion. In considering possible solutions, this commentary examined the use of complex systems, where integrated efforts across sectors and agencies might, in combination, contribute to increasing total physical activity. The key sets of actions required globally to increase physical activity were, in our opinion, [i] efforts to disseminate individual-level behavior change programs to reach much larger populations rather than volunteers, [ii] social marketing and mass communication campaigns to change social norms in the community and among professionals and policymakers, [iii] efforts to influence the social and physical environment to make them more conducive to physical activity, and [iv] the development and implementation of national physical activity plans and strategies, with sufficient timelines and resources to achieve measurable change.

  7. Diagnosing physical activity in 4D : Spatial-temporal physical activity behavior of Dutch adults aged 45-65 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530071

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is a major public health problem as it is one of the leading risk factors for death and it increases the risk of various non-communicable diseases. Therefore, the societal burden of physical inactivity due to morbidity, mortality, and the associated health care

  8. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  9. Physical inactivity as a policy problem: applying a concept from policy analysis to a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, Alfred; Abu-Omar, Karim; Gelius, Peter; Schow, Diana

    2013-03-07

    Despite the recent rapid development of policies to counteract physical inactivity (PI), only a small number of systematic analyses on the evolution of these policies exists. In this article we analyze how PI, as a public health issue, "translates" into a policy-making issue. First, we discuss why PI has become an increasingly important public health issue during the last two decades. We then follow Guy Peters and conceptualize PI as a "policy problem" that has the potential to be linked to policy instruments and policy impact. Analysis indicates that PI is a policy problem that i) is chronic in nature; ii) involves a high degree of political complexity; iii) can be disaggregated into smaller scales; iv) is addressed through interventions that can be difficult to "sell" to the public when their benefits are not highly divisible; v) cannot be solved by government spending alone; vi) must be addressed through a broad scope of activities; and vii) involves interdependencies among both multiple sectors and levels of government.We conclude that the new perspective on PI proposed in this article might be useful and important for i) describing and mapping policies to counteract PI in different contexts; ii) evaluating whether or not existing policy instruments are appropriate to the policy problem of PI, and iii) explaining the factors and processes that underlie policy development and implementation. More research is warranted in all these areas. In particular, we propose to focus on comparative analyses of how the problem of PI is defined and tackled in different contexts, and on the identification of truly effective policy instruments that are designed to "solve" the PI policy problem.

  10. Inactive Doses and Protein Concentration of Gamma Irradiated Yersinia Enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro; Sandra Hermanto

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is one of bacteria which cause coliform mastitis in dairy cows. The bacteria could be inactivated by gamma irradiation as inactivated vaccine candidate. The experiment has been conducted to determine the inactive doses and the protein concentration of Yersinia enterocolitica Y3 which has been irradiated by gamma rays. The cells cultures were irradiated by gamma rays with doses of 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 and 1.500 Gy (doses rate was 1089,59 Gy/hours). The inactive dose was determined by the drop test method and the protein concentration of cells were determined by Lowry method. The results showed that the inactive doses occurred on 800 – 1500 Gy. The different irradiation doses of cell cultures showed the effect of gamma irradiation on the protein concentration that was random and has a significant effect on the protein concentration. (author)

  11. Physical Activity : The interplay between individual and neighbourhood factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beenackers (Marielle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPhysical inactivity is among the most important and prevalent risk factors of many major diseases. Although the health benefits of regular exercise and a physically active lifestyle are well known, many people are still not active. Understanding why some population groups are physically

  12. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  13. How stable are physical activity habits among adults? The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, H Susan J; Wendel-vos, G C Wanda; Vreeken, Hilda L; Schuit, A Jantine; Verschuren, W Monique M

    2011-01-01

    Leisure time physical activity in compliance with recommended levels is associated with improved health and lower mortality, but little is known on whether these physical activity habits are stable among adults and what characteristics predict physical activity changes. Our objective was to determine change in the levels of leisure time physical activity among adults during a period of 10 yr. Detailed information on time spent on cycling, gardening, doing odd jobs, and sports from three measurement periods (1993-1997, 1998-2002, and 2003-2007) of the population-based Doetinchem Cohort Study was used to define being active: spending at least 3.5 h·wk(-1) on moderate to vigorous physical activities, an approximation of the Dutch recommended level. Almost one-third (31.4%) of the population were active at all three points in time, 3.6% were inactive, and 45.0% of the participants changed their level of physical activity, almost equally distributed over decreasers, increasers, and varying. Not smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence limits (CL) = 1.14-1.89) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CL = 1.07-1.92) were associated with staying active. Inactive men (OR = 0.73, 95% CL = 0.57-0.94) had the highest risk of staying inactive, whereas good perceived health was associated with becoming active (OR = 1.49, 95% CL = 1.09-2.03). The finding that, in a decade, almost half of the population changed from active to inactive or vice versa affects the interpretation of the long-term health effects of physical activity measured only once, and it stresses the importance of interventions not only in increasing physical activity levels but also in maintaining a physically active lifestyle.

  14. Physical activity, obesity and mortality: does pattern of physical activity have stronger epidemiological associations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...... and time 3, and sport and active travel at times 1 and 2 with BMI, waist, hip circumference and mortality (death from coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)) were compared to 'PA patterns' spanning multiple time points. PA pattern classified participants' PA as either 1) inactive......: The moderately and highly active groups for PA at times 1 and 3 had up to 1.7 cm lower increase in waist circumference compared with the inactive/low active group. Across 'PA patterns', 'active maintainers' had a 2.0 cm lower waist circumference than 'inactive/low maintainers'. Waist circumference was inversely...

  15. The influence of physical activity on components of metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Inactivity causes obesity which is related to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ... of physical activity (PA) on the MS components and vascular function in children and ...

  16. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Andrea); J. Jonker (Joost); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical

  17. Time course of arterial vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Kuppevelt, D. van; Pons, C.; Snoek, G.V.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the time course of vascular adaptations to inactivity and paralyses in humans. The spinal cord-injured (SCI) population offers a unique "human model of nature" to assess peripheral vascular adaptations and its time course to extreme inactivity and

  18. Comparison of the Histological and Serological Parameters of Patients with Hepatitis Delta Virus in Active and Inactive Hepatitis B Virus Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Ram, D. B.; Talpur, A.; Tanveer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the histological and serological parameters of patients with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) in active HBV versus inactive HBV carriers. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, Sindh, from June 2008 to September 2011. Methodology: This study included 49 consecutive inactive HBV carriers who were HBsAg-positive, HBV DNA-negative, anti-D antibody-positive, and HDV RNA-positive, as well as 277 patients with active HBV who were HBsAg-positive, anti- HDV antibody-positive, HDV RNA-positive, and demonstrated > 20,000 IU/mL HBV DNA and > 2 (ULN) serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Informed consent was obtained from each patient. Liver biopsies were obtained and the staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR scoring system. Continuous variables such as age, SGPT, platelet count, and the HBV DNA level were computed as the mean A +- standard deviation. Categorical variables such as gender and stage of fibrosis are expressed as percentages. All data were processed using SPSS version 16. Results: This study included 49 patients in an inactive HBV group. Fibrosis stage 0 was observed in 37 (75.5%) patients and 12 (24.5%) were stage 1. Among the 277 patients with active disease, fibrosis stage 0 was present in 7 (2.5%) patients, stage 1 in 31 (11.2%) patients, stage 2 in 172 (62.1%) patients, stage 3 in 44 (15.9%) patients and stage 4 in 23 (8.3%) patients. Conclusion: HDV in active HBV carriers is severe on its initial presentation and requires prompt treatment whereas in inactive HBV carriers demonstrates an indolent course. (author)

  19. Bidirectional longitudinal relationship between leisure-time physical activity and psychotropic medication usage: A register linked follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Mänty, Minna; Svärd, Anna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (≥14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2). Odds ratios (OR) for physical inactivity at phase 2 were calculated according to the amount of psychotropic medication between phases 1-2. Overall, 5361 respondents were included (mean age 50 years, 80% women). Compared with the persistently active, the persistently inactive, those decreasing and adopting LTPA had an increased risk for psychotropic medication. Only the persistently inactive remained at increased risk for psychotropic medication use, following the adjustment for prior psychotropic medication use. Compared with those having no medication, the risk for physical inactivity increased as the psychotropic medication increased. Our data suggest that physical activity has an important role in maintaining wellbeing and reducing psychotropic medication usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social and Health Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Kuwaiti College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the social and health factors that are associated with the level of physical activity among Kuwaiti college students. A random sample of 787 students (48% males and 52% females was chosen and weight and height were measured to obtain body mass index (BMI, kg/m2. Associated social and health factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Those reporting being physically inactive numbered 354 and the remaining 433 were active. Obesity among males was 13% and was 10.5% among females. The social and health factors that were found to be significantly associated with physical activity among the students were gender (P<.001, marital status (P<.05, BMI category (obese or nonobese (P<.05, last dental and health checkup (P<.01, desiring a higher degree (P<.001, and countries preferred for visiting (P<.01. Males significantly exceeded females in the practice of physical activity. In conclusion, behavioural modifications, intervention studies, and health education touting the benefits of being physically active should be instituted to increase the practice of sports and other physical activities in order to control and decrease obesity-related morbidity and mortality.

  1. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sexspecific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion. While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  2. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Jacobs, D.G.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Ellis, B.S.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The findings of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Gunnison, Colorado, conducted in May 1976, are presented. Results of surface soil sample analyses and direct gamma radiation measurements indicate limited spread of tailings off the site. The only significant above background measurements off the site were obtained in an area previously covered by the tailings pile. There was little evidence of contamination of the surface or of unconfined groundwater in the vicinity of the tailings pile; however, the hydrologic conditions at the site indicate a potential for such contamination. The concentration of 226 Ra in all water samples except one from the tailings pile was well below the concentration guide for drinking water. The subsurface distribution of 226 Ra in 14 bore holes located on and around the tailings pile was calculated from gamma ray monitoring data obtained jointly with Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc

  3. Fatores associados à inatividade física no lazer e principais barreiras na percepção de trabalhadores da indústria do Sul do Brasil Variables associated with leisure-time physical inactivity and main barriers to exercise among industrial workers in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Ginar da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identificar as principais barreiras percebidas e verificar os fatores associados à inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores industriários do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Estudo transversal com análise secundária de dados, incluindo 2.265 trabalhadores. Treze barreiras foram investigadas: cansaço, clima, excesso de trabalho, falta de vontade, obrigações de estudo, obrigações familiares, distância até o local da prática, falta de habilidade motora, falta de condições físicas, falta de instalações, falta de dinheiro e condições de segurança, além da opção outra. A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer entre os trabalhadores foi 45,4%, e as barreiras mais prevalentes foram cansaço (15,1%, excesso de trabalho (12,7% e obrigações familiares (9,2%. Cansaço, excesso de trabalho, obrigações familiares, falta de vontade, falta de dinheiro, obrigações de estudo e clima estiveram associados à inatividade física no lazer. Políticas públicas focadas em macroestratégias de intervenção podem ajudar esses trabalhadores a superar tais barreiras e incorporarem um estilo de vida ativo.The aim of this study was to identify the main perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity and factors associated with physical inactivity among industrial workers in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A cross-sectional study with analysis of secondary data included 2,265 workers. Thirteen barriers were investigated: fatigue, weather, overwork, lack of will, study obligations, family obligations, distance to the facility/setting, affordability, lack of motor skills, poor physical conditioning, lack of facilities, lack of money, security, and others. Prevalence of physical inactivity among workers was 45.4%, and the most common barriers were fatigue (15.1%, overwork (12.7%, and family obligations (9.2%. Fatigue, overwork, family obligations, lack of will, affordability, study obligations, and weather were

  4. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-04-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. © 2015 Chaligné et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Self-reported physical fitness in frail older persons : Reliability and validity of the self-assessment of physical fitness (Sapf)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening - Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2012-01-01

    In very old and/ or frail older people living in long-term care facilities, physical inactivity negatively affects activities of daily living. The main reason to assess older adults' perceived fitness is to establish the relation with their beliefs about their ability to perform physical activity

  6. Self-reported physical fitness in frail older persons : reliability and validity of the Self-Assessment of Physical Fitness (SAPF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Betsy; de Greef, Mathieu; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2012-01-01

    In very old and/or frail older people living in long-term care facilities, physical inactivity negatively affects activities of daily living. The main reason to assess older adults' perceived fitness is to establish the relation with their beliefs about their ability to perform physical activity

  7. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  8. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  9. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effect maintaining physical activity throughout adolescence has on cardiovascular risk factors and health status in early adulthood. This ten-year prospective longitudinal study investigated whether differences in physical activity patterns from adolescence to young-adulthood showed different associations with subsequent cardio-metabolic risk factors and mental health in young-adulthood. Methods Based on the second and third Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys (HUNT2 and 3), we included 1869 individuals (838 males) participating in Young-HUNT (1995–97), aged 13–19 years and followed-up at HUNT3 (2006–08), aged 23–31. Self-reported physical activity (PA), mental health and perceived health were recorded, along with measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. We used separate linear regressions models to investigate associations between physical activity and each CVD risk factor, and logistic regression analysis to examine PA patterns and subsequent mental health. Physically active maintainers were compared to inactive maintainers. Adopters (inactive as adolescents and physically active as young adults) were compared to inactive maintainers and to those who discontinued activity (relapsers). Results Active maintainers had significantly lower HR, compared to all other PA patterns. Active maintaining men had significantly lower WC than relapsers and inactive maintainers. When adjusted for age and gender, WC, BMI, HR, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C showed significant differences comparing active maintaining to other PA patterns. Comparing inactive maintainers against adopters, only HR was significantly lower. Male adopters did not differ significantly in CVD risk compared to inactive maintainers and relapsers. Among females adopting was associated with lower HR and TC compared to inactive

  10. Physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence, predictors, and positive health associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Julie D; Johnstone, Erica B; Rousseau, Julie-Anne; Jones, Christopher L; Pasch, Lauri A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the potential health benefits that are associated with physical activity in this population. This was a cross-sectional assessment of 150 women with PCOS. Active women (those who met Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS] guidelines for exercise) were compared with inactive women with regards to demographic and psychosocial variables and health characteristics. Fifty-nine percent (88/150 women) met the DHHS guidelines for physical activity. Active women were more likely than inactive women to be nulliparous (64.1% vs 40.0%; P = .04) and white (71.6% vs 42.6%; P = .0004). Inactive women were more likely to have mild depression (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.79; P = .048). Women with PCOS who met the DHHS guidelines for physical activity were more likely to enjoy a variety of health benefits. Our findings identify several groups that are at risk for inadequate physical activity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Beyond "Fun": The Real Need in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Razon, Selen; Judge, Lawrence W.; True, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    As obesity rates and physical inactivity levels continue to rise among American youth, the need for quality physical education programs is more important than ever. However, to many observers, physical education is a hindrance to academic time and a subject that does not bring value to the educational system. It is imperative for physical…

  12. Vital Signs: Disability and Physical Activity — United States, 2009–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dianna D.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Alissa C.; Sloan, Michelle L.; Lullo, Carolyn; Visser, Susanna N.; Fox, Michael H.; Armour, Brian S.; Campbell, Vincent A.; Brown, David R.; Dorn, Joan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults with disabilities are less active and have higher rates of chronic disease than the general population. Given the health benefits of physical activity, understanding physical activity, its relationship with chronic disease, and health professional recommendations for physical activity among young to middle-age adults with disabilities could help increase the effectiveness of health promotion efforts. Methods Data from the 2009–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate the prevalence of, and association between, aerobic physical activity (inactive, insufficiently active, or active) and chronic diseases (heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer) among adults aged 18–64 years by disability status and type (hearing, vision, cognitive, and mobility). The prevalence of, and association between, receiving a health professional recommendation for physical activity and level of aerobic physical activity was assessed using 2010 data. Results Overall, 11.6% of U.S. adults aged 18–64 years reported a disability, with estimates for disability type ranging from 1.7% (vision) to 5.8% (mobility). Compared with adults without disabilities, inactivity was more prevalent among adults with any disability (47.1% versus 26.1%) and for adults with each type of disability. Inactive adults with disabilities were 50% more likely to report one or more chronic diseases than those who were physically active. Approximately 44% of adults with disabilities received a recommendation from a health professional for physical activity in the past 12 months. Conclusions Almost half of adults with disabilities are physically inactive and are more likely to have a chronic disease. Among adults with disabilities who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, the majority (56%) did not receive a recommendation for physical activity. Implications for Public Health These data highlight the need for increased physical activity among persons with

  13. Does school physical education really contribute to accelerometer-measured daily physical activity and non sedentary behaviour in high school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Martínez-Baena, Alejandro; Viciana, Jesús

    2018-01-11

    Physical education has been highlighted as an important environment for physical activity promotion, however, to our knowledge there are no previous studies examining the contribution of physical education to daily accelerometer-measured physical activity and non sedentary behaviour. The purpose was to compare the accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour between physical education, non-physical education and weekend days in adolescents. Of the 394 students from a Spanish high school that were invited to participate, 158 students (83 boys and 75 girls) aged 13-16 years were analyzed (wear time ≥ 600 min). Participants' physical activity and sedentary behaviour were objectively-measured by GT3X+ accelerometers during physical education (one session), non-physical education and weekend days. Results indicated that overall adolescents had statistically significant greater physical activity levels and lower values of sedentary behaviour on physical education days than on non-physical education and weekend days (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity = 71, 54 and 57 min; sedentary = 710, 740 and 723 min) (p education contributes significantly to reducing students' daily physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Increasing the number of physical education classes seems to be an effective strategy to reduce the high current prevalence of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in adolescence.

  14. Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA): global leadership towards a raised profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy.

  15. [Effects of nasal provocation with a single-dose allergen on the explicit and implicit memory of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Margaréta; Csábi, Eszter; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Schultz, Rebeka; Molnár H, Andor; Rovó, László; Bella, Zsolt

    2018-01-30

    Allergy is an endemic disease and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the effect of active allergic rhinitis on memory functions of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy. Memory functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked nasally with 30 IR/mL ragweed allergen in each nostril. Explicit memory was measured with story-recalling and implicit memory was investigated with reaction time task. In neuropsychological assessments athletes performed significantly better, compared with the control group after allergen provocation in short-term and long-term memory functions. There was no difference between the groups in the implicit tasks. Athletes have achieved better results after provocation, comparing to the baseline test and the tests that measured short-term and long-term memory functions. Short-term disturbing factors, e.g. swollen nasal mucosa, sneezing, and watery eyes after provocation did have not caused deterioration in cognitive functions. A single-shot allergen in high doses have caused an increase of mental concentration, which was more pronounced in athletes.

  16. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  17. Cardiovascular benefits and risks across the physical activity continuum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review evaluates recent publications that have assessed the impact of the dose of physical (in)activity on cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sedentary behavior,

  18. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  19. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  20. Differences in physical activity prevalence and trends from 3 U.S. surveillance systems: NHIS, NHANES, and BRFSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Densmore, Dianna; Fulton, Janet E; Yore, Michelle M; Kohl, Harold W

    2009-01-01

    Three U.S. surveillance systems-National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)--estimate physical activity prevalence. Survey differences were examined qualitatively. Prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity were assessed for comparable survey periods. Trends were examined from NHIS 1998 to 2007, NHANES 1999 to 2006, and BRFSS 2001 to 2007. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates appeared most similar for NHIS 2005 (physically active: 30.2%, inactive: 40.7%) and NHANES 2005 to 2006 (physically active: 33.5%, inactive: 32.4%). In BRFSS 2005, prevalence of being physically active was 48.3% and inactive was 13.9%. Across all systems, men were more likely to be active than women; non-Hispanic whites were most likely to be active; as age increased, overall prevalence of being active decreased. Prevalence of being active exhibited a significant increasing trend only in BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001), while prevalence of being inactive decreased significantly in NHANES 1999 to 2006 (P < .001) and BRFSS 2001 to 2007 (P < .001). Different ways of assessing physical activity in surveillance systems result in different prevalence estimates. Before comparing estimates from different systems, all aspects of data collection and data analysis should be examined to determine if comparisons are appropriate.

  1. Physical activity and screen time in children and adolescents in a medium size town in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Loch, Mathias Roberto

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the associations between sex and age with behaviour related to physical activity practice and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 480 (236 boys) subjects enrolled in a public school in the city of Londrina, in the south of Brazil, aged 8-17 years. Measures of physical activity, sports practice and screen times were obtained using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables between boys and girls. The Chi squared test was used for categorical analysis and Poisson regression was used to identify prevalence. Girls (69.6%; PR=1.05 [0.99-1.12]) spent more time with sedentary behaviour than boys (62.2%). Boys (80%; PR=0.95 [0.92-0.98]) were more physically active than girls (91%). Older students aged 13-17 showed a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (91.4%; PR=1.06 [1.02-1.10]) and time spent with sedentary behaviour of ≥2h/day (71.8%; PR=0.91 [0.85-0.97]) when compared to younger peers aged 8-12 (78.7 and 58.5%, respectively). The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher in girls. Older students spent more screen time in comparison to younger students. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  3. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  4. Headache prevalence and long working hours: the role of physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Hayashino, Y; Yamazaki, S; Takegami, M; Ono, R; Otani, K; Konno, S; Kikuchi, S; Fukuhara, S

    2012-07-01

    Headaches and long working hours are important issues for workers. This study investigated the association between hours worked and the prevalence of headaches, and how that association varies with physical activity. Cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. Using data from a nationally representative sample of households in Japan, people aged 20-65 years who worked ≥35 h/week were studied, and the cross-sectional association between the number of hours worked per week (35-45, 46-55 and >55 h/week) and the prevalence rates of headaches of different severity was evaluated. Of 721 workers, 307 reported experiencing at least one headache per month. Compared with working 35-45 h/week, the prevalence ratios of severe or disabling headaches among individuals working >55 h/week were 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.78] and 1.63 (95% CI 1.09-2.43), respectively. After stratification by the level of physical activity, the prevalence ratios were greater in the low-physical-activity group: 1.56 (95% CI 1.11-2.19) for severe headaches and 2.20 (95% CI 1.31-3.68) for disabling headaches. The number of hours worked was not associated with headaches in the high-physical-activity group. Among workers in the general population, long working hours were associated with the prevalence of headaches, and the association may depend on a lack of physical activity. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Career transitions of inactive nurses: a registration database analysis (1993-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa

    2011-02-01

    One important strategy to address nursing shortages is to tap into the pool of licensed nurses who are not currently working in nursing and induce them to return to the nursing labour market. However, there is a paucity of research examining their likelihood of return to the active labour market. Analyze the career transitions of nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario but not working in the province's nursing labour market to determine the proportion of these nurses rejoining the active nursing workforce and examine the variation by inactive sub-category and age group. Quantitative analysis of a linked longitudinal database for all those registered with the College of Nurses of Ontario for the years 1993-2006. Registration records of all 215,687 nurses registered at any time in those years were merged by their unique registration number. Each nurse was placed for each year into an employment category. Two groups of nurses were defined: active (registered, working in nursing in Ontario) and inactive (registered, not working in nursing in Ontario). Inactive nurses were then sub-categorized into five mutually exclusive sub-categories: 'not working and seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and seeking nursing employment', 'not working and not seeking nursing employment', 'working in non-nursing and not seeking nursing employment' and 'working outside Ontario'. One-year career movements of nurses were tracked by generating 13 year-to-year transition matrixes. In the short-term, inactive nurses seeking a nursing job had the highest average rate of return to the active workforce (27.3-30.8%), though they might become high risk of leaving the profession if they do not find employment in a timely manner. Inactive nurses not seeking nursing employment are a heterogeneous group, and include nurses on leave who are likely to subsequently rejoin the active workforce should appropriate opportunities arise. The proportion of nurses rejoining the

  6. Inactive nurses in Taiwan: human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing, and incentives for returning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Yi; Tang, Fu-In; Chen, I-Ju; Yin, Teresa J C; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Yu, Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate inactive nurses' human capital, intention to return to hospital nursing and incentives for returning. Few studies have discussed the loss of human capital with regard to inactive nurses and how to attract them to return to clinical work. Systematic random sampling was used, with 328 subjects completing the mailed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 25.4%. Inactive nurses not only had moderate to high human capital (average years of nursing experience was 10.29, with moderate to high levels of nursing professional commitment and nursing competence) and were young. Forty-three percent of subjects reported intending to return to hospital nursing. Sufficient nurse staffing, greater safety in the working environment, and re-entry preparation programmes were incentives for returning. Recruiting inactive nurses back to hospital work is vital and feasible as inactive nurses had a moderate to high degree of human capital. The most feasible way is offering reasonable working conditions, in particular, providing sufficient staffing, a safe working environment and re-entry preparation programmes. The findings confirm the human capital of inactive nurses and provide concrete directions for nursing managers to follow when recruiting inactive nurses to hospital nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data for analysis of cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Brůha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance. The collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data was obtained from two groups comprising together 349 people of all ages - the visitors of the Days of Science and Technology 2016 held on the Pilsen central square and members of the Mensa Czech Republic visiting the neuroinformatics lab at the University of West Bohemia. Each provided dataset contains a complete or partial set of data obtained from the following measurements: hands and legs reaction times, color vision, spirometry, electrocardiography, blood pressure, blood glucose, body proportions and flexibility. It also provides a sufficient set of metadata (age, gender and summary of the participant's current life style and health to allow researchers to perform further analysis. This article has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a well annotated collection of human reaction times and health related data that is suitable for further analysis of lifestyle and human cognitive and physical performance. This data collection is complemented with a preliminarily statistical evaluation. The second aim is to present a procedure of efficient acquisition of human reaction times and supporting health related data in non-lab and lab conditions. Keywords: Reaction time, Health related data, Cognitive and physical performance, Chronic disease, Data acquisition, Data collection, Software for data collection

  8. Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Heather D., Ed.; Kohl , Harold W., III, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a key determinant of health across the lifespan. A lack of activity increases the risk of heart disease, colon and breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression and others diseases. Emerging literature has suggested that in terms of mortality, the global population health burden of…

  9. Physical activity support community togetheractive - architecture, implementation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Reducing sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity is getting an increased attention of researchers and health organizations due to its significant benefits on health. In the same direction we are proposing a virtual community system, TogetherActive, which supports people in their daily physical

  10. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources

  11. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  13. Correlates of selected indices of physical fitness and duration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of ...

  14. Split2 Protein-Ligation Generates Active IL-6-Type Hyper-Cytokines from Inactive Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jens M; Wehmöller, Melanie; Frank, Nils C; Homey, Lisa; Baran, Paul; Garbers, Christoph; Lamertz, Larissa; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Galun, Eithan; Mootz, Henning D; Scheller, Jürgen

    2017-12-15

    Trans-signaling of the major pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 has the unique feature to virtually activate all cells of the body and is critically involved in chronic inflammation and regeneration. Hyper-IL-6 and Hyper-IL-11 are single chain designer trans-signaling cytokines, in which the cytokine and soluble receptor units are trapped in one complex via a flexible peptide linker. Albeit, Hyper-cytokines are essential tools to study trans-signaling in vitro and in vivo, the superior potency of these designer cytokines are accompanied by undesirable stress responses. To enable tailor-made generation of Hyper-cytokines, we developed inactive split-cytokine-precursors adapted for posttranslational reassembly by split-intein mediated protein trans-splicing (PTS). We identified cutting sites within IL-6 (E 134 /S 135 ) and IL-11 (G 116 /S 117 ) and obtained inactive split-Hyper-IL-6 and split-Hyper-IL-11 cytokine precursors. After fusion with split-inteins, PTS resulted in reconstitution of active Hyper-cytokines, which were efficiently secreted from transfected cells. Our strategy comprises the development of a background-free cytokine signaling system from reversibly inactivated precursor cytokines.

  15. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts.Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry.Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann–Whitney, p = 0.153, as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354. The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F(24, 264 = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer (p < 0.05 in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects.Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years. However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  16. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Burton, Samantha; Gordon, Christopher; Mack, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts. Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old) participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann-Whitney, p = 0.153), as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively) and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354). The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F (24, 264) = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer ( p < 0.05) in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years). However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Jacobs, D.G.; Perdue, P.T.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-04-01

    Results of a radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill site at Grand Junction, Colorado, made in May and June 1976, are presented along with descriptions of techniques and equipment used to obtain the data and an assessment of increased risk of health effects attributable to radiation and radionuclides from the tailings. An estimate of potential health effects of exposure to gamma rays around a former mill building and to radon daughters produced by radon dispersed from the tailings has been made for occupants of the site

  18. Physical activity for health: examining similarities and differences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of a rising diabetes epidemic, a target population for prevention programme is the children of patients with type 2 diabetes. This study examined physical activity of patients with type 2 diabetes and that of their adult children, and characterized the factors associated with physical inactivity among the participants.

  19. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  20. [Changes in leisure activity among young people aged 15-18 years in Hungary: physical activity, media-consumption and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Bence

    2013-04-14

    Young people are more and more inactive, which has numerous well-known negative effects on their health. Several studies indicate that inactive lifestyle disposes people to sit in front of the television, which increases aggression and decreases the willingness of reading. There is also a strong link between inactivity and an increase of body mass, deterioration of anthropometric parameters, and deviant behaviour. The aim of the study was to find out, on the basis of two cross-sectional surveys, the changes occurred within eight years in the free-time activity of Hungarian young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Data obtained from two surveys conducted by the National Institute for Family and Social Policy, Hungary in 2000 and 2008 including 1780 and 2018 young people, respectively, were analysed and compared. The number of young people regularly involved in sport activity increased significantly, while their media-consumption failed to decrease. Physically active young people are more health-conscious, but regular sporting activity did not expel smoking, which was associated with a sedentary lifestyle and television watching. These data reveal new responses of a new generation; watching television still takes the largest part of their free time activity, but use of computers, and participation in social activities are not necessarily increase sedentary lifestyle and deviant habits. Internet has positive effects on the regularity of their physical activity.

  1. A Structured Peer-Mentoring Method for Physical Activity Behavior Change among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laureen H.; Petosa, Rick L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite national guidelines for regular physical activity, most adolescents are not physically active. Schools serve an estimated 60 million youth and provide an educational environment to meet the current physical activity guidelines. The obesity epidemic and chronic disease comorbidities associated with physical inactivity are not likely to be…

  2. Contaminant transport, revegetation, and trace element studies at inactive uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.; Kelley, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings piles is presently under study. These studies have included investigations of stabilizing tailings by attempting to establish native vegetation without applying irrigation. Examination of processes which transport tailings or associated contaminants into the environment has been undertaken to better understand the containment provided by various stabilization methods. The uptake of toxic trace elements and radionuclides by vegetation has been examined as a mechanism of contaminant transport. The source terms of 222 Rn from inactive piles have been determined as well as the attenuation of radon flux provided by shallow soil covers. The possibility of shallow ground water contamination around an inactive pile has been examined to determine the significance of ground water transport as a mode of contaminant migration. The rationale in support of trace element studies related to uranium milling activities is presented including the enrichment, migration, and toxicities of trace elements often associated with uranium deposits. Some concepts for the stabilization of inactive piles are presented to extrapolate from research findings to practical applications. 25 references, 8 tables

  3. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Results: Hypertensive patients who were physically active accounted for 46 % and the risk of hypertension .... based care, emergency room visits, inpatient .... from different geographic areas and ... Diabetes. Hypertension. Angina. Myocardial infarction. Other heart diseases .... blood pressure: a critical review of the clinical.

  4. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the association between physical activity, prevalence of hypertension, and total healthcare and pharmaceutical expenditure in the United States of America (US). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult United States residents were included from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for ...

  5. In the Zone: An Investigation into Physical Activity during Recess on Traditional versus Zoned Playgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, Jillian; Wunder, Colin, II; Ball, Steve

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has reached epidemic status with some states with rates as high as 20%. The most effective interventions for combating inactivity target children before inactivity develops in their adolescent years. If effective, school-aged physical activity (PA) interventions would decrease…

  6. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-03-14

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  7. Aspects of self differ among physically active and inactive youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    The aim of this paper was to explore connection between aspects of self and levels of physical activity among adolescents. An international sample of 501 elementary school students (mean age 14.7 +/- A 0.9 years, 48.5% males) from the Slovak and Czech Republics completed the

  8. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide prevents fat gain following the cessation of voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Sevage, Joseph A; Childs, Thomas E; Grigsby, Kolter B; Booth, Frank W

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) could prevent acute increases in body fat and changes in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue following the sudden transition from physical activity to physical inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? AICAR prevented fat gains following the transition from physical activity to inactivity to levels comparable to rats that remained physically active. AICAR and continuous physical activity produced depot-specific changes in cyclin A1 mRNA and protein that were associated with the prevention of fat gain. These findings suggest that targeting AMP-activated protein kinase signalling could oppose rapid adipose mass growth. The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED) or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), had their wheel locked (WL) or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week. RUN and WL + AICAR prevented gains in body fat compared with SED and WL (P RUN and WL + AICAR compared with SED and WL groups (P run, and that together, continuous physical activity and AICAR could, at least initially in these conditions, exert similar inhibitory effects on adipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  9. Mothers' intentions to support children's physical activity related to attention and implicit agreement with advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Craig, Cora L; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer, Amy; Rhodes, Ryan; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    ParticipACTION's Think Again campaign targeted mothers who think their children are sufficiently active, yet whose children do not achieve recommended amounts of physical activity. This research examined the relationship of mothers' intentions to support children's physical activity with explicit believability and implicit agreement with the Think Again campaign message, attention paid to the advertisement, involvement with the issue, concern regarding children's inactivity, and attitudes. Participants were mothers from Edmonton, Canada (N = 102) who viewed one Think Again advertisement then completed a measure of implicit agreement with the campaign message and questionnaires. The mothers who paid attention to the message and were concerned for their own children were more likely to intend to act on campaign messages. The majority of participants implicitly agreed that children's physical inactivity was a problem, but there was less agreement that physical inactivity was a problem for their own children. Participants automatically tended to agree with campaign messages when the focus was on children in general, but there was greater disagreement when asked about participant's own children. Why most mothers were not in agreement with the reality of how much physical activity their children needs remains to be determined.

  10. Gender-specific changes in physical activity pattern in Iran: national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Etemad, Koorosh; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Meysamie, Alipasha; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Asgari, Fereshteh; Noshad, Sina; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Rafei, Ali; Mousavizadeh, Mostafa; Khajeh, Elias; Ebadi, Maryam; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the gender-specific pattern of physical activity (PA) in Iran 2011. The 4-year changes in PA levels (domains) are also determined according to the Iran's national surveys conducted on 2007 and 2011. Physical activity assessed based on the global physical activity questionnaire. In all, 4,121 (2007), and 7,436 (2011) adults were analyzed. Based on 2011 survey, 56.4 %, 39.2 %, and 74.4 % of participants were physically inactive at work, commuting and recreation, respectively. In all domains of PA, males showed a higher degree of activity (min/day) than females (P value physical inactivity was increased from 15 % (2007) to 21.5 % (2011) (P value physical activity (MET × min/week) and the duration of commuting activity were noted in both genders. Work-related activity was dramatically decreased in females. However, the time spent in recreational activity remained relatively constant. This report indicating that the Iranian population, particularly females, have become less active during the survey period. Physical inactivity should receive more attention as a public health issue.

  11. Associations of unhealthy lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Pedersen, Bo V

    2011-01-01

    Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.......Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting....

  12. Social cognitive correlates of leisure time physical activity among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, David X; McAuley, Edward

    2006-06-01

    Despite the well-documented benefits of leisure time physical activity, Latinos are reported to be highest among all ethnic groups in leisure time inactivity. The present study examined the relationship between leisure time physical activity and exercise self-efficacy, exercise barriers self-efficacy, exercise social support, and perceived importance of physical activity. Data were obtained from 153 Latinos (n = 86 female, n = 67 male). Comparisons were made between Latinos with high and low levels of leisure time physical activity and between men and women. Results revealed that Latinos high in leisure time physical activity had significantly greater exercise and barriers self-efficacy, received more social support from friends to exercise, and placed greater importance on physical activity outcomes than did Latinos low in leisure time physical activity. No significant differences were revealed for social support from family, nor between men and women on the psychosocial variables. Physical activity interventions targeting sources of self-efficacy, increasing social support, and emphasizing the importance of regular physical activity should be helpful in increasing leisure time physical activity of Latinos. Future research should examine the influence of environmental and cultural variables on the leisure time physical activity of Latinos and how they interact with psychosocial factors.

  13. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  14. Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh

    2018-06-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Being Active and Impulsive: The Role of Goals for Action and Inaction in Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores; McCulloch, Kathleen C; Noguchi, Kenji

    2012-12-01

    Although self-control often requires behavioral inaction (i.e., not eating a piece of cake), the process of inhibiting impulsive behavior is commonly characterized as cognitively active (i.e., actively exerting self-control). Two experiments examined whether motivation for action or inaction facilitates self-control behavior in the presence of tempting stimuli. Experiment 1 used a delay discounting task to assess the ability to delay gratification with respect to money. Experiment 2 used a Go/No-Go task to assess the ability to inhibit a dominant but incorrect motor response to the words "condom" and "sex". The results demonstrate that goals for inaction promote self-control, whereas goals for action promote impulsive behavior. These findings are discussed in light of recent evidence suggesting that goals for action and inaction modulate physiological resources that promote behavioral execution.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE HONEYBEES’ HAEMOLYMPH (A. M. CARPATHICA COLLECTED IN THE INACTIVE SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGRIPINA SAPCALIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical analyses of the blood are largely used for the routine diagnosis and especially for the metabolic survey in farm animals. These facts conduct us to the idea that similar analyses, applied on honeybee hemolymph, could be used IN monitoring the healthy state of honeybee colonies. The present studies represent preliminary researches, which aimed to investigate the variability of the main biochemical parameters in the hemolymph of the healthy honeybees (Apis mellifera in inactive season. The researches were carried out on honeybee samples collected from 5 honeybee colonies belonging to a breeding apiary of the Institute for Beekeeping Research and Development from Bucharest. In order to perform the biochemical analyses, the honeybees samples, consisting in 50 individuals on sample (10 individuals/colony were randomly collected and their haemolimph collected, at different time intervals, in inactive season (fall-winter. Totally, there were collected 250 haemolyph samples in a 2 years interval and the following 21 biochemical parameters were analysed: GLU, HDL-c, ALP, T-cho, Tprot, Alb., BUN, LDH, CPK,, Mg, IP, GGT, GOT, GPT, Ca, Cre,, Amy, T–BIL, TG, UA.. The test was carried out after the collection and processing of the samples using the SPOTCHEM EZSP4430, equipment with dry kits, the slides technique, respectively .During the 2nd part of the inactive season, the values of most biochemical parameters increase in different proportions, their levels being maintained also in the first part of the active seasons (April, May, June.The values obtained for the main studied biochemical parameters in the haemolymph of the healthy honeybees collected from honeybee colonies kept in natural conditions show a highly variable evolution in the two consecutive years of experiments during the inactive season.

  17. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Caporicci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  18. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  19. 123-iodine heptadecanoic acid (HDA) cardiac metabolism of inactive sportsmen with nuclear cardiology, impacted into complex cardiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Pszota, Agnes; Karman, Miklos; Boeszoermenyi, Ernoe

    1987-01-01

    8 inactive sportsmen and 8 heavy physical workers with similar mean age (36 years) and mean body surface (2 m 2 ) were analysed functionally and metabolically for myocardial hypertrophy. 123 I-heptadecanoic acid (HDA) scintigraphy and kinetics were carried out with methods of Feinendegen and Dudczak and using Hungarian gamma-camera. In both groups good correlation was found between the myocardial uptake of 123 I-HDA and 201 Tl. Regional alterations of myocardial perfusion during ergometric load were analyzed and compared to alterations of the ECG and echo. (author) 24 refs.; 7 figs

  20. Maternal inactivity: 45-year trends in mothers' use of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Edward; Lavie, Carl J; McDonald, Samantha M; Thomas, Diana M; Hébert, James R; Taverno Ross, Sharon E; McIver, Kerry L; Malina, Robert M; Blair, Steven N

    2013-12-01

    To examine 45-year trends in time use and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in a nationally representative sample of US mothers. We quantified time allocation to physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SED), and PAEE from 1965 to 2010 in mothers with older children (MOC) (>5 to ≤18 years) and mothers with younger children (MYC) (≤5 years). Physical activity was the sum of time allocated to housework, child care, laundry, food preparation, postmeal cleanup, and exercise. Sedentary behavior was the sum of time spent in a vehicle and using screen-based media. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. From 1965 to 2010, the time allocated to PA decreased by 11.1 h/wk (from 32.0 to 20.9 h/wk) in MOC and by 13.9 h/wk (from 43.6 to 29.7 h/wk) in MYC. The time spent in SED increased by 7.0 h/wk in MOC (from 17.7 to 24.7 h/wk) and increased by 5.7 h/wk in MYC (from 17.0 to 22.7 h/wk). Physical activity energy expenditure decreased by 1237.6 kcal/wk (176.8 kcal/d) in MOC (from 5835.3 to 4597.7 kcal/wk), and in MYC, PAEE decreased by 1572.5 kcal/wk (224.6 kcal/d), from 7690.5 to 6118.0 kcal/wk. There was a significant reallocation of time by mothers from PA (eg, housework) to SED (eg, watching television) between 1965 and 2010. Given the essential role of PA for health and the potential for the intergenerational transmission of obesity and obesogenic behaviors, these results suggest that maternal inactivity may be an important target for the primary prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New Method for Determination of Electrically Inactive Phosphorus in n-type Emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Steyer, Michael; Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir; Hahn, Giso; Terheiden, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the amount and the location in depth of inactive phosphorus in an n-type emitter is still a challenge. As a new approach, we determine the total amount of phosphorus (P dose) in the emitter stepwise in dependence of etching depth with the characterization tool ICP-OES. A comparison of the data with the electrically active P concentration profile measured by ECV allows to determine in which depths electrically inactive phosphorus is present. For a highly doped emitter,...

  2. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  3. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  4. Inaction inertia, regret, and valuation : A closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, Marcel; Nijstad, Bernard A.; van Putten, Marijke; van Dijk, Eric

    Inaction inertia is the phenomenon that one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having bypassed an even more attractive opportunity. So far, all published work has assumed a causal role for the emotion regret in this effect. In a series of 5 experiments we found no support for

  5. Levels of physical activity and predictors of mortality in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Maria Nyssen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, andExercise capacity (BODE index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components.METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1, perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale, and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]. The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ. The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer, using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI− and severe physical inactivity (SPI+. We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis.RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain, lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted, and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total. The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399, age (r = −0.459, and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446 and in % of predicted (r = 0.422.CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day.

  6. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  7. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report. Revised final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites. According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, (UMTRCA) the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined this assessment shall include information on hydrogeologic site characterization. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. Site characterization activities discussed in this section include: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment; characterization of existing groundwater quality; definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source; and description of local water resources.

  8. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marc Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors' knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  9. Accelerometer-determined physical activity level among government employees in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazizi, A S; Aina, Mardiah B; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zaitun, Y; Hamid, Jan J M; Tabata, I

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate accelerometer-determined physical activity level of 233 Malay government employees (104 men, 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building Penang, Malaysia. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured for each respondent. All the respondents were asked to wear an accelerometer for 3 days. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated using a standard formulas. Fasting blood sample was obtained to determine the lipid profile and glucose levels of the respondents. Based on the accelerometer-determined physical activity level, almost 65% of the respondents were categorised as sedentary. Approximately 50.2% of the respondents were overweight or obese. There were negative but significant relationships between body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.353, p obesity in this study. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity found among respondents of this study indicate a need for implementing intervention programmes among this population.

  10. Correlation between physical activity and self-efficacy in Chinese university students

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is becoming increasingly prevalent in Chinese university students. This study aims to assess the leisure-time physical activity level of the Chinese university students and to examine the correlation between the physical activity level and the self-efficacy to overcome barriers to physical activity. Five hundred and thirty Chinese university students participated in the study voluntarily. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, Chinese Short version) and t...

  11. Cosmopolitan Utilitarianism and the Problem of Local Inaction in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Corvino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of the public acceptability of political inaction as an extreme consequence of cosmopolitan utilitarianism. The case of political inaction as the utility-maximizing public policy option emerges more clearly in the globalized world, because of a misalignment between the electoral body and the persons that the government ought to consider while evaluating the consequences of a given policy. In this context, a situation can easily occur in which the only way to maximize utility in a global context is by renouncing action at the national or local level. However, the problem of inaction should not be interpreted simply as a by-product of globalization. Its origins can be traced to the basic structure of utilitarianism as a normative consequentialist theory. This drawback can even present itself at the local level in a less visible form. One example is that in which the performance of a supererogatory act in the exercise of public office leads to a reduction in overall utility. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that cosmopolitan utilitarianism can bind the decision maker to a series of inactions at the global and local levels that contradict his own mandate, generating a dangerous moral confusion in the implementation of public policies. This can seriously threaten the universal applicability of cosmopolitan utilitarianism as a normative political theory, especially in the age of globalization.

  12. The relationship between physical inactivity and mental wellbeing: Findings from a gamification-based community-wide physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental ill health accounts for 13 per cent of total global disease burden with predictions that depression alone will be the leading cause of disease burden globally by 2030. Poor mental health is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. A plethora of research has examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing; however, the influence of community-wide gamification-based physical activity interventions on mental wellbeing, to the authors’ knowledge, is yet to be explored. In view of this paucity of attention, the current study examined the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing pre/post a community-wide, gamification-based intervention. The findings revealed that increases in mental wellbeing were significantly greater for the least active prior to the intervention, and a strong, positive correlation between increase in physical activity and increase in mental wellbeing was observed.

  13. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  14. Triad of physical activity, aerobic fitness and obesity in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Roebroeck, Marij E; Rol, Mathilde; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensively and objectively assess physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to investigate their relationships. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-one persons (26 males) with myelomeningocele aged 21.1 (standard deviation) 4.5) years. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Aerobic fitness was defined as the maximum oxygen uptake during the last minute of a maximal exercise test. Body fat was assessed using sum of 4 skin-folds and body mass index. Corr