WorldWideScience

Sample records for physical activity evidence

  1. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature deat...

  2. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  3. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  4. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  5. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YONG KANG CHEAH; ANDREW K. G. TAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-demographic and health-lifestyle factors determine participation and duration of leisure-time physical activity in Malaysia. Based on the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 data, Heckman's sample selection model is employed to estimate the probability to participate and duration on physical activity. Results indicate that gender, age, years of education and family illness history are significant in explaining participation probability in leisure-tim...

  7. Psychological Benefits of Regular Physical Activity: Evidence from Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekin, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a transitional stage between late adolescence and young adulthood in life-span development that requires significant changes in people's lives. Therefore, identifying protective factors for this population is crucial. This study investigated the effects of regular physical activity on self-esteem, optimism, and happiness in…

  8. Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley E; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ryan E; Evenson, Kelly R; Mayer, Joni A; Thorpe, Roland J, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to non-dog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was ...

  9. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.R.; Bertram, M.; Hamalainen, R.-M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Skovgaard, T.; Valente, A.; Castellani, T.; Chereches, R.; Edwards, N.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial

  10. The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Dunton, Genevieve F.

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings ...

  11. Updating the Evidence for Physical Activity: Summative Reviews of the Epidemiological Evidence, Prevalence, and Interventions to Promote "Active Aging".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Merom, Dafna; Bull, Fiona C; Buchner, David M; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2016-04-01

    There is a global imperative to increase awareness of the emerging evidence on physical activity (PA) among older adults. "Healthy aging" has traditionally focused on preventing chronic disease, but greater efforts are required to reduce frailty and dependency and to maintain independent physical and cognitive function and mental health and well-being. This integrated review updates the epidemiological data on PA, summarizes the existing evidence-based PA guidelines, describes the global magnitude of inactivity, and finally describes the rationale for action. The first section updates the epidemiological evidence for reduced cardiometabolic risk, reduced risks of falls, the burgeoning new evidence on improved cognitive function and functional capacity, and reduced risk of depression, anxiety, and dementia. This is followed by a summary of population prevalence studies among older adults. Finally, we present a "review of reviews" of PA interventions delivered from community or population settings, followed by a consideration of interventions among the "oldest-old," where efforts are needed to increase resistance (strength) training and balance. This review identifies the global importance of considering "active aging" beyond the established benefits attributed to noncommunicable disease prevention alone. Innovative population-level efforts are required to address physical inactivity, prevent loss of muscle strength, and maintain balance in older adults. Specific investment in healthy aging requires global policy support from the World Health Organization and is implemented at the national and regional levels, in order to reduce the burden of disease and disability among older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Physical activity promotion in business and industry: evidence, context, and recommendations for a national plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2009-11-01

    The contemporary workplace setting is in need of interventions that effectively promote higher levels of occupational and habitual physical activity. It is the purpose of this paper to outline an evidence-based approach to promote physical activity in the business and industry sector in support of a National Physical Activity Plan. Comprehensive literature searches identified systematic reviews, comprehensive reviews, and consensus documents on the impact of physical activity interventions in the business and industry sector. A framework for action and priority recommendations for practice and research were generated. Comprehensive, multicomponent work-site programs that include physical activity components generate significant improvements in health, reduce absenteeism and sick leave, and can generate a positive financial return. Specific evidence-based physical activity interventions are presented. Recommendations for practice include implementing comprehensive, multicomponent programs that make physical activity interventions possible, simple, rewarding and relevant in the context of a social-ecological model. The business and industry sector has significant opportunities to improve physical activity among employees, their dependents, and the community at-large and to reap important benefits related to worker health and business performance.

  13. Gardening Activities and Physical Health Among Older Adults: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily J; Anderson, Lynda A; Yen, Irene H

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined the health-related consequences of gardening among older adults. This scoping review summarizes and characterizes current research that examines the relationship between physical health and participation in planned gardening activities, including establishing, maintaining, or caring for plants. Six databases were searched. Eligible studies were published between 2000 and 2013, were published in English, and assessed different aspects of physical health (e.g., functional ability, energy expenditure, injury) for older adults who had participated in a planned gardening activity. Of the eight eligible studies identified with these criteria, four assessed energy expenditures and four assessed physical functioning. Studies assessing energy expenditures documented that the majority of gardening tasks were classified into low-to-moderate intensity physical activity. The current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the physical functioning consequences of gardening. Future studies should consider how specific gardening interventions help older adults meet physical activity guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; van de Goor, Ien

    2015-01-01

    informed by research evidence compared to others. The aims of the present article are to explore the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies, identify when research evidence was used, and find what other types of evidence were employed in HEPA policymaking. Methods......Background The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well...... Multidisciplinary teams from six EU member states analysed the use of research evidence and other kinds of evidence in 21 HEPA policies and interviewed 86 key policymakers involved in the policies. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on both policy documents and interview data. Results Research evidence...

  15. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  16. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  17. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  18. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.

  19. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  20. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=-.05), extraversion (β=-.03), and agreeableness (β=-.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories.

  1. Physical Activity and Personality Development over Twenty Years: Evidence from Three Longitudinal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Luchetti, Martina; Bosselut, Grégoire; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=−.06). The meta-analysis further showed that lower physical activity was associated with declines in openness (β=−.05), extraversion (β=−.03), and agreeableness (β=−.03). These findings provide evidence that a physically inactive lifestyle is associated with long-term detrimental personality trajectories. PMID:29651189

  2. Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity is widely recognized as a means for the primary prevention of chronic diseases as well as in patients' treatment and rehabilitation. Moreover, activity has beneficial effects on an individual's health and well-being. Despite the benefits of regular physical activity, the percentage of physically inactive adults in the world is high. Environmental and policy approaches aimed to increase physical activity require continual stress of the epidemiological evidence from studies investigating disease mechanisms as well as controlled clinical trials. To update the evidence that physical activity/exercise is important for reducing the chronic diseases (cardiovascular and heart, diabetes, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis, and fall-related injuries, depression and emotional stress) and for mechanisms that may operate in the relation between physical activity and a disease risk. Research studies published from 2004 through to March 2007 were identified through a review of the literature available on the NLM PubMed, Medline, Current Contents, and Elsevier-Science Direct databases. Recent evidence on physical activity/exercise and reduction of chronic major diseases incidence and rehabilitation of patients replicates previous findings. The strongest evidence exists for colon cancer, breast cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The maximal magnitudes of the risk reduction reported were: 75% for breast cancer, 49% for cardiovascular and heart diseases, 35% for diabetes, 22% for colorectal cancer. Increased physical activity also prevented the weight gain associated with aging at least 2-times greater in individuals who were more active compared with those who were inactive. Limited new findings has been reported for the beneficial role of physical activity in fall-related injures, depression and emotional distress. Recent evidence confirms previous findings that engaging in moderate physical activity is very important for the primary prevention of chronic diseases

  3. Adopting an Evidence-Based Lifestyle Physical Activity Program: Dissemination Study Design and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrea L; Buller, David B; Dearing, James W; Cutter, Gary; Guerra, Michele; Wilcox, Sara; Bettinghaus, Erwin P

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of research studies that have examined academic-commercial partnerships to disseminate evidence-based physical activity programs. Understanding this approach to dissemination is essential because academic-commercial partnerships are increasingly common. Private companies have used dissemination channels and strategies to a degree that academicians have not, and declining resources require academicians to explore these partnerships. PURPOSE: This paper describes a retrospective case-control study design including the methods, demographics, organizational decision-making, implementation rates, and marketing strategy for Active Living Every Day (ALED), an evidence-based lifestyle physical activity program that has been commercially available since 2001. Evidence-based public health promotion programs rely on organizations and targeted sectors to disseminate these programs although relatively little is known about organizational-level and sector-level influences that lead to their adoption and implementation. METHODS: Cases (n=154) were eligible if they had signed an ALED license agreement with Human Kinetics (HK), publisher of the program's textbooks and facilitator manuals, between 2001 and 2008. Two types of controls were matched (2:2:1) and stratified by sector and region. Active controls (Control 1; n=319) were organizations that contacted HK to consider adopting ALED. Passive controls (Control 2; n=328) were organizations that received unsolicited marketing materials and did not initiate contact with HK. We used Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT) constructs as the basis for developing the survey of cases and controls. RESULTS: Using the multi-method strategy recommended by Dillman, a total of n=801 cases and controls were surveyed. Most organizations were from the fitness sector followed by medical, nongovernmental, governmental, educational, worksite and other sectors with significantly higher response rates from government

  4. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities.

  5. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  6. Implementing evidence-based physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Tiedemann, Anne; Stanton, Robert; Parker, Alexandra; Waterreus, Anna; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise is increasingly being recognised as an efficacious component of treatment for various mental disorders. The association between PA and cardiometabolic disease is well established, as is the strong link between mental illness, sedentary behaviour and poor cardiometabolic health. Examples of successful integration of clinical PA programs within mental health treatment facilities are increasing. The aim of this review was to summarise the evidence regarding PA and mental illness, and to present examples of clinical exercise programs within Australian mental health facilities. A narrative synthesis of systematic reviews and clinical trials was conducted. Evidence supporting the inclusion of PA programs as an adjunct to treatment for various conditions was presented; including depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and substance abuse. In light of the available evidence, the inclusion of clinical PA programs within mental health treatment, facilitated by dedicated clinicians (exercise physiologists / physiotherapists) was justified. PA is a feasible, effective and acceptable adjunct to usual care for a variety of mental disorders. There is a clear need for greater investment in initiatives aiming to increase PA among people experiencing mental illness, given the benefits to both mental and physical health outcomes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  7. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  8. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  9. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  10. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  11. Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craft Lynette L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ≥10 minutes of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (≥ 30 min of MVPA or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ≥10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22 compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4. Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22, standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15, and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06 did not differ between days with (~55 min/day and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More

  12. The association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures: a review of the evidence and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza

    2008-11-01

    Physical activity helps maintain mobility, physical functioning, bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength, balance and, therefore, may help prevent falls and fractures among the elderly. Meanwhile, it is theoretically possible that physical activity increases risk of fractures as it may increase risk of falls and has only a modest effect on BMD. This review aims to assess the potential causal association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures from an epidemiological viewpoint. As the medical literature lacks direct evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with fracture end points, a meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies with hip fracture end point is presented. The current evidence base regarding the link between exercise and fracture risk determinants (namely, falls, BMD, and bone quality) are also summarized. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with a hip fracture risk reduction of 45% (95% CI, 31-56%) and 38% (95% CI, 31-44%), respectively, among men and women. Risk of falling is suggested to be generally reduced among physically active people with a potential increased risk in the most active and inactive people. Positive effects of physical activity on BMD and bone quality are of a questionable magnitude for reduction of fracture risk. The complexity of relationship between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures points out to the need for RCTs to be conducted with fractures as the primary end point.

  13. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  14. Evidence, theory and context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    McEachan, RRC; Lawton, RJ; Jackson, C; Conner, M; Lunt, J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an i...

  15. Do evidence-based active-engagement courses reduce the gender gap in introductory physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nafis I.; Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-03-01

    Prior research suggests that using evidence-based pedagogies can not only improve learning for all students, it can also reduce the gender gap. We describe the impact of physics education research-based pedagogical techniques in flipped and active-engagement non-flipped courses on the gender gap observed with validated conceptual surveys. We compare male and female students’ performance in courses which make significant use of evidence-based active-engagement (EBAE) strategies with courses that primarily use lecture-based (LB) instruction. All courses had large enrolment and often had more than 100 students. The analysis of data for validated conceptual surveys presented here includes data from two-semester sequences of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses. The conceptual surveys used to assess student learning in the first and second semester courses were the force concept inventory and the conceptual survey of electricity and magnetism, respectively. In the research discussed here, the performance of male and female students in EBAE courses at a particular level is compared with LB courses in two situations: (I) the same instructor taught two courses, one of which was an EBAE course and the other an LB course, while the homework, recitations and final exams were kept the same; (II) student performance in all of the EBAE courses taught by different instructors was averaged and compared with LB courses of the same type also averaged over different instructors. In all cases, on conceptual surveys we find that students in courses which make significant use of active-engagement strategies, on average, outperformed students in courses of the same type using primarily lecture-based instruction even though there was no statistically significant difference on the pre-test before instruction. However, the gender gap persisted even in courses using EBAE methods. We also discuss correlations between the performance of male and female students on

  16. Positive Youth Development through an Outdoor Physical Activity Programme: Evidence from a Four-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen; Sandford, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Sandford, Armour and Warmington undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of physical activity/sport and physical education in promoting positive development for disaffected youth. This paper revisits the findings of the literature review in light of data from a four-year evaluation of one corporate-sponsored physical…

  17. Physical activity in the treatment of the adulthood overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, R R

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on the role of physical activity in the treatment of adult overweight and obesity. Three specific questions are addressed: (1) Does exercise alone produce weight loss? (2) Does exercise in combination with diet produce greater weight loss than diet only? and (3) Does exercise in combination with diet produce better maintenance of weight loss than diet alone? The literature initially identified by the Expert Panel on Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of Obesity, three key meta analyses, and additional literature searches were used to identify randomized trials related to the three aforementioned topics. These articles were reviewed and tabulated. Six of 10 randomized studies found significantly greater weight loss in exercise alone versus no treatment controls. The magnitude of the effect averaged 1-2 kg. Only 2 of 13 studies found significant differences in initial weight loss for diet plus exercise versus diet only, although almost all studies pointed in this direction. Six studies were identified with maintenance periods of at least 1 yr. In two of the six there were significant long term differences favoring diet plus exercise, but in every study considered the direction of the difference favored diet plus exercise. Other strong evidence showing benefits of exercise for long-term weight loss comes from correlational analyses which consistently find that those individuals who report the greatest exercise have the best maintenance of weight loss. Randomized trials consistently show benefits of exercise for weight loss, but the effects are often modest. This may result from small sample sizes, short study duration, and poor adherence to the exercise prescriptions. To better define the doses and types of exercise that will promote long-term weight loss, it is necessary to develop better ways to measure exercise and promote adherence to exercise.

  18. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  19. How does network structure affect partnerships for promoting physical activity? Evidence from Brazil and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Dauti, Marsela; Harris, Jenine K; Reyes, Lissette; Malta, Deborah C; Brownson, Ross C; Quintero, Mario A; Pratt, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the network structure and factors associated with collaboration in two networks that promote physical activity (PA) in Brazil and Colombia. Organizations that focus on studying and promoting PA in Brazil (35) and Colombia (53) were identified using a modified one-step reputational snowball sampling process. Participants completed an on-line survey between December 2008 and March 2009 for the Brazil network, and between April and June 2009 for the Colombia network. Network stochastic modeling was used to investigate the likelihood of reported inter-organizational collaboration. While structural features of networks were significant predictors of collaboration within each network, the coefficients and other network characteristics differed. Brazil's PA network was decentralized with a larger number of shared partnerships. Colombia's PA network was centralized and collaboration was influenced by perceived importance of peer organizations. On average, organizations in the PA network of Colombia reported facing more barriers (1.5 vs. 2.5 barriers) for collaboration. Future studies should focus on how these different network structures affect the implementation and uptake of evidence-based PA interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  1. Article Title: Physical activity in adolescents. Is there scientific evidence of how physical exercise affects sleep in the adolescent population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Reverter-Masia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Insomnia is a very common pediatric condition that causes a serious impact on psychophysical performance. The present paper, based on the scientific literature, aims to analyze some questions about how physical activity affects sleep in the adolescent population. Finally, some general and useful recommendations are established for professionals working in this population group.

  2. The influence of physical activity on cigarette smoking among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Heller, Lauren R

    2015-05-01

    This article explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking behavior among adolescents using rich longitudinal survey data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Several endogeneity-corrected models were estimated to ascertain the effect of exercise on both the probability of being a smoker and the intensity of cigarette smoking. The analysis indicated that 1 additional weekly occurrence of exercise led to a 0.3% decline in the probability of being a smoker and led to a 4.1% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked by a smoker during a month, a result that was robust to stratification by gender and race/ethnicity. Consistent with the national guidelines, frequencies of physical activity of at least 7 times per week appeared to exhibit the biggest benefits in terms of reduction in smoking for both genders and across races/ethnicities. Reduction in health-damaging smoking behavior among adolescents could be an additional benefit of being physically active. This research documented a new pathway by which even moderate increases in physical activity could result in improved health outcomes by reducing smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. How is post-industrial decline associated with the geography of physical activity? Evidence from the Health Survey for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy; Southall, Humphrey

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of physical activity has declined considerably in many developed countries, which has been related to rising levels of obesity and several weight-related medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease. There is evidence that areas exhibiting particularly low levels of physical activity have undergone a strong transition away from employment in physically demanding occupations. It is proposed that such processes of deindustrialisation may be causally linked to unexplained geographical disparities in physical activity. This study investigates how geographical variations in deindustrialisation are associated with current levels of physical activity across different activity domains and relevant macro-economic time periods in England. The analysis includes data on 27,414 adults from the Health Survey for England 2006 and 2008 who reported total, occupational, domestic, recreational and walking activity. Based on employment change in industries associated with heavy manual work, a local measurement of industrial decline was developed, covering the period 1841-2001. We applied a multilevel modelling approach to study associations between industrial decline and physical activity. Results indicate that the process of deindustrialisation appears to be associated with patterns of physical activity and that this is independent of household income. The effects observed were generally similar for men and women. However, the nature of the association differed across areas, time periods and employment types; in particular, residents of districts characterised by a history of manufacturing and mining employment had increased odds of reporting low activity levels. We conclude that post-industrial change may be a factor in explaining present-day variations in physical activity, emphasising the plausible impact of inherited cultures and regional identities on health related behaviours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence, theory and context: using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

    2008-09-22

    The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  5. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  6. [Development of an evidence-based media campaign to promote walking among physically inactive women and increased physical activity among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-06-08

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..

  7. Diet, body size, physical activity and risk of prostate cancer: An umbrella review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markozannes, Georgios; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Karli, Dimitra; Evangelou, Evangelos; Ntzani, Evangelia; Gunter, Marc J; Norat, Teresa; Ioannidis, John P; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K

    2016-12-01

    The existing literature on the relationship between diet, body size, physical activity and prostate cancer risk was summarised by the World Cancer Research Fund Continuous Update Project (CUP). An evaluation of the robustness of this evidence is required to help inform public health policy. The robustness of this evidence was evaluated using several criteria addressing evidence strength and validity, including the statistical significance of the random effects summary estimate and of the largest study in a meta-analysis, number of prostate cancer cases, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, small-study effects bias, excess significance bias and sensitivity analyses with credibility ceilings. A total of 248 meta-analyses were extracted from the CUP, which studied associations of 23 foods, 31 nutrients, eight indices of body size and three indices of physical activity with risk of total prostate cancer development, mortality or cancer development by stage and grade. Of the 176 meta-analyses using a continuous scale to measure the exposures, no association presented strong evidence by satisfying all the aforementioned criteria. Only the association of height with total prostate cancer incidence and mortality presented highly suggestive evidence with a 4% higher risk per 5 cm greater height (95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.05). Associations for body mass index, weight, height, dietary calcium and spirits intake were supported by suggestive evidence. Overall, the association of diet, body size, physical activity and prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but no association was graded with strong evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, and cancer: an update and emerging new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Anderson, Cheryl; Lippman, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels. Epidemiological studies show that the inclusion of wholegrain, fibre, fruits, and vegetables within diets are associated with reduced cancer risk, with diet during early life (age diet-related factors have not yet shown any conclusive associations between diet and cancer incidence. Obesity is a key contributory factor associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in dose-response associations in endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and in degree and duration of fatty liver disease-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity produces an inflammatory state, characterised by macrophages clustered around enlarged hypertrophied, dead, and dying adipocytes, forming crown-like structures. Increased concentrations of aromatase and interleukin 6 in inflamed breast tissue and an increased number of macrophages, compared with healthy tissue, are also observed in women with normal body mass index, suggesting a metabolic obesity state. Emerging randomised controlled trials of physical activity and dietary factors and mechanistic studies of immunity, inflammation, extracellular matrix mechanics, epigenetic or transcriptional regulation, protein translation, circadian disruption, and interactions of the multibiome with lifestyle factors will be crucial to advance this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Physical Activity: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chieffi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we provide a review of current knowledge regarding the role played by physical activity (PA in preventing age-related cognitive decline and reducing risk of dementia. The cognitive benefits of PA are highlighted by epidemiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies. Epidemiological studies identified PA as an influential lifestyle factor in predicting rates of cognitive decline. Individuals physically active from midlife show a reduced later risk of cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies documented attenuation of age-related brain atrophy, and also increase of gray matter and white matter of brain areas, including frontal and temporal lobes. These structural changes are often associated with improved cognitive performance. Importantly, the brain regions that benefit from PA are also those regions that are often reported to be severely affected in dementia. Animal model studies provided significant information about biomechanisms that support exercise-enhanced neuroplasticity, such as angiogenesis and upregulation of growth factors. Among the growth factors, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor seems to play a significant role. Another putative factor that might contribute to beneficial effects of exercise is the neuropeptide orexin-A. The beneficial effects of PA may represent an important resource to hinder the cognitive decline associated with aging.

  11. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  12. Older American Indians' Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P; Schure, Marc B; Goins, R Turner

    2016-06-23

    Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed.

  13. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Chereches, Razvan M; Syed, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well

  14. Examining the use of evidence-based and social media supported tools in freely accessible physical activity intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kirwan, Morwenna; Rebar, Amanda; Alley, Stephanie; Short, Camille; Fallon, Luke; Buzza, Gavin; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Maher, Carol; Duncan, Mitch J

    2014-08-17

    It has been shown that physical activity is more likely to increase if web-based interventions apply evidence-based components (e.g. self-monitoring) and incorporate interactive social media applications (e.g. social networking), but it is unclear to what extent these are being utilized in the publicly available web-based physical activity interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether freely accessible websites delivering physical activity interventions use evidence-based behavior change techniques and provide social media applications. In 2013, a systematic search strategy examined 750 websites. Data was extracted on a wide range of variables (e.g. self-monitoring, goal setting, and social media applications). To evaluate website quality a new tool, comprising three sub-scores (Behavioral Components, Interactivity and User Generated Content), was developed to assess implementation of behavior change techniques and social media applications. An overall website quality scored was obtained by summing the three sub-scores. Forty-six publicly available websites were included in the study. The use of self-monitoring (54.3%), goal setting (41.3%) and provision of feedback (46%) was relatively low given the amount of evidence supporting these features. Whereas the presence of features allowing users to generate content (73.9%), and social media components (Facebook (65.2%), Twitter (47.8%), YouTube (48.7%), smartphone applications (34.8%)) was relatively high considering their innovative and untested nature. Nearly all websites applied some behavioral and social media applications. The average Behavioral Components score was 3.45 (±2.53) out of 10. The average Interactivity score was 3.57 (±2.16) out of 10. The average User Generated Content Score was 4.02 (±2.77) out of 10. The average overall website quality score was 11.04 (±6.92) out of 30. Four websites (8.7%) were classified as high quality, 12 websites (26.1%) were classified as moderate

  15. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  16. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  17. Ecological implications of ideomotor apraxia: evidence from physical activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, B; Heilman, K M; Foundas, A L

    2003-02-11

    To learn if ideomotor apraxia (IMA) adversely influences skilled acts in the environment and interferes with independent functioning after stroke. The relationship between IMA severity, based on scores from a verbal gesture-to-command (pantomime) task, and the dependency score, as defined by increased caregiver assistance on the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), was investigated in 10 unilateral left hemisphere-damaged stroke patients and 10 matched control subjects. There was a significant relationship between apraxia severity and dependency in physical functioning (PSMS). Impairment on the PSMS in the patients with IMA could not be accounted for based on overall cognitive impairment, poststroke depression, content-conceptual errors, elementary motor impairment, lesion size, or stroke-test interval. Analysis of categories composing the PSMS revealed that the patients with apraxia had increased dependency in grooming, bathing, and toileting relative to age-matched control subjects. These findings emphasize the ecological implications of apraxia and the need for rehabilitation strategies to improve the execution and efficiency of coordinated skilled movements in stroke patients with left hemisphere damage.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  2. An evidence-based Physical Activity and Fitness Programme for Ageing Adults with Intellectual Disabilities : Development, implementation and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Schijndel-Speet (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this study, extremely low physical activity and fitness levels among older adults with intellectual disabilities were demonstrated. Although the importance of physical activity for health has been recognised in the field of people with ID, only few welldesigned studies with a

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  6. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  7. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  8. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  11. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  12. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  13. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  14. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. Methods This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study. LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS. To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group. Results After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p Conclusions All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the practice of LTPA.

  15. The association between physical activity and risk of mortality is modulated by grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness: evidence from 498 135 UK-Biobank participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Lyall, Donald M.; Anderson, Jana; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Fan, Yu; Ntuk, Uduakobong E.; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is unclear whether the potential benefits of physical activity differ according to level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or strength. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between physical activity and mortality is moderated by CRF and grip strength sufficiently to inform health promotion strategies. Methods and results 498 135 participants (54.7% women) from the UK Biobank were included (CRF data available in 67 702 participants). Exposure variables were grip strength, CRF, and physical activity. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events were the outcomes. 8591 died over median 4.9 years [IQR 4.3–5.5] follow-up. There was a significant interaction between total physical activity and grip strength (P interaction with CRF did not reach statistical significance but the pattern was similar. The association between physical activity and mortality was larger among those in the lowest tertile of CRF (HR:1.13 [1.02–1.26]) than those in the highest (HR:1.03 [0.91–1.16]). The pattern for CVD events was similar. Conclusions These data provide novel evidence that strength, and possibly CRF, moderate the association between physical activity and mortality. The association between physical activity and mortality is strongest in those with the lowest strength (which is easily measured), and the lowest CRF, suggesting that these sub-groups could benefit most from interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:28158566

  16. Are Immigrants More Physically Active Than Native-Born Australians and Does it Changes Over Time? Evidence From a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh; Jatrana, Santosh; Paradies, Yin

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the differences and over time changes in recommended physical activity among foreign-born (FB) from English speaking countries (ESC) and non-English speaking countries (NESC) relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and whether the association between nativity and duration of residence (DoR) and physical activity is mediated by English language proficiency, socioeconomic status and social engagement/membership. This study applies multilevel group-meancentered mixed (hybrid) logistic regression models to 12 waves of longitudinal data (12,634 individuals) from the Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia survey with engagement in physical activities for more than 3 times a week as the outcome variable. Immigrants from ESC had higher odds of physical activity, while immigrants from NESC had significantly lower odds of physical activity than NB Australians, after adjusting for covariates. There was no evidence that these differences changed by DoR among immigrants from NESC, whereas ESC immigrants had higher odds of physical activity when their DoR was more than 20 years. We also found a mediating role of English language proficiency on immigrants physical activities. Appropriate health promotion interventions should be implemented to foster physical activities among NESC immigrants, considering English language proficiency as an important factor in designing interventions.

  17. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-06-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá's Ciclovía and Curitiba's CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted. In the cases of Ciclovía and CuritibAtiva, most policies conducive to program development and sustainability were developed outside the health sector in sports and recreation, urban planning, environment, and transportation. Both programs were developed by governments as initiatives to overcome inequalities and provide quality of life. In both programs, multisectoral policies mainly from recreation and urban planning created a window of opportunity for the development and sustainability of the programs and environments supportive of PA.

  18. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  1. Long-term habitual physical activity is associated with lower distractibility in a Stroop interference task in aging: Behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with compromised executive control functions. Several lines of evidence point to beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition which indicate that regular physical activity may counteract the age-related decline of some executive functions. Here, we investigate the effects of lifelong physical activity (about 50 years) on interference processing in two matched groups of 20 physically high active and 20 low active healthy older men using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a low interference block of the Stroop task, participants had to indicate the meaning of color-words, while color was either compatible or incompatible with the meaning. In the high interference block, participants were asked to respond according to the ink color of the word and to ignore its meaning. Physically active seniors showed faster reaction times, lower individual variability in reaction times, and higher accuracy compared to low active seniors, particularly in the high interference block. This result was confirmed in the classic paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop task showing higher interference score in the low active than high active individuals. ERPs revealed a shorter latency of the P2 and generally more negative amplitudes of the fronto-central N2 and N450 components in the high active group compared to the low active group. The amount of interference was negatively correlated with objectively measured fitness and self-reported physical activity. The positive effect of physical fitness on interference processing in the behavioral data was related to N2 and N450 amplitudes. Taken together, this suggests that seniors reporting long-term physical activity may exhibit generally enhanced activity in the frontal cortex which enables more efficient interference resolution in the Stroop task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social support and leisure-time physical activity: longitudinal evidence from the Brazilian Pró-Saúde cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aldair J; Lopes, Claudia S; de Leon, Antônio C Ponce; Rostila, Mikael; Griep, Rosane H; Werneck, Guilherme L; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2011-07-26

    Although social support has been observed to exert a beneficial influence on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), multidimensional approaches examining social support and prospective evidence of its importance are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate how four dimensions of social support affect LTPA engagement, maintenance, type, and time spent by adults during a two-year follow-up. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of 3,253 non-faculty public employees at a university in Rio de Janeiro (the Pró-Saúde study). LTPA was evaluated using a dichotomous question with a two-week reference period, and further questions concerning LTPA type (individual or group) and time spent on the activity. Social support was measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale (MOS-SSS). To assess the association between social support and LTPA, two different statistical models were used: binary and multinomial logistic regression models for dichotomous and polytomous outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted separately for those who began LTPA in the middle of the follow up (engagement group) and for those who had maintained LTPA since the beginning of the follow up (maintenance group). After adjusting for confounders, statistically significant associations (p time spent on LTPA (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.2-3.9). In the maintenance group, material support was associated with group LTPA (OR = 1.80; 95% CI; 1.1-3.1) and the positive social interaction dimension was associated with time spent on LTPA (OR = 1.65; 95% CI; 1.1-2.7). All dimensions of social support influenced LTPA type or the time spent on the activity. However, our findings suggest that social support is more important in engagement than in maintenance. This finding is important, because it suggests that maintenance of LTPA must be associated with other factors beyond the individual's level of social support, such as a suitable environment and social/health policies directed towards the

  3. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  4. Physical activity and trajectories of frailty among older adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina T Rogers

    Full Text Available Frail older adults are heavy users of health and social care. In order to reduce the costs associated with frailty in older age groups, safe and cost-effective strategies are required that will reduce the incidence and severity of frailty.We investigated whether self-reported intensity of physical activity (sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous performed at least once a week can significantly reduce trajectories of frailty in older adults who are classified as non-frail at baseline (Rockwood's Frailty Index [FI] ≤ 0.25.Multi-level growth curve modelling was used to assess trajectories of frailty in 8649 non-frail adults aged 50 and over and according to baseline self-reported intensity of physical activity. Frailty was measured in five-year age cohorts based on age at baseline (50-54; 55-59; 60-64; 65-69; 70-74; 75-79; 80+ on up to 6 occasions, providing an average of 10 years of follow-up. All models were adjusted for baseline sex, education, wealth, cohabitation, smoking, and alcohol consumption.Compared with the sedentary reference group, mild physical activity was insufficient to significantly slow the progression of frailty, moderate physical activity reduced the progression of frailty in some age groups (particularly ages 65 and above and vigorous activity significantly reduced the trajectory of frailty progression in all older adults.Healthy non-frail older adults require higher intensities of physical activity for continued improvement in frailty trajectories.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

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  12. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  13. Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy: A literature review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina V N; Domingues, Marlos R; Gonçalves, Helen; Bertoldi, Andréa D

    2017-01-01

    Identify perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy to inform future interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in pregnancy. PubMed/Medline and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using a reference period between 1986 and January/2016. A comprehensive search strategy was developed combining the following keywords: (barriers OR constraints OR perceptions OR attitudes) AND (physical activity OR exercise OR motor activity) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant women OR antenatal OR prenatal). Thematic synthesis was conducted to analyze the data. A socioecological model was used to categorize the reported barriers. Twelve quantitative studies and 14 qualitative studies were included. Barriers belonging to the intrapersonal level of the socioecological model were the most reported in the studies and were categorized in five themes as follows: (1) Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations; (2) Time constraints; (3) Perceptions of already being active, (4) Lack of motivation and (5) Mother-child safety concerns. At the interpersonal level, barriers were coded into two descriptive themes: (1) Lack of advice and information and (2) Lack of social support. Two other themes were used to summarize Environmental, Organizational and Policy barriers: (1) Adverse weather and (2) Lack of resources. A range of relevant barriers to leisure-time physical-activity engagement during pregnancy were identified in this literature review. Pregnancy-related symptoms and limitations barriers were the most reported in studies, regardless of study design. Mother-child safety concerns, lack of advice/information and lack of social support were also important emphasized pregnancy-related barriers to be targeted in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an evidence-informed leisure time physical activity resource for adults with spinal cord injury: the SCI Get Fit Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K P; Martin Ginis, K A; Latimer-Cheung, A E; Bourne, C; Campbell, D; Cappe, S; Ginis, S; Hicks, A L; Pomerleau, P; Smith, K

    2013-06-01

    To systematically develop an evidence-informed leisure time physical activity (LTPA) resource for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Canada. The Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II protocol was used to develop a toolkit to teach and encourage adults with SCI how to make smart and informed choices about being physically active. A multidisciplinary expert panel appraised the evidence and generated specific recommendations for the content of the toolkit. Pilot testing was conducted to refine the toolkit's presentation. Recommendations emanating from the consultation process were that the toolkit be a brief, evidence-based resource that contains images of adults with tetraplegia and paraplegia, and links to more detailed online information. The content of the toolkit should include the physical activity guidelines (PAGs) for adults with SCI, activities tailored to manual and power chair users, the benefits of LTPA, and strategies to overcome common LTPA barriers for adults with SCI. The inclusion of action plans and safety tips was also recommended. These recommendations have resulted in the development of an evidence-informed LTPA resource to assist adults with SCI in meeting the PAGs. This toolkit will have important implications for consumers, health care professionals and policy makers for encouraging LTPA in the SCI community.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  16. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  17. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation.

  18. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  19. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  20. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  1. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

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  4. Aging and the Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Behavior and Behavior Change: Evidence from the Guide to Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Smith Anderson-Bill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  8. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  9. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  10. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  11. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  12. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  13. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  14. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  2. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  7. Advancing the future of physical activity guidelines in Canada: an independent expert panel interpretation of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesäniemi, Antero; Riddoch, Chris J; Reeder, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    in 2002, 2002, 1998 and 1999 respectively. Several background papers from this project were published recently and provide foundation evidence upon which to base new guidelines. Furthermore, comprehensive systematic reviews were completed to ensure a rigorous evaluation of evidence informing the revision...... to review the background materials and systematic reviews; listen to the presentations and discussions at the expert meeting; ask for clarification; and produce the present paper representing their interpretation of the evidence including grading of the evidence and their identification of needs for future...

  8. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  9. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  10. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  11. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions.

  12. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  16. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  17. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  18. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  19. Physical Activity and Exercise Interventions in the Workplace Impacting Work Outcomes: A Stakeholder-Centered Best Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M I; Dionne, C E; Wärje, O; Koehoorn, M; Wagner, S L; Schultz, I Z; Koehn, C; Williams-Whitt, K; Harder, H G; Pasca, R; Hsu, V; McGuire, L; Schulz, W; Kube, D; Wright, M D

    2016-04-01

    The prevention of work disability is beneficial to employees and employers, and mitigates unnecessary societal costs associated with social welfare. Many service providers and employers have initiated workplace interventions designed to reduce unnecessary work disability. To conduct a best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on workplace interventions that address physical activities or exercise and their impact on workplace absence, work productivity or financial outcomes. Using a participatory research approach, academics and stakeholders identified inclusion and exclusion criteria, built an abstraction table, evaluated systematic review quality and relevance, and interpreted the combined findings. A minimum of two scientists participated in a methodological review of the literature followed by a consensus process. Stakeholders and researchers participated as a collaborative team. 3363 unique records were identified, 115 full text articles and 46 systematic reviews were included, 18 assessed the impact of physical fitness or exercise interventions. 11 focused on general workers rather than workers who were absent from work at baseline; 16 of the reviews assessed work absence, 4 assessed productivity and 6 assessed financial impacts. The strongest evidence supports the use of short, simple exercise or fitness programs for both workers at work and those absent from work at baseline. For workers at work, simple exercise programs (1-2 modal components) appear to provide similar benefits to those using more complex multimodal interventions. For workers off-work with subacute low back pain, there is evidence that some complex exercise programs may be more effective than simple exercise interventions, especially if they involve workplace stakeholder engagement, communication and coordination with employers and other stakeholders. The development and utilization of standardized definitions, methods and measures and blinded evaluation would improve research quality

  20. Physical Activity and Exercise Interventions in the Workplace Impacting Work Outcomes: A Stakeholder-Centered Best Evidence Synthesis of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI White

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevention of work disability is beneficial to employees and employers, and mitigates unnecessary societal costs associated with social welfare. Many service providers and employers have initiated workplace interventions designed to reduce unnecessary work disability. Objective: To conduct a best-evidence synthesis of systematic reviews on workplace interventions that address physical activities or exercise and their impact on workplace absence, work productivity or financial outcomes. Methods: Using a participatory research approach, academics and stakeholders identified inclusion and exclusion criteria, built an abstraction table, evaluated systematic review quality and relevance, and interpreted the combined findings. A minimum of two scientists participated in a methodological review of the literature followed by a consensus process. Results: Stakeholders and researchers participated as a collaborative team. 3363 unique records were identified, 115 full text articles and 46 systematic reviews were included, 18 assessed the impact of physical fitness or exercise interventions. 11 focused on general workers rather than workers who were absent from work at baseline; 16 of the reviews assessed work absence, 4 assessed productivity and 6 assessed financial impacts. Conclusion: The strongest evidence supports the use of short, simple exercise or fitness programs for both workers at work and those absent from work at baseline. For workers at work, simple exercise programs (1–2 modal components appear to provide similar benefits to those using more complex multimodal interventions. For workers off-work with subacute low back pain, there is evidence that some complex exercise programs may be more effective than simple exercise interventions, especially if they involve workplace stakeholder engagement, communication and coordination with employers and other stakeholders. The development and utilization of standardized definitions

  1. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Guerra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To organize the main findings and list the most frequent recommendations from systematic reviews of interventions developed at the school environment aimed at reducing overweight in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: Searches for systematic reviews available until December 31, 2014 were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Manual search for cross-references were also performed. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Of the initial 2139 references, 33 systematic reviews adequately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the descriptive summary. In this set, interventions with periods of time greater than six months in duration (nine reviews, and parental involvement in the content and/or planned actions (six reviews were identified as the most frequent and effective recommendations. Additionally, it was observed that boys respond more effectively to structural interventions, whereas girls respond to behavioral interventions. None of the included reviews was able to make inferences about the theoretical basis used in interventions as, apparently, those in charge of the interventions disregarded this component in their preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions.

  2. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; da Silveira, Jonas Augusto Cardoso; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles

    2016-01-01

    To organize the main findings and list the most frequent recommendations from systematic reviews of interventions developed at the school environment aimed at reducing overweight in children and adolescents. Searches for systematic reviews available until December 31, 2014 were conducted in five electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, SciELO, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Manual search for cross-references were also performed. Of the initial 2139 references, 33 systematic reviews adequately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the descriptive summary. In this set, interventions with periods of time greater than six months in duration (nine reviews), and parental involvement in the content and/or planned actions (six reviews) were identified as the most frequent and effective recommendations. Additionally, it was observed that boys respond more effectively to structural interventions, whereas girls respond to behavioral interventions. None of the included reviews was able to make inferences about the theoretical basis used in interventions as, apparently, those in charge of the interventions disregarded this component in their preparation. Although the summary identified evidence with important applications in terms of public health, there are still gaps to be filled in this field of knowledge, such as the effectiveness of different theoretical models, the identification of the best strategies in relation to gender and age of participants and, finally, the identification of moderating variables to maximize the benefits provided by the interventions. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Within-person associations of young adolescents’ physical activity across five primary locations: is there evidence of cross-location compensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Mitchell, Tarrah B.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity in that loca......Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity...... in that location, youth had less activity in other locations (i.e., within-person associations/compensation)....

  4. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  5. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-02-07

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs.

  6. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  7. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  9. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  10. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  11. [Sport and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  12. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  13. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  14. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  15. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  16. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: evidence from 260,061 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-11-01

    While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate association between green space and psychological distress (Kessler scores of 22+) among 260,061 Australians over 45 years old living in New South Wales (2006-2009). Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia survey. Percentage green space was estimated within a 1-kilometre of residence. In comparison to residents of the least green areas, those in the greenest neighbourhoods were at a lower risk of psychological distress (Odds Ratio 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) and were less sedentary (0.81: 0.77, 0.87). An interaction was observed between physical activity and green space (p=0.0028). More green space did not appear to benefit mental health among the least active (0.99: 0.85, 1.15), but there was a protective association for the more physically active (0.82: 0.67, 0.99). For adults in middle-to-older age, green spaces are not only important for promoting physical activity, but the mental health benefits of greener environs appear contingent upon those active lifestyles. © 2013.

  17. The Effect of Leisure-Time Physical Activity on Obesity, Diabetes, High BP and Heart Disease Among Canadians: Evidence from 2000/2001 to 2005/2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Sisira; Devlin, Rose Anne; Gilliland, Jason; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S

    2015-12-01

    Although studies have looked at the effect of physical activity on obesity and other health outcomes, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. We fill this gap by investigating the impact of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and work-related physical activity (WRPA) on obesity and chronic conditions in Canadians aged 18-75 using instrumental variable and recursive bivariate probit approaches. Average local temperatures surrounding the respondents' interview month are used as a novel instrument to help identify the causal relationship between LTPA and health outcomes. We find that an active level of LTPA (i.e., walking ≥1 h/day) reduces the probability of obesity by five percentage points, which increases to 11 percentage points if also combined with some WRPA. WRPA exhibits a negative effect on the probability of obesity and chronic conditions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Doctor, physical activity at my age ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutaz, Martial

    2017-04-19

    Engaging in regular and appropriate physical activity confers health benefits at any age. For seniors, swapping the role of « sedentary » for « someone who's on the move » offers much more substantial benefits than any medication, and notably even starting at a dose of 10-15 minutes per day ! Any physician who cares for elderly patients must pursue the objective of encouraging physical activity that is integrated into daily life (e.g. walking, gardening, shopping). This article consists of a literature review concerning the evidence for the benefits of physical activity in seniors in terms of quality of life, longevity, maintenance of functional independence, and prevention of cognitive decline.

  19. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  20. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  1. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. Design A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Method Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants’ ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Results Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges’ g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges’ g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges’ g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Conclusion Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium

  2. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Wu, Lang; Ming, Qingsen

    2015-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis for the effects of physical activity intervention on self-esteem and self-concept in children and adolescents, and to identify moderator variables by meta-regression. A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Study inclusion criteria were: (1) intervention should be supervised physical activity, (2) reported sufficient data to estimate pooled effect sizes of physical activity intervention on self-esteem or self-concept, (3) participants' ages ranged from 3 to 20 years, and (4) a control or comparison group was included. For each study, study design, intervention design and participant characteristics were extracted. R software (version 3.1.3) and Stata (version 12.0) were used to synthesize effect sizes and perform moderation analyses for determining moderators. Twenty-five randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 13 non-randomized controlled trial (non-RCT) studies including a total of 2991 cases were identified. Significant positive effects were found in RCTs for intervention of physical activity alone on general self outcomes (Hedges' g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14 to 0.45; p = 0.001), self-concept (Hedges' g = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.88, p = 0.014) and self-worth (Hedges' g = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.49, p = 0.005). There was no significant effect of intervention of physical activity alone on any outcomes in non-RCTs, as well as in studies with intervention of physical activity combined with other strategies. Meta-regression analysis revealed that higher treatment effects were associated with setting of intervention in RCTs (β = 0.31, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.55, p = 0.013). Intervention of physical activity alone is associated with increased self-concept and self-worth in children and adolescents. And there is a stronger association with school-based and gymnasium-based intervention compared with other settings.

  3. "I do not have time. Is there a handout I can use?": combining physicians' needs and behavior change theory to put physical activity evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R E; McArthur, C; Papaioannou, A; Cheung, A M; Laprade, J; Lee, L; Jain, R; Giangregorio, L M

    2017-06-01

    Guidelines for physical activity exist and following them would improve health. Physicians can advise patients on physical activity. We found barriers related to physicians' knowledge, a lack of tools and of physician incentives, and competing demands for limited time with a patient. We discuss interventions that could reduce these barriers. Uptake of physical activity (PA) guidelines would improve health and reduce mortality in older adults. However, physicians face barriers in guideline implementation, particularly when faced with needing to tailor recommendations in the presence of chronic disease. We performed a behavioral analysis of physician barriers to PA guideline implementation and to identify interventions. The Too Fit To Fracture physical activity recommendations were used as an example of disease-specific PA guidelines. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with physicians and nurse practitioners in Ontario, stratified by type of physician, geographic area, and urban/rural, and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded data and identified emerging themes. Using the behavior change wheel framework, themes were categorized into capability, opportunity and motivation, and interventions were identified. Fifty-nine family physicians, specialists, and nurse practitioners participated. Barriers were as follows: Capability-lack of exercise knowledge or where to refer; Opportunity-pragmatic tools, fit within existing workflow, available programs that meet patients' needs, physical activity literacy and cultural practices; Motivation-lack of incentives, not in their scope of practice or professional identity, competing priorities, outcome expectancies. Interventions selected: education, environmental restructuring, enablement, persuasion. Policy categories: communications/marketing, service provision, guidelines. Key barriers to PA guideline implementation among physicians include knowledge on where to refer or what to say, access to

  4. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  5. Motivation and physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Farholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2017 There is increasing evidence for physical activity having a positive impact on physical and mental health, as well as on illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers related to physical activity that makes it difficult for them to take advantage of the benefits associated with physical activity. One barrier consistently reported to impede physical activity i...

  6. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  11. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  12. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  13. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  14. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Brittin

    Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  15. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.

  16. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  17. Trails and physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Heather A; Troped, Philip J; Klenosky, David B; Doehring, Angela M

    2011-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

  18. Promoting physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Machteld Heleen van den

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study: 1. The engagement of patients with RA in various forms of physical activity and their preferences regarding the delivery of physical activity interventions; 2. The evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical activity interventions delivered by means of the

  19. Striding Toward Social Justice: The Ecologic Milieu of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  5. Should physical activity recommendations be ethnicity-specific? Evidence from a cross-sectional study of South Asian and European men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available Expert bodies and health organisations recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week(-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA. However, the underpinning data largely emanate from studies of populations of European descent. It is unclear whether this level of activity is appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have increased cardio-metabolic disease risk compared to Europeans. The aim of this study was to explore the level of MPA required in South Asians to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans undertaking the currently recommended MPA level of 150 min.week(-1.Seventy-five South Asian and 83 European men, aged 40-70, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes had fasted blood taken, blood pressure measured, physical activity assessed objectively (using accelerometry, and anthropometric measures made. Factor analysis was used to summarise measured risk biomarkers into underlying latent 'factors' for glycaemia, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, and overall cardio-metabolic risk. Age-adjusted regression models were used to determine the equivalent level of MPA (in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes in South Asians needed to elicit the same value in each factor as Europeans undertaking 150 min.week(-1 MPA.For all factors, except blood pressure, equivalent MPA values in South Asians were significantly higher than 150 min.week(-1; the equivalent MPA value for the overall cardio-metabolic risk factor was 266 (95% CI 185-347 min.week(-1.South Asian men may need to undertake greater levels of MPA than Europeans to exhibit a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile, suggesting that a conceptual case can be made for ethnicity-specific physical activity guidance. Further study is needed to extend these findings to women and to replicate them prospectively in a larger cohort.

  6. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  7. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  8. Tendinopathy: Evidence-Informed Physical Therapy Clinical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzino, Bill

    2015-11-01

    Patients presenting with pain at the tendon, which is associated with physical tasks and activities that specifically load that tendon, are at the center of this special issue. The current terminology for a symptomatic tendon presentation is tendinopathy, as this does not denote an underlying pathology, but rather signals that all is not well in the tendon. Tendinopathy is a prevalent and substantial problem, as it interferes with a person's capacity to lead a physically active and healthy life, which has a considerable flow-on effect on society in general. This issue deals with the contemporary physical therapy management of tendinopathy by providing a mix of evidence review and clinical expert opinion on commonly presenting tendinopathies of the lower and upper limbs. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):816-818. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.0110.

  9. The association between dog walking, physical activity and owner’s perceptions of safety: cross-sectional evidence from the US and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Christian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the relationship between dog walking and physical activity within and between four US cities and Australia and investigated if dog walking is associated with higher perceived safety in US and Australian cities. Methods Dog owners (n = 1113 in the Pet Connections Study completed a cross-sectional survey. Data were collected across four study sites; three in the US (San Diego, Nashville, Portland and a fourth in Australia (Perth. Physical activity, local walking, dog walking, and individual and community perceptions of safety were analysed for dog walkers and non-dog walkers for each study site. Between-city comparisons were examined for dog walkers. Results Across all study sites, dog walkers walked with their dog 5–6 times/week for a total of 93–109 min/week and achieved ≥30mins of physical activity on more days/week and walked in their neighbourhood more often/week, compared with non-dog walkers (all p ≤ 0.01. Compared with Perth, significantly fewer dog walkers walked in their local park in the three US study sites. San Diego dog walkers walked more often in their neighborhood/week compared with Perth dog walkers (all p ≤ 0.05. In Portland, dog walkers perceived significantly more neighborhood problems and in Nashville dog walkers perceived a significantly higher level of neighborhood natural surveillance (i.e., ‘eyes on the street’, compared with non-dog walkers (both p ≤ 0.05. Among dog walkers, females were more likely than males to feel safer walking with their dog in their neighborhood (OR = 2.49; 95 % CI = 1.76, 3.53. Compared with dog walkers in Perth, dog walkers from each of the US study sites felt safer in their neighborhood and perceived there was more neighborhood surveillance (all p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion This multi-site international study provides further support for the potential for dog walking to increase levels of daily physical activity. Walking

  10. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...

  11. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  12. Physical Activity and Pediatric Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database...

  13. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients’ overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient’s risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

  14. Simultaneous evaluation of physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity in adults: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Sawyer

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Inconsistent evidence of independent associations between environmental variables and physical activity could be partly due to unmeasured effect modification (e.g. interactive effects creating unaccounted variance in relationships between the environment and activity. Results supported multiple levels of environmental influence on physical activity. It is recommended that further research uses simultaneous or interaction analyses to gain insight into complex relationships between neighbourhood social and physical environments and physical activity, as there is currently limited research in this area.

  15. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  16. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  17. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  18. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  19. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  20. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  1. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived...

  2. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  3. Active oxygen doctors the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Corella, Dolores; Verdú, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    Investigation at the scene of a crime begins with the search for clues. In the case of bloodstains, the most frequently used reagents are luminol and reduced phenolphthalein (or phenolphthalin that is also known as the Kastle-Meyer colour test). The limitations of these reagents have been studied and are well known. Household cleaning products have evolved with the times, and new products with active oxygen are currently widely used, as they are considered to be highly efficient at removing all kinds of stains on a wide range of surfaces. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of these new cleaning products on latent bloodstains that may be left at a scene of a crime. To do so, various fabrics were stained with blood and then washed using cleaning agents containing active oxygen. The results of reduced phenolphthalein, luminol and human haemoglobin tests on the washed fabrics were negative. The conclusion is that these new products alter blood to such an extent that it can no longer be detected by currently accepted methods employed in criminal investigations. This inability to locate bloodstains means that highly important evidence (e.g. a DNA profile) may be lost. Consequently, it is important that investigators are aware of this problem so as to compensate for it.

  4. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  5. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  6. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  7. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  8. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  9. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  10. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives for individuals. Twelve studies with unconditional incentives (eg, free membership sport facility) and conditional incentives (ie, rewards for reaching physical-activity goals) related to physical ...

  11. Barriers and facilitators to physical activity in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavaki, Archontissa M; Rushton, Alison; Klocke, Rainer; Abhishek, Abhishek; Duda, Joan L

    2016-11-03

    This protocol aims to describe the objective and methods to be followed in a systematic review of qualitative studies on barriers and facilitators to physical activity (PA) in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA). MEDLINE, EMBASE, PhychINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and grey literature sources will be electronically searched. Hand search of qualitative research-centred journals, reference screening of relevant reviews and inquiries to researchers active in the field will complement the search. Studies will be selected if they apply qualitative or mixed-methods designs to directly explore factors that correspond to engagement in PA/exercise or, the perceptions regarding PA/exercise in people with hip or knee OA. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Checklist and the evaluative criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability will be applied for the study appraisal. 2 independent reviewers will perform the search, study selection and study appraisal. Thematic synthesis will be used for synthesising the findings of the primary studies and the process and product of the synthesis will be checked by a second researcher. ConQual approach will be used for assessing the confidence in the qualitative findings. This systematic review will inform our understanding of the PA determinants and how to optimise behaviour change in people living with hip or knee OA. The review findings will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national or international conferences. The study raises no ethical issues. CRD42016030024. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ok Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.

  13. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  14. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  15. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  16. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  17. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  18. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  19. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  20. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  1. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  2. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  3. Study protocol for a systematic review of evidence for lifestyle interventions targeting smoking, sleep, alcohol/other drug use, physical activity, and healthy diet in people with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Thornton, Louise; Lappin, Julia M; Hanstock, Tanya; Sylvia, Louisa; Jacka, Felice; Baker, Amanda L; Berk, Michal; Mitchell, Phillip B; Callister, Robin; Rogers, Naomi; Webster, Stephanie; Dennis, Simon; Oldmeadow, Christopher; MacKinnon, Andrew; Doran, Christopher; Turner, Alyna; Hunt, Sally

    2016-07-05

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess deaths in psychiatric populations and are the leading causes of mortality in people with BD. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to reducing the risk of physical conditions in psychiatric populations. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are among the potentially modifiable risk factors for a range of commonly comorbid chronic medical conditions, including CVD, diabetes, and obesity. This systematic review will identify and evaluate the available evidence for effective interventions to reduce risk and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in BD. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL for published research studies (with at least an abstract published in English) that evaluate behavioral or psychosocial interventions to address the following lifestyle factors in people with BD: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, overweight or obesity, sleep-wake disturbance, and alcohol/other drug use. Primary outcomes for the review will be changes in tobacco use, level of physical activity, diet quality, sleep quality, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Data on each primary outcome will be synthesized across available studies in that lifestyle area (e.g., tobacco abstinence, cigarettes smoked per day), and panel of research and clinical experts in each of the target lifestyle behaviors and those experienced with clinical and research with individuals with BD will determine how best to represent data related to that primary outcome. Seven members of the systematic review team will extract data, synthesize the evidence, and rate it for quality. Evidence will be synthesized via a narrative description of the behavioral interventions and their effectiveness in improving the healthy lifestyle behaviors

  4. Built environmental correlates of physical activity in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Kristen

    2016-06-01

    China faces growing levels of physical inactivity and obesity, associated with increasing urbanization and changing lifestyles in recent years. China is expanding its cities to accommodate a growing urban population. This paper identifies built environment factors that are associated with physical activity in China. Findings can inform urban design and development in China to support increased physical activity. This paper is modeled on a review of built environment correlates of walking by Saelens and Handy (2008). Saelens and Handy reviewed research in developed countries. The present paper reviews 42 empirical studies that were conducted in China and were published between 2006 and 2014. Results discuss the association of built environment features and physical activity for transportation, recreation and work. Studies focus on adults and on major cities. Data on the built environment is typically self-reported. Strongest evidence was found for the positive association of physical activity with proximal non-residential locations, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetics, and non-park physical activity facilities, and for the negative association of physical activity with urban residence. In terms of physical activity for transportation, evidence is strongest for associations between physical activity for transportation and proximal non-residential locations. More research is needed on the built environment and physical activity, especially including research on significant features of Chinese cities, such as air pollution, high density levels, traffic safety, and others. Research on associations between built environment features and physical activity should consider the specific social and built environment contexts of Chinese cities.

  5. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  6. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  7. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  8. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  9. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents......; however, there was some heterogeneity among the studies. This review reveals a critical need for future longitudinal assessments of low PA, its mechanisms, and its implications for incident asthma in children. The systematic review was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number: CRD...

  10. Can an evidence-based book club intervention delivered via a tablet computer improve physical activity in middle-aged women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L; de Vreede, Gert-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Fewer than 50% of middle-aged women participate in regular physical activity (PA). Innovative approaches that engage women who may not otherwise participate in PA programs are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a 12-week tablet-based book club for improving middle-aged women's PA. Thirty women (35-64 years of age) were randomized to the Fit Minded Tablet (n=15) and the Standard Fit Minded (i.e., face-to-face intervention) (n=15) groups. The Fit Minded Tablet was adapted from the Standard Fit Minded, a previously tested, theory-based book club intervention using books as a platform for discussion and group support to help women adopt regular PA. Both interventions met weekly for 3 months, for a total of 12 sessions. Tablet group participants accessed materials (e.g., e-books, workbook, live/recorded videoconferencing) via a tablet computer; Standard group participants received materials (e.g., printed books, workbook, live face-to-face meetings) in person. Feasibility (i.e., implementation and expansion) was assessed using process evaluation, qualitative interviews, satisfaction surveys, and quantitative outcome assessments. Women in the Tablet group attended fewer meetings (mean, 8.25) than women in the Standard group (mean, 9.9). Videoconferencing, digital literacy, and participant engagement limitations were observed in the Tablet group. Tablet participants enjoyed the e-books but thought technology barriers hindered their engagement during meetings. Women in both groups valued the support they received from other group members. Standard participants cited this support as a key contributor to their PA changes, whereas Tablet participants reported needing in-person contact to feel more connected. Given the popularity of tablet computers and the value that middle-aged women place on group interaction to support their PA behaviors, additional research is warranted to determine best strategies for optimizing

  11. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  12. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. School Culture and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This review examines literature on aspects of school culture and students' physical activity participation. The following questions were addressed: (1) what aspects of school culture have been examined in relation to physical activity, (2) what is the weight of evidence concerning the relationships between school culture factors and physical…

  14. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  15. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  17. A systematic review of financial incentives for physical activity: The effects on physical activity and related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J.C.M.; Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of the available evidence on the effects of financial incentives to stimulate physical activity. Therefore, a systematic literature search was performed for randomized trials that investigate the effects of physical-activity-related financial incentives

  18. Physics Without Causality — Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The principle of cause and effect is deeply rooted in human experience, so much so that it is routinely and tacitly assumed throughout science, even by scientists working in areas where time symmetry is theoretically ingrained, as it is in both classical and quantum physics. Experiments are said to cause their results, not the other way around. In this informal paper, we argue that this assumption should be replaced with a more general notion of mutual influence — bi-directional relations or constraints on joint values of two or more variables. From an analysis based on quantum entropy, it is proposed that quantum measurement is a unitary three-interaction, with no collapse, no fundamental randomness, and no barrier to backward influence. Experimental results suggesting retrocausality are seen frequently in well-controlled laboratory experiments in parapsychology and elsewhere, especially where a random element is included. Certain common characteristics of these experiments give the appearance of contradicting well-established physical laws, thus providing an opportunity for deeper understanding and important clues that must be addressed by any explanatory theory. We discuss how retrocausal effects and other anomalous phenomena can be explained without major injury to existing physical theory. A modified quantum formalism can give new insights into the nature of quantum measurement, randomness, entanglement, causality, and time.

  19. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  20. Systematic review of the association between physical activity and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczenski, Lea M; Vries, Juriena D de; Hooff, Madelon L M van; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-11-25

    Burnout constitutes a health risk, and interventions are needed to reduce it. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence regarding the relationship between physical activity and burnout by conducting a systematic review of longitudinal and intervention studies. A literature search resulted in the identification of a final set of ten studies: four longitudinal and six intervention studies. In separate analyses for each category, evidence was synthesized by extracting the study characteristics and assessing the methodological quality of each study. The strength of evidence was calculated with the standardized index of convergence (SIC). In longitudinal studies, we found moderately strong evidence (SIC (4) = -1) for a negative relationship between physical activity and the key component of burnout, i.e., exhaustion. We found strong evidence (SIC (6) = -0.86) for the effect of physical activity on reducing exhaustion in intervention studies. As only one study could be classified as a high quality study, these results of previous studies need to be interpreted with some caution. This systematic review suggests that physical activity constitutes an effective medium for the reduction of burnout. Although consistent evidence was found, there is a lack of high quality longitudinal and intervention studies considering the influence of physical activity on burnout. Therefore, future research should be conducted with the aim to produce high quality studies, to develop a full picture of physical activity as a strategy to reduce burnout.

  1. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  2. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  3. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  4. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  5. Correlates of Physical Activity in Asian Adolescents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Hidayati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is important to prevent several chronic diseases in adulthood. Nowadays, young people do not regularly perform physical activity. Several factors may influence their decision. Most of studies were conducted in western countries. However the findings might not be generalized regarding the differences in culture and social condition. Therefore, reviewing the correlates of physical activity among adolescents in Asian countries is essential. Purpose: To update the state of knowledge on factors associated with adolescents’ physical activity in Asian countries. Methods: Literature review on existing articles retrieved from electronic databases was conducted. The review on factors of physical activity was set based on the setting of study, adolescents as participants of the study and the year of publication ranged from 2002-2011. Result: The findings compiled the evidence of relationships between physical activity and several influencing factors. Intrapersonal factors age, gender, socioeconomic status, parental education, and perceptions related to physical activity- perceived self efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, interpersonal factors (family and peer influences and extra-personal factors (school policy and living arrangement were identified. Self efficacy was manifested as the strongest influencing factor in most studies. This review highlighted the cultural issues on physical activities of adolescents in Asian countries. Conclusion: This paper provided comprehensive knowledge related to factors influencing physical activity in Asian adolescents. The issue of cultural sensitivity should be considered in the future intervention program designed to improve physical activity of adolescents. Keyword: adolescent, physical activity, health Promotion, Asian countries

  6. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Steven; Schippers, Mandy

    2012-04-23

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research include investigating ways to promote successful referrals

  7. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  8. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  9. Lasers In Physical Evidence Examination: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    A recent application of fluorescence that is perhaps largely unknown outside law enforcement involves the utilization of laser excited fluorescence (LEF) in forensic science. In this overview, the focus is on LEF applicaton to development of latent fingerprints. Other areas of criminalistics, such as document examination and fiber analysis will be dealt with briefly only. To bring the technical reader, who likely has little familiarity with the fingerprint field, up to stream, a historical introduction precedes the description of current procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints which is followed by a brief outline of current areas of research in the fingerprint area and application of lasers to other types of evidence examination. The overview concludes with an assessment of the current state and utilization growth prognosis of lasers in criminalistics.

  10. "Pushing" physical activity, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Robert; Bracho, America; Cantero, Patricia; Glenn, Beth A

    2009-10-01

    There has been an increasing realization of the need for environmental interventions to increase physical activity levels in the population. Although promising, the impact of these strategies in reducing obesity-related disparities will be limited by the presence of inequities in the distribution of activity-related resources in the community. Advocacy efforts are critically needed to ensure that all communities benefit from environmental strategies being implemented. This paper describes two activist community-based organizations in Southern California, The City Project and Latino Health Access, and their successful efforts to mandate equitable access to public resources critical for reducing obesity-related disparities. Principles for equitable development of public land are also presented as well as lessons learned that can inform future advocacy efforts.

  11. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  12. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  13. Does physical activity protect against drug abuse vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M

    2015-08-01

    The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological...... the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes....... Finally, we will discuss the existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to identify and exploit gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  15. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  16. [Vascular aging, arterial hypertension and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Weisser, B

    2011-11-01

    The present review delineates the significance of intima-media-thickness, arterial stiffness and endothelial function for vascular aging. There is profound evidence for an increase in intima-media-thickness and vascular stiffness not only during healthy aging but induced also by cardiovascular risk factors. There is a central role of arterial hypertension for this progression in both structural factors. In addition, both parameters are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Endothelial function measured as postischemic flow-mediated vasodilatation is a functional parameter which is decreased both in healthy aging and by cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity modifies the influence of aging and risk factors on endothelial function. A positive influence of endurance exercise on vascular stiffness and endothelial function has been demonstrated in numerous studies. In long-term studies, regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the progression of intima-media-thickness. Thus, arterial hypertension accelerates vascular aging, while physical activity has a positive influence on a variety of vascular parameters associated with vascular aging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activ...

  18. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  19. A life course examination of the physical environmental determinants of physical activity behaviour: A "Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity" (DEDIPAC) umbrella systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Perchoux, Camille; Puggina, Anna; Aleksovska, Katina; Buck, Christoph; Burns, Con; Cardon, Greet; Chantal, Simon; Ciarapica, Donatella; Condello, Giancarlo; Coppinger, Tara; Cortis, Cristina; D'Haese, Sara; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Hansen, Sylvia; Iacoviello, Licia; Issartel, Johann; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Kanning, Martina; Kennedy, Aileen; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Chun Man Ling, Fiona; Luzak, Agnes; Napolitano, Giorgio; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Sannella, Alessandra; Schulz, Holger; Sohun, Rhoda; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Ricciardi, Walter; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity is associated with a multitude of health benefits across the life course. However, many people fail to meet PA recommendations. Despite a plethora of studies, the evidence regarding the environmental (physical) determinants of physical activity remains inconclusive. To identify the physical environmental determinants that influence PA across the life course. An online systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus. The search was limited to studies published in English (January 2004 to April 2016). Only systematic literature reviews (SLRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, that investigated the association between physical determinants and physical activity outcomes, were eligible for inclusion. The extracted data were assessed on the importance of determinants, strength of evidence and methodological quality. The literature search identified 28 SLRs and 3 MAs on 67 physical environmental characteristics potentially related to physical activity that were eligible for inclusion. Among preschool children, a positive association was reported between availability of backyard space and outdoor toys/equipment in the home and overall physical activity. The availability of physical activity programs and equipment within schools, and neighbourhood features such as pedestrian and cyclist safety structure were positively associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. Negative street characteristics, for example, lack of sidewalks and streetlights, were negatively associated with physical activity in adults. Inconsistent associations were reported for the majority of reviewed determinants in adults. This umbrella SLR provided a comprehensive overview of the physical environment determinants of physical activity across the life course and has highlighted, particularly amongst youth, a number of key determinants that may be associated with overall

  20. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  1. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  2. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  3. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  4. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  5. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  6. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  7. Physical activity and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K; Tagarakis, Christos V M; King, Gerard

    2007-12-01

    Functional ageing processes are characterized by a loss of performance capabilities regarding coordination, flexibility, strength, speed, and endurance. The effects of ageing processes on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle are the foci of attention. After age 30, the maximum aerobic dynamic performance capacity decreases by an average of 8% per decade. The causes are mainly a reduction in the maximum cardiac output and decreases in capillarization and in the skeletal muscle mass. An improvement in the maximum oxygen uptake by 18% and in the aerobic-anaerobic threshold by 22% was achieved in untrained men aged 55-70 years, in a 12-week-long bicycle ergometer-training programme. The strength of the skeletal muscle decreases particularly after 50-60 years of age. The main cause is the reduction in the number of motor units and muscle fibres. Further, modifications of the endothelial function and the development of sarcopenia are of particular importance in ageing processes. General aerobic dynamic training can improve the endothelial function in old age and thus help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Strength training is most appropriate for the prevention of sarcopenia. Imaging techniques over the last 20 years have provided new findings on the influence and the significance of physical activity on the brain. We call this new interdisciplinary area 'Exercise Neuroscience'. Demands on coordination and aerobic dynamic endurance are suitable in counteracting age-related neuronal cellular loss, synapsis hypotrophy, and in improving neurogenesis and capillarization. Adjusted physical activity is thus capable of counteracting age-related changes and performance loss not only in the cardiovascular system but also in the brain.

  8. Influence of Physical Activities to Science Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Wilson DR. Constantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.

  9. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  10. Evidence - based medicine/practice in sports physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Robert C; Lehecka, B J

    2012-10-01

    A push for the use of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence-based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision-making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well-being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence-based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

  11. Getting England to be more physically active: are the Public Health Responsibility Deal's physical activity pledges the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, C; Petticrew, M; Scott, C; Durand, M A; Eastmure, E; James, L; Mehrotra, A; Mays, N

    2015-09-18

    The Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England is a public-private partnership involving voluntary pledges between government, industry, and other organisations to improve public health by addressing alcohol, food, health at work, and physical activity. This paper analyses the RD physical activity (PA) pledges in terms of the evidence of their potential effectiveness, and the likelihood that they have motivated actions among organisations that would not otherwise have taken place. We systematically reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions proposed in four PA pledges of the RD, namely, those on physical activity in the community; physical activity guidelines; active travel; and physical activity in the workplace. We then analysed publically available data on RD signatory organisations' plans and progress towards achieving the physical activity pledges, and assessed the extent to which activities among organisations could be attributed to the RD. Where combined with environmental approaches, interventions such as mass media campaigns to communicate the benefits of physical activity, active travel in children and adults, and workplace-related interventions could in principle be effective, if fully implemented. However, most activities proposed by each PA pledge involved providing information or enabling choice, which has limited effectiveness. Moreover, it was difficult to establish the extent of implementation of pledges within organisations, given that progress reports were mostly unavailable, and, where provided, it was difficult to ascertain their relevance to the RD pledges. Finally, 15 % of interventions listed in organisations' delivery plans were judged to be the result of participation in the RD, meaning that most actions taken by organisations were likely already under way, regardless of the RD. Irrespective of the nature of a public health policy to encourage physical activity, targets need to be evidence-based, well

  12. Physical Activity of Children from Town Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Joksimović; Vukosav Joksimović

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity is indispensable for normal physical, mental and social development of children. Insuffi cient physical activity is connected to increased frequency of a range of chronic non-contagious diseases occurring in the adult age (hypertension, diabetes and some form of carcinoma). Aim of Paper: It is to establish to what extent physical activity is represented as to school children. Material and Method: By using the method of conducting a poll among 200 children (100 ...

  13. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  14. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  15. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    due to lack of blinding, self reported outcome measurement, incomplete outcome data due to attrition, and most of the studies had not published protocols, which increases the likelihood of selective reporting.Three studies compared the pedometer programme to a minimally active control group, but the results for physical activity could not be combined because each study used a different measure of activity. One study observed an increase in physical activity under a pedometer programme, but the other two did not find a significant difference. For secondary outcomes we found improvements in body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, the quality of life mental component and worksite injury associated with the pedometer programmes, but these results were based on limited data from one or two small studies. There were no differences between the pedometer programme and the control group for blood pressure, a number of biochemical outcomes and the quality of life physical component. Sedentary behaviour and disease risk scores were not measured by any of the included studies.One study compared a pedometer programme and an alternative physical activity programme, but baseline imbalances made it difficult to distinguish the true improvements associated with either programme.Overall, there was insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace.There is a need for more high quality randomised controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. To improve the quality of the evidence available, future studies should be registered in an online trials register, publish a protocol, allocate time and financial support to reducing attrition, and try to blind personnel (especially those who undertake measurement). To better identify the effects of pedometer interventions, future studies should report a core set of

  16. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are

  17. Blender Bikes: Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Theresa M.; Smathers, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet the recommendations for diet and physical activity. A blender bike can be an effective tool when coupled with hands-on activities that reinforce health recommendations. We created "Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity: An Activity Guide for Use with Blender Bikes" to use when incorporating a blender bike…

  18. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2011-04-13

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised

  19. Do workplace physical activity interventions improve mental health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Koh, D; Moy, F M; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2014-06-01

    Mental health is an important issue in the working population. Interventions to improve mental health have included physical activity. To review evidence for the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes. A literature search was conducted for studies published between 1990 and August 2013. Inclusion criteria were physical activity trials, working populations and mental health outcomes. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 3684 unique articles identified, 17 met all selection criteria, including 13 randomized controlled trials, 2 comparison trials and 2 controlled trials. Studies were grouped into two key intervention areas: physical activity and yoga exercise. Of eight high-quality trials, two provided strong evidence for a reduction in anxiety, one reported moderate evidence for an improvement in depression symptoms and one provided limited evidence on relieving stress. The remaining trials did not provide evidence on improved mental well-being. Workplace physical activity and yoga programmes are associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. Their impact on stress relief is less conclusive. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Doll, P.; Rebel, H.

    1982-11-01

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.) [de

  1. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.; Voss, F.

    1988-02-01

    This report surveys the activities in basic research from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987 at the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IK) of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. The research program of this institute comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and high energy physics, as well as detector technology. (orig.) [de

  2. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  3. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  4. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  5. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  6. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  7. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...

  8. Promoting physical activity of adolescent and young Iranian girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rajabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women play a central role in the health of the whole family, but they are faced with more barriers while taking part in physical activities. Methods: This study was composed of two main phases. In the first phase, the status of physical activity among young and adolescent in Iran and global evidence of effective interventions were searched. In the second phase, Focused Group Discussion (FGD sessions were held with the key stakeholders in Tehran to investigate the results obtained from the first phase. Results: Physical activity among young and adolescent in Iran is inadequate. Based on the results obtained from the evidence and analysis of the FGDs, solutions defined as supporting policies, supporting environment, and supporting programs for physical activities. Conclusions: Multilevel cooperation among schools, families, and society is necessary to develop and implement policies and supporting programs, with an emphasis on combined interventions.

  9. Maturational differences in physical self- perceptions and the relationship with physical activity in early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Alisa G; Fawkner, Samantha G; Knowles, Anne-Marie; Stephenson, Claire

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between physical self-perceptions (PSPs), maturation, and physical activity and compared the strength of the relationships of biological and chronological age with PSPs in early adolescent girls (N = 208; mean age = 11.83 +/- 0.39 years). Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, the Children's Physical Self-Perception Profile, and the Pubertal Development Scale. Results indicated that PSPs were significantly and moderately correlated with physical activity. There were no differences in physical activity between maturation stages. Girls who were in the early stages of maturation had significantly more positive perceptions of body attractiveness and physical self-worth than girls in the mid stages of maturation. There was no evidence of a relationship between PSPs and chronological age. This study provided further support for the relationship between PSPs and physical activity and the relationship between maturation and aspects of PSPs. In this age group, maturation does not appear to be related to physical activity or the PSPs most strongly influential on physical activity behavior.

  10. The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, Leonard M.; Berger, Bonnie G.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of research evidence pertaining to the contribution of sport and physical activity to personal enjoyment, growth, social integration, and social change. It is important to identify the prerequisite activity, leadership, organizational, and environmental conditions for facilitating positive outcomes. (JD)

  11. Physical Activity and Health: "What is Old is New Again".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Street, Steven J; Byrne, Nuala M

    2015-01-01

    Much recent interest has focused on the relationship between physical activity and health and supported with an abundance of scientific evidence. However, the concept of Exercise is Medicine™ copromoted by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association and similar august bodies worldwide is far from new--the importance of exercise for health has been reported for centuries. Participation in regular physical activity and exercise provides numerous benefits for health with such benefits typically varying according to the volume completed as reflected by intensity, duration, and frequency. Evidence suggests a dose-response relationship such that being active, even to a modest level, is preferable to being inactive or sedentary. Greatest benefits are commonly associated with the previously sedentary individual assuming a more active lifestyle. There is an apparent linear relationship between physical activity and health status and as a general rule, increases in physical activity and fitness result in additional improvements in health status. This narrative review provides a selective appraisal of the evidence for the importance of physical activity for health, commencing with a baseline historical perspective followed by a summary of key health benefits associated with an active lifestyle. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    , evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods...

  13. [Senior citizen's physical activity and welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria da Silva; Chaves Maia, Eulália M

    2009-01-01

    This work analysed senior citizens' perception of needs and social values involved in taking physical activity for their own benefit. This study's main aim was to investigate social representations of 3rd age physical activity. This was a cross-sectional, interdisciplinary qualitative study, underpinned by theoretical-methodological social representation theory. A convenience, non-probabilistic, census-dependent method was used for obtaining the sam-ple of 62 people aged 50 to 78 from north-eastern Brazil. The data were collected by using the free word association technique and analysed by EVOC/2000 software. Analysing the replies led to three types of elements being identified which were related to the social representation of physical activity as attributed by the elderly: a psychological dimension (represented by happiness, well-being), a social dimension (dancing) and a biophysical dimension (gymnastics, water-gymnastics and health). The term 'happiness' stood out most in the word recall tests. When relating old age to the sample's social representation of physical activity, the study showed that physical activity assumed a preponderant role in the life of the elderly through cyclical appreciation-depreciation, social representation simultaneously and gradually acquiring 'life having more health and quality' from social representation. The subjects reported a positive association between physical activity, social interaction and well-being. The elderly also believed in physical activity's effects on physical-motor aspects and health. The social representation of physical activity by the group being studied was close to the physical activity's biopsychosocial dimension.

  14. Physical activity recommendations for health: what should Europe do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelholm Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating scientific evidence shows physical activity to have profound health benefits amenable to substantial public health gains. Accordingly, recommendations on how much and what kind of physical activity enhances health have been issued. The 1995 recommendation from the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine has been adapted worldwide, including Europe. Recently an extensive review of new evidence was undertaken and refined recommendations were issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We summarise the development of physical activity recommendations and consider the need and possible ways to update the current European situation. Discussion The new recommendations include several new elements when compared to the 1995 recommendation, the most notable being the greater emphasis on the contribution of vigorous-intensity activities, and the inclusion of activities for muscle strength and bone health. They also include specific recommendations for young people, middle-aged adults, older adults and some special groups. The existing Pan-European and national physical activity recommendations in Europe are mostly based on the 1995 recommendation and primarily target adults and young people. Thus the degree to which they are compatible with the new recommendations varies. In view of the growing public health importance of physical activity, we discuss the need to review the existing physical activity recommendations at the European level and assess their consistency with the new evidence and the new recommendations. Summary We argue that a review of the current physical activity recommendations in Europe should be undertaken in view of the most recent research evidence. We recommend that such a task should be taken on by WHO Europe in parallel with the ongoing work by WHO global Headquarters. Following this, each country should develop communication

  15. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  16. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood...

  17. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  18. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  19. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Obesity and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradinuk, Mia; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Goldman, Ran D

    2011-07-01

    What advice should I give parents of overweight children about physical activity? How can we encourage these children to become more physically active? The Canadian Paediatrics Society 2002 position statement on healthy living for children and youth, which is currently being revised, recommends that physicians advise children and adolescents to increase the time they spend on physical activities by at least 30 minutes a day, with at least 10 minutes involving vigorous activities, and that goals should be reset to reach at least 90 minutes a day of total physical activity. The extent to which children and youth are physically active is influenced by a multitude of complex, interrelated factors. Addressing physical inactivity and its contribution to childhood obesity requires a comprehensive and holistic approach.

  1. Biopsychosocial Benefits of Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Meydanlioglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135

  2. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  3. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  4. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  5. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  6. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes,Leonardo de Sousa; Morgado,Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Almeida,Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira,Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences w...

  7. Evidence based medicine in physical medicine and rehabilitation (German version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the term “Evidence Based Medicine (EBM” has been increasingly applied in all areas of medicine and is often used for decision-making in the medical and public health sector. It is also used to verify the significance and/or the effectiveness of different therapies. The original definition of EBM rests on the following three pillars: the physician’s individual expertise, the patient’s needs and the best external evidence. Today, however, the term EBM is often wrongly used as a synonym for best external evidence, without taking into consideration the other two pillars of the model which was created by Gordon Guyatt, David Sackett and Archibald Cochrane. This problem becomes even greater the more social insurance institutions and politicians use external evidence alone as the main guideline for financing therapies and therapy guidelines in physical medicine and general rehabilitation without taking into account the physician’s expertise and the patient’s needs.The wrong interpretation of EBM can lead to the following problems: well established clinical therapies are either questioned or not granted and are therefore withheld from patients (for example physical pain management. An absence of evidence for individual therapy methods does not prove their ineffectiveness! In this short statement the significance of EBM in Physical Medicine and general rehabilitation will be analysed and discussed.

  8. Physical activity, physical disability, and osteoarthritic pain in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HopmanRock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis

  9. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  10. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... BMI for age and gender was used to classify the children as underweight, overweight or obese ... health crises associated with underweight and low levels of PA status in the children.

  11. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  13. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of a school physical activity intervention on physical self-perception and enjoyment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Lund-Cramer, Pernille; Smedegaard, Søren

    Background Physical activity at school can improve mental health of all children – especially if it is tailored to children’s needs and conducted in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a multicomponent school-based physical activity intervention......) physical activity in recess. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 Danish schools were randomized to either intervention or control. Study population included 3.136 children aged 10-13 years at baseline. Student survey was carried out prior to intervention and after 9 months. Physical self...... in May 2016 and the study examines the difference at follow-up controlled for baseline values. Discussion There is compelling evidence that physical activity can have a positive effect on emotional well‐being, but unfortunately many children and young people engage insufficiently to reap such positive...

  15. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  16. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  17. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  18. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  19. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  20. Invited commentary: Physical activity, mortality, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-08-01

    The importance of regular physical activity to human health has been recognized for a long time, and a physically active lifestyle is now defined as a major component of public health policies. The independent contribution of regular physical activity to lower morbidity and mortality rates is generally accepted, and the biologic mechanisms mediating these health effects are actively investigated. A few years ago, data from the Finnish Twin Registry suggested that genetic selection may account for some of the physical-activity-related benefits on mortality rates. However, results from the Swedish Twin Registry study reported by Carlsson et al. in the current issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:255-259) do not support the genetic selection hypothesis. In this commentary, the authors review the nature of the associations among physical activity level, fitness, and longevity, with special reference to the role of human genetic variation, and discuss potential reasons for different outcomes of these large twin studies.

  1. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  2. REPRESENTATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOMAINS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autor

    the need to analyse elementary and middle school curricula to include educational activities ..... The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM, 2014), ..... A comparison of Web and print media for physical activity promotion among.

  3. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, David; Balamurugan, Appathurai; Oakleaf, Ernest J

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens) do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods Fro...

  4. Fungal genomics: forensic evidence of sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Neil A R

    2005-07-12

    The genome sequence of the 'asexual' human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus suggests it has the capability to undergo mating and meiosis. That this organism engages in clandestine sexual activity is also suggested by observations of two equally distributed complementary mating types in nature, the expression of mating type genes and evidence of recent genome recombination events.

  5. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Robert A., II; Burnham, David A.; Martin, Larry D.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Larson, Peter L.

    2013-07-01

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota.

  6. The importance of the food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying characteristics of neighborhood environments (physical, social, economical) that might favor unhealthy dietary and physical activity patterns leading to excess weight at population level. Measurement of characteristics of the physical environment in relation to food and physical activity has greatly improved in recent years. Methods based on assessment of perceptions by residents of their neighborhood or on objective assessment of the actual built environment (such as provided by Geographic Information Systems tools) would benefit to be combined. A number of recent systematic reviews have updated our knowledge on relationships of food and physical activity environments with relevant behaviors and obesity. Available evidence appears to show more consistent evidence of association between built environment characteristics related to physical activity ('walkability' indices, land use mix, variety of transports. . .) with physical activity behavior than with weight status. In contrast, built environment characteristics related to food habits (accessibility to different types of food outlets, availability of healthy foods. . .) would be more consistently associated with weight status than with eating behavior. The need for data from different countries and cultures is emphasized, as much as the importance of transdisciplinary research efforts for translation of these findings into our living environment. Copyright © 2012 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Physical activity across the life-course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2018-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  8. An evolving perspective on physical activity counselling by medical professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhail Steven

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic conditions and a leading cause of premature mortality. An increasing proportion of adults worldwide are not engaging in a level of physical activity sufficient to prevent or alleviate these adverse effects. Medical professionals have been identified as potentially powerful sources of influence for those who do not meet minimum physical activity guidelines. Health professionals are respected and expected sources of advice and they reach a large and relevant proportion of the population. Despite this potential, health professionals are not routinely practicing physical activity promotion. Discussion Medical professionals experience several known barriers to physical activity promotion including lack of time and lack of perceived efficacy in changing physical activity behaviour in patients. Furthermore, evidence for effective physical activity promotion by medical professionals is inconclusive. To address these problems, new approaches to physical activity promotion are being proposed. These include collaborating with community based physical activity behaviour change interventions, preparing patients for effective brief counselling during a consultation with the medical professional, and use of interactive behaviour change technology. Summary It is important that we recognise the latent risk of physical inactivity among patients presenting in clinical settings. Preparation for improving patient physical activity behaviours should commence before the consultation and may include physical activity screening. Medical professionals should also identify suitable community interventions to which they can refer physically inactive patients. Outsourcing the majority of a comprehensive physical activity intervention to community based interventions will reduce the required clinical consultation time for addressing the issue with each patient. Priorities for future research

  9. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  10. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  11. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  12. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  13. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  14. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  15. Activity Report of Reactor Physics Division - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Om Pal

    1998-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Physics Division of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1997 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: nuclear data processing and validation, PFBR and KAMINI core physics, FBTR core physics, radioactivity and shielding and safety analysis. A list of publications of the Division and seminars delivered are included at the end of the report

  16. Protocol for systematic reviews of determinants/correlates of obesity-related dietary and physical activity behaviors in young children (preschool 0 to 6 years): evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Mazarello Paes, Veena; Hesketh, Kathryn; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen; Ong, Ken; Griffin, Simon; van Sluijs, Esther; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2013-05-10

    The aim of these reviews is to inform the design and content of interventions to reduce obesity in young children. The behaviors that are associated with obesity/overweight have been studied extensively; however, the factors associated with these behaviors in young children (0 to 6 years) have not been systematically reviewed. Over the past few years the focus of obesity prevention has shifted to preschool children because of the high prevalence of obesity at school entry and recognition that habits formed in early life could track into adulthood. In order to develop effective interventions and change behavior, it is important to understand the factors that are associated with those behaviors. For example, we need to understand whether it would be more important to target the family, childcare settings or the wider environment and identify the most effective way of changing these energy balance related behaviors. Quantitative (intervention and observational) and qualitative literature on determinants/correlates of fruit and vegetable intake, sugar sweetened beverage and other unhealthy diet intake, and physical activity and sedentary behaviors in young children will be systematically identified, mapped and reviewed. A common search strategy (no language or period restrictions) will be used to identify papers from eight electronic databases and this will be supplemented by hand-searching. Next, studies in developed countries that examine the factors associated with these behaviors in children aged 0 to 6 years (at baseline) will be screened and mapped descriptively followed by in-depth data extraction, quality assessment and synthesis. Data from quantitative studies will be summarized using either forest plots or harvest plots and narrative synthesis, and qualitative studies using thematic analysis. Qualitative evidence will be integrated with the quantitative evidence, using a parallel synthesis approach, to provide a deeper understanding of effective strategies to

  17. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of inappropriate eating behaviors in the multivariate covariance model either for females or males. Moreover, the level of physical activity had no significant influence on the inappropriate eating behaviors of these adolescents. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, inappropriate eating behaviors in both genders were similar regardless of the habitual level of physical activity.

  18. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Mobile Phone App for Increasing Physical Activity and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENT II Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; González-Viejo, Mª Natividad; Fernandez-Alonso, Mª Del Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose-Angel; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-12-19

    The use of mobile phone apps for improving lifestyles has become generalized in the population, although little is still known about their effectiveness in improving health. We evaluate the effect of adding an app to standard counseling on increased physical activity (PA) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 3 months after implementation. A randomized, multicenter clinical trial was carried out. A total of 833 participants were recruited in six primary care centers in Spain through random sampling: 415 in the app+counseling group and 418 in the counseling only group. Counseling on PA and the Mediterranean diet was given to both groups. The app+counseling participants additionally received training in the use of an app designed to promote PA and the Mediterranean diet over a 3-month period. PA was measured with the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire and an accelerometer; adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener questionnaire. Participants were predominantly female in both the app+counseling (249/415, 60.0%) and counseling only (268/418, 64.1%) groups, with a mean age of 51.4 (SD 12.1) and 52.3 (SD 12.0) years, respectively. Leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 7-day PAR increased in the app+counseling (mean 29, 95% CI 5-53 min/week; P=.02) but not in the counseling only group (mean 17.4, 95% CI -18 to 53 min/week; P=.38). No differences in increase of activity were found between the two groups. The accelerometer recorded a decrease in PA after 3 months in both groups: MVPA mean -55.3 (95% CI -75.8 to -34.9) min/week in app+counseling group and mean -30.1 (95% CI -51.8 to -8.4) min/week in counseling only group. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet increased in both groups (8.4% in app+counseling and 10.4% in counseling only group), with an increase in score of 0.42 and 0.53 points, respectively (Pincreased more in the app+counseling than counseling only group

  19. Handgrip strength and physical activity in frail elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between handgrip strength (HS and physical activity in physical frailty elderly. METHOD Cross-sectional quantitative study with a sample of 203 elderly calculated based on the population estimated proportion. Tests were applied to detect cognitive impairment and assessment of physical frailty. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis by binary logistic regression were used, and also Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS A total of 99 (64.3% elderly showed decreased handgrip strength and 90 (58.4% elderly presented decrease in physical activity levels. There was a statistically significant difference between these two components (p=0.019, in which elderly who have decreased HS have lower levels of physical activity. For low levels of physical activity and decreased HS, there was no evidence of significant difference in the probability of the classification as frail elderly (p<0.001. CONCLUSION The components handgrip strength and physical activity are associated with the frail elderly. The joint presence of low levels of physical activity and decreased handgrip strength leads to a significantly higher probability of the elderly to be categorized as frailty.

  20. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  1. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Mark J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lonsdale, Chris; White, Rhiannon L; Lubans, David R

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests that physical self-concept is associated with physical activity in children and adolescents, but no systematic review of this literature has been conducted. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the strength of associations between physical activity and physical self-concept (general and sub-domains) in children and adolescents. The secondary aim was to examine potential moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept. A systematic search of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, Web of Science and Scopus) with no date restrictions was conducted. Random effects meta-analyses with correction for measurement were employed. The associations between physical activity and general physical self-concept and sub-domains were explored. A risk of bias assessment was conducted by two reviewers. The search identified 64 studies to be included in the meta-analysis. Thirty-three studies addressed multiple outcomes of general physical self-concept: 28 studies examined general physical self-concept, 59 examined perceived competence, 25 examined perceived fitness, and 55 examined perceived appearance. Perceived competence was most strongly associated with physical activity (r = 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.35, p self-concept (r = 0.25, 95% CI 0.16-0.34, p self-concept (p self-concept and its various sub-domains in children and adolescents. Age and sex are key moderators of the association between physical activity and physical self-concept.

  2. Motivation for physical activity of psychiatric patients when physical activity was offered as part of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined motivation variables, self-determination and self-schema, in relation to physical activity, among psychiatric patients with experience with physical activity as part of their treatment. Participants were patients (N=109) from 15 psychiatric hospitals or day-care institutions. Data were collected by questionnaires. A positive relationship between physical activity level, positive experiences of the activity and higher degree of self-determination and exercise self-schema was expected. Intrinsically regulated motives (motivated by the experience of the activity in itself) were positively and significantly related to physical activity level and the experience of decrease in symptoms during physical activity, and extrinsically regulated motives were negatively correlated with physical activity level. Intrinsically regulated motives gave an odds ratio of 20.0 for being physically active rather than inactive. Holding an exercise self-schema gave an odds ratio of 6.1 for being physically active. The majority of the patients (57.4%) reported that physical activity decreased their illness symptoms, but a few (11.9%) reported negative effects. The findings demonstrated that psychiatric patients do not differ from the normal population in relation to motivational mechanisms, even if they may experience more barriers to physical activities because of their illness. Therefore, in trying to motivate psychiatric patients, it is important to make physical activity as intrinsically motivating as possible by focusing on the positive experiences of the activity itself, as well as helping to develop an exercise self-schema.

  3. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  4. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  5. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301

  6. [Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena

    2017-03-24

    A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Building a Better Mousetrap (Exergame) to Increase Youth Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, Tom; Maddison, Ralph; Maloney, Ann; Medina, Ernie; Simons, Monique

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been

  8. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with meta...

  9. Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.H.; Cable, N.T.; Faulkner, G.; Hillsdon, M.; Narici, M.; Bij, A.K. van der

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  10. Physical activity and older adults : a review of health benefits and the effectiveness of interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, AH; Cable, NT; Faulkner, G; Hillsdon, M; Narici, M

    The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical

  11. Psychogenic Explanations of Physical Illness: Time to Examine the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, Carolyn E; Ward, Tony

    2016-09-01

    In some patients with chronic physical complaints, detailed examination fails to reveal a well-recognized underlying disease process. In this situation, the physician may suspect a psychological cause. In this review, we critically evaluated the evidence for this causal claim, focusing on complaints presenting as neurological disorders. There were four main conclusions. First, patients with these complaints frequently exhibit psychopathology but not consistently more often than patients with a comparable "organic" diagnosis, so a causal role cannot be inferred. Second, these patients report a high incidence of adverse life experiences, but again, there is insufficient evidence to indicate a causal role for any particular type of experience. Third, although psychogenic illnesses are believed to be more responsive to psychological interventions than comparable "organic" illnesses, there is currently no evidence to support this claim. Finally, recent evidence suggests that biological and physical factors play a much greater causal role in these illnesses than previously believed. We conclude that there is currently little evidential support for psychogenic theories of illness in the neurological domain. In future research, researchers need to take a wider view concerning the etiology of these illnesses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Evidence for consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dean I.; Nelson, Roger D.

    1989-12-01

    Speculations about the role of consciousness in physical systems are frequently observed in the literature concerned with the interpretation of quantum mechanics. While only three experimental investigations can be found on this topic in physics journals, more than 800 relevant experiments have been reported in the literature of parapsychology. A well-defined body of empirical evidence from this domain was reviewed using meta-analytic techniques to assess methodological quality and overall effect size. Results showed effects conforming to chance expectation in control conditions and unequivocal non-chance effects in experimental conditions. This quantitative literature review agrees with the findings of two earlier reviews, suggesting the existence of some form of consciousness-related anomaly in random physical systems.

  13. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  15. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  16. [Physical cardiovascular activity in the physical preventive medecine of the diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The indication of physical activity in patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 and in the metabolic syndrome has a scientific proven evidence. There does no exist a general definite program of this activity. There is designed his methodology, modality, intensity, frequency and duration. The first results are presented in diabete type 2 patients and of them those who meet with metabolic syndrome by means of evaluation of the HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and IMC. On emphasizes that there is reached a very high and linear decrease of the HbA1c, with the individualized program of physical cardiovascular activity.

  17. Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage, Occupational, Leisure-Time, and Household Physical Activity, and Diabetes in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Lee, Chioun; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink

    2017-10-01

    Regular physical activity is a key way to prevent disease. However, we have a limited understanding of the socioeconomic precursors and glucoregulatory sequelae of engaging in physical activity in different domains. We examined the associations among life course socioeconomic disadvantage; meeting the physical activity guidelines with leisure-time physical activity, occupational physical activity, or household physical activity; and prediabetes and diabetes in the Midlife in the United States national study (N = 986). Childhood disadvantage was associated with lower odds of meeting the guidelines with leisure-time physical activity (odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.86). Adulthood disadvantage was associated with higher odds of meeting the guidelines with occupational physical activity (odds ratio = 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.53). Importantly, while meeting the guidelines with leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower odds of prediabetes and diabetes, we found no evidence for associations among occupational physical activity, household physical activity, and glucoregulation. Current US physical activity guidelines do not differentiate between physical activity for leisure or work, assuming that physical activity in any domain confers comparable health benefits. We documented important differences in the associations among lifetime socioeconomic disadvantage, physical activity domain, and diabetes, suggesting that physical activity domain potentially belongs in the guidelines, similar to other characteristics of activity (eg, type, intensity).

  18. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinn Aileen P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8, with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men.

  20. [Is physical activity an elixir?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacza, Gyöngyvér; Radák, Zsolt

    2013-05-19

    Physical exercise has systemic effects, and it can regulate all the organs. The relative maximal aerobic oxygen uptake (VO2max) could have been important in the evolution of humans, since higher VO2max meant better hunting abilities for the Stone Age man. However, it appears that high level of VO2max is also important today, in the 21st century to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. High level of VO2max is not just preventive against a wide spectrum of diseases, but it associated with better function of many organs. Relevant data suggest that high level of VO2max is a key factor in prevention of diseases and survival even at the modern civilized world.

  1. Physical activity in advanced cancer patients: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sonya S; Tan, Maria; Faily, Joan; Watanabe, Sharon M; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-11

    Progressive, incurable cancer is associated with increased fatigue, increased muscle weakness, and reduced physical functioning, all of which negatively impact quality of life. Physical activity has demonstrated benefits on cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients; however, its impact on these outcomes in end-stage cancer has not been established. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the potential benefits, harms, and effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life outcomes in advanced cancer patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on physical activity in advanced cancer patients will be undertaken. Empirical quantitative studies will be considered for inclusion if they present interventional or observational data on physical activity in advanced cancer patients. Searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases: CINAHL; CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); EMBASE; MEDLINE; PEDro: the Physiotherapy Evidence Database; PQDT; PsycInfo; PubMed; REHABDATA; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies of interest. Additional strategies to identify relevant studies will include citation searches and evaluation of reference lists of included articles. Titles, abstracts, and keywords of identified studies from the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers will conduct quality appraisal using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP) and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A descriptive summary of included studies will describe the study designs, participant and activity characteristics, and objective and patient-reported outcomes. This systematic review will summarize the current

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Physical Activity and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2017-11-01

    This longitudinal study examined the role of leisure-time physical activity in academic achievement at the end of compulsory basic education and educational attainment in adulthood. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based data from Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 12 yr (n = 1723, 49% boys) and 15 yr (n = 2445, 48% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed up until 2010, when their mean age was 40 yr. Physical activity was self-reported and included several measurements: overall leisure-time physical activity outside school hours, participation in sports club training sessions, and participation in sports competitions. Individuals' educational outcomes were measured with the self-reported grade point average at age 15 yr and register-based information on the years of completed postcompulsory education in adulthood. Ordinary least squares models and the instrumental variable approach were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and educational outcomes. Physical activity in adolescence was positively associated with educational outcomes. Both the physical activity level at age 15 yr and an increase in the physical activity level between the ages of 12 and 15 yr were positively related to the grade point average at age 15 yr and the years of postcompulsory education in adulthood. The results were robust to the inclusion of several individual and family background factors, including health endowments, family income, and parents' education. The results provide evidence that physical activity in adolescence may not only predict academic success during compulsory basic education but also boost educational outcomes later in life.

  3. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  4. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  5. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K

    2013-12-01

    Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today's youth. Friend's health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual's level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends' higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend's sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Friends' physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual's physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents.

  6. The Role of Physical Activity in the CKD Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Aucella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sedentary lifestyle contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and probably cancer in the general population; this cluster of disease may be defined the diseasome of physical inactivity. Also in CKD/ESRD patients physical activity is strikingly low. As a result of growing evidence suggestive of cardiovascular benefit among the CKD population with exercise, the National Kidney Foundation recommended counseling by nephrologists to increase patients' levels of physical activity in their guideline about management of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to maintain the well-being and functional capacity of renal patients attention should be directed toward maintaining strength and aerobic fitness as well as focusing on renal function and anemia or other comorbidities. All CKD/ESRD patients should be counseled and regularly encouraged by nephrology and dialysis staff to increase their level of physical activity.

  7. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Bueche, G.; Fluegge, G.

    1982-02-01

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.) [de

  8. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  9. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  10. Development of Junior High School Students' Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity in a Naturalistic Physical Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaja, Sami Pekka; Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Liukkonen, Jarmo Olavi; Digelidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence showing that fundamental movement skills and physical activity are related with each other. The ability to perform a variety of fundamental movement skills increases the likelihood of children participating in different physical activities throughout their lives. However, no fundamental movement skill interventions…

  11. Reactor physics activities in NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a compilation of National activity reports presented at the thirty-third Meeting of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics, held at OECD Headquarters, Paris, from 15th - 19th October 1990

  12. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  13. Childhood Obesity, Physical Activity, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

  14. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  15. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished...... in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self...... combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39...

  16. Representation of physical activity domains and sedentary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... time at which the activity occurred and the presence of disability were considered. ... Health policy; Methods and materials of instruction; Public Health; School.

  17. Physical Activity as Cause and Cure Of Muscular Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, G

    2017-01-01

    Work-related physical activity (PA), in terms of peak loads, sustained and/or repetitive contractions presents risk factors for the development of muscular pain and disorders. However, PA as training tailored to the employee's work exposure, health, and physical capacity offers prevention...... and rehabilitation. We suggest the concept of "Intelligent Physical Exercise Training" relying on evidence-based sports science training principles.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where...

  18. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  19. Perceived barriers to physical activity among Nigerian stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Opeyemi Ayodiipo; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Fawole, Henrietta Oluwafunmilola; Akinrolie, Olayinka

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of physical activity in the prevention and management of stroke are well documented in the literature. There is increasing evidence that stroke survivors in South-West Nigeria are physically inactive. Data on barriers to the achievement of the recommended physical activity levels including its differences along socio-demographic characteristics among stroke survivors in South-West Nigeria are needed. The Exercise Benefits and Barrier Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered on 121 stroke survivors to determine their perceived barriers to physical activity and physical activity levels respectively. Information on socio-demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. The sample included 70.2% males, with majority of the participants reporting low physical activity levels (80.2%) and high perceived barriers (Mean = 48.13, SD = 7.88). The four most reported common barriers among stroke survivors were access to exercise facilities (95.0%), being embarrassed to exercise (94.2%), economic cost demands of exercise (94.2%) and notion that people in exercise clothes look funny (94.2%) respectively. There were no significant differences found in barriers to physical activity between gender (U = 1471.00, P = 0.74) and across each of: occupational status (H = 4.37, P = 0.22), age group (H = 0.82, P = 0.84) and educational levels (H = 4.56, P = 0.33). Significant difference however existed in perceived barriers across marital status categories (H = 12.87, P = 0.05). Stroke survivors indicated high perceived barriers to physical activity and these barriers were associated with marital status.

  20. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indira, R.

    1994-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1993 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  1. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1995 are reported. The activity are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. refs., figs., tabs

  2. Physical Activity, Aging, and Physiological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harridge, Stephen D R; Lazarus, Norman R

    2017-03-01

    Human evolution suggests that the default position for health is to be physically active. Inactivity, by contrast, has serious negative effects on health across the lifespan. Therefore, only in physically active people can the inherent aging process proceed unaffected by disuse complications. In such individuals, although the relationship between age and physiological function remains complex, function is generally superior with health, well being, and the aging process optimized. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  3. [Physical activities adapted to homeless people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguet, Brigitte

    2018-03-01

    Around ten homeless people were invited to take part in a programme of physical activities to improve their health status. Only motricity and walking pathways were followed assiduously for eight weeks. The assessment of the physical condition and quality of life showed an improvement in these areas, in particular for one of the participants. However, the lack of motivation and assiduity remains an obstacle to regular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, R [ed.; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-12-31

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1993 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  5. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  6. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  7. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaz Apabhai

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype.Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI.Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease.These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  8. Physical recreational activity and musculoskeletal disorders in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Mynarski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of physical activity (PA in the prevention and treatment of civilization diseases has been recognized by the medical society. Despite extensive knowledge and well-documented evidence of health aspects of PA, the identification and assessment of the PA level in various social and professional groups are still needed. The main goal of this research was to work out a preliminary assessment of possible relationship between recreational physical activity and reduced common musculoskeletal disorders in nurses. Material and Methods: The study included 93 nurses, aged 41.4±7.31, with body height of 164.4±7.04 and body weight of 64.5±10.8. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ was applied to assess pain and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ (long version to assess the level of physical activity. The intergroup differences, due to the occurrence of pain and physical activity levels, were determined using the Mann Whitney test and the Kruskal Wallis test. To evaluate the significance of individual factors potentially influencing the onset of musculoskeletal pains, the Chi2 test for independence was performed. Results: Over 70% of the examined nurses reported musculoskeletal complaints, mostly related with lower back pain. Taking up recreational activity, of at least moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, reduces the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion: It is most likely that recreational physical activity at appropriate parameters may prevent musculoskeletal disorders, especially in nurses with long work experience. However, this hypothesis needs to be verified by experimental studies with use of objective tools for the assessment of physical activity. Med Pr 2014;65(2:181–188

  9. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division : 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1991-01-01

    The major Research and Development and Project activities carried out during the year 1990 in Reactor Physics Division are presented in the form of summaries in this report. The various activities are organised under the following areas : (1) Nuclear Data Evaluation, Processing and Validation, (2) Core Physics and Analysis, (3) Reactor Kinetics and Safety Analysis, (4) Noise Analysis, and (5) Radiation Transport and Shielding. FBTR was restarted in July 1990 and the power was raised upto 500 kW. A number of low power physics experiments on reactivity coefficients, kinetics and noise, neutron flux and gamma dose in B cells, were performed, which are discussed in this report. (author). figs., tabs

  10. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. © The Author(s), 2015.

  11. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  12. Start of the international tokamak physics activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter comprises a summary on the start of the International Tokamak Physics activity (ITPA) by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee. As the ITER EDA drew to a close, it became clear that it was desirable to establish a new mechanism in order to promote the continued development of the physics basis for burning plasma experiments and to preserve the invaluable collaborations between the major international fusion communities which had been established through the ITER physics expert groups. As a result of the discussions of the representatives of the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States the agreed principles for conducting the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) were elaborated and ITPA topical physics groups were organized

  13. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific Activities in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The main activities and results of the ICTP during 1983 are reported, according to the following programme components: Physics and energy (Plasma physics; Non-conventional energy; Nuclear physics); Fundamental physics (Elementary particles and fundamental theory); Physics of the living state (Medical physics; Applications of physics to medicine and biology); Physics and technology (Condensed matter physics and related; Atomic, molecular and laser physics; Physics of communications); Mathematics (Applicable mathematics); Physics of the environment and of natural resources (Soil physics; Geophysics); other fields

  14. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  15. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  16. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Brownson, Ross C; Clark, Eddie M; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2006-02-01

    Social ecological models suggest that conditions in the social and physical environment, in addition to individual factors, play important roles in health behavior change. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested a theoretically and empirically based explanatory model of physical activity to examine theorized direct and indirect effects of individual (e.g., motivation and self-efficacy), social environmental (e.g., social support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., neighborhood quality and availability of facilities). A community-based sample of adults (N = 910) was recruited from 2 public health centers (67% female, 43% African American, 43% motivation for physical activity, perceived social support, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the physical environment. Results indicated that (a) perceptions of the physical environment had direct effects on physical activity, (b) both the social and physical environments had indirect effects on physical activity through motivation and self-efficacy, and (c) social support influenced physical activity indirectly through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. For all forms of activity, self-efficacy was the strongest direct correlate of physical activity, and evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between self-efficacy and intensity of physical activity. Findings from this research highlight the interactive role of individual and environmental influences on physical activity.

  17. Secondary school physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence: A collective case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joseph A.

    Engaging secondary school students in inquiry-oriented tasks that more closely simulate the scholarly activities of scientists has been recommended as a way to improve scientific literacy. Two tasks that are frequently recommended include students' design of original experiments, and students' evaluation of scientific evidence and conclusions. Yet, little is known about teachers' conceptions of experimentation. The principal aim of this study, therefore, was to describe the nature of prospective and practicing physics teachers' conceptions of scientific evidence. More specifically, the following research questions guided this study: (1) What types of issues related to the measurement reliability and experimental validity of scientific evidence do practicing and prospective physics teachers think about when designing experiments? (2) When presented with hypothetical scenarios that describe unsound experimental procedures or poorly supported conclusions (or both), what concerns will prospective and practicing physics teachers raise? And (3) When the participants' responses to parallel research prompts are compared across protocols, what similarities and differences exist? The nature of the teacher-participants' conceptions was described from an analysis of data collected from research prompts such as interviews and hand written artifacts. In these research prompts, the teachers "thought aloud" while designing experiments and critically evaluated student-collected evidence presented in hypothetical classroom scenarios. The data from this study suggested that the three teachers, while contemplating the reliability and validity of scientific evidence, frequently used their conceptions of evidence in conjunction with specific subject matter conceptions. The data also indicated that the relationship between subject matter knowledge and conceptions of evidence was more pronounced for some conceptions of evidence than for others. Suggestions for future research included

  18. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Physical activity and mental well-being in student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Clare L

    2012-04-01

    There is strong evidence that suggests physical activity can enhance mental well-being. However, this relationship has not been widely investigated in student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity and mental well-being in undergraduate student nurses (n=215). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Other outcomes included self-esteem, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Almost, a quarter (23.8%) of the total sample, were meeting the Department of Health's physical activity guideline. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.0 with 40% being in the overweight to morbidly obese category. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with total physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.038) and moderate intensity activity (r=0.17, p=0.021). No other significant relationships were found between anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life and physical activity. Outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy were significantly positively correlated with moderate (r=0.17, p=0.019) and vigorous (r=0.28, p=0.000) intensity activity and total physical activity (r=0.29, p=0.000). BMI was significantly positively correlated with age (r=0.242, p=0.001), significantly negatively correlated with self-efficacy for exercise (r=0.257, p=0.000) and satisfaction with life (r=-0.144, p=0.041). Regression analysis showed that low self efficacy for exercise and increasing age were significant predictors of BMI with a small effect size r(2)=0.126, adjusted r(2)=0.112. BMI and physical activity variables collectively explained only 2% of the variance for anxiety, 4% for depression, 5% for self esteem and 6% for satisfaction with life. BMI was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life (Beta=-0.171, p=0.027). Participation in physical activity may be influential in improving mental well-being in student nurses. Promoting physical

  20. Physical Activity Mass Media Campaigns and Their Evaluation: A Systematic Review of the Literature 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E.; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, mass media campaigns to promote regular moderate-intensity physical activity have increased recently. Evidence of mass media campaign effectiveness exists in other health areas, however the evidence for physical activity is limited. The purpose was to systematically review the literature on physical activity mass media campaigns,…

  1. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  3. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apabhai, Shehnaz; Gorman, Grainne S; Sutton, Laura; Elson, Joanna L; Plötz, Thomas; Turnbull, Douglass M; Trenell, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001). 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001) and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s) = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, Pphysical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  4. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8, 19.1 (SD 18.9, 25.7 (SD 29.3, and 26.7 (SD 31.5. In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level.

  5. The Physical Education Hall of Shame, Part IV: More Inappropriate Games, Activities, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neil F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes toward lifelong participation in sport-related physical activities through quality school-based programs is a critical goal for the physical education profession. Scientific evidence indicates that a physically active lifestyle helps to prevent disease, improve health, and increase longevity. Physical…

  6. Physical activity for women with breast cancer after adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahart, Ian M; Metsios, George S; Nevill, Alan M; Carmichael, Amtul R

    2018-01-29

    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer may experience short- and long-term disease and treatment-related adverse physiological and psychosocial outcomes. These outcomes can negatively impact prognosis, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychosocial and physical function. Physical activity may help to improve prognosis and may alleviate the adverse effects of adjuvant therapy. To assess effects of physical activity interventions after adjuvant therapy for women with breast cancer. We searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (CBCG) Specialised Registry, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, on 18 September 2015. We also searched OpenGrey and Healthcare Management Information Consortium databases. We searched for randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing physical activity interventions versus control (e.g. usual or standard care, no physical activity, no exercise, attention control, placebo) after adjuvant therapy (i.e. after completion of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, but not hormone therapy) in women with breast cancer. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when needed. We calculated an overall effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 63 trials that randomised 5761 women to a physical activity intervention (n = 3239) or to a control (n = 2524). The duration of interventions ranged from 4 to 24 months, with most lasting 8 or 12 weeks (37 studies). Twenty-eight studies included aerobic exercise only, 21 involved aerobic

  7. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  8. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  9. Association Between Perceived Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-01-01

    There is irrefutable evidence that regular participation in physical activity is favorably associated with numerous positive health outcomes, including cognitive function. Emerging work suggests that perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity behavior, is inversely associated with mortality risk. In this study, we evaluate whether perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is associated with cognitive function, a robust indicator of mortality risk. Data from the cross-sectional 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were employed ( N = 2352; 60+ years of age). Actual physical activity was assessed via a validated survey. Perceived physical activity was assessed using the following question: "Compared with others of the same age, would you say that you are: more active, less active, or about the same?" Cognitive function was assessed from the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. When examined in separate models, both actual and perceived physical activity were positively and statistically significantly associated with cognitive function. However, when considered in the same model, actual physical activity was no longer statistically significantly associated with cognitive function, but perceived physical activity was. Perceived physical activity, independent of actual physical activity, is independently associated with cognitive function. If these findings are replicated, future work should consider evaluating perceived physical activity when examining the effects of actual physical activity behavior on cognitive function.

  10. Physical activity and epilepsy: proven and predicted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, Ricardo M; Cavalheiro, Esper A; da Silva, Antonio C; Scorza, Fulvio A

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting people from all ages. Unfortunately, persons with epilepsy have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and persons with epilepsy continue to be less active than the general population. For this purpose, clinical and experimental studies have analysed the effect of physical exercise on epilepsy. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychological health in people with epilepsy. The majority of physical activities or sports are safe for people with epilepsy to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family or trainers. The evidence shows that patients with good seizure control can participate in both contact and non-contact sports without harmfully affecting seizure frequency. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in people with epilepsy, discusses sports in which persons with epilepsy may participate, and describes the positive effect of physical exercise in experimental models of epilepsy.

  11. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...... the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk...

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  13. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  14. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  15. An integrative review: work environment factors associated with physical activity among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Ping; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Kao, Tsui-Sui; Larson, Janet L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the research evidence for the role of the work environment-workplace physical activity policies and resources and job strain factors-in explaining physical activity in white-collar workers. White-collar workers are at risk for developing a sedentary lifestyle, which contributes to all-cause mortality. Understanding how work environment can influence worker physical activity is important for the development of effective interventions. We reviewed 15 research articles that describe the relationship between work environment factors and physical activity in predominantly white-collar workers. Relatively consistent evidence was found for the effects of supportive workplace policies and resources. Weak evidence was found for the effects of job strain. Both work environment factors have the potential to influence physical activity but require further exploration to fully understand their contribution to physical activity in white-collar workers. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  16. Nutrition and Physical Activity in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions.

  17. Physical activity in relation to development and progression of myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Lundberg, Kristian; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to make a systematic review regarding the correlation between physical activity and myopia. A total of 263 papers were identified in a systematic database search of PubMed/Medline and Embase. Five steps of screening removed studies of a low evidence quality and animal studies......On a global scale, myopia is one of the most common causes of visual impairment. Given the increasing prevalence of myopia, it is vital to understand the pathogenesis and to identify potential interventions. Some studies have described physical activity as a potential correlation for myopia....... Studies included had refractive error and physical activity (as measured by questionnaires, accelerometers and cycle ergometers) as separate, well-defined outcomes. Nine studies (six cross-sectional, two cohorts and one case-control study) with a total of 17 634 subjects were included. Six studies...

  18. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  19. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  20. Cancer rehabilitation with a focus on evidence-based outpatient physical and occupational therapy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Julie K; Gilchrist, Laura S

    2011-05-01

    Cancer rehabilitation is an important part of survivorship as a distinct phase of treatment. Although cancer rehabilitation may involve many disciplines, this article specifically covers evidence-based treatment in physical and occupational therapy. Patients may need physical and occupational therapy services for a variety of cancer-related or cancer-treatment-related problems, including pain, fatigue, deconditioning, and difficulty with gait. They may also have problems resuming their previous level of function, which can impact on activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, return to previous home and community activity levels, and return to work. This review discusses the role of physical and occupational therapy in helping cancer patients improve pain and musculoskeletal issues, deconditioning and endurance effects, fatigue, balance and falls, and lymphedema and psychosocial problems.

  1. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  3. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  4. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  5. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavamurthy, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report highlights the progress of activities carried out during the year 1988 in Reactor Physics Division in the form of brief summaries. The topics are organised under the following subject categories:(1) nuclear data evaluation , processing and validation, (2) core physics and analysis, (3) reactor kinetics and safety analysis, (4) noise analysis and (5) radiation transport and shielding. List of publications by the members of the Division and the Reactor Physics Seminars held during the year 1988, is included at the end of report. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  6. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  7. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  8. Physical activity cardio-surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stocka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Behaviors are one of the most important factors that determine health. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of diseases i.e. hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2, stroke and overweight and obesity. In the study this in the clinic of cardiac surgery University Hospital # 1 in Bydgoszcz in the period from October to November 2016 uses the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ.  Encouraging patients coronary artery bypass grafting for physical activity before the procedure should be to educate patients about the importance of traffic before the operations and promote health promoting behaviors i.e.. correct diet and maintain a proper body weight, control blood pressure and glucose levels, and appropriate form traffic adapted to the needs and capabilities of the patient.

  9. Obesity prevention for children with physical disabilities: a scoping review of physical activity and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.

  10. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  11. Activity-Based Introductory Physics Reform *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2004-05-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to those of good traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). RealTime Physics promotes interaction among students in a laboratory setting and makes use of powerful real-time data logging tools to teach concepts as well as quantitative relationships. An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions and Workshop Physics and Scale-Up largely eliminate lectures in favor of collaborative student activities. Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) make lectures more interactive in complementary ways. This presentation will introduce these reforms and use Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) with the audience to illustrate the types of curricula and tools used in the curricula above. ILDs make use real experiments, real-time data logging tools and student interaction to create an active learning environment in large lecture classes. A short video of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of research studies at various institutions to measure the effectiveness of these methods will be presented.

  12. Active fantasy sports: rationale and feasibility of leveraging online fantasy sports to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Arlen C; Majewski, Sara; Standish, Melanie; Agarwal, Pooja; Podowski, Aleksandra; Carson, Rebecca; Eyesus, Biruk; Shah, Aakash; Schneider, Kristin L

    2014-11-25

    The popularity of active video games (AVGs) has skyrocketed over the last decade. However, research suggests that the most popular AVGs, which rely on synchronous integration between players' activity and game features, fail to promote physical activity outside of the game or for extended periods of engagement. This limitation has led researchers to consider AVGs that involve asynchronous integration of players' ongoing physical activity with game features. Rather than build an AVG de novo, we selected an established sedentary video game uniquely well suited for the incorporation of asynchronous activity: online fantasy sports. The primary aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a new asynchronous AVG-active fantasy sports-designed to promote physical activity. We conducted two pilot studies of an active fantasy sports game designed to promote physical activity. Participants wore a low cost triaxial accelerometer and participated in an online fantasy baseball (Study 1, n=9, 13-weeks) or fantasy basketball (Study 2, n=10, 17-weeks) league. Privileges within the game were made contingent on meeting weekly physical activity goals (eg, averaging 10,000 steps/day). Across the two studies, the feasibility of integrating physical activity contingent features and privileges into online fantasy sports games was supported. Participants found the active fantasy sports game enjoyable, as or more enjoyable than traditional (sedentary) online fantasy sports (Study 1: t8=4.43, Pgame was cited as a key motivating factor for increasing physical activity. Preliminary evidence supports potential for the active fantasy sports system as a sustainable and scalable intervention for promoting adult physical activity.

  13. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  14. Automatic evaluation stimuli – The most frequently used words to describe physical activity and the pleasantness of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lea Rebar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is partially regulated by non-conscious processes including automatic evaluations – the spontaneous affective reactions we have to physical activity that lead us to approach or avoid physical activity opportunities. A sound understanding of which words best represent the concepts of physical activity and pleasantness (as associated with physical activity is needed to improve the measurement of automatic evaluations and related constructs (e.g., automatic self-schemas, attentional biases. The first aim of this study was to establish population-level evidence of the most common word stimuli for physical activity and pleasantness. Given that response latency measures have been applied to assess automatic evaluations of physical activity and exercise, the second aim was to determine whether people use the same behavior and pleasant descriptors for physical activity and exercise. Australian adults (N = 1,318; 54.3% women; 48.9% aged 55 years or older were randomly assigned to one of two groups, through a computer-generated 1:1 ratio allocation, to be asked to list either five behaviors and pleasant descriptors of physical activity (n = 686 or of exercise (n = 632. The words were independently coded twice as to whether they were novel words or the same as another (i.e., same stem or same meaning. Intercoder reliability varied between moderate and strong (agreement = 50.1% to 97.8%; κ = 0.48 to 0.82. A list of the 20 most common behavior and pleasantness words were established based on how many people reported them, weighted by the ranking (1-5 people gave them. The words people described as physical activity were mostly the same as those people used to describe exercise. The most common behavior words were ‘walking,’ ‘running,’ ‘swimming,’ ‘bike riding,’ and ‘gardening’; and the most common pleasant descriptor words were ‘relaxing,’ ‘happiness,’ ‘enjoyment,’ ‘exhilarating,’ ‘exhausting,’ and

  15. Analysis of foreign physical activity recommendations and guidelines for schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:An adequate level of physical activity is an important part of children's lifestyle. The school environment plays a significant role in the area of interventions and strategies aiming to increase the level of physical activity in children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyse foreign recommendations leading to an increased level of physical activity in children and young people in Czech schools. Methods: A systematic search of studies published between 1988 and 2012 in the English language was completed in library databases Medline, Sport Discus, ProQuest, PsychInfo, ERIC, Wiley InterScience using the following keywords: physical activity, guidelines, recommendations, school and youth. The studies were then classified based on abstract and full-text analyses. Using a content analysis the expert team formulated the final recommendations to increase the level of physical activity for schools in the Czech Republic (CR. Results: Out of the total number of 91 identified foreign studies, 25 met the predetermined criteria and were used as a basis for formulating the recommendations. These foreign studies included 15 papers published in USA, two in Australia, two in Great Britain, two in Canada, one in the European Union, one in New Zealand and one international paper (an international consensus of experts from 34 countries. Based on the interpretation of the evidence, its justification and final consensus of the expert team, the basic areas for the recommendations to increase the level of physical activity in schools in the CR were identified. Conclusions: An analysis of foreign recommendations to increase the level of physical activity designed for schools and school facilities is one of the possible methods of formulating domestic recommendations. This recommendation could contribute to deeper understanding of the issue of the deteriorating lifestyle of school-aged children in the CR and reflects the efforts for improvement.

  16. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  17. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E

    2017-01-13

    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  18. Genomic biomarkers and clinical outcomes of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, Alberto

    2011-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies in humans provide evidence that moderate physical activity significantly decreases artery oxidative damage to nuclear DNA, DNA-adducts related to age and dyslipedemia, and mitochondrial DNA damage. Maintenance of adequate mitochondrial function is crucial for preventing lipid accumulation and peroxidation occurring in atherosclerosis. Studies performed on human muscle biopsies analyzing gene expression in living humans reveal that physically active subjects improve the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and of related microRNAs. The attenuation of oxidative damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA by physical activity resulted in beneficial effects due to polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases genes. Subjects bearing null GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms have poor life expectancy in the case of being sedentary, which was increased 2.6-fold in case they performed physical activity. These findings indicate that the preventive effect of physical activity undergoes interindividual variation affected by genetic polymorphisms. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  20. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] i...

  1. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  2. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  3. Physical activity after retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1984-08-15

    A prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial to assess the value of limited physical activity after scleral buckling surgery included 108 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment randomly divided into two groups. The first group was encouraged to resume full physical activity immediately after hospital discharge. In the second group, bending, lifting, straining at stool, driving, sexual activity, lawnmowing, gardening, athletics, and returning to work were strictly forbidden for six weeks. A thorough evaluation of patient compliance was performed after six weeks. Six months after surgery the rates of reoperation and final reattachment percentages of the active and inactive groups showed no statistically significant difference (P greater than .05). Final visual acuity, measured one year after surgery, also identified no statistically significant difference between the groups (P greater than .05).

  4. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  5. The activity of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levedev, L.

    1994-01-01

    Various information about Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) structure and scientific activity are discussed. The four main faculties of MEPhI: the faculty of theoretical and experimental physics, the faculty of technical physics, the faculty of automatics and electronics and the faculty of cybernetics are being written in this report. The information about the research reactors and the scientific research laboratories is also presented. The participation of MEPhI in the state scientific technological programs such as 'High energy physics', 'High-temperature superconductivity', 'Controlled thermonuclear synthesis and plasma processes'. 'Informatization', 'Security of population and industrial objects on account of hazard of natural and technogenic accidents', 'Ecology of Russia', 'Synchrotron radiation and its application', 'Future technologies, machines and productions' and others are presented too. (author)

  6. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity......, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or manifest cardiovascular diseases. Aim To provide recommendations of levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases. Methods In accord with the Preferred Reporting Items...... intensity 4 times per week. Overall, weekly exercise of 160 minutes for 6 months contributes to decreasing erectile problems in men with ED caused by physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases....

  7. Impact of trained champions of comprehensive school physical activity programs on school physical activity offerings, youth physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L; Castelli, Darla M; Pulling Kuhn, Ann C; Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Aija, Rahma; Calvert, Hannah G; Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    A quasi-experimental cluster-controlled design was used to test the impact of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) professional development on changes in school physical activity (PA) offerings, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors of 9-14 year-old children during school. Two groups of Louisiana elementary and middle school physical education teachers (N=129) attended a CSPAP summer workshop (95 in 2012=intervention, 34 in 2013=control) and were assessed on school PA offerings (teacher-reported; pre, mid, and post). During the 2012-2013 school year, intervention teachers received CSPAP support while implementing new school PA programs. MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed (accelerometry; baseline and post) on a sample of 231 intervention, 120 control students from 16 different schools. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that intervention teachers reported significantly more PA offerings during school (3.35 vs. 2.37) and that involve staff (1.43 vs. 0.90). Three-level, mixed model regressions (stratified by sex) indicated that students overall spent less time in MVPA and more time being sedentary during school, but the effects were significantly blunted among intervention students, especially boys. This study provides preliminary evidence for CSPAP professional development programs to influence school-level PA offerings and offset student-level declines in MVPA and increases in sedentary behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław H. Czyż; Abel L. Toriola; Wojciech Starościak; Marek Lewandowski; Yvonne Paul; Adewale L. Oyeyemi

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  9. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  10. Active Video Games in Schools and Effects on Physical Activity and Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    To assess the quality of evidence for the effects of school active video game (AVG) use on physical activity and health outcomes. Online databases (ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science) and gray literature were searched. Inclusion criteria were the use of AVGs in school settings as an intervention; assessment of at least 1 health or physical activity outcome; and comparison of outcomes with either a control group or comparison phase. Studies featuring AVGs within complex interventions were excluded. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-two reports were identified: 11 assessed physical activity outcomes only, 5 assessed motor skill outcomes only, and 6 assessed both physical activity and health outcomes. Nine out of 14 studies found greater physical activity in AVG sessions compared with controls; mostly assessed by objective measures in school time only. Motor skills were found to improve with AVGs vs controls in all studies but not compared with other motor skill interventions. Effects of AVGs on body composition were mixed. Study quality was low in 16 studies and moderate in the remaining 6, with insufficient detail given on blinding, participation rates, and confounding variables. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend AVGs as efficacious health interventions within schools. Higher quality AVG research utilizing randomized controlled trial designs, larger sample sizes, and validated activity measurements beyond the school day is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Chen, Ted T L; Magnussen, Costan G; To, Kien G

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions in improving physical activity. EBSCO research database (and all subdatabases). Articles were published from 2000 to 2010 in English, had appropriate designs, and measured employees' physical activity, energy consumption, and/or body mass index (BMI) as primary outcomes. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Data extracted included study design, study population, duration, intervention activities, outcomes, and results. Data were synthesized into one table. Results of each relevant outcome including p values were combined. Twelve (60%) of 20 selected interventions reported an improvement in physical activity level, steps, or BMI, and there was one slowed step reduction in the intervention group. Among these, 10 were less than 6 months in duration; 9 used pedometers; 6 applied Internet-based approaches; and 5 included activities targeting social and environmental levels. Seven of 8 interventions with pre-posttest and quasi-experimental controlled design showed improvement on at least one outcome. However, 7 of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not prove effective in any outcome. Interventions that had less rigorous research designs, used pedometers, applied Internet-based approaches, and included activities at social and environmental levels were more likely to report being effective than those without these characteristics.

  12. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  13. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  14. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level among undergraduate students in Terengganu, Malaysia using pedometer. N.A.M. Yusoff, S Ganeson, K.F. Ismail, H Juahir, M.R. Shahril, L.P. Lin, A Ahmad, S.W. Wafa, S Harith, R Rajikan ...

  15. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  16. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more physical activity to your daily routine. Making small changes in your lifestyle can make a big difference in your overall health. Here are some examples: • Take a walk for 10 or 15 minutes during your lunch break. • Take stairs instead of escalators and elevators. • ...

  17. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  18. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e + e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC

  19. A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L. E.; Ravelli, A. C.; Dongelmans, P. C.; Deurenberg, P.; van Staveren, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    A validated physical activity questionnaire for young adults was adapted and validated for use in free living, apparently healthy people, aged 63-80 yr. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on 29 participants was 0.89 as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Further

  20. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will assess physical activity and active transportation levels among ... the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale instrument (NEWS) for use in ... prix de la diplomatie scientifique de la part du gouvernement de l'Afrique du Sud. ... Dans le dernier numéro du bulletin de BRAS, lisez un message d'adieu de ...

  1. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School Children in Kenya, Nigeria, and Mozambique ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  2. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    , which leads to adaptive changes increasing the efficiency of its functioning and, in intermediate way, modifying and reducing the influence of other risk factors of cardiac vascular disease, mainly obesity dyslipidemy and hypertension. The subsequent scientific observations had an influence on the alterations of scientific associations recommendations concerning the preferred kind, intensity and effective dose of health-oriented physical activity. The current recommendations on preventive usefulness of physical activity, implemented by Polish Cardiological Association, have been based on a document containing the guidelines of European Cardiologic Association coming from 2003. All described evidences present in unambiguous way the undeniable benefits of active lifestyle. Its promoting as well as supporting in this area vast number of population, especially in case of disturbing epidemiological data, is becoming a duty of not only health service workers but also state administration employees responsible for planning public health expenditure.

  3. Neighborhood Environments and Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents in a Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Datar, Ashlesha

    2018-05-01

    Experimental and quasi-experimental evidence on the relationship between adolescents' physical activity and their physical activity environments is scarce. This study provides natural experimental evidence using within-person longitudinal variation in physical activity environments resulting from the compulsory re-assignment of military families to new installations, termed permanent changes of station. Adolescents in Army families (N=749) reported usual weekly minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity in 2013-2015. Objective measures of the physical activity environment, including the number of fitness and recreation facilities within 2 miles, were constructed for adolescents' neighborhoods using GIS methods. In 2017, individual-level fixed-effects models with and without a comparison group estimated the relationship between usual weekly minutes of physical activity and physical activity environments among permanent changes of station movers using within-person variation. Increases in opportunities for physical activity were significantly and positively associated with increases in total (p<0.05) and vigorous physical activity (p<0.05) among adolescents who experienced permanent changes of station moves. The relationships were statistically significant for permanent changes of station movers living off-installation (p<0.05) and hence subject to greater variation in physical activity environments and those with more time to adjust to their new environments (p<0.05). Significant findings persisted when broader measures of physical activity environments were utilized. The decline in physical activity and alarming obesity levels during adolescence suggest that this age may represent an important opportunity to address the obesity epidemic. This study provides evidence that increasing opportunities for physical activity may be an important pathway to improving their levels of physical activity and, consequently, obesity. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of

  4. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  6. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  7. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  8. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  9. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  10. Physical Activity Recognition from Smartphone Embedded Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudêncio, João; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of smartphones has motivated efforts to use the embedded sensors to detect various aspects of user context to transparently provide personalized and contextualized services to the user. One relevant piece of context is the physical activity of the smartphone user. In this paper, we...... propose a novel set of features for distinguishing five physical activities using only sensors embedded in the smartphone. Specifically, we introduce features that are normalized using the orientation sensor such that horizontal and vertical movements are explicitly computed. We evaluate a neural network...... classifier in experiments in the wild with multiple users and hardware, we achieve accuracies above 90% for a single user and phone, and above 65% for multiple users, which is higher that similar works on the same set of activities, demonstrating the potential of our approach....

  11. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  13. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  14. Walkability and physical activity: findings from Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Reis, Rodrigo; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Ricardo Rech, Cassiano; Kerr, Jacqueline; Curi Hallal, Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18-65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥ 150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥ 150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1-10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.06, 2.32, p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with physical activity. People living in high

  15. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Recommendations for Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiangli; Zhang, Tao; Keller, Jean; Chen, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) aim to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles among school-age children and adolescents. Physical educators are highly qualified individuals taking on the role of certified physical activity leaders. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs should consider preparing…

  17. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  18. Does Daylight Savings Time encourage physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-07-01

    Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active. Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18-64 who participated in the 2003-2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest. While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

  19. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  20. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  1. ASSESMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...

  2. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  3. Aspects of students' self-evaluation of their physical condition and motivation for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Avižonienė, Genovaitė; Gylienė, Rasa

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to establish how the students evaluate their physical condition and get involved into physical activity; make a research of physical status and physical capacity of the students; establish how adequate is a subjective self evaluation of physical condition and in what way it influences motivation for physical training and physical activity. The survey has showed that the results of majority of the students' physical condition are low, though 86,2% of the stud...

  4. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p physical activity (p barriers (p physical activity (p = .91).

  5. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  6. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  7. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  8. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  9. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    had heart disease when they began running, and some denied the warning symptoms . Two Seattle studies also show that "vigorous exercise protects...MBA degree from Samford University completed in 1981. He has a wife, Celia , and a daughter Stephanie, age 10. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface...occupational setting. The literature also strongly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of heart disease and illness and injury. These

  11. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  12. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  13. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-concept and physical activity in athletes with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Whalen, Laurel

    2012-07-01

    Few researchers have examined multi-dimensional physical self-concept among athletes with disabilities despite extensive evidence indicating the value of such an approach. To describe multidimensional self-concept and to predict both physical activity (PA) and self-esteem using various dimensions of physical self-concept (e.g., endurance, strength). The study was a one-time cross-sectional design involving self-report questionnaires. Participants (n = 50) were adolescents and adult athletes with physical disabilities (M age = 26.5, SD = 10.1) who completed the short version of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S). Athletes reported neutral to positive perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (M's ranging from 3.3 to 5.9 of 6). Using multiple regression analyses, we were able account for 29 and 47 percent of the variance in global self-concept and PA, respectively. Global physical self-concept and strength self-concept were important in predicting global self-concept and PA, respectively. These findings support the promotion of weight training programs specifically and PA programs more generally for people with disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  17. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  18. Physical activity school intervention: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A

    2018-06-01

    School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.

  19. Physical activity and its effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M

    2006-05-01

    The reproductive system is tightly coupled with energy balance, and thereby changes in the status of energy balance through changes in physical activity can impact on the reproductive system. In light of the new physical activity for health recommendations, it is therefore important to understand the inherent effects, both positive and negative, of physical activity on the reproductive system. At both extremes of the energy spectrum, disorders of chronic energy excess and energy deficiency are characterized by a wide range of reproductive disorders, including menstrual irregularity, anovulation, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and infertility in women, and erectile dysfunction and altered spermatogenesis in men. Although laboratory research indicates that individuals may be able to prevent or reverse reproductive disruptions, either by increasing energy expenditure in cases of energy excess or by dietary reform in cases of energy deficits, there is an acute need for applied research to confirm this idea and to identify mechanisms by which the availability of energy per se regulates reproductive function in humans.

  20. Physical Activity Benefits and Needs in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlo, Pamela; Klein, Penelope J.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity is vital for adult individuals with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this review was to assess critically the evidence on effectiveness of physical activity interventions for adults with intellectual disability. An electronic database search was conducted. Research was then assessed for methodological rigor, and…