WorldWideScience

Sample records for photovoltaic energy converter

  1. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  2. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  3. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  4. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  5. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  6. Mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for iodine laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gilbert H.; Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Space-based laser power systems will require converters to change laser radiation into electricity. Vertical junction photovoltaic converters are promising devices for this use. A promising laser for the laser power station is the t-C4F9I laser which emits radiation at a wavelength of 1.315 microns. This paper describes the results of mathematical modeling of a photovoltaic-laser energy converter for use with this laser. The material for this photovoltaic converter is Ga(53)In(47)As which has a bandgap energy of 0.94 eV, slightly below the energy of the laser photons (0.943 eV). Results of a study optimizing the converter parameters are presented. Calculated efficiency for a 1000 vertical junction converter is 42.5 percent at a power density of 1 x 10 to the 3d power w/sq cm.

  7. Three port converters used as interface in photovoltaic energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarab Al-Chlaihawi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to derive and study a full-bridge three-port converter. Based on the standard design of full-bridge converter, we have modeled and derived a three port converter. The three port converter can be used in renewable energy scenarios, such as solar cells or wind turbines connected to the input port. The input can be taken from two-ports simultaneously or from one port at a time. In order to balance the power mismatch between the input port and load port, the batteries are attached to the third port, to ensure there are no discrepancies in the power generated at the input and power demand at the load. In order to ensure isolation and reduced voltage stress on the switches, a high frequency transformer is also used in the design. The overall design contains four switches, and four diodes. MOSFETs are the strongest candidate for the switches owing to their high switching speed, lower losses and high resistance to higher voltage. Moreover, a buck-boost structure is modeled in order to ensure that it can work for a wide variety of different applications by adjusting the duty cycle of the switches properly. To minimize the switching losses in the converter, Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS is also achievable in the modeled system.

  8. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W [Golden, CO

    2011-11-29

    A monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem solar photovoltaic converter has at least one, and preferably at least two, subcells grown lattice-matched on a substrate with a bandgap in medium to high energy portions of the solar spectrum and at least one subcell grown lattice-mismatched to the substrate with a bandgap in the low energy portion of the solar spectrum, for example, about 1 eV.

  9. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  10. Three-dimensional models of conventional and vertical junction laser-photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Gilbert H.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of both conventional planar junction and vertical junction photovoltaic energy converters have been constructed. The models are a set of linear partial differential equations and take into account many photoconverter design parameters. The model is applied to Si photoconverters; however, the model may be used with other semiconductors. When used with a Nd laser, the conversion efficiency of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is 47 percent, whereas the efficiency for the conventional planar Si photoconverter is only 17 percent. A parametric study of the Si vertical junction photoconverter is then done in order to describe the optimum converter for use with the 1.06-micron Nd laser. The efficiency of this optimized vertical junction converter is 44 percent at 1 kW/sq cm.

  11. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  12. Monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, ultra-thin, strain-counterbalanced, photovoltaic energy converters with optimal subcell bandgaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W [Golden, CO; Mascarenhas, Angelo [Lakewood, CO

    2012-05-08

    Modeling a monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, solar photovoltaic converter or thermophotovoltaic converter by constraining the bandgap value for the bottom subcell to no less than a particular value produces an optimum combination of subcell bandgaps that provide theoretical energy conversion efficiencies nearly as good as unconstrained maximum theoretical conversion efficiency models, but which are more conducive to actual fabrication to achieve such conversion efficiencies than unconstrained model optimum bandgap combinations. Achieving such constrained or unconstrained optimum bandgap combinations includes growth of a graded layer transition from larger lattice constant on the parent substrate to a smaller lattice constant to accommodate higher bandgap upper subcells and at least one graded layer that transitions back to a larger lattice constant to accommodate lower bandgap lower subcells and to counter-strain the epistructure to mitigate epistructure bowing.

  13. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  14. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic Solar cell. ... Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of ... model of the solar panel which could represent the real systems.

  16. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  18. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...

  19. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  20. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  1. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  2. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  3. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...

  4. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  5. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  6. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  7. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  8. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  9. Thermal Change for Photovoltaic Panels and Energy Effects

    OpenAIRE

    İmal, Nazım; Hasar, Şahabettin; Çınar, Harun; Şener, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic panels (solar cells), they receive photon energy from sunlight, convert them to electrical energy by the semiconductor structural features. Photovoltaic panels produce a voltage, depending on the change of functional sunlight exposure. Produced voltage and determining of provided electrical power, must be dealt with the physical parameters that uses the concepts of light and temperature. In this study, usage of monocrystalline and polycrystalline structured photovoltaic panels el...

  10. Photovoltaic Power Control Using MPPT and Boost Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Attou, A.; Massoum, A.; Saidi, M.

    2015-01-01

    —The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the renewable energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the input source. In this paper, a new maximum po...

  11. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  12. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  13. ENEA activities on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.; Messana, C.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion appears to be a promising technology for producing electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells directly convert sun radiation into electricity, without needing moving parts or any kind of fuel. In a long term perspective, PV conversion is expected to become an integrative energy source; at present, high costs are the main limiting factor of the diffusion of PV technology. Costs can be reduced through the joint effect of technological innovation and mass production: therefore, the Italian strategy consists in promoting the gradual enlargement of production volumes and, at the same time, the introduction of less expensive technologies and processes, as soon as they become available. The main responsibility for PV strategies and activities is assigned to ENEA, the Italian National Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources. The ENEA five year plan (1985-1989) had allocated about 100 M$ in the PV sector and, as a result, today ENEA is the main national organization promoting PV energy development. ENEA programs include both in house research and external activities. The latter are carried out by universities and industrial firms and concern the whole PV production process from raw materials to complete systems. In Italy there are three main industrial enterprises which produce PV modules an systems: Italsolar (formerly Pragma, ENI group), Ansaldo (IRI group) and Helios Technology, a private firm. Their total annual production capacity amounts to about 2 MW per shift, and is expected to increase in the near future. In 1986, the whole production has been about 0.7 MW: a substantial share of this production has been marketed abroad, mostly as complete systems. (author). 6 tabs

  14. Photovoltaic energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The european photovoltaic market once again reached the heights in 2006, thanks to the dynamism of the German market. White paper objectives have thus been fulfilled four years ahead of schedule. The european photovoltaic sector remains however very heterogeneous with both an ultra-dominant German market (estimated at 1150 MWp in 2006) and other countries of the European Union that vary from a few kWP to a few dozen MWp. This analysis provides statistical data on the market, the capacity installed during 2005 and 2006, the photovoltaic parks and the evolution of the photovoltaic cell production. (A.L.B.)

  15. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  16. Modeling and sizing the coil in boost converters dedicated to photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Lotfi; Fares, Mohammed Amine; Zaraket, Jean; Bachir, Ghalem; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    The coil is a very important element in a wide range of power electrical systems as such as those used in converter or inverter dedicated to extract and to adapt the value and the shape of the intensity and the voltage delivered by renewable energy sources. Thus, knowing its behavior in converters is paramount to obtain a maximum conversion efficiency and reliability. In this context, this paper presents a global study of a DC/DC boost converter dedicated to photovoltaic sources based on the modeling of the behavior of the coil or the inductance as a function of the switching frequency.

  17. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  18. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  19. Photovoltaic energy barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    The european market showed all of its strength and soundness in 2005. The 2005 installed cells growth could have been even greater if the market had not been continually curbed by a lack of raw materials. Germany remained the leading photovoltaic market in the world in 2005, positioned far ahead of Japan and the USA. This unabashed success inspired both Spain and Italy, which set up conditions in order to rapidly develop their photovoltaic sectors. (A.L.B.)

  20. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  1. Fundamentals of Grid Connected Photo-Voltaic Power Electronic Converter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Evju, Svein Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis the basic theory of grid connected photo-voltaic systems is explained, giving an introduction to the different aspects of system design. Starting with a look at the standards concerning grid connection of distributed resources, and working its way through how the photo-voltaic cells work, to how photo-voltaic modules with electrical converters can be arranged. Some different converter topologies suitable for use with photo-voltaics are found, and based on these topologie...

  2. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  3. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  4. Designing of new structure PID controller of boost converter for solar photovoltaic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabrina, Hanifati Nur; Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Sabirin, Chip Rinaldi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy as the source on distributed generation system is increasing. It aims to reduce reliance and power losses from utility grid and improve power stability in near loads. One example of renewable energy technology that have been highly proven on the market is solar photovoltaic (PV). This technology converts photon from sunlight into electricity. However, the fluctuation of solar radiation that often occurs become the main problem for this system. Due to this condition, the power conversion is needed to convert the change frequently in photovoltaic panel into a stable voltage to the system. Developing control of boost converter has important role to keep ability of system stabilization. A conventional PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control is mostly used to achieve this goal. In this research, a design of new structure PID controller of boost converter is offered to better optimize system stability comparing to the conventional PID. Parameters obtained from this PID structure have been successfully yield a stable boost converter output at 200 V with 10% overshoot, 1.5 seconds of settling time, and 1.5% of steady-state error.

  5. Comparison of Interleaved Boost Converter Configurations for Solar Photovoltaic System Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramaprabha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaic (SPV panels that convert light energy into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect have nonlinear internal resistance. Hence, with the variation in the intensity of light falling on the panel, the internal resistance varies. For effective utilization of the SPV panel, it is necessary to extract the maximum power from it. For maximum power extraction from SPV panels, DC-DC converter interface is used. The problem in using high frequency converter interface is the resultant high frequency ripple interaction with the SPV system. In this work, an interleaved boost converter (IBC is considered to reduce the ripple. Our finding is that IBC fed by a SPV panel reduces this ripple to a greater extent. IBC also has a faster transient response as compared to conventional boost converters with reduced ripple contents. The main aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the performance of IBC with inductors that are coupled in different ways. The results of the simulation were extrapolated with the help of MATLAB software and verified through experimentation.

  6. Photovoltaic energy in power market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, D.T.; Frunt, J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) penetration in the grid connected power system has been growing. Currently, PV electricity is usually directly sold back to the energy supplier at a fixed price and subsidy. However, subsidies should always be a temporary policy, and will eventually be terminated. A question is

  7. Materials for thermionic energy converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, L.R.; Hermans, J.M.; Adriaansen, J.K.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Vincenzini, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and construction of a combustion heated Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC). Main components of this TEC are: 1. A ''Hot Shell'' protecting the TEC from the combustion environment 2. A ''Ceramic Seal'' electrically insulating the emitter from the collector 3. A

  8. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  9. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  10. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  11. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow......Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  12. Multiple low frequency dual reference PWM control of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechouma Rabiaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, power demand of industrial applications has increased significantly reaching some megawatts. The use of multilevel converters for applications of medium and high powers is proposed as a solution to drawback semiconductor technology. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. This paper presents the simulation study in Matlab/Simulink of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase Neutral Point Clamped (NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter for constant and variable solar radiation.

  13. Boost converter with combined control loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic battery charge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Knott, Arnold; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    frequency avoids perturbations in the load being propagated to the photovoltaic panel and thus deviating the operating point. Linearization of the photovoltaic panel and converter state-space modeling is performed. In order to achieve stable operation under all operating conditions, the photovoltaic panel......The converter control scheme plays an important role in the performance of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms. In this paper, an input voltage control with double loop for a stand-alone photovoltaic system is designed and tested. The inner current control loop with high crossover...

  14. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  15. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  16. Device for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Device (10) for converting electromagnetic radiation energy into electrical energy, comprising at least a photovoltaic element (11) with a radiation-sensitive surface, wherein a covering layer (12) of a material comprising a silicon compound, to which a rare earth element has been added, is present

  17. Battery charging characteristics in small scaled photovoltaic system using resonant DC-DC converter with electric isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, H.; Kimura, G.; Shioya, M.

    1990-01-01

    The solar energy has been drawing attention of the whole world as a clean and infinite energy, since the globe resource, the globe ecology and so on came into question. The wide applications of the solar energy are being expected in a range from electric power plants to household systems. But the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of the solar radiation, a temperature of the solar cells and so on, so the various useful forms of the solar energy are being proposed for a purpose of stable power supply. a system described in this paper is a small scaled photovoltaic system with storage batteries. This paper describes the theoretical analyses of the photovoltaic system using a resonant DC-DC converter in order to clarify a desirable circuit condition, besides the experimental results of the battery charging characteristics are presented

  18. Press document. Photovoltaic energy: boosting the evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    The french potential in the photovoltaic energy is considerable but not very exploited. In this context the CEA, by its function of applied research institute in the domain of the low carbon energies can be a major actor of the sector development. This document presents the research programs in the photovoltaic domain, developed at the CEA, especially on the silicon performance, the photovoltaic solar cells and their integration in the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  19. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  20. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  1. Analysis and integration of multilevel inverter configuration with boost converters in a photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, N.; Palanisamy, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of MLI with boost converters in photovoltaic system including MPPT. • Results are taken for different irradiations and different temperature condition. • Proposed system is tested with sudden step changes from standard test condition. • Analysis of switching losses and conduction loss is discussed. • Theoretical calculation of % THD using asymptotic formula is discussed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a single phase multilevel inverter configuration that conjoins three series connected full bridge inverter and a single half bridge inverter for renewable energy application especially photo-voltaic system. This configuration of multilevel inverter reduces the value of total harmonic distortion. The half bridge inverter utilized in the proposed configuration increases the output voltage level to nearly twice the output voltage level of a conventional cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter. This higher output voltage level is generated with lesser number of power semiconductor switches compared to conventional configuration, thus reducing the total harmonic distortion and switching losses. The effectiveness of the proposed configuration is illustrated by replacing the isolated DC sources in multilevel inverter with individual photo-voltaic panels using separate perturb and observer based maximum power point tracking and boost converters. The verification of the proposed system is demonstrated successfully using MATLAB/Simulink based simulation with different irradiation and temperature conditions. Also, the transient operation of the system is verified with results depicted using step change in standard test condition. In the proposed system, total harmonic distortion of the output voltage is 9.85% without using passive filters and 3.91% with filter inductance. Theoretical calculation of the power losses and total harmonic distortion with mathematical equations are discussed. Selective experimental results are presented to prove the

  2. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  3. Design and implementation of DSP based solar converter for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliskan, Eser [TUBITAK - MRC, Kocaeli (Turkey). Energy Inst.; Ustun, Ozgur [Istanbul Technical Univ., Maslak (Turkey). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2012-07-01

    This study discusses the design and implementation of a DSP controlled converter for photovoltaic system that can track the maximum power point, charge and discharge the battery. In the designed system, the boost converter operates the photovoltaic panels at the maximum power point and the bi-directional battery charger charges and discharges the battery bank as demanded. All required switching and control signals for these converters provided by the high performance C2000 series DSP produced by the Texas Instruments. The current, voltage and temperature data are collected by sensors from power stages by using DSP algorithms and the control signals are generated by the embedded software. The load bus is kept at constant voltage by the bi-directional battery charger. The boost converter is controlled by MPPT algorithms and the current sharing or battery charge modes are implemented depending on the radiation value. The designed photovoltaic system performance is verified by simulation and some experiments. (orig.)

  4. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  5. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  6. Controller for a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  7. Quasi-Z-Source Half-Bridge DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vinnikov, D; Chub, A; Husev, O; Zaķis, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel quasi-Z-source halfbridge galvanically isolated DC-DC converter intended for the photovoltaic applications. The topology could be envisioned as an alternative to the boost half-bridge DC-DC converter but the benefit of its symmetric structure reduces the threat of transformer saturation due to the dc flux. The proposed converter features the continuous input current and could be used either with one or two input voltage sources.

  8. Logistical Impact Study of Photovoltaic Power Converter Technology to the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiteker, James

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project was to analyze the logistical and fiscal impact of replacing selected disposable batteries with rechargeable batteries and photovoltaic power converter chargers within...

  9. Conference: photovoltaic energy - local authorities - Citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, Daniel; Witte, Sonja; Simonet, Luc; Waldmann, Lars; Fouquet, Doerte; Dupassieux, Henri; Longo, Fabio; Brunel, Arnaud; Kruppert, Andreas; Vachette, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the role of photovoltaic energy, local authorities and Citizens as pillars of the energy transition. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 100 participants exchanged views on the role of local authorities and Citizens in the implementation of the energy transition. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Solar photovoltaics, local communities and citizens - Cornerstones of the energy revolution. Franco-German viewpoints (Daniel Belon); 2 - Structure and management of the distribution system operators in Germany. efficient, innovative and reliable: Local public enterprises in Germany (Sonja Witte); 3 - Photovoltaic energy: technical challenges for power grids - A distribution network operator's (DNO) point-of-view (Luc Simonet); 4 - The sun and the grid - challenges of the energy transition (Lars Waldmann); 5 - The role of local public authorities in the networks management: legal situation in France, Germany and in the EU (Doerte Fouquet); 6 - Towards energy transition: challenges for renewable energies - Urban solar planning tools (Henri Dupassieux); 7 - The local energy supply as a municipal task - solar land-use planning in practice in Germany (Fabio Longo); 8 - Supporting and facilitating the financing of photovoltaic projects at a community level (Arnaud Brunel); 9 - Photovoltaics in the municipality VG Arzfeld (Andreas Kruppert); 10 - For the energy revolution to be a success: Invest into renewable energy. Local, controllable and renewable 'shared energy' that is grassroots (Philippe Vachette)

  10. Theoretical assessment of the maximum power point tracking efficiency of photovoltaic facilities with different converter topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique, J.M.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva (Spain); Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, II, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    The operating point of a photovoltaic generator that is connected to a load is determined by the intersection point of its characteristic curves. In general, this point is not the same as the generator's maximum power point. This difference means losses in the system performance. DC/DC converters together with maximum power point tracking systems (MPPT) are used to avoid these losses. Different algorithms have been proposed for maximum power point tracking. Nevertheless, the choice of the configuration of the right converter has not been studied so widely, although this choice, as demonstrated in this work, has an important influence in the optimum performance of the photovoltaic system. In this article, we conduct a study of the three basic topologies of DC/DC converters with resistive load connected to photovoltaic modules. This article demonstrates that there is a limitation in the system's performance according to the type of converter used. Two fundamental conclusions are derived from this study: (1) the buck-boost DC/DC converter topology is the only one which allows the follow-up of the PV module maximum power point regardless of temperature, irradiance and connected load and (2) the connection of a buck-boost DC/DC converter in a photovoltaic facility to the panel output could be a good practice to improve performance. (author)

  11. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  12. DC-DC Converter Topology Assessment for Large Scale Distributed Photovoltaic Plant Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan A; Steigerwald, Robert L; Jiang, Yan; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2011-07-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) plant architectures are emerging as a replacement for the classical central inverter based systems. However, power converters of smaller ratings may have a negative impact on system efficiency, reliability and cost. Therefore, it is necessary to design converters with very high efficiency and simpler topologies in order not to offset the benefits gained by using distributed PV systems. In this paper an evaluation of the selection criteria for dc-dc converters for distributed PV systems is performed; this evaluation includes efficiency, simplicity of design, reliability and cost. Based on this evaluation, recommendations can be made as to which class of converters is best fit for this application.

  13. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France

  14. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic...... elements suppress the power transfer ratio, converter needs to maximize the PV energy utilization. This investigation study focused to include additional parasitic elements (voltage-lift technique) to a standard DC-DC buck converter and to overcome all the above drawbacks to maximize the PV power...

  15. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  16. A high performance DC-DC converter with intelligent control for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    M. Niroomand; M. Sherkat; M. Soheili

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a SEPIC (Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter) with high efficiency has been proposed for photovoltaic applications. In the proposed converter, an auxiliary circuit without any additional switches has been used. The switch works under ZCS and ZVS conditions. No auxiliary switch was added to the circuit, thus any additional drive circuit is not needed. The proposed control system based on fuzzy logic method, has shown the smart accurate and faster tracking of the maximum po...

  17. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  18. Magnetically integrated high step-up resonant DC-DC converter for distributed photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinnikov, Dmitri; Chub, Andrii; Liivik, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    In this paper magnetically integrated resonant single-switch quasi-Z-source DC-DC converter is evaluated as a candidate topology for the low-cost photovoltaic microconverter. The derivation of the topology and its basic operation principle are explained. Generalized design guidelines...

  19. State estimation for wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelli, Giorgio; Coe, Ryan Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    This report gives a brief discussion and examples on the topic of state estimation for wave energy converters (WECs). These methods are intended for use to enable real-time closed loop control of WECs.

  20. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahra Mirbagheri Golroodbari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade resilience in a PV module consisting of 60 silicon solar cells, which compensates the current drops caused by partial shading. The architecture consists of groups of series-connected solar cells in parallel to a DC-DC buck converter. The number of cell groups is optimized with respect to cell and converter specifications using a least-squares support vector machine method. A generic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the smart architecture under different shading patterns, using high time resolution irradiance data. In this research the shading patterns are a combination of random and pole shadows. To investigate the shade resilience, results for the smart architecture are compared with an ideal module, and also ordinary series and parallel connected architectures. Although the annual yield for the smart architecture is 79.5% of the yield of an ideal module, we show that the smart architecture outperforms a standard series connected module by 47%, and a parallel architecture by 13.4%.

  1. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  2. High-Efficiency Photovoltaic System Using Partially-Connected DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Kukita, Akio; Tanaka, Koji

    Power conversion electronics for photovoltaic (PV) systems are desired to operate as efficiently as possible to exploit the power generated by PV modules. This paper proposes a novel PV system in which a dc-dc converter is partially connected to series-connected PV modules. The proposed system achieves high power-conversion efficiency by reducing the passing power and input/output voltages of the converter. The theoretical operating principle was experimentally validated. Resultant efficiency performances of the proposed and conventional systems demonstrated that the proposed system was more efficient in terms of power conversion though the identical converter was used for the both systems.

  3. Investigation on Fuzzy Logic Based Centralized Control in Four-Port SEPIC/ZETA Bidirectional Converter for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENMATHI, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-port DC-DC converter topology is proposed to interface renewable energy sources and the load along with the energy storage device. The proposed four-port SEPIC/ZETA bidirectional converter (FP-SEPIC/ZETA BDC converter comprises an isolated output port with two unidirectional and one bidirectional input ports. This converter topology is obtained by the fusion of SEPIC/ZETA BDC and full-bridge converter. This converter topology ensures the non-reversal of output voltage hence it is preferred mostly for battery charging applications. In this work, photovoltaic (PV source is considered and the power balance in the system is achieved by means of distributed maximum power point tracking (DMPPT in the PV ports. The centralized controller is implemented using fuzzy logic controller (FLC and the performance is compared with conventional proportional integral (PI controller. The results offer useful information to obtain the desired output under line and load regulations. Experimental results are also provided to validate the simulation results.

  4. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  5. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  6. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  7. Photovoltaics: Energy for the New Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surek, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a semiconductor-based technology that directly converts sunlight to electricity. The stimulus for terrestrial PV started more than 25 years ago in response to the oil crises of the 1970s, which resulted in major government programs in the United States, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. Ongoing concerns with the global environment, as well as the worldwide efforts to seek alternate, indigenous sources of energy, continue to drive the investment in PV research and deployment. Today, the manufacture, sale, and use of PV has become a billion-dollar industry worldwide, with nearly 200 megawatts (MW) of PV modules shipped in 1999. The twenty five years of research and development led to the discovery of new PV materials, devices, and fabrication approaches; continuing improvements in the efficiency and reliability of solar cells and modules; and lower PV module and system costs. This talk reviews the rapid progress that has occurred in PV technology from the laboratory to the marketplace, including reviews of the leading technology options, status and issues, and key industry players. New processes for fabricating PV materials and devices, and innovative PV approaches with low-cost potential are elements of an ongoing research program aimed at future advancements in PV cost and performance While major market opportunities continue to exist in the developing countries, where sizable populations are without any electricity, today's manufacturing expansions are fueled by market initiatives for grid-connected PV in residential and commercial buildings. The combinations of increased production capacities, with the attendant cost reductions as a result of economies of scale, are expected to lead to sustainable markets. A key to achieving the ultimate potential of PV is to continue to increase the sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies and translate the laboratory successes to cost-competitive products. Building a robust technology base is essential

  8. Delta-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converters for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yifan; Konstantinou, Georgios; Townsend, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter is becoming a promising candidate for use in next generation large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants. However, solar power generation in the three converter phase-legs can be significantly unbalanced, especially in a large geographically-dispersed plant....... The power imbalance between the three phases defines a limit for the injection of balanced three-phase currents to the grid. This paper quantifies the performance of, and experimentally confirms, the recently proposed delta-connected CHB converter for PV applications as an alternative configuration...... for large-scale PV power plants. The required voltage and current overrating for the converter is analytically developed and compared against the star-connected counterpart. It is shown that the delta-connected CHB converter extends the balancing capabilities of the star-connected CHB and can accommodate...

  9. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  10. Optimal control of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, R.W.M.; Leth, J.; Andersen, P; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal control strategy for a wave energy converter (WEC) with constraints on the control torque is investigated. The goal is to optimize the total energy delivered to the electricity grid. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, the solution is found to be singular-bang. Using higher order

  11. A New Sliding Mode Controller for DC/DC Converters in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DC/DC converters are widely used in many industrial and electrical systems. As DC/DC converters are nonlinear and time-variant systems, the application of linear control techniques for the control of these converters is not suitable. In this paper, a new sliding mode controller is proposed as the indirect control method and compared to a simple direct control method in order to control a buck converter in photovoltaic applications. The solar arrays are dependent power sources with nonlinear voltage-current characteristics under different environmental conditions (insolation and temperature. From this point of view, the DC/DC converter is particularly suitable for the application of the sliding mode control in photovoltaic application, because of its controllable states. Simulations are performed in Matlab/Simulink software. The simulation results are presented for a step change in reference voltage and input voltage as well as step load variations. The simulations results of proposed method are compared with the conventional PID controller. The results show the good performance of the proposed sliding mode controller. The proposed method can be used for the other DC/DC converter.

  12. Design and Experimentation of a Control System Implemented on Raspberry Pi 3 Board for Photovoltaic Systems Using SEPIC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutouba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage regulation system is proposed for photovoltaic energy sources (PV, using Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter as a DC-DC converter to feed loads working with specific input voltage. The choose of SEPIC converter is due to the output voltage ripple of developed-type converters are usually small and can be lower than 2%, also it considered as a buck and boost converter and thereafter loads with lower or higher voltage could be powered. Matlab Simulink is used as environment to develop control strategies to guaranties a stable voltage at the loads terminals. Two algorithms are used to fulfill this role: A Conventional PID and PI-Fuzzy logic controller to generate the PWM signal for the SEPIC converter. Hence, to validate the work some real-time simulations are treated by implemented the control strategies on a low-cost control board: The Raspberry Pi 3 in order to manage the operation of system and collecting the simulation data. Also, and for verification purposes, several simulations were treated to verify the good behavior of the proposed system.

  13. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  14. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  15. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  16. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs

  17. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Haitao Yu; Zhenchuan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC) must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC) system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG) on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating pr...

  18. Photovoltaic optimizer boost converters: Temperature influence and electro-thermal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graditi, G.; Adinolfi, G.; Tina, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of temperature on DC–DC converter devices properties is considered. • An electro-thermal design method for PV power optimizer converters is proposed. • The electro-thermal design method proposed is applied to DR boost and SR boost. • Efficiency results of the designed SR converter and DR converters are presented. - Abstract: Objective: Photovoltaic (PV) systems can operate in presence of not uniform working conditions caused by continuously changing temperature and irradiance values and mismatching and shadowing phenomena. The more the PV system works in these conditions, the more its energy performances are negatively affected. Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) converters are now increasingly used to overcome this problem and to improve PV applications efficiency. A DMPPT system consists in a DC–DC converters equipped with a suitable controller dedicated to the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of a single PV module. It is arranged either inside the junction-box or in a separate box close to the PV generator. Many power optimizers are now commercially available. In spite of different adopted DC–DC converter topologies, the shared interests of DMPPT systems designers are the high efficiency and reliability values. It is worth noting that to obtain so high performances converters, electronic components have to be carefully selected between the whole commercial availability and appropriately matched together. In this scenario, an electro-thermal design methodology is proposed and a reliability study by means of the Military Handbook 217F is carried out. Method: The developed DMPPT converters design method is constituted by many steps. In fact, beginning from installation site, PV generators and load data, this process selects power optimizers commercially available devices and it verifies their electro-thermal behavior to the aim to identify a set of suitable components for DMPPT applications. Repeating this

  19. The photovoltaic energy in Japan; Energie photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgel, O

    2005-07-15

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  20. Performance of Series Connected GaAs Photovoltaic Converters under Multimode Optical Fiber Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many military and industrial applications, GaAs photovoltaic (PV converters are connected in series in order to generate the required voltage compatible with most common electronics. Multimode optical fibers are usually used to carry high-intensity laser and illuminate the series connected GaAs PV converters in real time. However, multimode optical fiber illumination has a speckled intensity pattern. The series connected PV array is extremely sensitive to nonuniform illumination; its performance is limited severely by the converter that is illuminated the least. This paper quantifies the effects of multimode optical fiber illumination on the performance of series connected GaAs PV converters, analyzes the loss mechanisms due to speckles, and discusses the maximum illumination efficiency. In order to describe the illumination dependent behavior detailedly, modeling of the series connected PV array is accomplished based on the equivalent circuit for PV cells. Finally, a series of experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theory analysis.

  1. A new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in application of photovoltaic power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in the applications of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. A new circuit topology of single phase full bridge power inverter with additional DC/DC boost stage is proposed. The proposed topology overcomes two commonly existing......, and then converts the DC into AC to supply the load. A special modulation technique is proposed to eliminate the leakage current which is commonly presents in PV transformerless power generation, helps to increase the system efficiency and output performance....

  2. Three-phase electronic power converter for photovoltaic system connected to power line; Conversor eletronico de potencia trifasico para sistema fotovoltaico conectado a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalva, Marcelo Gradella

    2010-10-15

    This work is a contribution to the study of power converters for photovoltaic distributed generation systems. The main objective is to present the development and results of a three phase power converter for a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. The work presents experimental results and theoretical studies on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic devices, regulation of the photovoltaic voltage, maximum power point tracking, and the modeling and control of a two-stage grid-connected power converter. (author)

  3. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  4. Development of the Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    The development of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD) is presented. The WD is based on the overtopping principle. Initially a description of the WD is given. Then the development over time in terms of the various research and development projects working with the concept is described. Thi...

  5. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  6. Conference on photovoltaic energy network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Masson, Gaetan; Henzelmann, Orsten; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Guillemoles, Jean-Francois; Auffret, Jean-Marc; Berger, Arnaud; Binder, Jann; Martin, David; Beck, Bernhard; Mahuet, Audrey; Mueller, Thorsten; Contamin, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the present day and future challenges of the development, support and market integration of photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on support models to renewable energy sources, research results on self-consumption and business models for the renewable energies sector. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's PV support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Grid parity: first step towards PV competitiveness (Gaetan Masson); 3 - How competitive is solar power? Requirements and impact on the European industry (Orsten Henzelmann); 4 - Key elements of the National Institute of Solar energy - INeS (Jean-Pierre Joly); 5 - Research priorities according to the Paris Institute of Photovoltaics (Jean-Francois Guillemoles); 6 - Bosch Solar energy (Jean-Marc Auffret); 7 - Financing and insuring photovoltaics - History and future prospects (Arnaud Berger); 8 - Decentralized Photovoltaics: Autonomy, Self-Consumption and Reduction of Grid Loading through electrical and Thermal Storage (Jann Binder); 9 - Off Grid systems, mini grid and grid parity, field feedback and perspectives. From the producer-consumer to the smart grid: experience feedback of PV management models (David Martin); 10 - Benefits for solar power plants in respect of grid stabilization (Bernhard Beck); 11 - Renewable energies integration to electricity market: impacts and challenges (Audrey Mahuet); 12 - Promotion of PV in Germany: Feed-in tariffs, self-consumption and direct selling - Review and forecast (Thorsten Mueller); 13 - How to support renewable electricity in France? (Raphael Contamin)

  7. Soft switching buck-boost converter for photovoltaic power generation; Taiyoko hatsuden no tame no soft switching shokoatsu converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. [Kyungnam University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-27

    A soft switching method with small switching loss was proposed for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a DC-DC boost converter which converted a DC current generated by solar cells to a variable DC current. Existing current converters are supplemented by using a snubber circuit around the switch so as to protect the switch by a hard switching action. However, with an increase of the output current, snubber loss is increased, reducing the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, the partial resonant switch method was applied to the converter; with this method of partially forming a resonant circuit only at the time of turning on/off of the switch, the switching loss was reduced through the soft switching, thereby making the proposed converter operate with high efficiency. Moreover, the resonant element of the partial resonant circuit using a snubber condenser, the energy accumulated in the condenser was regenerated on the power supply side without loss of snubber. With the regenerated energy, the proposed converter was provided with a smaller ratio of switching to use than the conventional converter. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  10. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  11. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  12. Photovoltaics: US aims for zero-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, G.; Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2006-01-01

    The strategies used in nine US states to support the use of photovoltaics (PV) in new market-rate homes are described. Standard buy-down programmes, the use of competitive bidding to support renewable energy technologies in larger projects, and general research and development funding for clean energy and green buildings are discussed. Targeted efforts to support PV in new houses, and market impacts are considered. Basic lessons learnt are outlined and include the need to track key information about PV installations in new dwellings, to ensure adequate funding, to consider higher incentive levels, coordinate PV and energy efficiency programmes, cultivate the installer infrastructure, educate key professionals, and engage the building community

  13. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  14. Photovoltaic AC fusion converter (PVAC). Design consideration and experimental evaluation; Taiyoko hatsuden denryoku/shoyo denryoku kongo sochi no hoshiki to seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Y. [Hachinohe National College of Technology, Aomori (Japan); Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University, of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The photovoltaic AC fusion converter (PVAC), of which cost reduction of the total system is possible, was developed. PVAC controls the supply of commercial power by preferentially supplying photovoltaic power to loads for realization of energy conservation. Further, setting the maximum output of solar cell less than the rated load, the system was made the one with no need of storage batteries. This system was realized in a hybrid of the conventional rectification technology and the stand-alone maximum power point tracking photovoltaic system technology. The solar cell input efficiency had been measured as 84% at maximum. Main losses are consumption power of power source, switching loss of inverter, and continuity loss of diode. Ninety-seven percent of the commercial power input efficiency was obtained. Main losses are consumption power of power source, continuity loss of diode bridge, and resistance loss of smoothing reactor. The effect of energy conservation by the use of PVAC was also admitted. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    Ocean waves provide a sustainable, power-dense, predictable and widely available source of energy that could provide about 10 % of worlds energy needs. While research into waveenergy has been undertaken for decades, a significant increase in related activities has been seen in the recent years......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes....... Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...

  16. Grid-connected Photovoltaic Micro-inverter with New Hybrid Control LLC Resonant Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Qingbo, Ke

    2016-01-01

    A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse-frequency modulat......A high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter consisting of two power stages i.e. a LLC resonant converter with a new hybrid control scheme and a dc-ac inverter is proposed, studied and designed in this paper. In the first power stage, the new hybrid control combining pulse......-frequency modulation (PFM) and phase-shift pulse-width modulation (PS-PWM) is employed on a full-bridge LLC dc-dc converter, in order to achieve high efficiency when PV output voltage varies in a wide range. Moreover, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method based on power perturbation is implemented in the dc...

  17. Aquabuoy Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The work reported here is part of the contract agreement between the Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd. and the Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory to instrument a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY (AB) wave energy converter and to analyse...... its performances in real sea testing in Nissum Bredning, Denmark. This report is part of Fineveras contribution to ForskEl project no 6435 “AquaBuOY skala 1:10 forsøg I Nissum Bredning”....

  18. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  19. Advanced Energy Validated Photovoltaic Inverter Technology at NREL | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverter Technology at NREL Advanced Energy Industries-NREL's first partner at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)-validated its advanced photovoltaic (PV) inverter technology using the ESIF's computer screen in a laboratory, with power inverter hardware in the background Photo by Dennis Schroeder

  20. Improvement of Shade Resilience in Photovoltaic Modules Using Buck Converters in a Smart Module Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golroodbari, S. Mirbagheri; Waal, Arjen. de; Sark, Wilfried van

    2018-01-01

    Partial shading has a nonlinear effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules. Different methods of optimizing energy harvesting under partial shading conditions have been suggested to mitigate this issue. In this paper, a smart PV module architecture is proposed for improvement of shade

  1. Japan, world leader of photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, F.

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970's, the potentialities of photovoltaic energy has been recognized by the Japanese government which has sustained this technology in two ways. First, by the financing of R and D programs, and second, by giving subsidies to citizens for the installation of solar panels. Today, Japan is the world leader of photovoltaic energy, both for the installed power and for the production of solar cells. In 2003, the International Energy Agency was reporting 1.809 GW of worldwide installed capacity among which 48% was in Japan (0.86 GW) with respect to 0.4 GW in Germany, 0.275 GW in the USA and only 20 MW in France. This capacity would have exceeded 1.1 GW at the end of 2004. Half of the solar modules are manufactured in Japan. The ministry of economy, trade and industry (METI) has fixed ambitious goals for 2010: the overall new energy sources much represent 3% of the primary energy (with respect to 1% today) and the installed capacity must reach 4.8 GW. The road-map of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation (NEDO) foresees 100 GW by 2030. (J.S.)

  2. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  3. Model Predictive Control of Grid Connected Modular Multilevel Converter for Integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Shahirinia, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of an advanced control structure for integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems through Grid Connected-Modular Multilevel Converter (GC-MMC) is proposed in this paper. To achieve this goal, a non-linear model of MMC regarding considering of negative and positive sequence components has...... been presented. Then, due to existence of unbalance voltage faults in distribution grid, non-linarites and uncertainties in model, model predictive controller which is developed for GC-MMC. They are implemented based upon positive and negative components of voltage and current to mitigate the power...

  4. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  5. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  6. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Analysis of a Boost Converter for Battery Charging in Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindawi, Mohammed M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah; Al-Turki, Yusuf; Giaouris, Damian; Mandal, Kuntal; Banerjee, Soumitro

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems with a battery back-up form an integral part of distributed generation systems and therefore have recently attracted a lot of interest. In this paper, we consider a system of charging a battery from a PV panel through a current mode controlled boost dc-dc converter. We analyze its complete nonlinear/nonsmooth dynamics, using a piecewise model of the converter and realistic nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. Through this study, it is revealed that system design without taking into account the nonsmooth dynamics of the converter combined with the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel can lead to unpredictable responses of the overall system with high current ripple and other undesirable phenomena. This analysis can lead to better designed converters that can operate under a wide variation of the solar irradiation and the battery's state of charge. We show that the v-i characteristics of the PV panel combined with the battery's output voltage variation can increase or decrease the converter's robustness, both under peak current mode control and average current mode control. We justify the observation in terms of the change in the discrete-time map caused by the nonlinear v-i characteristics of the PV panel. The theoretical results are validated experimentally.

  7. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  8. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  9. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  10. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Nava, Vincenzo; Topper, Mathew B. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation......, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA), a genetic algorithm (GA) and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) algorithm...

  11. High Step-Up DC—DC Converter for AC Photovoltaic Module with MPPT Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Govindasamy; Karthick, Narashiman; Rama Reddy, Sasi

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the high gain step-up BOOST converter which is essential to step up the low output voltage from PV panel to the high voltage according to the requirement of the application. In this paper a high gain BOOST converter with coupled inductor technique is proposed with the MPPT control. Without extreme duty ratios and the numerous turns-ratios of a coupled inductor this converter achieves a high step-up voltage-conversion ratio and the leakage energy of the coupled inductor is efficiently recycled to the load. MPPT control used to extract the maximum power from PV panel by controlling the Duty ratio of the converter. The PV panel, BOOST converter and the MPPT are modeled using Sim Power System blocks in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The prototype model of the proposed converter has been implemented with the maximum measured efficiency is up to 95.4% and full-load efficiency is 93.1%.

  12. Photovoltaics and renewable energies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaics and renewable energies are growing at a much faster pace than the rest of the economy in Europe and worldwide. This and the dramatic oil price increases in 2005 have led to a remarkable re-evaluation of the renewable energy sector by politics and financing institutions. Despite the fact that there are still discrepancies between the European Union and the USA, as to how to deal with climate change, renewable energies will play an important role for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the worldwide introduction of tradable Green Certificates. Apart from the electricity sector, renewable energy sources for the generation of heat and the use of environment friendly biofuels for the transport sector will become more and more important in the future. (author)

  13. Development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification; Desenvolvimento de conversor eletronico para maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Neto, Lauro de Vilhena Brandao [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Diniz, Antonia Sonia Alves Cardoso [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cortizo, Porfirio Cabaleiro [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the electric energy conversion is essential to the developing of technical and economic viability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. This paper presents the development of an electronic converter with maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification. The standalone photovoltaic system used is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. Initially were developed test procedures of the equipment used in the system like photovoltaic generators, electronic ballasts, inverters, charge controllers and batteries, covering minimum performance requirements and in compliance with national and international standards, as possible, due to the instrumentation availability. A data acquisition system was assembled to monitoring the photovoltaic system. A simulation of the system was implemented and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitoring results. The converter with maximum power point tracking consists of a direct current converter in the buck configuration and the control algorithm was implemented in a micro controller, being the first results presented here. After finished the prototype, it will be incorporated in the photovoltaic system and will be accomplished a study of the technical and economic viability. The first results of the tests, of the monitoring and of the converter with maximum power point tracking are helping the sustainability of the systems installed by CEMIG, funding the government initiatives in the quality control of equipment and promoting the development of national technology. (author)

  14. Mechanical vibration to electrical energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick Allen [Tijeras, NM; Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-03-03

    Electromechanical devices that generate an electrical signal in response to an external source of mechanical vibrations can operate as a sensor of vibrations and as an energy harvester for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy. The devices incorporate a magnet that is movable through a gap in a ferromagnetic circuit, wherein a coil is wound around a portion of the ferromagnetic circuit. A flexible coupling is used to attach the magnet to a frame for providing alignment of the magnet as it moves or oscillates through the gap in the ferromagnetic circuit. The motion of the magnet can be constrained to occur within a substantially linear range of magnetostatic force that develops due to the motion of the magnet. The devices can have ferromagnetic circuits with multiple arms, an array of magnets having alternating polarity and, encompass micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices.

  15. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  16. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  17. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  18. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  19. A Multifunctional Isolated and Non-Isolated Dual Mode Converter for Renewable Energy Conversion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multifunctional isolated and non-isolated dual-mode low-power converter was designed for renewable energy conversion applications such as photovoltaic power generation to achieve different operating modes under bi-directional electrical conversion. The proposed topology consists of a bidirectional non-isolated DC/DC circuit and an isolated converter with a high-frequency transformer, which merge the advantages of both the conventional isolated converter and non-isolated converter with the combination of the two converter technologies. Compared with traditional converters, the multifunctional converter can not only realize conventional bi-directional functions, but can also be applied for many different operation modes and meet the high output/input ratio demands with the two converter circuits operating together. A novel control algorithm was proposed to achieve the various functions of the proposed converter. An experimental platform based on the proposed circuit was established. Both the simulation and experimental results indicated that the proposed converter could provide isolated and non-isolated modes in different applications, which could meet different practical engineering requirements.

  20. Standard Terminology Relating to Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This terminology pertains to photovoltaic (radiant-to-electrical energy conversion) device performance measurements and is not a comprehensive list of terminology for photovoltaics in general. 1.2 Additional terms used in this terminology and of interest to solar energy may be found in Terminology E 772.

  1. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Mercadé Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA, a genetic algorithm (GA and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO algorithm. The results show slightly higher performances for the latter two algorithms; however, the first turns out to be significantly less computationally demanding.

  2. A Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation using Cuk Converter and Single Phase Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kaushika, S. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a standalone solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generating system is designed and modeled using a Cuk dc-dc converter and a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI). In this system, a dc-dc boost converter boosts a low voltage of a PV array to charge a battery at 24 V using a maximum power point tracking control algorithm. To step up a 24 V battery voltage to 360 V dc, a high frequency transformer based isolated dc-dc Cuk converter is used to reduce size, weight and losses. The dc voltage of 360 V is fed to a single phase VSI with unipolar switching to achieve a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz ac. The main objectives of this investigation are on efficiency improvement, reduction in cost, weight and size of the system and to provide an uninterruptible power to remotely located consumers. The complete SPV system is designed and it is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance for validating the proposed design and control algorithm.

  3. Design and performance study of a DC-DC flyback converter based on wide bandgap power devices for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Salah S.; Alharbi, Saleh S.; Al-bayati, Ali M. S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a high-performance dc-dc flyback converter design based on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Two different power devices, a gallium nitride (GaN)-transistor and a silicon (Si)-MOSFET, are implemented individually in the flyback converter to examine their impact on converter performance. The total power loss of the converter with different power devices is analyzed for various switching frequencies. Converter efficiency is evaluated at different switching frequencies, input voltages, and output power levels. The results reveal that the converter with the GaN-transistor has lower total power loss and better efficiency compared to the converter with the conventional Si-MOSFET.

  4. Renewable energy distributed power system with photovoltaic/ thermal and bio gas power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M.U.; Rehman, S.U.

    2011-01-01

    The energy shortage and environmental pollution is becoming an important problem in these days. Hence it is very much important to use renewable power technologies to get rid of these problems. The important renewable energy sources are Bio-Energy, Wind Energy, Hydrogen Energy, Tide Energy, Terrestrial Heat Energy, Solar Energy, Thermal Energy and so on. Pakistan is rich in all these aspects particularly in Solar and Thermal Energies. In major areas of Pakistan like in South Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan the weather condition are very friendly for these types of Renewable Energies. In these areas Solar Energy can be utilized by solar panels in conjunction with thermal panels. The Photovoltaic cells are used to convert Solar Energy directly to Electrical Energy and thermal panels can be uses to convert solar energy into heat energy and this heat energy will be used to drive some turbine to get Electrical Energy. The Solar Energy can be absorbed more efficiently by any given area of Solar Panel if these two technologies can be combined in such a way that they can work together. The first part of this paper shows that how these technologies can be combined. Furthermore it is known to all that photovoltaic/thermal panels depend entirely on weather conditions. So in order to maintain constant power a biogas generator is used in conjunction with these. (author)

  5. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  6. Photovoltaics come to the rescue of energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In light of continuously rising energy prices and the necessity to step up environmental and climate protection measures, photovoltaics and solar thermal applications are being viewed with increased interest as alternative sources of energy. (authors)

  7. Investigations of DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers and RF energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, B.; Gozdur, R.; Bernacki, L.; Lakomski, M.

    2016-04-01

    Fiber Distribution Cabinets (FDC) monitoring systems are increasingly popular. However it is difficult to realize such system in passive FDC, due to lack of source of power supply. In this paper investigation of four different DC power supplies with optoelectronic transducers is described. Two converters: photovoltaic power converter and PIN photodiode can convert the light transmitted through the optical fiber to electric energy. Solar cell and antenna RF-PCB are also tested. Results presented in this paper clearly demonstrate that it is possible to build monitoring system in passive FDC. During the tests maximum obtained output power was 11 mW. However all converters provided enough power to excite 32-bit microcontroller with ARM-cores and digital thermometer.

  8. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    PACURAR Ana Talida; TOADER Dumitru; PACURAR Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels wer...

  9. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  10. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.A.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  11. NASA-OAST program in photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion includes research and technology development efforts on solar cells, blankets, and arrays. The overall objectives are to increase conversion efficiency, reduce mass, reduce cost, and increase operating life. The potential growth of space power requirements in the future presents a major challenge to the current state of technology in space photovoltaic systems.

  12. A software application for energy flow simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ayman A.; Alsaad, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer software application was developed to simulate hourly energy flow of a grid connected photovoltaic system. This software application enables conducting an operational evaluation of a studied photovoltaic system in terms of energy exchange with the electrical grid. The system model consists of a photovoltaic array, a converter and an optional generic energy storage component that supports scheduled charging/discharging. In addition to system design parameters, the software uses hourly solar data and hourly load data to determine the amount of energy exchanged with electrical grid for each hour of the simulated year. The resulting information is useful in assessing the impact of the system on demand for electrical energy of a building that uses it. The software also aggregates these hourly results in daily, monthly and full year sums. The software finds the financial benefit of the system as the difference in grid electrical energy cost between two simultaneously considered cases. One is with load supplied only by the electrical grid, while the other is with the photovoltaic system present and contributing energy. The software supports the energy pricing scheme used in Jordan for domestic consumers, which is based on slices of monthly consumption. By projecting the yearly financial results on the system lifetime, the application weighs the financial benefit resulting from using the system against its cost, thus facilitating an economical evaluation.

  13. Multistage switched inductor boost converter for renewable energy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper Multistage Switched Inductor Boost Converter (Multistage SIBC) is uttered for renewable energy applications. The projected converter is derived from an amalgamation of the conventional step-up converter and inductor stack. The number of inductor and duty ratio decides the overall...

  14. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  15. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  16. Photovoltaic solar energy;L'energie solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouratoglou, P. [EDF Energies Nouvelles, 75 - Paris (France); Therond, P.G. [EDF Dir. Nouvelles Technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-11-15

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  17. Fabrication of photovoltaic laser energy converterby MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hamilton; Wang, Scott; Chan, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    A laser-energy converter, fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), was developed. This converter is a stack of vertical p-n junctions connected in series by low-resistivity, lattice matched CoSi2 layers to achieve a high conversion efficiency. Special high-temperature electron-beam (e-beam) sources were developed especially for the MBE growth of the junctions and CoSi2 layers. Making use of the small (greater than 1.2 percent) lattice mismatch between CoSi2 and Si layers, high-quality and pinhole-free epilayers were achieved, providing a capability of fabricating all the junctions and connecting layers as a single growth process with one pumpdown. Well-defined multiple p-n junctions connected by CoSi2 layers were accomplished by employing a low growth temperature (greater than 700 C) and a low growth rate (less than 0.5 microns/hour). Producing negligible interdiffusion, the low growth temperature and rate also produced negligible pinholes in the CoSi2 layers. For the first time, a stack of three p-n junctions connected by two 10(exp -5) Ohm-cm CoSi2 layers was achieved, meeting the high conversion efficiency requirement. This process can now be optimized for high growth rate to form a practical converter with 10 p-n junctions in the stack.

  18. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  19. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  20. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary fiscal year 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    An overview of government funded activities in photovoltaic energy conversion research is given. Introductory information, a list of directing organizations, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, and an index of current contractors are given.

  1. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  2. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery......, grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information......Modular generation system, which consists of modular power conditioning converters, is an effective solution to integrate renewable energy sources with conventional utility grid to improve reliability and efficiency, especially for photovoltaic generation. A distributed control strategy based...

  3. Optimal Operation of Photovoltaic System with a DC-DC Boost Converter FED SAF Using ICosφ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Vijayakumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal utilization of Photovoltaic (PV solar system based Shunt Active Filter (PV-SAF for harmonic mitigation, real and reactive power compensation at the point of common coupling (PCC throughout the day. This PV system operated SAF reduces the energy consumption by disconnecting the utility grid from the load through semiconductor switches, when the PV system generates excessive or equal real power to the required load demand. However, the reduction of energy consumption is always desirable for the reduction of panel tariff and global warming gasses. The PV module is connected to the DC side of SAF through the DC-DC converter with fuzzy based Perturb & Observe (P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT algorithm to eliminate the drawback of the conventional PV system by tracking maximum power point of the PV array is presented. The reference currents extract by the Fuzzy logic controller based ICosΦ control strategy. This proposed PV-SAF, if connected at the terminals of a small industry or a home or a small enlightening institution can avoid interruptible power supply, use of individual stabilizer and potential panel tariff over a 12 hour period. A MATLAB simulink is presented to validate the advantage of the proposed system.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  5. Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs

  6. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    applications. Furthermore, this solution can interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power flow, where both of them can receive or generate excess power to the third source integrated in each converter sub-module. This particularity enables the converter usage as a high voltage UPS system......This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  7. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  8. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems have the long range potential for supplying a significant part of the world's need for electricity Even today, such systems offer many benefits compared to other energy systems such as fossil fuel, nuclear and other renewable systems. These include: stability, reliability, require no water, no moving parts, environmentally benign, moderate efficiency, modular, universally usable, easy maintenance, and low power distribution costs. This paper will present information on present costs of the key system components, realistic cost projections and the results of a comparative study of three renewable approaches for a large system. (author), (tabs. 2)

  9. Photovoltaic systems in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corba, Z.; Katic, V.; Milicevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using one of the renewable energy resources in agriculture. Specifically, the paper shows the possibility of converting solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic panels. The paper includes the analysis of the energy potential of solar radiation in the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). The results of the analysis can be used for the design of photovoltaic energy systems. The amount of solar energy on the territory of the province is compared with the same data from some European countries, in order to obtain a clear picture of the possibilities of utilization of this type of renewable sources. Three examples of possible application of photovoltaic systems are presented. The first relates to the consumer who is away from the electric distribution network - photovoltaic system in island mode. The remaining two examples relate to the application of photovoltaic power sources in manufacturing plants, flowers or vegetables. Applying photovoltaic source of electrical energy to power pumps for irrigation is highlighted

  10. Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 2: Control-Oriented Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garces

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A previous article has presented the members of the asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family as very appropriate candidates to interface between photovoltaic or fuel cell generators and their loads because of their reduced ripple and increased current processing capabilities. After a review of the main modeling methods suitable for high-order converters operating, as the asymmetrical interleaved converters (AIC ones, in discontinuous current conduction mode a full-order averaged model has been adapted and improved to describe the dynamic behavior of AIC. The excellent agreement between the mathematical model predictions, the switched simulations and the experimental results has allowed for satisfactory design of a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR in a fuel-cell application example, which demonstrates the usefulness of the improved control-oriented modeling approach when the switching converters operate in discontinuous conduction mode.

  11. A Method of MPPT Control Based on Power Variable Step-size in Photovoltaic Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hui-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the disadvantage of traditional MPPT algorithms of variable step-size, proposed power tracking based on variable step-size with the advantage method of the constant-voltage and the perturb-observe (P&O[1-3]. The control strategy modify the problem of voltage fluctuation caused by perturb-observe method, at the same time, introducing the advantage of constant-voltage method and simplify the circuit topology. With the theoretical derivation, control the output power of photovoltaic modules to change the duty cycle of main switch. Achieve the maximum power stabilization output, reduce the volatility of energy loss effectively, and improve the inversion efficiency[3,4]. Given the result of experimental test based theoretical derivation and the curve of MPPT when the prototype work.

  12. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  13. Conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freier, Karin; Fontaine, Pierre; Mayer, Joerg; Jimenez, Julien; Richard, Pascal; Vogtmann, Michael; Schaefer, Felix; Martin, Nicolas; Buis, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on new consumption and commercialization models for photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the new economic models for solar energy producers while the photovoltaic industry has to face a progressive reduction of feed-in tariffs and of other incentive mechanisms. Beside the legal and economic aspects, technical questions around energy storage and integration of photovoltaic production to the grid were also addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Stimulating self-consumption and direct selling within the EEG (Karin Freier); 2 - Development of PV self-consumption in France (Pierre Fontaine); 3 - experience from applying the new support program for solar energy storage systems (Joerg Mayer); 4 - Call for solar photovoltaic projects for own consumption in Aquitaine region (Julien Jimenez); 5 - SMA Flexible Storage System - New version of the Sunny Island inverter for smart photovoltaic energy storage (Pascal Richard); 6 - PV Own Consumption in industry and commerce - examples und Operating Concepts (Michael Vogtmann); 7 - Supplying tenants in multiple-family housing with solar power in the 'Neue Heimat' project (Felix Schaefer); 8 - How to manage PV-storage self-consumption from a grid point of view? (Nicolas Martin); 9 - Closing talk (Sabine Buis)

  14. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...

  15. Energy consumption and stocks of energy-converting artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladh, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The development of total energy consumption is important in a world with limited resources. It is the result of two basic tendencies working in opposite directions: growth in number and in use (such as more cars and driving more) and improvements in energy efficiency (such as more fuel-efficient engines). Since the 1970s growth of energy consumption has slowed down in Sweden. This means that increasing supply has been counteracted by measures improving overall energy efficiency to a larger degree than before. How can long-term development in energy consumption be analysed? This paper proposes a focus on stocks of energy-converting artefacts as a tool for such analyses. In order to show the fruitfulness of this approach, historical data on cars, dwellings and lamps in Sweden are used. Results from the cases in this paper show considerable gains of efficiency in fuel consumption in private cars and heating efficiency in multi-dwelling houses. Demographic factors are important for the outcome. The approach seems to promise a way to analyse energy efficiency that captures both promoting and counteracting factors at both the micro and macro level. - Highlights: ► Growth of energy consumption slowed down in the 1970s, a break in the long-run trend. ► Balance between growth and efficiency factors changes over time and areas of use. ► Savings in heating were not taken back, while those for cars were. ► Focus on stocks of artefacts is a promising tool for analyses. ► Incremental changes within existing stocks can be as big as radical changes.

  16. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and ......The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack...

  17. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  18. Electrostatic direct energy converter performance and cost scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    This study is concerned with electrostatic type direct energy converters for direct recovery of a large fraction of the plasma ion energy from fusion reactors. Simplified equations are presented for each of the important loss mechanisms in both single-stage direct converters and multistage ''Venetian Blind'' type direct converters. These equations can be used to estimate the efficiency and electric power output of the direct converter subsystem. Scaling relations for the cost of each major component in the direct converter subsystem are also given; these include the vacuum tank, direct converter modules, the DC power conditioning equipment, cryogenic vacuum pumping system and the thermal bottoming plant. The performance and cost scaling laws have been developed primarily for use in overall fusion power plant systems codes. However, to illustrate their utility, cost-effectiveness studies of two specific reference direct converter designs are presented in terms of the specific capital costs (i.e., the capital cost per unit electric power produced) for the Direct Converter Subsystem alone. Some examples of design improvements which can significantly reduce the specific capital costs of the Direct Converter Subsystem are also given

  19. Energy savings assessment for digital-to-analog converter boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes. - Research highlights: → We examined energy efficiency policies on digital-to-analog converter boxes in US. → The government assistance program resulted in high participation. → 35 million coupons were redeemed for the purchases of energy efficient DTAs. → Between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the policies. → Savings are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  20. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  1. Photovoltaic energy technologies: Health and environmental effects document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Hamilton, L. D.; Morris, S. C.; Rowe, M. D.

    1980-09-01

    The potential health and environmental consequences of producing electricity by photovoltaic energy systems was analyzed. Potential health and environmental risks are identified in representative fuel and material supply cycles including extraction, processing, refining, fabrication, installation, operation, and isposal for four photovoltaic energy systems (silicon N/P single crystal, silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cell, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide backwall cell, and gallium arsenide heterojunction cell) delivering equal amounts of useful energy. Each step of the fuel and material supply cycles, materials demands, byproducts, public health, occupational health, and environmental hazards is identified.

  2. Plan for the Brent Spar. Wind and wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    1996-01-01

    In a competition on the future of the much discussed oil platform Brent Spar of Shell the idea to retrofit the platform into a combined wind/wave energy converter appears to be an attractive option for Shell

  3. Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...

  4. Generators for gearless wind energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauers, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses some design alternatives for directly driven generators, and one specific generator type is investigated for a wide range of rated power. First, the specification for a directly driven generator is presented, then different design alternatives are discussed. A radial-flux permanent magnet generator for frequency converter connection has been chosen for a more detailed investigation. The design, optimization and performance of that generator type are presented. Generators from 30 kW to 3 MW are designed and compared with conventional four-pole generators with gear. It is found that a directly driven generator can be more efficient than a conventional generator and gear and have a rather small diameter and a low active weight. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  6. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  7. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  8. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to

  9. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  10. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  11. Practical performances of MPC for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Tetu, Amelie; Hals, J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximising the efficiency of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is one of the important tasks toward the exploitation of the wave energy resource. Along with a proper design of the device, an important way to achieve better energy performances is to improve the wave-body interaction by applying an appro...

  12. Development of the Wave Energy Converter -Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    2Over the years wave energy has gradually been brought into focus, as it has become clear that the fossil energy resources are limited, and cause large environmental problems, e.g. CO2 pollution. On this background a number of different wave energy converters have been proposed. In Denmark the go...

  13. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Post, H. N.; Thomas, M. G.

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future.

  14. Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Operation with Energy Management and Fault Tolerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jmashidpour, Ehsan; Poure, Philippe; Gholipour, E.; Saadate, Shahrokh

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a fault tolerant operation capability. An energy management method is provided to keep the balance between produced and consumed energy instantaneously. As the storage element, an Ultra-Capacitor (UC) pack is used for facing high frequency variation of the load/source, and batteries are in charge of slow load /source variations. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is applied to control the boost converter of the PV source to achieve the maximum power. In order to improve the micro-grid service continuity and reliability, a fast fault diagnosis method based on the converter current shape for PV source is applied. Finally, the validity of the proposed energy management and the fault diagnosis method is confirmed by the simulation and experimental results. (author)

  15. Review of photovoltaic energy development in Kenya for rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Ndjeli, L.; Raturi, A.K.

    1995-10-01

    Energy demand is rapidly growing throughout much of the developing world, where an estimated two billion people, mostly from sparsely populated areas, currently live without electricity. As electrical energy systems are selected to help meet these people's electricity need, the environmental ramifications of the generating systems become increasingly important. Photovoltaic systems generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases, and result in global, regional and local air quality advantages. In this work we intend to carry out research and development of photovoltaic solar cells for rural electrification - especially solar powered water pumping. (author). 56 refs, 11 figs

  16. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  17. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  18. Photovoltaic energy: an energy that wins. Solar systems, energy, environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felines, P.; Martin, P.E.; Schmit, R.; Hammerbacher, M.; Bal, J.L.; Gaillard, M.; Mandil, O.; Duchemin, I.; Magnin, P.A.; Vandal, A.; Carella, R.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic cell and module production has increased by 43% with respect to the previous year, to reach a record: 126.7 MW p. This strong growth in production was the result of the ''70000 roofs'' project in Japan, programs of the same type in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, and to the autonomous installations market. The American production growth is explained by the increase in exports to Japan, with a 'total exports/production' ratio which is now established in the vicinity of 75%. The Japanese production was sold entirely on the domestic market, and this for the second straight year. For the most part, European production was sold in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands, as well as on the decentralized rural electrification market (particularly in India). (N.C.)

  19. Projected photovoltaic energy impacts on US CO2 emissions: an integrated energy environmental-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Goldstein, G.A.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of photovoltaic technologies in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the USA was evaluated using an energy-environment-economic systems model. With a range of assumptions about future scenarios up to 2030, the model results provide an objective quantitative assessment of the prospects for photovoltaics in a competitive market. With the projected improvements in cost and efficiency, photovoltaics will compete favourably as a general source of electricity supply to the grid by about 2010 in southwestern USA. This analysis indicates that photovoltaics has the potential to reach a total installed capacity of 140 GW by the year 2030, and to displace a cumulative 450 million metric tons of carbon emissions from 1995 to 2030. At the projected 2030 capacity, photovoltaics could displace over 64 million metric tons of carbon emissions a year. Under constraints on carbon emissions, photovoltaics becomes more cost effective and would further reduce carbon emissions from the US energy system. (author)

  20. Applied photovoltaics as a practical education in renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, Mitko

    2009-01-01

    The optional course „Applied Photovoltaic” for MEng students specializing in Electronics at the Faculty of Electronics and Automation, TU-Plovdiv is presented. The main topics of the advanced PV course as a modern sustainable energetic based on the photovoltaic effect and energy from Sun as a renewable energy source; materials and technologies in photovoltaic; design of solar cells and PV modules and PV generators up to 100 kWp; BIPV and CIPV systems; hybrid PV systems; PV mounting; monitoring of PV systems and EC regulations for PV systems connected to the utility grid are discussed. The advanced teaching method by online e-platform with virtual resources is presented. Key words: PV education, PV technologies, applied photovoltaic, e-platform

  1. Final report for Assembling Microorganisms into Energy Converting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ozgur

    2018-03-26

    The goal of this project was to integrate microorganisms capable of reversible energy transduction in response to changing relative humidity with non-biological materials to create hybrid energy conversion systems. While plants and many other biological organisms have developed structures that are extraordinarily effective in converting changes in relative humidity into mechanical energy, engineered energy transduction systems rarely take advantage of this powerful phenomenon. Rather than developing synthetic materials that can convert changes in relative humidity in to mechanical energy, we developed approaches to assemble bacterial spores into larger materials. These materials can convert energy from evaporation of water in dry atmospheric conditions, which we demonstrated by building energy harvesters from these materials. We have also developed experiments to investigate the interaction of water with the spore material, and to determine how this interaction imposes limits on energy conversion. In addition, we carried out theoretical calculations to investigate the limits imposed by the environmental conditions to the power available in the energy harvesting process. These calculations took into account heat and water vapor transfer in the atmosphere surrounding the spore based materials. Overall, our results suggest that biomolecular materials are promising candidates to convert energy from evaporation.

  2. EROI of crystalline silicon photovoltaics : Variations under different assumptions regarding manufacturing energy inputs and energy output

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Installed photovoltaic nameplate power have been growing rapidly around the worldin the last few years. But how much energy is returned to society (i.e. net energy) by this technology, and which factors contribute the most to the amount of energy returned? The objective of this thesis was to examine the importance of certain inputs and outputs along the solar panel production chain and their effect on the energy return on (energy) investment (EROI) for crystalline wafer-based photovoltaics. A...

  3. Energy level alignment at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Frisch, Johannes; Schlesinger, Raphael; Wilke, Andreas; Koch, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy level alignment is crucial for organic solar cell efficiency. ► Photoelectron spectroscopy can reliably determine energy levels of organic material interfaces. ► Care must be taken to avoid even subtle sample damage. -- Abstract: The alignment of energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices is crucial for their energy conversion efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a well-established and widely used technique for determining the electronic structure of materials; at the same time PES measurements of conjugated organic materials often pose significant challenges, such as obtaining sufficiently defined sample structures and radiation-induced damage of the organic layers. Here we report how these challenges can be tackled to unravel the energy levels at interfaces in organic photovoltaic devices, i.e., electrode/organic and organic/organic interfaces. The electronic structure across entire photovoltaic multilayer devices can thus be reconciled. Finally, general considerations for correlating the electronic structure and the photovoltaic performance of devices will be discussed

  4. Wave Energy Converter Annual Energy Production Uncertainty Using Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton E. Hiles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical to evaluating the economic viability of a wave energy project is: (1 a robust estimate of the electricity production throughout the project lifetime and (2 an understanding of the uncertainty associated with said estimate. Standardization efforts have established mean annual energy production (MAEP as the metric for quantification of wave energy converter (WEC electricity production and the performance matrix approach as the appropriate method for calculation. General acceptance of a method for calculating the MAEP uncertainty has not yet been achieved. Several authors have proposed methods based on the standard engineering approach to error propagation, however, a lack of available WEC deployment data has restricted testing of these methods. In this work the magnitude and sensitivity of MAEP uncertainty is investigated. The analysis is driven by data from simulated deployments of 2 WECs of different operating principle at 4 different locations. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is proposed for calculating the variability of MAEP estimates and is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculation. The uncertainty of MAEP ranged from 2%–20% of the mean value. Of the contributing uncertainties studied, the variability in the wave climate was found responsible for most of the uncertainty in MAEP. Uncertainty in MAEP differs considerably between WEC types and between deployment locations and is sensitive to the length of the input data-sets. This implies that if a certain maximum level of uncertainty in MAEP is targeted, the minimum required lengths of the input data-sets will be different for every WEC-location combination.

  5. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  6. The Italian programme in photovoltaic solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, U.

    Italian programs and goals for developing a photovoltaic (PV) industry and market are outlined. It is suggested that only a few megawatts of PVs will be produced for domestic consumption in the next few years, while the largest market is for developing nations where costly diesel-fueled generators are used. The installation of PV systems in developing areas will permit testing and scaling up of production capacities from several MW to several hundred MW and then to GW annual production. Approximately 55,000,000 was devoted to government research in PV in 1982 and a PV research laboratory is being built near Naples.

  7. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  8. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  9. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases

  10. An Appraisal of the DEXA Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report has been requested by VækstFonden and aims at giving an overview of the experimental tests and a general appraisal of the DEXA wave energy converter (WEC). The reported results and findings were obtained during previously performed experimental tests by the Wave Energy Research Group...

  11. On Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present paper describes the work carried out in the project ’Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters’, which is a Danish research project carried out in a period of three years from September 2014, with the aim of reducing cost of the moorings for four wave energy converters...

  12. The role of Photovoltaics towards 100% Renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; David, Andrei; Petersen, Silas

    builds on a literature review of the global and Danish trends in capacity, costs and types of support schemes, but also develops a GIS and energy system analysis supported by a set of economic calculations to inquire on the recommended pathway for the future investments in photovoltaics in Denmark...

  13. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  14. Application of Circuit Model for Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Pandiarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Circuit model of photovoltaic (PV module is presented in this paper that can be used as a common platform by material scientists and power electronic circuit designers to develop better PV power plant. Detailed modeling procedure for the circuit model with numerical dimensions is presented using power system blockset of MATLAB/Simulink. The developed model is integrated with DC-DC boost converter with closed-loop control of maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm. Simulation results are validated with the experimental setup.

  15. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  16. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France - 20. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    After an overview of important events in the World regarding the development of photovoltaic solar energy in 2016, and predictions regarding new connected installations in 2016, this document present graphs and figures which illustrate the evolution of the photovoltaic fleet in the World, the comparison of production costs of new electric power generation capacities, the evolution of the French photovoltaic power production since 2009, the evolution of the distribution of the French fleet in terms of installation power (from large projects to residential), of connections to the grid, of number of connections and purchase tariffs for the different types of installations (residential, medium roofs, large roofs, very large roofs, very large ground-based or roof-based projects) and for queuing projects, in terms of evolution of purchase tariffs since 2011, and of evolution of impact on the CSPE financing system

  17. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  18. Analytical Comparison of Dual-Input Isolated dc-dc Converter with an ac or dc Inductor for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two configurations of dualinput (DI) or three-port (TPC) isolated dc-dc converters for hybrid renewable energy systems such as photovoltaics and batteries. These two converters are derived by integrating an interleaved boost converter and a single-active bridge converter...... and control perspective, distinct in operation principles, voltage/power transfer functions, loss distributions, soft-switching constraints, and power efficiency under the same operating conditions. Moreover, the inductor design differs greatly between these two cases. In this paper, a comprehensive...

  19. Comparison of zero-sequence injection methods in cascaded H-bridge multilevel converters for large-scale photovoltaic integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yifan; Konstantinou, Georgios; Townsend, Christopher David

    2017-01-01

    to maintain three-phase balanced grid currents with unbalanced power generation. This study theoretically compares power balance capabilities of various zero-sequence injection methods based on two metrics which can be easily generalised for all CHB applications to PV systems. Experimental results based......Photovoltaic (PV) power generation levels in the three phases of a multilevel cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter can be significantly unbalanced, owing to different irradiance levels and ambient temperatures over a large-scale solar PV power plant. Injection of a zero-sequence voltage is required...... on a 430 V, 10 kW, three-phase, seven-level cascaded H-bridge converter prototype confirm superior performance of the optimal zero-sequence injection technique....

  20. On the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    KAUST Repository

    Orazov, B.

    2010-11-01

    Buoy-type ocean wave energy converters are designed to exhibit resonant responses when subject to excitation by ocean waves. A novel excitation scheme is proposed which has the potential to improve the energy harvesting capabilities of these converters. The scheme uses the incident waves to modulate the mass of the device in a manner which amplifies its resonant response. To illustrate the novel excitation scheme, a simple one-degree of freedom model is developed for the wave energy converter. This model has the form of a switched linear system. After the stability regime of this system has been established, the model is then used to show that the excitation scheme improves the power harvesting capabilities by 2565 percent even when amplitude restrictions are present. It is also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the device\\'s power harvesting capabilities to changes in damping becomes much smaller when the novel excitation scheme is used. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Power Converters and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and therefore a continuous demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable...... energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid...... for the renewables and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of small and medium power conversion topologies are presented including their control (mainly for PV-systems). Finally wind turbine configuration and their control...

  2. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid....... Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds...... multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed...

  3. Wide-Scale Adoption of Photovoltaic Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Enjeti, Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Current grid standards largely require that low-power (e.g., several kilowatts) single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems operate at unity power factor (PF) with maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and disconnect from the grid under grid faults by means of islanding detection. However, in the case...... of wide-scale penetration of single-phase PV systems in the distributed grid, disconnection under grid faults can contribute to 1) voltage flickers, 2) power outages, and 3) system instability. This article explores grid code modifications for a wide-scale adoption of PV systems in the distribution grid....... In addition, based on the fact that Italy and Japan have recently undertaken a major review of standards for PV power conversion systems connected to low-voltage networks, the importance of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) for single-phase PV power systems under grid faults is considered, along with three...

  4. PV (photovoltaics) performance evaluation and simulation-based energy yield prediction for tropical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Esmail M.; Lee, Siew Eang; Manthapuri, Sumanth; Yi, Wang; Deb, Chirag

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution and climate change increased the importance of renewable energy resources like solar energy in the last decades. Rack-mounted PhotoVoltaics (PV) and Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics (BIPV) are the most common photovoltaic systems which convert incident solar radiation on façade or surrounding area to electricity. In this paper the performance of different solar cell types is evaluated for the tropical weather of Singapore. As a case study, on-site measured data of PV systems implemented in a zero energy building in Singapore, is analyzed. Different types of PV systems (silicon wafer and thin film) have been installed on rooftop, façade, car park shelter, railing and etc. The impact of different solar cell generations, arrays environmental conditions (no shading, dappled shading, full shading), orientation (South, North, East or West facing) and inclination (between PV module and horizontal direction) is investigated on performance of modules. In the second stage of research, the whole PV systems in the case study are simulated in EnergyPlus energy simulation software with several PV performance models including Simple, Equivalent one-diode and Sandia. The predicted results by different models are compared with measured data and the validated model is used to provide simulation-based energy yield predictions for wide ranges of scenarios. It has been concluded that orientation of low-slope rooftop PV has negligible impact on annual energy yield but in case of PV external sunshade, east façade and panel slope of 30–40° are the most suitable location and inclination. - Highlights: • Characteristics of PV systems in tropics are analyzed in depth. • The ambiguity toward amorphous panel energy yield in tropics is discussed. • Equivalent-one diode and Sandia models can fairly predict the energy yield. • A general guideline is provided to estimate the energy yield of PV systems in tropics

  5. Optimization of structural and growth parameters of metamorphic InGaAs photovoltaic converters grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalchenko, D. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Salii, R. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A., E-mail: nickk@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Metamorphic Ga{sub 0.76}In{sub 0.24}As heterostructures for photovoltaic converters are grown by the MOCVD (metal–organic chemical vapor deposition) technique. It is found that, due to the valence-band offset at the p-In{sub 0.24}Al{sub 0.76}As/p-In{sub 0.24}Ga{sub 0.76}As (wide-gap window/emitter) heterointerface, a potential barrier for holes arises as a result of a low carrier concentration in the wide-gap material. The use of an InAlGaAs solid solution with an Al content lower than 40% makes it possible to raise the hole concentration in the widegap window up ~9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} and completely remove the potential barrier, thereby reducing the series resistance of the device. The parameters of an GaInAs metamorphic buffer layer with a stepwise In content profile are calculated and its epitaxial growth conditions are optimized, which improves carrier collection from the n-GaInAs base region and provides a quantum efficiency of 83% at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Optimization of the metamorphic heterostructure of the photovoltaic converter results in that its conversion efficiency for laser light with a wavelength of 1064 nm is 38.5%.

  6. Hybrid photovoltaic system control for enhancing sustainable energy. Economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leva, Sonia; Roscia, Mariacristina; Zaninelli, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces hybrid photovoltaic/diesel generation systems for supplying remote power plant taking into account the enhancement of sustainable energy on the economic point of view. In particular, a new monitoring and control device is presented in order to carry out the optimum energy flows and a cost evaluation is performed on a real plant showing the effect and weight of the economical sustainability and economical saving. (authors)

  7. A Case Analysis of Energy Savings Performance Contract Projects and Photovoltaic Energy at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY AND FORT BLISS CASE BACKGROUND A. PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY The use of photovoltaic power systems is nothing new in the Department...against the Outback MPPT charge controller . This test will be done over a one month timeframe. The Arizona Power ISG test plan is contained in...cost-benefit analysis of conventional power versus emerging photovoltaic energy for the Army’s Fort Bliss in El Paso, TX. The project will also analyze

  8. Development of a wind converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 1: Technical description of the wind energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly, J. P.; Steinheber, R.

    1982-11-01

    A 10 kW wind energy converter was developed by using as far possible standard serial production parts. The design criteria and the description of the essential machinery components of the MODA 10 wind energy converter are discussed. For some special load cases the safety calculation of the important components is shown. The blade control system which qualified for small wind energy converters, is explained. Weight and cost of the MODA 10 are considered.

  9. Hydraulic Evaluation of the Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC). The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to generate power. Model tests have been performed using a scale...... model (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Frigaard et al., 2008......). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate total power take off....

  10. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  11. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  12. Isolated high-efficiency DC/DC converter for photovoltaic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermulst, B.J.D.; Wijnands, C.G.E.; Duarte, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    While an increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) systems is installed, those systems typically use central inverters. In practical cases, output-power differences between PV modules will cause these central-inverter-based systems not to achieve Maximum Power Point (MPP) for each PV module.

  13. Optimum energy levels and offsets for organic donor/acceptor binary photovoltaic materials and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Optimum frontier orbital energy levels and offsets of an organic donor/acceptor binary type photovoltaic material have been analyzed using classic Marcus electron transfer theory in order to achieve the most efficient photo induced charge separation. This study reveals that, an exciton quenching parameter (EQP) yields one optimum donor/acceptor frontier orbital energy offset that equals the sum of the exciton binding energy and the charge separation reorganization energy, where the photo generated excitons are converted into charges most efficiently. A recombination quenching parameter (RQP) yields a second optimum donor/acceptor energy offset where the ratio of charge separation rate constant over charge recombination rate constant becomes largest. It is desirable that the maximum RQP is coincidence or close to the maximum EQP. A third energy offset is also identified where charge recombination becomes most severe. It is desirable that the most severe charge recombination offset is far away from maximum EQP offset. These findings are very critical for evaluating and fine tuning frontier orbital energy levels of a donor/acceptor pair in order to realize high efficiency organic photovoltaic materials

  14. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  15. EU Directives, national regulations and incentives for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H.; Scholz, H.; Bloem, H.; Werring, L.

    2004-01-01

    The European Union long-term strategy for security of energy supply and its commitment to curb climate change led to the adoption of a series of Strategy Papers and EU Directives. In all these, it is clearly stated that climate change is a long-term challenge for the international community and that the commitments made in the Kyoto Protocol can only be a first step. The promotion of renewable energies is a most important element of this process. It regards industry, jobs and foreign trade balance as well, generating benefit to social sustainability. Photovoltaic is a key technology with the potential not only to serve the needs in energy supply of tomorrow in a sustainable way, but already today, it can improve security and stability of electricity services at peak times, due to its decentralized nature. This paper gives an update on the EU and National legislation in place to promote the implementation of photovoltaic. (authors)

  16. Which advances and place for photovoltaic energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    While the European governments wish to raise to 20% the share of energy generated from clean sources, the solar energy appears as an excellent complement to the wind/hydraulic alternative. Today limited to 0.09% of the energy production capacity in Europe (with respect to 3.8% and 20% for the wind and hydro energies, respectively), the solar energy is a developing sector thanks to strong financial incentives. However, only important technological progresses would make solar energy a major energy source. Among the possible innovations, the development of efficient organic or plastic solar cells is one of the most promising way. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Bus Voltage Regulation in Photovoltaic System with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Zalani Daud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system with battery energy storage (BES. The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC. For the grid side VSC (G-VSC, two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  18. An optimal control strategy for DC bus voltage regulation in photovoltaic system with battery energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Muhamad Zalani; Mohamed, Azah; Hannan, M A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an optimal DC bus voltage regulation strategy for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system with battery energy storage (BES). The BES is connected to the PV system DC bus using a DC/DC buck-boost converter. The converter facilitates the BES power charge/discharge to compensate for the DC bus voltage deviation during severe disturbance conditions. In this way, the regulation of DC bus voltage of the PV/BES system can be enhanced as compared to the conventional regulation that is solely based on the voltage-sourced converter (VSC). For the grid side VSC (G-VSC), two control methods, namely, the voltage-mode and current-mode controls, are applied. For control parameter optimization, the simplex optimization technique is applied for the G-VSC voltage- and current-mode controls, including the BES DC/DC buck-boost converter controllers. A new set of optimized parameters are obtained for each of the power converters for comparison purposes. The PSCAD/EMTDC-based simulation case studies are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed optimized control scheme in comparison to the conventional methods.

  19. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  20. Optimization of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters by Geometry Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a study on the effects of geometry control on the performance of overtopping wave energy converters with a simple geometry built in coastal structures (simple OWECs) are presented. Empirical formulae, derived based on experimental tests on simple OWECs with varying...

  1. Different Reliability Assessment Approaches for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Reliability assessments are of importance for wave energy converters (WECs) due to the fact that accessibility might be limited in case of failure and maintenance. These failure rates can be adapted by reliability considerations. There are two different approaches to how reliability can...

  2. Experimental testing of moorings for large floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a test campaign, which investigates the behaviour of a synthetic mooring system applied to the Floating Power Plant wave energy converter. The study investigates the motion and tension response under operational and extreme sea states expected at the deployment ...

  3. Experimental Validation of a Wave Energy Converter Array Hydrodynamics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses experimental data to validate a wave energy converter (WEC) array hydrodynamics tool developed within the context of linearized potential flow theory. To this end, wave forces and power absorption by an array of five-point absorber WECs in monochromatic and panchromatic waves were...

  4. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    2017-01-01

    in various positions and orientations are finally investigated. This thesis intends in this way to offer a practical approach to the analysis of wave energy converters when they operate together as an array and the optimal design of array layouts. The topics covered by the text include propagation of waves...

  5. Rectenna that converts infrared radiation to electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W.

    2016-09-06

    Technologies pertaining to converting infrared (IR) radiation to DC energy are described herein. In a general embodiment, a rectenna comprises a conductive layer. A thin insulator layer is formed on the conductive layer, and a nanoantenna is formed on the thin insulator layer. The thin insulator layer acts as a tunnel junction of a tunnel diode.

  6. Initial Assessment of Mooring Solutions for Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Delaney, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates three different types of mooring systems in order to establish potential cost reductions and applicability to wave energy converters (WECs). Proposed mooring systems for three existing WECs create the basis for this study, and the study highlights areas of interest ...

  7. New PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters for fuel cells and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters, which leads to safe commutation of the load current in the output bidirectional bridge. The proposed implementation is independent of the particular HF-link converter topology and bidirectional switch selection ...

  8. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  9. Operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Chang, Yi-Hao; Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wu, Kuen-Der

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation strategy for grid-connected PV generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed. • The PV system is composed of an inverter and two DC-DC converter. • The negative impact of grid-connected PV generation systems on the grid can be alleviated by integrating a battery. • The operation of the developed system can be divided into nine modes. - Abstract: The operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed in this paper. The photovoltaic generation system is composed of a full-bridge inverter, a DC–DC boost converter, an isolated bidirectional DC–DC converter, a solar cell array and a battery set. Since the battery set acts as an energy buffer to adjust the power generation of the solar cell array, the negative impact on power quality caused by the intermittent and unstable output power from a solar cell array is alleviated, so the penetration rate of the grid-connected photovoltaic generation system is increased. A lab-scale prototype is developed to verify the performance of the system. The experimental results show that it achieves the expected performance

  10. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  11. Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper reactive control and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) are compared. The analysis is based on a WEC from Wave Star A/S designed as a point absorber. The model predictive controller uses wave models based on the dominating sea states combined with a model...... connecting undisturbed wave sequences to sequences of torque. Losses in the conversion from mechanical to electrical power are taken into account in two ways. Conventional reactive controllers are tuned for each sea state with the assumption that the converter has the same efficiency back and forth. MPC...

  12. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  13. Applying Buck Converter in Jiuquan Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation%Buck变换器在酒泉太阳能光伏发电中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦天像

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic effect, the output voltage is energy, as a new, easily subject not stable. The research presented to seasonal variation, diurnal alternating in this paper shows Buck converter, the perturbation method, and the MPPT control strategy can be applied to the Jiuquan solar photovoltaic power generation, which can make the output of an equivalent impedance circuit with PV battery output impedance, the photovoltaic array in any condition to obtain the maximum power output, the advantages of tracking maximum power. Simulation results show that MPPT the feasibility of the control strategy, the proposed method can effectively improve the stability of the output voltage.%太阳能光伏发电作为一种新能源,易受季节变化、昼夜交替的影响,因此其输出电压很不稳定.鉴于此,本文采用Buck变换器,采用扰动观察法的MPPT控制策略,可应用到酒泉的太阳能光伏发电中,可使得输出电路的等效阻抗跟随光伏电池的输出阻抗,使光伏阵列在任何条件下获得最大功率输出,跟踪最大功率的优点.仿真表明,MPPT(最大功率跟踪)控制策略的可行性,该方法有效地提高了输出电压的稳定性.

  14. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  15. Control Method Based on Demand Response Needs of Isolated Bus Regulation with Series-Resonant Converters for Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Huai Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of isolation and high efficiency, a series-resonant DC-DC converter (L-L-C type, with two inductors and a capacitor has been introduced into a residential photovoltaic (PV generation and storage system in this work, and a voltage gain curve upwarp drifting problem was found. In this paper, the reason of upwarp drifting in the voltage gain curve is given, and a new changing topological control method to solve the voltage regulation problem under light load conditions is proposed. Firstly, the ideal and actual first harmonic approximation (FHA models are given, and this drifting problem is ascribed to the multiple peaks of higher-order resonance between resonant tank and parasitic capacitors. Then the paper presents the pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM driver signals control method to translate the full-bridge LLC into a half-bridge LLC converter, and with this method the voltage gain could easily be reduced by half. Based on this method, the whole voltage and resonant current sharing control methods in on-line and off-line mode are proposed. The parameters design and optimization methods are also discussed in detail. Finally, a residential PV system platform based on the proposed parallel 7-kW full-bridge LLC converter is built to verify the proposed control method and theoretical analysis.

  16. Stochastic control of inertial sea wave energy converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffero, Mattia; Martini, Michele; Passione, Biagio; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Bracco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  17. Operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Marquis, Laurent; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    costs including costs due to lost electricity production are minimized. The risk-based approach is compared with an approach where only boats are used and another approach where the target is to minimize the downtime of the device. This article presents a dynamic approach for total operation......Inspection and maintenance costs are a significant contributor to the cost of energy for wave energy converters. There are different operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters. Maintenance can be performed after failure (corrective) or before a breakdown (preventive) occurs....... Furthermore, a helicopter and boats can be used to transport equipment and personnel to the device, or the whole device can be towed to a harbour for operation and maintenance actions. This article describes, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance planning approach where the overall repair...

  18. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks. PMID:25874267

  19. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Raffero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  20. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to

  1. A Model Predictive Control-Based Power Converter System for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimara Rajapakse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictability and availability at large scale, wave energy conversion (WEC has still not become a mainstream renewable energy technology. One of the main reasons is the large variations in the extracted power which could lead to instabilities in the power grid. In addition, maintaining the speed of the turbine within optimal range under changing wave conditions is another control challenge, especially in oscillating water column (OWC type WEC systems. As a solution to the first issue, this paper proposes the direct connection of a battery bank into the dc-link of the back-to-back power converter system, thereby smoothening the power delivered to the grid. For the second issue, model predictive controllers (MPCs are developed for the rectifier and the inverter of the back-to-back converter system aiming to maintain the turbine speed within its optimum range. In addition, MPC controllers are designed to control the battery current as well, in both charging and discharging conditions. Operations of the proposed battery direct integration scheme and control solutions are verified through computer simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated energy storage and control solutions are capable of delivering smooth power to the grid while maintaining the turbine speed within its optimum range under varying wave conditions.

  2. Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 1: Circuit Generation, Analysis and Design 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Serna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family intended for photovoltaic and fuel cell applications is presented in this paper. The main requirements on such applications are small ripples in the generator and load, as well as high voltage conversion ratio. Therefore, interleaved structures and voltage multiplier cells have been asymmetrically combined to generate new converters, which inherently operate indiscontinuous conduction mode. The novel family is derived from boost, buck-boost and flyback-based structures. This converter family is analyzed to obtain the design equations and synthesize a design process based on the typical requirements of photovoltaic and fuel cell applications. Finally, the experimental results validate the characteristics and usefulness of the asymmetrical interleaved converter family. 

  3. LPV model for PV cell and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for V-I characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Reviewed

  4. LPV model for PV cells and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for VI characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Rev...

  5. A novel design of DC-AC electrical machine rotary converter for hybrid solar and wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, K G; Ramli, A Q; Amirulddin, U A U

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of a new bi-directional DC-AC rotary converter machine to convert a d.c. voltage to three-phase voltage and vice-versa using a two-stage energy conversion machine. The rotary converter consists of two main stages which are combined into single frame. These two stages are constructed from three main electromagnetic components. The first inner electromagnetic component represents the input stage that enables the DC power generated by solar energy from photo-voltaic cells to be transformed by the second and third components electro-magnetically to produce multi-phase voltages at the output stage. At the same time, extra kinetic energy from wind, which is sufficiently available, can be added to existing torque on the second electromagnetic component. Both of these input energies will add up to the final energy generated at the output terminals. Therefore, the machine will be able to convert solar and wind energies to the output terminals simultaneously. If the solar energy is low, the available wind energy will be able to provide energy to the output terminals and at the same time charges the batteries which are connected as backup system. At this moment, the machine behaves as wind turbine. The energy output from the machine benefits from two energy sources which are solar and wind. At night when the solar energy is not available and also the load is low, the wind energy is able to charge the batteries and at the same time provides output electrical power to the remaining the load. Therefore, the proposed system will have high usage of available renewable energy as compared to separated wind or solar systems. MATLAB codes are used to calculate the required dimensions, the magnetic and electrical circuits parameters to design of the new bi-directional rotary converter machine.

  6. Hydrogen as the solar energy translator. [in photochemical and photovoltaic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Many concepts are being investigated to convert sunlight to workable energy forms with emphasis on electricity and thermal energy. The electrical alternatives include direct conversion of photons to electricity via photovoltaic solar cells and solar/thermal production of electricity via heat-energy cycles. Solar cells, when commercialized, are expected to have efficiencies of about 12 to 14 percent. The cells would be active about eight hours per day. However, solar-operated water-splitting process research, initiated through JPL, shows promise for direct production of hydrogen from sunlight with efficiencies of up to 35 to 40 percent. The hydrogen, a valuable commodity in itself, can also serve as a storable energy form, easily and efficiently converted to electricity by fuel cells and other advanced-technology devices on a 24-hour basis or on demand with an overall efficiency of 25 to 30 percent. Thus, hydrogen serves as the fundamental translator of energy from its solar form to electrical form more effectively, and possibly more efficiently, than direct conversion. Hydrogen also can produce other chemical energy forms using solar energy.

  7. User guide – COE Calculation Tool for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Jensen, Niels Ejner Helstrup

    Aalborg University together with Energinet.dk and Julia F. Chozas Consulting Engineer, have released a freely available online spreadsheet to evaluate the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) for wave energy projects. The open-access tool calculates the LCOE based on the power production of a Wave...... Energy Converter (WEC) at a particular location. Production data may derive from laboratory testing, numerical modelling or from sea trials. The tool has been developed as a transparent and simple model that evaluates WEC’s economic feasibility in a range of locations, while scaling WEC’s features...

  8. Effect of chemically converted graphene as an electrode interfacial modifier on device-performances of inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Woon; Noh, Yong-Jin; Yun, Jin-Mun; Yang, Si-Young; Yang, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hae-Seong; Na, Seok-In

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of chemically converted graphene (CCG) materials as a metal electrode interfacial modifier on device-performances of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs). As CCG materials for interfacial layers, a conventional graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared, and their functions on OPV-performances were compared. The inverted OPVs with CCG materials showed all improved cell-efficiencies compared with the OPVs with no metal/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) interlayers. In particular, the inverted OPVs with reduction form of GO showed better device-performances than those with GO and better device-stability than poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based inverted solar cells, showing that the rGO can be more desirable as a metal/BHJ interfacial material for fabricating inverted-configuration OPVs.

  9. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  10. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  11. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  12. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS USING FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian MIRON

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy generators show an accelerated growth both in terms of production wise, as well as in research fields. Focusing only on photovoltaic panels, the generated energy has the disadvantage of being strongly oscillatory in evolution. The classical solution is to create a network between photovoltaic farms spanning on large distances, in order to share the total energy before sending it to the clients. A solution that was recently proposed is going to use hydrogen in order to store the energy surplus. Fuel Cells (FCs represent energy generators whose energy vector is usually hydrogen. These have already started the transition from the laboratory context towards commercialization. Due to their high energy density, as well as their theoretical infinite storage capacity through hydrogen, configurations based on electrolyzers and FCs are seen as high potential storage systems, both for vehicle and for stationary applications. Therefore, a study on such distributed control systems is of high importance. This paper analyses the existing solutions, with emphasis on a particular case where a supervisory system is developed and tested in a specialised simulation software.

  13. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....

  14. Photovoltaic energy in France: 2015, a good year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtel, J.; Tuille, F.

    2015-01-01

    The figures collected for the first semester of 2015 show that the 2014 growth of photovoltaic energy is keeping on. In june 2015 the cumulated installed power reached 6046 MWc. The next challenge is the implementation in january 2016 of a new financial support mechanism based on additional income instead of an EDF's obligation to purchase at fixed tariffs. The additional income is due to be paid with regular periodicity rather than as a whole at the beginning of the project. The amount of the additional income will be calculated as a difference between a maximum target price and the average market price of electricity. This new financial support mechanism shows that the photovoltaic sector is entering a maturity phase. (A.C.)

  15. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  16. Modeling, Dynamics, Bifurcation Behavior and Stability Analysis of a DC-DC Boost Converter in Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, M.; El Aroudi, A.; Belghith, S.; Bosque-Moncusí, J. M.; Giral, R.; Al Hosani, K.; Al-Numay, M.

    A study of a DC-DC boost converter fed by a photovoltaic (PV) generator and supplying a constant voltage load is presented. The input port of the converter is controlled using fixed frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) based on the loss-free resistor (LFR) concept whose parameter is selected with the aim to force the PV generator to work at its maximum power point. Under this control strategy, it is shown that the system can exhibit complex nonlinear behaviors for certain ranges of parameter values. First, using the nonlinear models of the converter and the PV source, the dynamics of the system are explored in terms of some of its parameters such as the proportional gain of the controller and the output DC bus voltage. To present a comprehensive approach to the overall system behavior under parameter changes, a series of bifurcation diagrams are computed from the circuit-level switched model and from a simplified model both implemented in PSIM© software showing a remarkable agreement. These diagrams show that the first instability that takes place in the system period-1 orbit when a primary parameter is varied is a smooth period-doubling bifurcation and that the nonlinearity of the PV generator is irrelevant for predicting this phenomenon. Different bifurcation scenarios can take place for the resulting period-2 subharmonic regime depending on a secondary bifurcation parameter. The boundary between the desired period-1 orbit and subharmonic oscillation resulting from period-doubling in the parameter space is obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix of the simplified model. The results from this model have been validated with time-domain numerical simulation using the circuit-level switched model and also experimentally from a laboratory prototype. This study can help in selecting the parameter values of the circuit in order to delimit the region of period-1 operation of the converter which is of practical interest in PV systems.

  17. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview, Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, P.

    2001-03-02

    This ''annual report'' details the FY 2000 achievements of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Program in the categories of Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. Highlights include development of a record-breaking concentrator solar cell that is 32.4% efficient; fabrication of a record CIGS (copper indium gallium diselenide) cell at 18.8% efficiency; sharing an R and D 100 award with Siemens Solar Industries and the California Energy Commission for development and deployment of commercial CIS thin-film modules; and support for the efforts of the PV Industry Roadmap Workshop.

  18. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  19. Enhancing the performance of photovoltaic cells by using down-converting KCaGd(PO4)2∶Eu3+ phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yen-Chi Chen; Woan-Yu Huang; Teng-Ming Chen

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is aimed to improve the power conversion efficiency of single crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle,which employed a down-converting phosphor to convert a high-energy ultraviolet photon to the less energetic red-emitting photons to improve the spectral response of Si solar cells.In this study,the surface of silicon solar cells was coated with a red-emitting KCaGd(PO4)2∶Eu3+ phosphor by using the screen-printing technique.In addition to the investigation on the microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM),we measured the short circuit current (Isc),open circuit voltage (Voc),and power conversion efficiency (η) of spectral-conversion cells and compared with those of bare solar cells as a reference.Preliminary experimental results revealed that in an optimized PV cell,an enhancement of (0.64+0.01)% (from 16.03% to 16.67%) in △η ofa Si-based PV cell was achieved.

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Program Contract Summary; Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    1999-02-16

    This document provides individual summaries of some 200 photovoltaics research projects performed in house and by subcontractors to Department of Energy national laboratories and field offices, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Golden Field Office, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Albuquerque Field Office, and Boston Support Office. The document is divided into the following sections: research and development, technology development, and systems engineering and applications. Three indexes are included: performing organizations by name, performing organizations by state, and performing organizations by technology area.

  1. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  2. Energy metrics analysis of hybrid - photovoltaic (PV) modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, 13 k.m. stone, Ghaziabad - Meerut Road, Ghaziabad 201 206, UP (India); Barnwal, P.; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, energy metrics (energy pay back time, electricity production factor and life cycle conversion efficiency) of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) modules have been analyzed and presented for the composite climate of New Delhi, India. For this purpose, it is necessary to calculate (1) the energy consumption in making different components of the PV modules and (2) the annual energy (electrical and thermal) available from the hybrid-PV modules. A set of mathematical relations have been reformulated for computation of the energy metrics. The manufacturing energy, material production energy, energy use and distribution energy of the system have been taken into account, to determine the embodied energy for the hybrid-PV modules. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. For hybrid PV module, it has been observed that the EPBT gets significantly reduced by taking into account the increase in annual energy availability of the thermal energy in addition to the electrical energy. The values of EPF and LCCE of hybrid PV module become higher as expected. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic Cells and Systems: Current State and Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj Bourdoucen; Joseph A. Jervase; Abdullah Al-Badi; Adel Gastli; Arif Malik

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the process of converting solar energy into electrical energy. Any photovoltaic system invariably consists of solar cell arrays and electric power conditioners. Photovoltaic systems are reliable, quiet, safe and both environmentally benign and self-sustaining. In addition, they are cost-effective for applications in remote areas. This paper presents a review of solar system components and integration, manufacturing, applications, and basic research related to photovoltaics. P...

  4. Modularized multilevel and z-source power converter as renewable energy interface for vehicle and grid-connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dong

    Due the energy crisis and increased oil price, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic panel, wind turbine, or thermoelectric generation module, are used more and more widely for vehicle and grid-connected applications. However, the output of these renewable energy sources varies according to different solar radiation, wind speed, or temperature difference, a power converter interface is required for the vehicle or grid-connected applications. Thermoelectric generation (TEG) module as a renewable energy source for automotive industry is becoming very popular recently. Because of the inherent characteristics of TEG modules, a low input voltage, high input current and high voltage gain dc-dc converters are needed for the automotive load. Traditional high voltage gain dc-dc converters are not suitable for automotive application in terms of size and high temperature operation. Switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have to be used for this application. However, high voltage spike and EMI problems exist in traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. Huge capacitor banks have to be utilized to reduce the voltage ripple and achieve high efficiency. A series of zero current switching (ZCS) or zero voltage switching switched-capacitor dc-dc converters have been proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems of the traditional switched-capacitor dc-dc converters. By using the proposed soft-switching strategy, high voltage spike is reduced, high EMI noise is restricted, and the huge capacitor bank is eliminated. High efficiency, high power density and high temperature switched-capacitor dc-dc converters could be made for the TEG interface in vehicle applications. Several prototypes have been made to validate the proposed circuit and confirm the circuit operation. In order to apply PV panel for grid-connected application, a low cost dc-ac inverter interface is required. From the use of transformer and safety concern, two different solutions can be implemented, non

  5. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  6. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...

  7. Dynamics of voltage source converter in a grid connected solar photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Vangari, Adithya; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper emphasises the modelling and control of a voltage source converter (VSC) for three phase grid connected PV system. The transfer functions for inner current control and outer DC link voltage control for VSC are derived. The controllers for VSC are designed based on PI and K factor contr...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POLYCRYSTALLINE AND THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC FARM IN THE DOLINA ZIELAWY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an opportunity not only to improve the energy efficiency of individual customers, but also to ensure energy security for local governments. In 2007, in Lublin province 5 municipalities have formed a partnership government called "Valley of Zielawa". The objectives of the partnership is the cooperation in the field of education, tasks in the field of culture, health protection, social welfare, fire protection and street lighting. One of the overarching goals of the partnership include ensure energy security and improving energy efficiency through the utilization of solar energy. Solar energy resources in the Lublin region are mainly characterized by a very high degree of sunlight compared to other regions of the country. The greatest potential for solar energy use is the eastern area of the province (including the area of partnership. In order to ensure the energy security of the community established a company Energy Valley of Zielawa, which in 2014 built a photovoltaic farm with a capacity of 1.4 MW in the Bordziłówka in Municipality Rossosz. This paper presents an analysis of photovoltaic farm work over the year and a half and the analysis of the energy efficiency of various types of photovoltaic panels which produce energy on a farm in photovoltaic Bordziłówce.

  9. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  10. Hydraulic Evaluation of the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the power production of the device, based...... on laboratory testing of a model of the WEC provided by LEANCON. LEANCON, represented by Kurt Due Rasmussen, has been heavily involved in the testing of the device, including the instrumentation, model setup and execution of the tests in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave...... Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  11. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  12. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  13. Two novel techniques for increasing energy efficiency of photovoltaic-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel techniques for increasing the energy efficiency of PV-battery systems. • Practically, 27% increase in the energy efficiency of PV-battery systems. • Novel proposed DC/PWM inverter for substituting conventional primary DC/DC converters. • Presenting theoretical, simulation & experimental results to verify the above claims. - Abstract: A photovoltaic (PV)-battery power source consists of a PV panel, a primary DC/DC converter, and a battery or a batteries bank. It is generally used to provide electric energy for local consumers such as buildings. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) schemes cannot be applied to it because the PV panel output current is only determined by the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. In this study, two novel techniques are proposed to increase the energy efficiency of PV-battery power sources. Replacing the primary DC/DC converter with a novel proposed DC/PWM inverter, and decomposing the PV panel into a set of parallel homogenous configured PV modules are the two proposed techniques. It is shown that the implementation of each technique effectively increases the energy efficiency of PV-battery power sources. The two techniques are combined to each other to implement a new PV-battery power source. It is proved that the energy efficiency of the new version is significantly more than conventional version. Simulated results performed in MATLAB/Proteus 6 verify an increase of 29% in the energy efficiency. Four PV-battery power sources have been built, and comparative experimental results are presented that verify an increase of 27% in the energy efficiency.

  14. Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan; Le photovoltaique organique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  16. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  17. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  18. Bifurcation-free design method of pulse energy converter controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokolov, Yury; Ustinov, Pavel; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of pulse energy converter (PEC) controllers is proposed. This method develops a classical frequency domain design, based on the small signal modeling, by means of an addition of a nonlinear dynamics analysis stage. The main idea of the proposed method consists in fact that the PEC controller, designed with an application of the small signal modeling, is tuned after with taking into the consideration an essentially nonlinear nature of the PEC that makes it possible to avoid bifurcation phenomena in the PEC dynamics at the design stage (bifurcation-free design). Also application of the proposed method allows an improvement of the designed controller performance. The application of this bifurcation-free design method is demonstrated on an example of the controller design of direct current-direct current (DC-DC) buck converter with an input electromagnetic interference filter.

  19. Analysis of Energy Transmission Modes of Flyback Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Shu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of significance to investigate energy transmission modes of a flyback converter for its optimum design. In this paper, the ETMs of a flyback converter are divided into three modes, which are continuous conduction mode-complete inductor supply mode, continuous conduction mode- incomplete inductor supply mode and discontinuous conduction mode-incomplete inductor supply mode, respectively. A deep analysis of the operation is made, a reduction of the boundary condition between the modes is conducted and a comparison of current stress, transformer AP and output ripple voltage between the modes is performed. A 30W prototype is developed and its experiment is done. The experiment results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis quite well.

  20. Subcutaneous Photovoltaic Infrared Energy Harvesting for Bio-Implantable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunseong; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D

    2017-05-01

    Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1-3], kinetic [4-6], radio-frequency [7-11] and radiative sources [12-14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive. Here we show that photovoltaic cells at the mm-scale can achieve a power conversion efficiency of more than 17 % for silicon and 31 % for GaAs under 1.06 μW/mm 2 infrared irradiation at 850 nm. Finally, these photovoltaic cells demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting through biological tissue from ambient sunlight, or irradiation from infrared sources such as used in present-day surveillance systems, by utilizing the near infrared (NIR) transparency window between the 650 nm and 950 nm wavelength range [15-17].

  1. AlGaAs/GaAs photovoltaic converters for high power narrowband radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostikov, Vladimir; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay; Mintairov, Sergey; Potapovich, Nataliia; Shvarts, Maxim; Sorokina, Svetlana; Andreev, Viacheslav [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Luque, Antonio [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia and Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    AlGaAs/GaAs-based laser power PV converters intended for operation with high-power (up to 100 W/cm{sup 2}) radiation were fabricated by LPE and MOCVD techniques. Monochromatic (λ = 809 nm) conversion efficiency up to 60% was measured at cells with back surface field and low (x = 0.2) Al concentration 'window'. Modules with a voltage of 4 V and the efficiency of 56% were designed and fabricated.

  2. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  3. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  4. Halide Perovskites: New Science or ``only'' future Energy Converters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahen, David

    Over the years many new ideas and systems for photovoltaic, PV, solar to electrical energy conversion have been explored, but only a few have really impacted PV's role as a more sustainable, environmentally less problematic and safer source of electrical power than fossil or nuclear fuel-based generation. Will Halide Perovskites, HaPs, be able to join the very select group of commercial PV options? To try to address this question, we put Halide Perovskite(HaP) cells in perspective with respect to other PV cells. Doing so also allows to identify fundamental scientific issues that can be important for PV and beyond. What remains to be seen is if those issues lead to new science or scientific insights or additional use of existing models. Being more specific is problematic, given the fact that this will be 4 months after writing this abstract. Israel National Nano-initiative, Weizmann Institute of Science's Alternative sustainable Energy Research Initiative; Israel Ministries of -Science and of -Infrastructure, Energy & Water.

  5. The maximization of the efficiency in the energy conversion in isolated photovoltaic systems; Tecnicas de maxima transferencia de potencia em sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Diniz, A. S. A. C.; Cortizo, P. C.; Oliveira-Filho, D.

    2004-07-01

    The maximization of the efficiency in the energy conversion is essential into the developing of technical and economic sustainability of photovoltaic solar energy systems. In this paper is realized the study of a power maximization technique for photovoltaic generators. The power maximization technique explored in this paper is the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). There are different strategies being studied currently; this work consists of the development of an electronic converter prototype for MPPT, including the developing of the tracking algorithm implemented in a microcontroller. It is also realized a simulation of the system and a prototype was assembled and the first results are presented here. (Author)

  6. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2014-10-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  7. L-L multilevel boost converter topology for renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Fedák, Viliam

    2017-01-01

    ; such as a photovoltaic (PV) system with a Multilevel Inverter (MLI), electrical drives, automotive, hybrid electric cars etc. The proposed topology is derived by attaching the Cockcroft Walton (CW) multiplier to an upper L-converter of the LL topology of XY family. The mode of operation of L-LMBC with mathematical...

  8. Creating Public Awareness of Renewable Energy by Combining a Photovoltaic System and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted; Andersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing. The situa......Energy is seemingly permanently and nearly everywhere in the western world available to the end consumer. While a majority of the western civilization is aware of the downsides of fossil energy sources and is favoring renewable energy sources, the energy consumption is still increasing....... The situation is quite clear to the experts in the field, but further awareness in the public must be created. Therefore this paper addresses a method of creating this awareness: installations that stimulate conversations of renewable energy. A solar tree was developed and built to serve young people with an AC....... The mechanical requirements and the developed solution is shown, before providing intensive insight into the electrical configuration, consisting of a battery, photovoltaic cells and a DC-AC converter. Furthermore a low complexity charge controller is presented. The resulting solar tree is capable of attracting...

  9. Press document. Photovoltaic energy: boosting the evolution; Dossier de presse. Photovoltaique: accelerer l'innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The french potential in the photovoltaic energy is considerable but not very exploited. In this context the CEA, by its function of applied research institute in the domain of the low carbon energies can be a major actor of the sector development. This document presents the research programs in the photovoltaic domain, developed at the CEA, especially on the silicon performance, the photovoltaic solar cells and their integration in the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  10. The TELEC - A plasma type of direct energy converter. [Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) is a high-power density plasma device designed to convert a 10.6-micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. Electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in plasma electrons, creating a high-electron temperature. Energetic electrons diffuse from the plasma and strike two electrodes having different areas. The larger electrode collects more electrons and there is a net transport of current. An electromagnetic field is generated in the external circuit. A computer program has been designed to analyze TELEC performance allowing parametric variation for optimization. Values are presented for TELEC performance as a function of cesium pressure and for current density and efficiency as a function of output voltage. Efficiency is shown to increase with pressure, reaching a maximum over 45%.

  11. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  12. Hydrodynamic Investigation of a Concentric Cylindrical OWC Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A fixed, concentric, cylindrical oscillating water column (OWC wave energy converter (WEC is proposed for shallow offshore sites. Compared with the existing shoreline OWC device, this wave energy device is not restricted by the wave directions and coastline geography conditions. Analytical solutions are derived based on the linear potential-flow theory and eigen-function expansion technique to investigate hydrodynamic properties of the device. Three typical free-surface oscillation modes in the chamber are discussed, of which the piston-type mode makes the main contribution to the energy conversion. The effects of the geometrical parameters on the hydrodynamic properties are further investigated. The resonance frequency of the chamber, the power extraction efficiency, and the effective frequency bandwidth of the device is discussed, amongst other topics. It is found that the proposed OWC-WEC device with a lower draft and wider chamber breadth has better power extraction ability.

  13. WEC3: Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combourieu, Adrien; Lawson, Michael; Babarit, Aurelien; Ruehl, Kelley; Roy, Andre; Costello, Ronan; Laporte Weywada, Pauline; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently launched Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison (WEC3) project and present preliminary results from this effort. The objectives of WEC3 are to verify and validate numerical modelling tools that have been developed specifically to simulate wave energy conversion devices and to inform the upcoming IEA OES Annex VI Ocean Energy Modelling Verification and Validation project. WEC3 is divided into two phases. Phase 1 consists of a code-to-code verification and Phase II entails code-to-experiment validation. WEC3 focuses on mid-fidelity codes that simulate WECs using time-domain multibody dynamics methods to model device motions and hydrodynamic coefficients to model hydrodynamic forces. Consequently, high-fidelity numerical modelling tools, such as Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulation, and simple frequency domain modelling tools were not included in the WEC3 project.

  14. The SSG Wave Energy Converter: Performance, Status and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Buccino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator (SSG is a Wave Energy Converter based on the wave overtopping principle; it employs several reservoirs placed on top of each other, in which the energy of incoming waves is stored as potential energy. Then, the captured water runs through turbines for electricity production. The system works under a wide spectrum of different wave conditions, giving a high overall efficiency. It can be suitable for shoreline and breakwater applications and presents particular advantages, such as sharing structure costs, availability of grid connection and recirculation of water inside the harbor, as the outlet of the turbines is on the rear part of the system. Recently, plans for the SSG pilot installations are in progress at the Svaaheia site (Norway, the port of Hanstholm (Denmark and the port of Garibaldi (Oregon, USA. In the last-mentioned two projects, the Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator technology is integrated into the outer harbor breakwater and jetty reconstruction projects. In the last years extensive studies have been performed on the hydraulic and the structural response of this converter, with the aim of optimizing the design process. The investigations have been conducted by physical model tests and numerical simulations and many results have been published on both conference proceedings and journals. The main scope of this paper is reviewing the most significant findings, to provide the reader with an organic overview on the present status of knowledge.

  15. Comparison of heaving buoy and oscillating flap wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Aftar; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Najafian, G.

    2013-04-01

    Waves offer an attractive source of renewable energy, with relatively low environmental impact, for communities reasonably close to the sea. Two types of simple wave energy converters (WEC), the heaving buoy WEC and the oscillating flap WEC, are studied. Both WECs are considered as simple energy converters because they can be modelled, to a first approximation, as single degree of freedom linear dynamic systems. In this study, we estimate the response of both WECs to typical wave inputs; wave height for the buoy and corresponding wave surge for the flap, using spectral methods. A nonlinear model of the oscillating flap WEC that includes the drag force, modelled by the Morison equation is also considered. The response to a surge input is estimated by discrete time simulation (DTS), using central difference approximations to derivatives. This is compared with the response of the linear model obtained by DTS and also validated using the spectral method. Bendat's nonlinear system identification (BNLSI) technique was used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic system since the spectral analysis was only suitable for linear dynamic system. The effects of including the nonlinear term are quantified.

  16. Development trends of combined inductance-capacitance electromechanical energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayan Hamlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the modern state of completely new direction of electromechanical science such as combined inductive-capacitive electromechanics is considered. The wide spectra of its possible practical applications and prospects for further development are analyzed. A new approach for mathematical description of transients in dualcon jugate dynamic systems is proposed. On the basis of the algorithm differential equations for inductive-capacitive compatible electromechanical energy converters are derived. The generalized Lagrangian theory of combined inductively-capacitive electric machines was developed as a union of generalized Lagrangian models of inductive and capacitive electro-mechanical energy converters developed on the basis of the basic principles of binary-conjugate electrophysics. The author gives equations of electrodynamics and electromechanics of combined inductive-capacitive electric machines in case there are active electrotechnical materials of dual purpose (ferroelectromagnets in the structure of their excitation system. At the same time, the necessary Lagrangian for combined inductive-capacitive forces was built using new technologies of interaction between inductive and capacitive subsystems. The joint solution of these equations completely determines the dynamic behavior and energy characteristics of the generalized model of combined machines of any design and in any modes of interaction of their functional elements

  17. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  18. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  19. Model Predictive Control of Buoy Type Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen N.; Sichani, Mahdi T.; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    by forcing this condition. In the paper the theoretical framework for this principal is shown. The optimal controller requires information of the sea state for infinite horizon which is not applicable. Model Predictive Controllers (MPC) can have finite horizon which crosses out this requirement....... This approach is then taken into account and an MPC controller is designed for a model wave energy converter and implemented on a numerical example. Further, the power outtake of this controller is compared to the optimal controller as an indicator of the performance of the designed controller....

  20. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating principle of D-DWECs is introduced, and detailed analyses of the proposed D-DWEC’s floater system, wave force characteristics, and conversion efficiency conducted using computational fluid dynamics are presented. A TPMLG with an asymmetric slot structure is designed to increase the output electric power, and detailed analyses of the magnetic field distribution, detent force characteristics, and no-load and load performances conducted using finite element analysis are discussed. The TPMLG with an asymmetric slot, which produces the same power as the TPMLG with a symmetric slot, has one fifth detent force of the latter. An experiment system with a prototype of the TPMLG with a symmetric slot is used to test the simulation results. The experiment and analysis results agree well. Therefore, the proposed D-DWEC fulfills the requirements of WEC systems.

  1. Hydraulic Response of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  2. Development and implementation of a compound converter in solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. B. Hartman

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available The converter proposed here is a compound photovoltaic converter system that has been implemented with a power rating of 1,5 kVA at an array voltage of 96 V, using a 24 V battery bank. The converter system combines the functions of inversion, battery regulation and maximum power point tracking of the solar array into a single cost-effective converter. Maximum power point tracking is performed by controlling the voltage and frequency of the AC output. A description of this converter, and an explanation of the control strategy employed, are provided together with practical results measured on the prototype converter. This compound topology has a high conversion efficiency from solar array to load.

  3. Advances in spectral conversion for photovoltaics: up-converting Er3+ doped YF3 nano-crystals in transparent glass ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Hueso, Jose; Chen, Daqin; MacDougall, Sean K. W.; Wang, Yuansheng; Richards, Bryce S.

    2011-09-01

    Up- and down-conversion (UC, DC) constitute two singular routes to achieve improved energy harvesting of sunlight by changing its shape of the solar spectrum. To obtain a significant conversion rate two main challenges have to be overcome: i) the excited lanthanide ions have to emit efficiently, a target which has been better accomplished for DC materials; ii) the absorption in the lanthanide-based UC and DC layers has to be high to ensure a sizeable fraction of photons can be harvested. In this paper, we review such materials and their use as spectral converters for photovoltaics (PV), paying special attention to the UC and DC processes in lanthanide glasses in fluoride matrices. We discuss the challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement these materials in real PV devices. Finally, we will present the synthesis of erbium (Er3+) doped YF3 nano-crystals embedded in transparent glass ceramic (TGC) by melt quenching. This material presents a low phonon energy environment for the Er3+ ions due to the fluoride crystals, while the silica glass provides chemical and mechanical stability to the compound.

  4. Graphene-Based Integrated Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting/Storage Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Tao; Hiralal, Pritesh; Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chen, Chun-Wei; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

    2015-06-24

    Energy scavenging has become a fundamental part of ubiquitous sensor networks. Of all the scavenging technologies, solar has the highest power density available. However, the energy source is erratic. Integrating energy conversion and storage devices is a viable route to obtain self-powered electronic systems which have long-term maintenance-free operation. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated-power-sheet, consisting of a string of series connected organic photovoltaic cells (OPCs) and graphene supercapacitors on a single substrate, using graphene as a common platform. This results in lighter and more flexible power packs. Graphene is used in different forms and qualities for different functions. Chemical vapor deposition grown high quality graphene is used as a transparent conductor, while solution exfoliated graphene pastes are used as supercapacitor electrodes. Solution-based coating techniques are used to deposit the separate components onto a single substrate, making the process compatible with roll-to-roll manufacture. Eight series connected OPCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60 BM) bulk-heterojunction cells with aluminum electrodes, resulting in a ≈5 V open-circuit voltage, provide the energy harvesting capability. Supercapacitors based on graphene ink with ≈2.5 mF cm(-2) capacitance provide the energy storage capability. The integrated-power-sheet with photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting and storage functions had a mass of 0.35 g plus the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  6. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Converters for Battery Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nasir Ayob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two wave energy concepts for small-scale electricity generation. In the presented case, these concepts are installed on the buoy of a heaving, point-absorbing wave energy converter (WEC for large scale electricity production. In the studied WEC, developed by Uppsala University, small-scale electricity generation in the buoy is needed to power a tidal compensating system designed to increase the performance of the WEC in areas with high tides. The two considered and modeled concepts are an oscillating water column (OWC and a heaving point absorber. The results indicate that the OWC is too small for the task and does not produce enough energy. On the other hand, the results show that a hybrid system composed of a small heaving point absorber combined with a solar energy system would be able to provide a requested minimum power of around 37.7 W on average year around. The WEC and solar panel complement each other, as the WEC produces enough energy by itself during wintertime (but not in the summer, while the solar panel produces enough energy in the summer (but not in the winter.

  7. Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy efficiency of a photovoltaic cell based thin films CZTS by SCAPS. ... use of natural resources, the use of renewable energy including solar photovoltaic ... η for typical structures of ZnO / i- ZnO / CdS / CZTS and ITO / ZnO / CdS / CZTS.

  8. 13{sup th} Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Power converters in grids. Proceedings; 13. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Stromrichter in Netzen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Increasingly static converters are used for the integration of distributed power generators into the grid, e.g. photovoltaic systems and speed-variable wind energy converters. Also other power generators, storage systems and electrical loads are integrated via power electronics. A variety of product specific standards had been developed for integrating converters into the grid. These standards had emerged parallel to each other as a result of the demands of different forms of energy for the feed-in and consumption of electrical power. Meanwhile it became clear that applications which are sometimes very similar are determined differently by these standards. A further demand for harmonisation arises naturally in the international standardisation. In the run-up to the Symposium the second DERlab workshop 'European DERlab Workshop on Grid Inverters' will be held to prepare an international white book. The white book will be titled 'International White Book on Grid Inverters' and will describe medium to long-term tasks for the standardisation of grid-coupled converters. The 13th Kassel Symposium will give an overview of the wide range of applications of power electronic converters in the grid. Hereby similarities and differences should be disclosed, which will create a basis for further expert talks about the transition of our power supply to an increasing share of grid-coupled converters. Questions which will be discussed include: - What does a high share of converters mean for stability, safety and quality of the grid? - Is it necessary to adapt power system protection technology and safety regulations? - How shall converters act in the future, what is technically feasible, what is economically reasonable? - Are all converter-coupled systems able to provide ancillary services? - How will the grid codes change? Most of the presentations will be in German, simultaneous interpretation will be available. This book is prepared to give you a survey on

  9. Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...

  10. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  11. Photovoltaic technology diffusion. Contact and interact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijsen, J.

    1999-09-01

    How can the diffusion of photovoltaic technologies be advanced? Photovoltaics convert light into electrical energy. They are environmentally friendly, reliable and have minimal maintenance requirements. Up to now, their introduction into the electricity market has been dominated by a technology push perspective. However, this has not yet resulted in a large-scale implementation. This thesis describes a network approach to advance photovoltaic diffusion and presents four guiding principles intended for the parties concerned: those who supply the photovoltaic technologies (e.g., developers of photovoltaic cells); those who integrate photovoltaic technologies into (new) product systems (e.g., engineering firms); the users of photovoltaic systems (e.g., housing corporations); and those who stimulate the use of photovoltaics (e.g., policymakers, subsidisers, branch organisations, financial institutes, and NGOs). refs

  12. Modeling and Simulation of a Wave Energy Converter INWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Kwan Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available INGINE Inc. developed its own wave energy converter (WEC named INWAVE and has currently installed three prototype modules in Jeju Island, Korea. This device is an on-shore-type WEC that consists of a buoy, pulleys fixed to the sea-floor and a power take off module (PTO. Three ropes are moored tightly on the bottom of the buoy and connected to the PTO via the pulleys, which are moving back and forth according to the motion of the buoy. Since the device can harness wave energy from all six degrees of movement of the buoy, it is possible to extract energy efficiently even under low energy density conditions provided in the coastal areas. In the PTO module, the ratchet gears convert the reciprocating movement of the rope drum into a uni-directional rotation and determine the transmission of power from the relation of the angular velocities between the rope drum and the generator. In this process, the discontinuity of the power transmission occurs and causes the modeling divergence. Therefore, we introduce the concept of the virtual torsion spring in order to prevent the impact error in the ratchet gear module, thereby completing the PTO modeling. In this paper, we deal with dynamic analysis in the time domain, based on Newtonian mechanics and linear wave theory. We derive the combined dynamics of the buoy and PTO modules via geometric relation between the buoy and mooring ropes, then suggest the ratchet gear mechanism with the virtual torsion spring element to reduce the dynamic errors during the phase transitions. Time domain simulation is carried out under irregular waves that reflect the actual wave states of the installation area, and we evaluate the theoretical performance using the capture width ratio.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy photovoltaic energy program contract summary, fiscal year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.; Hansen, A.

    2000-02-17

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999 (FY 1999). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the US industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the US industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy photovoltaic energy program contract summary, fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.; Hansen, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1998, through September 30, 1999 (FY 1999). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the US industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the US industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals

  15. Hybrid energy converter based on swirling combustion chambers: the hydrocarbon feeding analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reports the latest investigations about a miniaturized hybrid energy power source, compatible with thermal/electrical conversion, by a thermo-photovoltaic cell, and potentially useful for civil and space applications. The converter is a thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped element and the basic idea is to heat up its emitting surfaces by means of combustion, occurred in swirling chambers, integrated inside the device, and/or by the sun, which may work simultaneously or alternatively to the combustion. The current upgrades consist in examining whether the device might fulfill specific design constraints, adopting hydrocarbons-feeding. Previous papers, published by the author, demonstrate the hydrogen-feeding effectiveness. The project’s constraints are: 1 emitting surface dimensions fixed to 30 × 30 mm, 2 surface peak temperature T > 1000 K and the relative ∆T < 100 K (during the combustion mode, 3 the highest possible delivered power to the ambient, and 4 thermal efficiency greater than 20% when works with solar energy. To this end, a 5 connected swirling chambers configuration (3 mm of diameter, with 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichiometric conditions and detailed chemistry, has been adopted. Reactive numerical simulations show that the stiff methane chemical structure obliges to increase the operating pressure, up to 10 atm, and to add hydrogen, to the methane fuel injection, in order to obtain stable combustion and efficient energy conversion.

  16. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Larsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and floating structure absorbs the energy of the waves through a multitude of rotors. The shape of the rotors is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. On each leg, the rotors pivot around a common axle, through which the rotors transfer the absorbed power to a common power take off system. The study investigates the required capacity of the power take off (PTO system and the structural forces on a WEPTOS WEC prototype, intended for installation at Hanstholm (Denmark, based on large scale experimental tests using a highly realistic laboratory model of the complete device. The results hereof includes the rotational speed and transmitted torque (and hereby power to the PTO system using different PTO control strategies, the impact of fluctuations of the available mechanical power and the effect of limiting the PTO capacity on the annual energy production. Acquisition of structural forces includes mooring forces and structural bending moments in both production and extreme wave conditions, illustrating that the regulation of the angle in the A shape ensures that extreme forces on the structure can be kept in the same order of magnitude as in production conditions.

  17. An Original Transformer and Switched-Capacitor (T & SC-Based Extension for DC-DC Boost Converter for High-Voltage/Low-Current Renewable Energy Applications: Hardware Implementation of a New T & SC Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new Transformer and Switched Capacitor-based Boost Converter (T & SC-BC is proposed for high-voltage/low-current renewable energy applications. The proposed T & SC-BC is an original extension for DC-DC boost converter which is designed by utilizing a transformer and switched capacitor (T & SC. Photovoltaic (PV energy is a fast emergent segment among the renewable energy systems. The proposed T & SC-BC combines the features of the conventional boost converter and T & SC to achieve a high voltage conversion ratio. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller is compulsory and necessary in a PV system to extract maximum power. Thus, a photovoltaic MPPT control mechanism also articulated for the proposed T & SC-BC. The voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin of proposed converter is (1 + k/(1 − D where, k is the turns ratio of the transformer and D is the duty cycle (thus, the converter provides 9.26, 13.88, 50/3 voltage conversion ratios at 78.4 duty cycle with k = 1, 2, 2.6, respectively. The conspicuous features of proposed T & SC-BC are: (i a high voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin; (ii continuous input current (Iin; (iii single switch topology; (iv single input source; (v low drain to source voltage (VDS rating of control switch; (vi a single inductor and a single untapped transformer are used. Moreover, the proposed T & SC-BC topology was compared with recently addressed DC-DC converters in terms of number of components, cost, voltage conversion ratio, ripples, efficiency and power range. Simulation and experimental results are provided which validate the functionality, design and concept of the proposed approach.

  18. Analysis of the economics of photovoltaic-diesel-battery energy systems for remote applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulations were conducted to analyze the performance and operating cost of a photovoltaic energy source combined with a diesel generator system and battery storage. The simulations were based on the load demand profiles used for the design of an all photovoltaic energy system installed in the remote Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli, Arizona. Twenty year simulations were run using solar insolation data from Phoenix SOLMET tapes. Total energy produced, energy consumed, operation and maintenance costs were calculated. The life cycle and levelized energy costs were determined for a variety of system configurations (i.e., varying amounts of photovoltaic array and battery storage).

  19. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    , detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control......Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing...... the grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view...

  20. Neural Modeling of Fuzzy Controllers for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Ramos-Hernanz, Josean; Altın, Necmi; Ozdemir, Saban; Kurt, Erol; Azkune, Gorka

    2018-06-01

    One field in which electronic materials have an important role is energy generation, especially within the scope of photovoltaic energy. This paper deals with one of the most relevant enabling technologies within that scope, i.e, the algorithms for maximum power point tracking implemented in the direct current to direct current converters and its modeling through artificial neural networks (ANNs). More specifically, as a proof of concept, we have addressed the problem of modeling a fuzzy logic controller that has shown its performance in previous works, and more specifically the dimensionless duty cycle signal that controls a quadratic boost converter. We achieved a very accurate model since the obtained medium squared error is 3.47 × 10-6, the maximum error is 16.32 × 10-3 and the regression coefficient R is 0.99992, all for the test dataset. This neural implementation has obvious advantages such as a higher fault tolerance and a simpler implementation, dispensing with all the complex elements needed to run a fuzzy controller (fuzzifier, defuzzifier, inference engine and knowledge base) because, ultimately, ANNs are sums and products.

  1. Hydroelectromechanical modelling of a piezoelectric wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the hydroelectromechanical-coupled dynamics of a piezoelectric wave energy converter. The converter is made of a flexible bimorph plate, clamped at its ends and forced to motion by incident ocean surface waves. The piezoceramic layers are connected in series and transform the elastic motion of the plate into useful electricity by means of the piezoelectric effect. By using a distributed-parameter analytical approach, we couple the linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the plate with the potential-flow equations for the surface water waves. The resulting system of governing partial differential equations yields a new hydroelectromechanical dispersion relation, whose complex roots are determined with a numerical approach. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling in the hydroelastic domain generates a system of short- and long-crested weakly damped progressive waves travelling along the plate. We show that the short-crested flexural wave component gives a dominant contribution to the generated power. We determine the hydroelectromechanical resonant periods of the device, at which the power output is significant.

  2. Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dunia; Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converter...

  3. A high gain modified SEPIC DC-to-DC boost converter for renewable energy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar

    2017-01-01

    The proposed work present the modified high gain Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) for renewable energy applications. The voltage gain of proposed converter is very highly related to conventional dc-to-dc converter and recently projected converter based on conventional converter....... The key feature of projected converter is only one controlled device and voltage gain is increased without using a transformer and coupled inductor structure. The voltage gain of projected converter is increased by 10 times compared to the SEPIC converter by adding one extra inductor and capacitor...... in SEPIC converter for a duty ratio of 90%. The detailed analysis of the voltage gain with the voltage drop across passive device and working of projected converter is deliberated in details in the paper. The projected converter is simulated in Matrix Laboratory software (2014). The simulation results...

  4. Linkages from DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D to Commercial Renewable Power from Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NJ (United States)

    2011-04-01

    DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D Subprogram promotes the development of cost-effective systems for directly converting solar energy into electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. This study was commissioned to assess the extent to which the knowledge outputs of R&D funded by the DOE Solar PV subprogram are linked to downstream developments in commercial renewable power. A second purpose was to identify spillovers of the resulting knowledge to other areas of application. A third purpose was to lend support to a parallel benefit-cost study by contributing evidence of attribution of benefits to DOE.

  5. Photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, H.; Heidenreich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993 a wide test for photovoltaic (PV) was carried out in Austria, 110 stations were built and precise measurements were done. At that time the demand of integrating direct current from solar cells into the 50 Hz alternating current network was a weak point. At present four european research projects dealing with security, reliability, network compatibility and its integration in buildings are being developed. The cost development of PVs in Germany from 1983 to 1998 is given. Because of the PV environmental quality, one million of new intallations are demanded (until 2010) by the European commission. In Austria exists ∼5,000 kWp installed capacity and the growth rate average in the last years was 30 %. (nevyjel)

  6. Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...

  7. Experimental Testing of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aalborg University carried out wave tank testing a 1:20 scale model of Langlee, an oscillating wave-surge type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC). Langlee is designed to operate in deep water, with the hinged flaps attached to a, moored, semi-submerged reference frame. Langlee has a novel flap...... arrangement, with the flaps placed symmetrically opposing each other on a floating reference structure. This minimises the net force on the reference frame and increases the stability of the reference frame under optimal wave conditions. This paper presents the results and analysis from the wave tanks, which...... addressed the following: The Power Take Offs (PTOs) were simulated using a motor to resist the motion of the wings, according to the damping profile. Torque and velocity measurements were used to predict the wave- to mechanical-power conversion efficiency of the device. A number of wing types...

  8. Study of a Novel Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Choiniere, Michael [University of Maine; Thiagarajan, Krish P. [University of Maine

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the performance of an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) that utilizes adjustable geometry as a means of controlling the hydrodynamic coefficients, a concept originally proposed by [1]. The body of the device consists of a bottom-hinged solid rectangular frame with five horizontal flaps spanning the interior of the frame. The flaps can rotate independently about their center of rotation within the frame like a large window shutter. Changing the orientation of the flaps alters the hydrodynamic coefficients and natural frequency of the device as well as the ability to shed or absorb structural loads accordingly. This ability may allow the device to operate in a wider range of sea states than other current wave energy converter designs. This paper presents and compares the results of numerical simulations and experimental testing of the OSWEC's response to regular waves with all five of the horizontal fin configurations sharing the same orientation of 0 degrees (fully closed interior) and 90 degrees (fully open). The numerical simulations were performed using WAMIT, which calculates hydrodynamic coefficients using a boundary element method code to solve the linear potential flow problem, and WEC-Sim, a MATLAB-based tool that simulates multibody devices in the time domain by solving the governing equations of motion. A 1:14 scale model of the device was built for experimental evaluation in an 8-m-long, 1-m wide wave tank, which supports a water depth of 0.7 m. The OSWEC motion in different wave conditions was measured with displacement sensors while nonlinear wave-structure interaction effects like slamming and overtopping were captured using a high-speed camera and used to understand differences between the simulation and experiments.

  9. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  10. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume II. Photovoltaic systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a photovoltaic energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The form of the presentation allows the reader to use more accurate storage system cost data as they become available. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with photovoltaic energy conversion systems. Candidate storage concepts studied include (1) above ground and underground pumped hydro, (2) underground compressed air, (3) electric batteries, (4) flywheels, and (5) hydrogen production and storage. (WHK)

  11. Optimization of photovoltaic energy production through an efficient switching matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Romano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a preliminary study on the implementation of a new system for power output maximization of photovoltaic generators under non-homogeneous conditions. The study evaluates the performance of an efficient switching matrix and the relevant automatic reconfiguration control algorithms. The switching matrix is installed between the PV generator and the inverter, allowing a large number of possible module configurations. PV generator, switching matrix and the intelligent controller have been simulated in Simulink. The proposed reconfiguration system improved the energy extracted by the PV generator under non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. Short calculation times of the proposed control algorithms allow its use in real time applications even where a higher number of PV modules is required.

  12. Smart Cooling Controlled System Exploiting Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Atieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A smart cooling system to control the ambient temperature of a premise in Amman, Jordan, is investigated and implemented. The premise holds 650 people and has 14 air conditioners with the cooling capacity ranging from 3 to 5 ton refrigerant (TR each. The control of the cooling system includes implementing different electronics circuits that are used to sense the ambient temperature and humidity, count the number of people in the premise and then turn ON/OFF certain air conditioner(s. The data collected by different electronic circuits are fed wirelessly to a microcontroller, which decides which air conditioner will be turned ON/OFF, its location and its desired set cooling temperature. The cooling system is integrated with an on-grid solar photovoltaic energy system to minimize the operational cost of the overall cooling system.

  13. An update on the Department of Energy's photovoltaic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, John P.; Fitzgerald, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Funding for the terrestrial photovoltaic's program is $78 million in 1994. This is more than double the minimum level reached in 1989 and runs counter to the general trend of decreasing budgets for Department of Energy (DOE) programs. During the past five years, the program has expanded its mission from research and development to also address manufacturing technology and commercialization assistance. These new activities are directed toward revitalizing the market to reinstate the rapid rate of sales growth needed to attract investment. The program is approaching balance among efforts in each of the three areas. This translates to a reduction in some of the R & D activities of most relevance to the space power community. On the other hand, some of the advancements in manufacturing may finally bring thin-film technologies to reality for space arrays. This talk will describe the status and direction of DOE program with an eye toward highlighting its impact on technology of interest for space.

  14. Forecasted Changes in West Africa Photovoltaic Energy Output by 2045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Dimitri Yikwe Buri Bazyomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on photovoltaic (PV output in the fifteen countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS was analyzed in this paper. Using a set of eight climate models, the trends of solar radiation and temperature between 2006–2100 were examined. Assuming a lifetime of 40 years, the future changes of photovoltaic energy output for the tilted plane receptor compared to 2006–2015 were computed for the whole region. The results show that the trends of solar irradiation are negative except for the Irish Centre for High-End Computing model which predicts a positive trend with a maximum value of 0.17 W/m2/year for Cape Verde and the minimum of −0.06 W/m2/year for Liberia. The minimum of the negative trend is −0.18 W/m2/year predicted by the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC, developed at the University of Tokyo Center for Climate System Research for Cape Verde. Furthermore, temperature trends are positive with a maximum of 0.08 K/year predicted by MIROC for Niger and minimum of 0.03 K/year predicted by Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC, Max Planck Institute (MPI for Climate Meteorology at Hamburg, French National Meteorological Research Center (CNRM and Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCMA for Cape Verde. Photovolataic energy output changes show increasing trends in Sierra Leone with 0.013%/year as the maximum. Climate change will lead to a decreasing trend of PV output in the rest of the countries with a minimum of 0.032%/year in Niger.

  15. X-Y Converter Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A New breed of a buck boost converter, named as the XY converter family is proposed in this article. In the XY family, 16 topologies are presented which are highly suitable for renewable energy applications which require a high ratio of DC-DC converter; such as a photovoltaic multilevel inverter...... system, high voltage automotive applications and industrial drives. Compared to the traditional boost converter and existing recent converters, the proposed XY converter family has the ability to provide a higher output voltage by using less number of power devices and reactive components. Other distinct...... features of the XY converter family are i) Single control switch ii) Provide negative output voltage iii) Non-isolated topologies iv) High conversion ratio without making the use of high duty cycle and v) modular structure. XY family is compared with the recent high step-up converters and the detailed...

  16. Photovoltaic energy: an efficient development tool for Sub-Saharan economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megherbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the author aims at highlighting the main success factors for a photovoltaic program in sub-Saharan Africa, and the benefits of this technology for African electricity operators. He first presents the electricity sector of Sub-Saharan Africa, its current situation, its scenarios of evolution, and the limitations of scenarios based on conventional energies. In a second part, he discusses the role photovoltaic solar energy could have within the energy mix of Sub-Saharan countries. He discusses how to calculate the cost of photovoltaic electricity production, and the value of photovoltaic electricity, discusses the main influencing parameters, and tries to identify when it becomes worth to choose photovoltaic electricity. He describes the implementation of an adapted legal and economic framework, the 'feed-in-tariff'. An appendix contains a proposition for Western Africa and analyses the case of Benin

  17. Exergy analysis of photovoltaic solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopian, K.; Othman, M.Y.Hj.

    1998-01-01

    The exergy analysis (availability or second law analysis) is applied to the photovoltaic thermal solar collector. Photovoltaic thermal collector is a special type of solar collector where electricity and heat are produced simultaneously. The electricity produced from the photovoltaic thermal collector is all converted into useful work. The available quantity of the heat collected can readily be determined by taking into account both the quantity (heat quantity) and quality ( a function of temperature) of the thermal energy. Therefore, using the concept of exergy allows heat produced from the thermal collector and the electricity generated from the photovoltaic cells to be compared or to be evaluated on the basis of a common measure such as the effectiveness on solar energy collection or the total amount of available energy. In this paper, the effectiveness of solar energy collection is called combined photovoltaic thermal exergy efficiency. An experimental setup of a double pas photovoltaic thermal solar collector has been deigned, fabricated and tested. (author)

  18. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  20. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.

  1. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. New energy storage systems for photovoltaic supplied consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, K.; Blok, K.

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study attention was paid to the possibility of reducing battery wastes in the Netherlands by means of integration of photovoltaic (PV) cells in small, electric consumer products. The result of that study was that only two environment-friendly applications could be used: capacitors in calculators or watches. However, new types of energy storage systems have been developed and commercialized, so that the above-mentioned study is updated. First, the technical, economic and environmental parameters of several energy storage systems are compared. Next, a number of products, in which PV-cells can be integrated, has been selected and the economic and environmental effects are calculated and analyzed. The energy storage systems discussed are primary alkaline batteries, NiCd batteries, Ni-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries, Li-Solid-State (LiSS) batteries, and capacitors. It is estimated that by means of the proposed integration of PV-cells in specific consumer products the amount of battery wastes can be reduced by 50%. 33 tabs., 1 appendix, 50 refs

  3. Solar energy scenarios in Brazil. Part two: Photovoltaics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.; Ruether, R.; Pereira, E.B.; Abreu, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses some energy scenarios for photovoltaic applications in Brazil engendered by using SWERA database in order to demonstrate its potential for feasibility analysis and application in the energy planning for electricity generation. It discusses two major different markets: hybrid PV-Diesel installations in mini-grids of the off-grid Brazilian electricity system in the Amazon region, and grid-connected PV in urban areas of the interconnected Brazilian electricity system. The potential for using PV is huge, and can be estimated in tens to hundreds of MWp in the Amazon region alone, even if only a fraction of the existing Diesel-fired plants with a total installed capacity of over 620 MVA would fit to run in an optimum Diesel/PV mix. Most of the major cities in Brazil present greater electricity demand in summertime with the demand peak happening in the daytime period. This energy profile match the actual solar resource assessment provided by SWERA Data Archive, enabling grid-connected PV systems to provide an important contribution to the utility's capacity

  4. High-Efficiency High Step-Up DC-DC Converter with Dual Coupled Inductors for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Shen, Yanfeng; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad

    2018-01-01

    with a common ground connection of the input and output make the proposed topology a proper candidate for a transformer-less grid connected photovoltaic systems. The operating performance, analysis and mathematical derivations of the proposed dc-dc converter have been demonstrated in the paper. Moreover......This paper introduces a non-isolated high step-up dc-dc converter with dual coupled inductors suitable for distributed generation applications. By implementing an input parallel connection, the proposed dc-dc structure inherits shared input current with low ripple, which also requires small...... capacitive filter at its input. Moreover, this topology can reach high voltage gain by using dual coupled inductors in series connection at the output stage. The proposed converter uses active clamp circuits with a shared clamp capacitor for the main switches. In addition to the active clamp circuit...

  5. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  6. Presentations given at the Enerplan Conference: facilitating photovoltaic energy integration in the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueth, Thierry; Thomas, Christophe; Loyen, Richard; Masson, Gaetan; Najdawi, Celine; Dubus, Jean-Michel; Carre, Olivier; Resseguier, Stephane de; Alazard, Raymond; Prest, Ignace de; Humez, Herve; Kaiser, Martin; Cassagne, Valerick; Dauphin, Francois; Merley, Jacques; Laffaille, Didier; Gossement, Arnaud; Belon, Daniel; Blanquet, Francois; Bonnet, Jean-Philippe; Sanchez, Louis; Vienot, Raphaelle; Lambert, Karine; Berly, Frederic

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids are present day topics of strategical stakes for the development of the photovoltaic industry and for the success of the energy transition. This conference provided some answers to three main subjects which were the main themes of the 3 round-tables: 1 - Identifying the context elements leading to a large integration of solar energy in Europe and in France; 2 - Identifying the technical solutions facilitating the technical integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids; 3 - Analysing the expected regional schemes for connecting renewable energies to the network, in order to shift from an administrative planning to a dynamical and practical approach profitable to the photovoltaic industry. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) given at the colloquium

  7. 24 Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernabé Marí Soucase

    A techno-economic analysis has been used for project cost control, ... First of all, we defined Cash Flow as movements of money in and out of any ... cost of electric energy in Côte d'Ivoire for the common use of families and small companies [9].

  8. EXAMINING A SERIES RESONANT INVERTER CIRCUIT TO USE IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÇETİN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available As we know, solar energy is the energy source which is environment friendly, renewable, and can be found easily. Particularly, in the recent years, interest on producing electrical energy by alternative energy sources increased because of the fact that underground sources are not enough to produce energy in the future and also these sources cause enviromental pollution. The solar energy is one of the most popular one among the alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic systems produce the electrical energy from the sunlight. In this study, a series resonant inverter circuit which is used in the photovoltaic energy conversion systems has been examined.Effects of the series resonant inverter circuit on the photovoltaic energy conversion system have been investigated and examined

  9. Evaluation of a photovoltaic energy mechatronics system with a built-in quadratic maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, R.M.; Ko, S.H.; Lin, I.H. [Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronics Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Pai, F.S. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National University of Tainan (China); Chang, C.C. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The historically high cost of crude oil price is stimulating research into solar (green) energy as an alternative energy source. In general, applications with large solar energy output require a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power generated by the photovoltaic effect. This work aims to provide a stand-alone solution for solar energy applications by integrating a DC/DC buck converter to a newly developed quadratic MPPT algorithm along with its appropriate software and hardware. The quadratic MPPT method utilizes three previously used duty cycles with their corresponding power outputs. It approaches the maximum value by using a second order polynomial formula, which converges faster than the existing MPPT algorithm. The hardware implementation takes advantage of the real-time controller system from National Instruments, USA. Experimental results have shown that the proposed solar mechatronics system can correctly and effectively track the maximum power point without any difficulties. (author)

  10. Modified High Voltage Conversion Inverting Cuk DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    controlled device DC-DC topology. The voltage conversion ratio of proposed converter has increased by ten times of the conventional Cuk converterat a duty ratio of 90%. The detailed analysis of the voltage conversion ratio and losses occur due to internal resistance of components is done in the paper......The proposed exertion represents the modified high voltage conversion Cuk converter for renewable energy application. The proposed Cuk converter is a combination of the conventional boost converter and Cuk converter. The arrangement of the proposed converter make, such as, it becomes the single...

  11. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn R. Jongerden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to the usage-specific demand profiles and location-specific production profiles, local energy storage through the use of batteries is becoming increasingly important, since it allows one to balance variations in production and demand, either locally or via the grid. Moreover, local storage can also help to ensure a continuous energy supply in the presence of grid outages, at least for a while. Hybrid Petri net (HPN models allow one to analyze the effect of different battery management strategies on the continuity of such energy systems in the case of grid outages. The current paper focuses on one of these strategies, the so-called smart strategy, that reserves a certain percentage of the battery capacity to be only used in case of grid outages. Additionally, we introduce a new strategy that makes better use of the reserved backup capacity, by reducing the demand in the presence of a grid outage through a prioritization mechanism. This new strategy, called power-save, only allows the essential (high-priority demand to draw from the battery during power outages. We show that this new strategy outperforms previously-proposed strategies through a careful analysis of a number of scenarios and for a selection of survivability measures, such as minimum survivability per day, number of survivable hours per day, minimum survivability per year and various survivability quantiles.

  12. Coupling modeling and analysis of a wind energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-jie Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the numerical simulation of a 2.0-MW wind energy converter coupling is achieved by three-dimensional computer-aided design modeling technique and finite element method. The static performances and the buckling characteristics of the diaphragm coupling are investigated. The diaphragm coupling is divided into three substructures, namely, torque input end, the middle section, and the torque output end. Considering the assembly and contact conditions, the simulation analysis for stress responses of the diaphragm coupling is carried out. The buckling factor and buckling mode of the diaphragms are obtained, and the geometric parameters of the diaphragms are optimized according to their buckling characteristics. The relationship between the pretightening force of the bolts, which tighten the friction flange and the friction plate, and the sliding torque is given by an empirical formula. The reasonable ranges of the pretightening force and tighten torque of the bolts are recommended. The fatigue analysis of the diaphragms is completed, and the results show that the diaphragms are competent to the designed life of the diaphragm coupling.

  13. Design of a photovoltaic-hydrogen-fuel cell energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P A; Chamberlin, C E [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (US). Dept. of Environmental Resources Engineering

    1991-01-01

    The design of a stand-alone renewable energy system using hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the energy storage medium and a fuel cell as the regeneration technology is reported. The system being installed at the Humboldt State University Telonicher Marine Laboratory consists of a 9.2 kW photovoltaic (PV) array coupled to a high pressure, bipolar alkaline electrolyser. The array powers the Laboratory's air compressor system whenever possible; excess power is shunted to the electrolyser for hydrogen and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production. When the array cannot provide sufficient power, stored hydrogen and oxygen are furnished to a proton exchange membrane fuel cell which, smoothly and without interruption, supplies the load. In reporting the design, details of component selection, sizing, and integration, control system logic and implementation, and safety considerations are discussed. Plans for a monitoring network to chronicle system performance are presented, questions that will be addressed through the monitoring program are included, and the present status of the project is reported. (Author).

  14. Exciton management in organic photovoltaic multidonor energy cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Olga L; Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-05-14

    Multilayer donor regions in organic photovoltaics show improved power conversion efficiency when arranged in decreasing exciton energy order from the anode to the acceptor interface. These so-called "energy cascades" drive exciton transfer from the anode to the dissociating interface while reducing exciton quenching and allowing improved overlap with the solar spectrum. Here we investigate the relative importance of exciton transfer and blocking in a donor cascade employing diphenyltetracene (D1), rubrene (D2), and tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (D3) whose optical gaps monotonically decrease from D1 to D3. In this structure, D1 blocks excitons from quenching at the anode, D2 accepts transfer of excitons from D1 and blocks excitons at the interface between D2 and D3, and D3 contributes the most to the photocurrent due to its strong absorption at visible wavelengths, while also determining the open circuit voltage. We observe singlet exciton Förster transfer from D1 to D2 to D3 consistent with cascade operation. The power conversion efficiency of the optimized cascade OPV with a C60 acceptor layer is 7.1 ± 0.4%, which is significantly higher than bilayer devices made with only the individual donors. We develop a quantitative model to identify the dominant exciton processes that govern the photocurrent generation in multilayer organic structures.

  15. Realizing Efficient Energy Harvesting from Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are emerging field of research in renewable energy. The development of OPVs in recent years has made this technology viable for many niche applications. In order to realize widespread application however, the power conversion efficiency requires further improvement. The efficiency of an OPV depends on the short-circuit current density (JSC), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF). For state-of-the-art devices, JSC is mostly optimized with the application of novel low-bandgap materials and a bulk heterojunction device architecture (internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%). The remaining limiting factors are the low VOC and FF. This work focuses on overcoming these bottlenecks for improved efficiency. Temperature dependent measurements of device performance are used to examine both charge transfer and exciton ionization process in OPVs. The results permit an improved understanding of the intrinsic limit for VOC in various device architectures and provide insight on device operation. Efforts have also been directed at engineering device architecture for optimized FF, realizing a very high efficiency of 8% for vapor deposited small molecule OPVs. With collaborators, new molecules with tailored desired energy levels are being designed for further improvements in efficiency. A new type of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite material is also included in this study. By addressing processing issues and anomalous hysteresis effects, a very high efficiency of 19.1% is achieved. Moving forward, topics including engineering film crystallinity, exploring tandem architectures and understanding degradation mechanisms will further push OPVs toward broad commercialization.

  16. Energy Management and Simulation of Photovoltaic/Hydrogen /Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Kamal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript focuses on a hybrid power system combining a solar photovoltaic array and energy storage system based on hydrogen technology (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer and battery. The complete architecture is connected to the national grid through power converters to increase the continuity of power. The proposed a hybrid power system is designed to work under classical-based energy management algorithm. According to the proposed algorithm, the PV has the priority in meeting the load demands. The hydrogen technology is utilized to ensure long-term energy balance. The battery is used as a backup and/or high power device to take care of the load following problems of hydrogen technology during transient. The dynamic performance of a hybrid power system is tested under different solar radiation, temperature and load conditions for the simulation of 24 Hrs. The effectiveness of the proposed system in terms of power sharing, grid stability, power quality and voltage regulation is verified by Matlab simulation results.

  17. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process. The objective of this study is to verify the generalized body-modes approach in comparison to high-fidelity FSI simulations to accurately predict structural deflections and stress loads in a WEC. Two verification cases are considered, a free-floating barge and a fixed-bottom column. Details for both the generalized body-modes models and FSI models are first provided. Results for each of the models are then compared and discussed. Finally, based on the verification results obtained, future plans for incorporating the generalized body-modes method into the WEC simulation tool, WEC-Sim, and the overall WEC design process are discussed.

  18. Hydraulic evaluation of the Crest Wing wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, J.P.; Antonishen, M.

    2008-09-15

    The Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter is currently being developed by Henning Pilgaard, of WaveEnergyFyn, Denmark. It is meant to act like a carpet on the water, conforming to the shape of each wave and using that movement to generate power. The thought of making a WEC that acts like a carpet on top of the waves is not new; ongoing or past projects such as the Pelamis and Cockerel Raft were designed with this thought in mind. The real difference with the Crest Wing is that it has skirt drafts, that extend down into the water and create suction; this increases the effective mass of the WEC while minimizing the material use. Special attention was given to the design of the first and last floaters as they are meant to act as a smooth transition between wave and machine. Their purpose is to make sure that no air gets under the two middle floaters so that suction is not broken and the device continues to function well. In summary the Crest Wing functions and is able to produce power with a good overall efficiency. The configuration with relative reference PTO (Power Take Off) is superior. It has not been proven that the idea of mounting skirts on the floaters is leading to a better performance. Thus, the study leads to the conclusion that the idea of making a simple hinged raft type device is good, and it is likely that the construction cost for a device of this type can be kept down. However, the study also leaves the chance that some limited draft of skirts in combination with inlet/outlet devices, could prove beneficial. In case of further testing on this device, an effort should be made to design and construct a more easily and accurately controlled PTO model in the test setup. This could greatly improve the quality of the output of such tests. (ln)

  19. Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Logerais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within ±10% of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature.

  20. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  1. A wideband fractal-inspired piezoelectric energy converter: design, simulation and experimental characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnetti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop self-powered wireless sensor nodes, many energy harvesting devices that are able to convert available ambient energy into electrical energy have been proposed in the literature. A promising technique, in terms of simplicity and high conversion efficiency, is the harvesting of ambient kinetic energy through piezoelectric materials. The aim of this work is to design and investigate the modal response and power output of a fractal-inspired, multi-frequency, piezoelectric energy converter. The converter is a square, thin sheet structure, characterized by a fractal geometry obtained through a pattern of cuts in the plate. There are two steps involved. First, a computational analysis of the converter is performed. Second, a physical prototype of the converter is built and its eigenfrequencies and power generation under different resistive loads are experimentally examined in the range from 0 to 120 Hz. The converter exhibits three eigenfrequencies and a good power output, particularly at the first eigenfrequency. (paper)

  2. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    0.52 degree centigrade above the long-term 1880-2000 average (13.9 degree centigrade) and in June 2003 temperature anomalies was 2.3 degree centigrade higher with respect to 1961-1990 based period. Alternative sources of energy should be explored and their utilisation should be stepped up. Solar energy which is not only excellent resource of alternative energy but also clean and easy to access, make environmental sense for any nation. Compared to fossil-generated electricity, each kilowatt of solar photovoltaics (PV) could prevent substantial emissions that endanger our environment and personal health. Typically, on an annual 'per kilowatt' basis, PV offsets or saves up to 16 kgs of NOx, 9 kgs of SOx, and 6 kgs of other particulates. In addition, one kilowatt of PV typically, per year, offsets between 600 and 2300 kgs of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming, and prevents, each month, 75 kg of fossil fuel from being mined, and keeps 473 litre of water from being consumed. In this paper the main features of the proposal are presented, and important energy related environment problems are highlighted. Several issues relating to solar energy, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives.(Author)

  3. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  4. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  5. The characteristic analysis of the solar energy photovoltaic power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Li, K.; Niu, D. D.; Jin, Y. A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean, renewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells are a key component in solar power generation, so thorough research on output characteristics is of far-reaching importance. In this paper, an illumination model and a photovoltaic power station output power model were established, and simulation analysis was conducted using Matlab and other software. The analysis evaluated the condition of solar energy resources in the Baicheng region in the western part of Jilin province, China. The characteristic curve of the power output from a photovoltaic power station was obtained by simulation calculation. It was shown that the monthly average output power of the photovoltaic power station is affected by seasonal changes; the output power is higher in summer and autumn, and lower in spring and winter.

  6. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This newsletter presents a quarterly review of the French photovoltaic park situation: evolution of the connected power, new connected facilities, production by power range, ongoing projects and regional statistics (number of facilities, power, distribution, evolution)

  7. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This newsletter presents a quarterly review of the French photovoltaic park situation: evolution of the connected power, new connected facilities, production by power range, ongoing projects and regional statistics (number of facilities, power, distribution, evolution)

  8. Photovoltaic solar energy: which realities for 2020? Summarized synthesis; Solaire photovoltaique: quelles realites pour 2020?. Synthese resumee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first describes the situation of the photovoltaic as situated at a crossroad with strong development possibilities for the French photovoltaic sector. It presents the photovoltaic energy as a competitive, regulatory and ecologic one, and therefore inescapable. It outlines stakes and obstacles of the French situation regarding the development of this sector. It highlights the economic and social benefit investing in this sector. Some propositions are stated for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar sector. Challenges are identified

  9. Nonlinear Passive Control of a Wave Energy Converter Subject to Constraints in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a passive control method of a point absorbing wave energy converter by considering the displacement and velocity constraints under irregular waves in the time domain. A linear generator is used as a power take-off unit, and the equivalent damping force is optimized to improve the power production of the wave energy converter. The results from nonlinear and linear passive control methods are compared, and indicate that the nonlinear passive control method leads to the excitation force in phase with the velocity of the converter that can significantly improve the energy production of the converter.

  10. Diverting indirect subsidies from the nuclear industry to the photovoltaic industry: Energy and financial returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenika-Zovko, I.; Pearce, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power and solar photovoltaic energy conversion often compete for policy support that governs economic viability. This paper compares current subsidization of the nuclear industry with providing equivalent support to manufacturing photovoltaic modules. Current U.S. indirect nuclear insurance subsidies are reviewed and the power, energy and financial outcomes of this indirect subsidy are compared to equivalent amounts for indirect subsidies (loan guarantees) for photovoltaic manufacturing using a model that holds economic values constant for clarity. The preliminary analysis indicates that if only this one relatively ignored indirect subsidy for nuclear power was diverted to photovoltaic manufacturing, it would result in more installed power and more energy produced by mid-century. By 2110 cumulative electricity output of solar would provide an additional 48,600 TWh over nuclear worth $5.3 trillion. The results clearly show that not only does the indirect insurance liability subsidy play a significant factor for nuclear industry, but also how the transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in more energy over the life cycle of the technologies. - Highlights: → The indirect insurance liability subsidy has been quantified over the life cycle of the U.S. nuclear fleet. → It was found to play a significant factor in the economics of the nuclear industry. → A transfer of such an indirect subsidy from the nuclear to photovoltaic industry would result in significantly more energy over the life cycle of the technologies.

  11. Less CO2 by means of photovoltaic energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.A.; Van Brummelen, M.

    1992-11-01

    Regarding the title subject special attention is paid to the technical limitations of a fast introduction of the use of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion. After a brief introduction on PV systems and the operation of a solar cell in chapter two, a state of the art is given of PV technology and possible price developments for PV modules and Balance-Of-System (BOS) components up to the year 2000 in chapters three and four. In chapter five the potential of installing grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands is determined, taking into account the options of using existing buildings (PV systems on the roof), unexplored ground, in the verge of highways or railroads, industrial areas and airports. In chapter six non-economical bottlenecks for a large-scale introduction of grid-connected PV systems are discussed: the industrial production capacity for PV modules and other components, the fitting-in into the public electricity supply, and institutional aspects of installing PV systems on roofs. In chapter seven it is determined how much costs can be saved and CO 2 emission can be reduced when PV capacity is fitted-in into the Dutch electric power supply. The calculations are based on the Global Shift scenario. In chapter eight two scenarios (an optimistic scenario and a more realistic scenario) for the introduction of PV systems are outlined. For both scenarios the financial consequences and the contribution to the electric power supply are indicated. In chapter nine the net energy yield, being the result of the previously discussed introduction scenarios, is calculated, followed by a calculation of the avoided CO 2 emission, as well as the costs to avoid such emission. 25 figs., 15 tabs., 116 refs., 1 annex

  12. Novel Interleaved Converter with Extra-High Voltage Gain to Process Low-Voltage Renewable-Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel interleaved converter (NIC with extra-high voltage gain to process the power of low-voltage renewable-energy generators such as photovoltaic (PV panel, wind turbine, and fuel cells. The NIC can boost a low input voltage to a much higher voltage level to inject renewable energy to DC bus for grid applications. Since the NIC has two circuit branches in parallel at frond end to share input current, it is suitable for high power applications. In addition, the NIC is controlled in an interleaving pattern, which has the advantages that the NIC has lower input current ripple, and the frequency of the ripple is twice the switching frequency. Two coupled inductors and two switched capacitors are incorporated to achieve a much higher voltage gain than conventional high step-up converters. The proposed NIC has intrinsic features such as leakage energy totally recycling and low voltage stress on power semiconductor. Thorough theoretical analysis and key parameter design are presented in this paper. A prototype is built for practical measurements to validate the proposed NIC.

  13. Experimental studies and computer simulation of the control of energy transfer using inductor-converter bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.; Kustom, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    An inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state DC-AC-DC power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors from another superconducting energy storage coil

  14. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  15. Power Management Integrated Circuit for Indoor Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vipul

    In today's world, power dissipation is a main concern for battery operated mobile devices. Key design decisions are being governed by power rather than area/delay because power requirements are growing more stringent every year. Hence, a hybrid power management system is proposed, which uses both a solar panel to harvest energy from indoor lighting and a battery to power the load. The system tracks the maximum power point of the solar panel and regulates the battery and microcontroller output load voltages through the use of an on-chip switched-capacitor DC-DC converter. System performance is verified through simulation at the 180nm technology node and is made to be integrated on-chip with 0.25 second startup time, 79% efficiency, --8/+14% ripple on the load, an average 1micro A of quiescent current (3.7micro W of power) and total on-chip area of 1.8mm2 .

  16. Photovoltaic energy: global market perspectives; Energia fotovoltaica: perspectivas de mercado mundial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose G.S.; Fabrizy, Marie P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1996-12-31

    The global market of the solar photovoltaic energy has been mainly concentrated in the residential sector. However, there is a strong tendency to apply solar photovoltaic panels linked to the utilities power systems. Besides, that is the only case in which an increase in the cells production scale would be justified because it would reduce the production and new technologies research costs 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: gui at iee.usp.br

  17. A thermionic energy converter with A molybdenum alumina cermet emitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.H.M.; Wolff, L.R.; Metselaar, R.; Yogi Goswami, D.

    1988-01-01

    The I-V characteristics of a thermionic converter equipped with a Mo-1w/o AI203 emitter and a Mo collector were measured. The conditions were varied over a limited range without, as well as with Cs. Work functions of Mo as well as Mo-1w/o AI203 were determined. Measurements were carried out in a

  18. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Design and control of a point absorber wave energy converter with an open loop hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, YaJun; Mu, AnLe; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Point absorber wave energy converter is presented. • Piston pump module captures and converts wave energy. • Hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Fuzzy controller adjusts the displacement of hydraulic motor. • Generator outputs meet the electricity demand precisely. - Abstract: In this paper, a point absorber wave energy converter combined with offshore wind turbine is proposed. In the system, the wave energy is captured and converted into hydraulic energy by a piston pump module, which is combined with a wind turbine floating platform, and then the hydraulic energy is converted into electricity energy by a variable displacement hydraulic motor and induction generator. In order to smooth and stabilize the captured wave energy, a hydraulic accumulator is applied to store and release the excess energy. In order to meet the demand power a fuzzy controller is designed to adjust the displacement of hydraulic motor and controlled the output power. Simulation under irregular wave condition has been carried out to verify the validity of the mathematical model and the effectiveness of the controller strategy. The results show that the wave energy converter system could deliver the required electricity power precisely as the motor output torque is controlled. The accumulator could damp out all the fluctuations in output power, so the wave energy would become a dispatchable power source.

  20. Optimum energy management of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new management approach which makes decision on the optimum connection times of the elements of a photovoltaic water pumping installation: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules considering the battery safety on the first hand and the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day and the load required power on the second hand. The optimization approach consists of the extension of the operation time of the water pump with respects to multi objective management criteria. Compared to the stand alone management method, the new approach effectiveness is confirmed by the extension of the pumping period for more than 5 h a day.

  1. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    Full Text Available Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  2. Technical Study of a Standalone Photovoltaic-Wind Energy Based Hybrid Power Supply Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Taha, Zahari

    2015-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important factors in the socioeconomic development of a country. In a developing country like Malaysia, the development of islands is mostly related to the availability of electric power. Power generated by renewable energy sources has recently become one of the most promising solutions for the electrification of islands and remote rural areas. But high dependency on weather conditions and the unpredictable nature of these renewable energy sources are the main drawbacks. To overcome this weakness, different green energy sources and power electronic converters need to be integrated with each other. This study presents a battery storage hybrid standalone photovoltaic-wind energy power supply system. In the proposed standalone hybrid system, a DC-DC buck-boost bidirectional converter controller is used to accumulates the surplus hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the load during the hybrid power shortage by maintaining the constant dc-link voltage. A three-phase voltage source inverter complex vector control scheme is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the voltage amplitude and frequency. Based on the simulation results obtained from MATLAB/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under variable weather and load conditions.

  3. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-08-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  4. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  5. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Ferruccio; Hopkirk, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe renewable energy sources to be capable of substituting fossil or nuclear energy. However there exist very few scientifically sound studies, which apply due diligence to substantiating this impression. In the present paper, the case of photovoltaic power sources in regions of moderate insolation is analysed critically by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI, also called EROI). But the methodology for calculating the ERoEI differs greatly from author-to-author. The main differences between solar PV Systems are between the current ERoEI and what is called the extended ERoEI (ERoEI EXT ). The current methodology recommended by the International Energy Agency is not strictly applicable for comparing photovoltaic (PV) power generation with other systems. The main reasons are due to the fact that on one hand, solar electricity is very material-intensive, labour-intensive and capital-intensive and on the other hand the solar radiation exhibits a rather low power density. - Highlights: •Data are available from several years of photovoltaic energy experience in northern Europe. •These are used to show the way to calculate a full, extended ERoEI. •The viability and sustainability in these latitudes of photovoltaic energy is questioned. •Use of photovoltaic technology is shown to result in creation of an energy sink.

  6. Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Electrocoagulation of a Synthetic Textile Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Beatriz Pavón-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules were directly connected, and the system efficiency was observed properly maintained when currents were applied in the range of 2.5 to 7.9 A. This value depends on solar radiation. Likewise, it was found that the efficiency depends mainly on the current density and the flow rate prevailing in the reactor.

  7. Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Electrocoagulation of a Synthetic Textile Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Thelma Beatriz Pavón-Silva; Hipólito Romero-Tehuitzil; Gonzálo Munguia del Río; Jorge Huacuz-Villamar

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of using photovoltaic modules to power a continuous 14 L electrochemical reactor applied to remove an azo dye with an efficiency of 70% is reported. The photovoltaic modules were directly connected, and the system efficiency was observed properly maintained when currents were applied in the range of 2.5 to 7.9 A. This value depends on solar radiation. Likewise, it was found that the efficiency depends mainly on the current density and the flow rate prevailing in the reactor.

  8. Energy saving house utilizing photovoltaic system. 3; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Various measurements are conducted in an energy-efficient house equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system and actually lived in by people, and matching between the household load and photovoltaic power generation, and the consumption of power, are examined. As the result investigation of power consumption in the house, it is found that 13.31kWh is consumed in the daytime in winter, and 14.15kWh in summer. Thirty-two 153W modules are used, and they produce 12.74kWh in four hours on a fine summer day, which amount nearly satisfies the demand of the household. As for the records during a year beginning in May, 1996, it is found that an annual amount of 4326kWh was generated, with 68% being surplus and 32% consumed for the household. Details of the household consumption were that 49.2% was consumed for house heating and cooling and 34.1% for cooking, the two in total occupying more than 80% of the whole household consumption. Energy-saving behavior is evaluated by comparing the energy-efficient house with some ordinary residential houses in Kumamoto City, and it is found that there is a yearly difference of 104,310 yen in electricity bill or 47% in energy saving effect. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Energy management algorithm for an optimum control of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems depends on the adequacy between the generated energy and the volume of pumped water. This paper presents an intelligent algorithm which makes decision on the interconnection modes and instants of photovoltaic installation components: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules on the basis of the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day, on the load required power, and by considering the battery safety. The algorithm aims to extend operation time of the water pump by controlling a switching unit which links the system components with respect to multi objective management criteria. The algorithm implementation demonstrates that the approach extends the pumping period for more than 5 h a day which gives a mean daily improvement of 97% of the water pumped volume.

  10. Control of the DC-DC Converter used into Energy Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu; Oproescu, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the DC-DC Converter controller used into Energy Generation System. The full bridge is used into an Energy Generation System (EGS) as second power interface between the energy source and the high DC bus. The simulation results show that the DC-DC Converter behavior can be improved using a well designed PI control surface. The used Simulink models for the EGS blocks and some design considerations are presented, too. (authors)

  11. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  12. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  13. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  14. Trend chart: photovoltaic solar energy. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents a quarterly review of power generation from photovoltaic power plants connected to the French grid (continental France, Corsica and overseas territories): total connected load, quarterly distribution of new connections, progress of connected power during the last years, power generated since the beginning of the year and comparison with previous years, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  15. Diversity in solar photovoltaic energy: Implications for innovation and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We undertake a qualitative empirical study of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to investigate the role of diversity in stimulating innovation and diffusion. Based on evolutionary-economic concepts, we identify the main dimensions and components of diversity in the solar PV industry.

  16. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  17. Energy conservation house by photovoltaic system. 2; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Photovoltaic power generation system was once placed in excessive expectation what with a growing tendency toward environmental issues and what with vulnerability in supply and demand of energy. However, its utilization was negative because of the low energy conversion efficiency and the high cost. Then, gradually the wind shifted round to the improvement in solar cell efficiency, reduced cost, implementation of subsidizing policy by MITI, purchase of excess power by electric power companies and the amendment of the Electricity Enterprises Act, encouraging the use of the system again. In addition, with a lesson from the Great Hanshin Earthquake, the merit of the system was appreciated as a life-support power source, motivating house-builders. Earlier, the authors had reported designs of energy-saving homes, system structures of photovoltaic power generation, etc. This paper presents the power generation record of a year old system and an example of the comfortable sealed residential room environment, etc., created with the use of the power thus obtained. The annual power generation was 4,088kWh, 30% of which was used in the house and 70% of which was sold as an excess power, resulting in the purchase of power for 6,642kWh. 5 refs., 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Full wave dc-to-dc converter using energy storage transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Full wave dc-to-dc converter, for an ion thrustor, uses energy storage transformers to provide a method of dc-to-dc conversion and regulation. The converter has a high degree of physical simplicity, is lightweight and has high efficiency.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaic Energy Program Contract Summary: Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    2001-02-21

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000 (FY 2000). The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to make PV a significant part of the domestic economy-as an industry and an energy resource. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NCPV is part of the National PV Program and provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals. This Contract Summary for fiscal year (FY) 2000 documents some 179 research projects supported by the PV Program, performed by 107 organizations in 32 states, including 69 projects performed by universities and 60 projects performed by our industry partners. Of the total FY 2000 PV Program budget of $65.9 million, the industry and university research efforts received $36.9 million, or nearly 56%. And, of this amount, more than 93% was for contractors selected on a competitive basis. Much of the funding to industry was matched by industry cost-sharing. Each individual effort described in this summary represents another step toward improving PV manufacturing, performance, cost, and applications, and another step toward accomplishing the DOE PV Program's overall mission.

  20. Power converter topologies for wind energy conversion systems: Integrated modeling, control strategy and performance simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melicio, R.; Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents new integrated model for variable-speed wind energy conversion systems, considering a more accurate dynamic of the wind turbine, rotor, generator, power converter and filter. Pulse width modulation by space vector modulation associated with sliding mode is used for controlling the power converters. Also, power factor control is introduced at the output of the power converters. Comprehensive performance simulation studies are carried out with matrix, two-level and multilevel power converter topologies in order to adequately assert the system performance. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  1. Assessment of the energy performance, economics and environmental footprint of silicon heterojunction photovoltaic technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To make the transition towards a more sustainable energy supply, it is necessary that we drastically increase the share of renewable electricity generation. Solar photovoltaic energy is regarded as one of the prime options to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of our electricity supply, and many

  2. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing

  3. Autonomous Active Power Control for Islanded AC Microgrids with Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    In an islanded AC microgrid with distributed energy storage system (ESS), photovoltaic (PV) generation and loads, a coordinated active power regulation is required to ensure efficient utilization of renewable energy, while keeping the ESS from overcharge and over discharge conditions. In this paper...

  4. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems for industrial halls: Achieving economic benefit via lowering energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the

  5. Technologic Information about Photovoltaic Applied in Urban Residences

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Fabris Russo; Daiane Costa Guimarães; Jonas Pedro Fabris; Maria Emilia Camargo; Suzana Leitão Russo; José Augusto Andrade Filho

    2016-01-01

    Among renewable energy sources, solar energy is the one that has stood out. Solar radiation can be used as a thermal energy source and can also be converted into electricity by means of effects on certain materials, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic panels. These panels are often used to generate energy in homes, buildings, arenas, etc., and have low pollution emissions. Thus, a technological prospecting was performed to find patents related to the use of photovoltaic plates in urban re...

  6. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  7. Place and role of electrochemical energy converters in the energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kurbatov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The position of the electrochemical method of energy conversion of a chemical reaction in the overall energy production was considered. The effective ways and tendencies of its implementation were shown. The variants of electrochemical systems for the production, accumulation and storage of energy was also considered.

  8. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  9. Energy Converter with Inside Two, Three, and Five Connected H2/Air Swirling Combustor Chambers: Solar and Combustion Mode Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Minotti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the performance of an energy converter characterized by an emitting parallelepiped element with inside two, three, or five swirling connected combustion chambers. In particular, the idea is to adopt the heat released by H2/air combustion, occurring in the connected swirling chambers, to heat up the emitting surfaces of the thermally-conductive emitting parallelepiped brick. The final goal consists in obtaining the highest emitting surface temperature and the highest power delivered to the ambient environment, with the simultaneous fulfillment of four design constraints: dimension of the emitting surface fixed to 30 × 30 mm2, solar mode thermal efficiency greater than 20%, emitting surface peak temperature T > 1000 K, and its relative ∆T < 100 K in the combustion mode operation. The connected swirling meso-combustion chambers, inside the converter, differ only in their diameters. Combustion simulations are carried out adopting 500 W of injected chemical power, stoichiometric conditions, and detailed chemistry. All provide high chemical efficiency, η > 99.9%, and high peak temperature, but the emitting surface ∆T is strongly sensitive to the geometrical configuration. The present work is related to the “EU-FP7-HRC-Power” project, aiming at developing micro-meso hybrid sources of power, compatible with a thermal/electrical conversion by thermo-photovoltaic cells.

  10. Model Predictive Control techniques with application to photovoltaic, DC Microgrid, and a multi-sourced hybrid energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmand, Mohammad Bagher

    Renewable energy sources continue to gain popularity. However, two major limitations exist that prevent widespread adoption: availability and variability of the electricity generated and the cost of the equipment. The focus of this dissertation is Model Predictive Control (MPC) for optimal sized photovoltaic (PV), DC Microgrid, and multi-sourced hybrid energy systems. The main considered applications are: maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by MPC, droop predictive control of DC microgrid, MPC of grid-interaction inverter, MPC of a capacitor-less VAR compensator based on matrix converter (MC). This dissertation firstly investigates a multi-objective optimization technique for a hybrid distribution system. The variability of a high-penetration PV scenario is also studied when incorporated into the microgrid concept. Emerging (PV) technologies have enabled the creation of contoured and conformal PV surfaces; the effect of using non-planar PV modules on variability is also analyzed. The proposed predictive control to achieve maximum power point for isolated and grid-tied PV systems speeds up the control loop since it predicts error before the switching signal is applied to the converter. The low conversion efficiency of PV cells means we want to ensure always operating at maximum possible power point to make the system economical. Thus the proposed MPPT technique can capture more energy compared to the conventional MPPT techniques from same amount of installed solar panel. Because of the MPPT requirement, the output voltage of the converter may vary. Therefore a droop control is needed to feed multiple arrays of photovoltaic systems to a DC bus in microgrid community. Development of a droop control technique by means of predictive control is another application of this dissertation. Reactive power, denoted as Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR), has several undesirable consequences on AC power system network such as reduction in power transfer capability and increase in

  11. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  12. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires economiques sur l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France.

  13. Integrated photovoltaic-thermal solar energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    A combined photovoltaic/thermal collector has been built and is now being tested. Initial tests have concentrated on evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector before and after the silicon cells are mounted. With likely improvements in bonding between cells and receiver and in the absorptivity of the cells, thermal efficiencies greater than 50% can be expected for the combined receiver operating at 100 C.

  14. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  15. Comparative analysis of winch-based wave energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nachev, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are probably the future of the mankind. The main points advocating wave energy in particular include its huge potential, low environmental impact and availability around the globe. In order to harvest that energy, however, engineers have to overcome, among others, the corrosive sea environment and the unpredictable storms as well as secure funding for research and development. A lot of effort has been put into building and testing WECs after the oil crisis in the 1970...

  16. Validation of Hydrodynamic Numerical Model of a Pitching Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Maria del Pilar Heras; Thomas, Sarah; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    Validation of numerical model is essential in the development of new technologies. Commercial software and codes available simulating wave energy converters (WECs) have not been proved to work for all the available and upcoming technologies yet. The present paper presents the first stages...... of the validation process of a hydrodynamic numerical model for a pitching wave energy converter. The development of dry tests, wave flume and wave basin experiments are going to be explained, lessons learned shared and results presented....

  17. Energy-saving operation of a converter-fed synchronous machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, I.; Veszpremi, K. [Technical University of Budapest, Department of Electrical Machines and Drives, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-31

    In the Converter-Fed Synchronous Machine (CFSM) there is no need for forced commutation the CL and CF converters operate with line commutation, the CM is commutated by the machine voltages. This drive is applied mainly for large power and high speed controlled drives. Considering the large power, the investigation of energy-saving operation is important. As in the DC and the induction motor drives the energy-saving operation is implemented by flux control. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babarit, Aurélien; Bull, Diana; Dykes, Katherine; Malins, Robert; Nielsen, Kim; Costello, Ronan; Roberts, Jesse; Bittencourt Ferreira, Claudio; Kennedy, Ben; Weber, Jochem

    2017-12-01

    In this study, systems engineering techniques are applied to wave energy to identify and specify stakeholders' requirements for a commercially successful wave energy farm. The focus is on the continental scale utility market. Lifecycle stages and stakeholders are identified. Stakeholders' needs across the whole lifecycle of the wave energy farm are analyzed. A list of 33 stakeholder requirements are identified and specified. This list of requirements should serve as components of a technology performance level metric that could be used by investors and funding agencies to make informed decisions when allocating resources. It is hoped that the technology performance level metric will accelerate wave energy conversion technology convergence.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of a Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Gastelum Zepeda, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energies had accomplish to become part of a new era in the energy development area, making people able to stop relying on fossil fuels. Nevertheless the environmental impacts of these new energy sources also require to be quantified in order to review how many benefits these new technologies have for the environment. In this project the use of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) will be implemented in order to quantify the environmental impact of wave energy, an LCA is a technique for ass...

  20. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...... of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...

  1. First-order irreversible thermodynamic approach to a nonsteady RLC circuit as an energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, G; Arias, L A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we show a RLC-circuit as energy converter within the context of first-order irreversible thermodynamics (FOIT). For our analysis, we propose an isothermic model with transient elements and passive elements. With the help of the dynamic equations, the Kirchhoff equations, we found the generalized fluxes and forces of the circuit, the equation system shows symmetry of the cross terms, this property is characteristic of the steady state linear systems, but in this case phenomenological coefficients are function of time. Then, we can use these relations, similar to the linear Onsager relations, to construct the characteristic functions of the RLC energy converter: the power output, efficiency, dissipation and ecological function, and study its energetic performance. The study of performance of the converter is based on two parameters, the coupling parameter and the ''forces ratio'' parameter, in this case as functions of time. We find that the behavior of the non-steady state converter is similar to the behavior of steady state energy converter. We will explain the linear and symmetric behavior of the converter in the frequencies space rather than in the time space. Finally, we establish optimal operation regimes of economic degree of coupling for this energy converter

  2. Large impact of reorganization energy on photovoltaic conversion due to interfacial charge-transfer transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-14

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions are expected to be a novel charge-separation mechanism for efficient photovoltaic conversion featuring one-step charge separation without energy loss. Photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions has been investigated using several TiO2-organic hybrid materials that show organic-to-inorganic ICT transitions in the visible region. In applications of ICT transitions to photovoltaic conversion, there is a significant problem that rapid carrier recombination is caused by organic-inorganic electronic coupling that is necessary for the ICT transitions. In order to solve this problem, in this work, I have theoretically studied light-to-current conversions due to the ICT transitions on the basis of the Marcus theory with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations. An apparent correlation between the reported incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) and calculated reorganization energies was clearly found, in which the IPCE increases with decreasing the reorganization energy consistent with the Marcus theory in the inverted region. This activation-energy dependence was systematically explained by the equation formulated by the Marcus theory based on a simple excited-state kinetic scheme. This result indicates that the reduction of the reorganization energy can suppress the carrier recombination and enhance the IPCE. The reorganization energy is predominantly governed by the structural change in the chemical-adsorption moiety between the ground and ICT excited states. This work provides crucial knowledge for efficient photovoltaic conversion due to ICT transitions.

  3. The development of the market for photovoltaic energy in the Netherlands. Vision of the Organization for Renewable Energy (ODE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.

    2004-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the vision of the Dutch Organization for Renewable Energy (ODE, abbreviated in Dutch) on the development of the market for photovoltaic energy in the Netherlands, focusing on the investment cost, bottlenecks and solutions, and parties involved [nl

  4. Power converter for raindrop energy harvesting application: Half-wave rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrin, Izhab Muhammad; Dahari, Zuraini

    2017-10-01

    Harvesting raindrop energy by capturing vibration from impact of raindrop have been explored extensively. Basically, raindrop energy is generated by converting the kinetic energy of raindrop into electrical energy by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric. In this paper, a power converter using half-wave rectifier for raindrop harvesting energy application is designed and proposed to convert damping alternating current (AC) generated by PVDF into direct current (DC). This research presents parameter analysis of raindrop simulation used in the experiment and resistive load effect on half-wave rectifier converter. The experiment is conducted by using artificial raindrop from the height of 1.3 m to simulate the effect of different resistive load on the output of half-wave rectifier converter. The results of the 0.68 MΩ resistive load showed the best performance of the half-wave rectifier converter used in raindrop harvesting energy system, which generated 3.18 Vaverage. The peak instantaneous output generated from this experiment is 15.36 µW.

  5. Stochastic coordination of joint wind and photovoltaic systems with energy storage in day-ahead market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.L.R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melício, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal bid submission in a day-ahead electricity market for the problem of joint operation of wind with photovoltaic power systems having an energy storage device. Uncertainty not only due to the electricity market price, but also due to wind and photovoltaic powers is one of the main characteristics of this submission. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem. The optimal bids and the energy flow in the batteries are the first-stage variables and the energy deviation is the second stage variable of the problem. Energy storage is a way to harness renewable energy conversion, allowing the store and discharge of energy at conveniently market prices. A case study with data from the Iberian day-ahead electricity market is presented and a comparison between joint and disjoint operations is discussed. - • Joint wind and PV systems with energy storage. • Electricity markets. • Stochastic optimization. • Day-ahead market.

  6. Life cycle assessment of the wave energy converter: Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hans Chr., Sørensen; Stefan, Naef; Stefan, Anderberg

    Any power production technology should be able to demonstrate that it's able to comply with current and future environmental regulation and that it demonstrates a considerable surplus in the energy balance being a part of the entire power system. This means that the energy used throughout all the...

  7. Investigation and Optimisation of a Discrete Fluid Power PTO-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    Patents on ocean wave energy dates back to 1799, however no wave energy converter (WEC) concept have a commercialised device. The cost of energy produced with wave energy converters is very high compared to traditional energy sources. Even when compared to energy from wind turbines wave energy...... investigation show how the wave climate naturally influence the optimal system configuration yielding maximal energy output, and how one may choose the system configuration based on the installation site. The switching manifold is the control element of the secondary controlled force system. The force...... needs cost reductions. Hence, next to political will, the main obstacle for a commercial break through of wave energy technology is the high cost of energy. Initiatives to lower costs are made in areas of minimising structural costs and increasing the energy production per device. Wave Star A/S has...

  8. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabderakhmanova, T. S.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Frid, S. E.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed.

  9. Energy production estimation for Kosh-Agach grid-tie photovoltaic power plant for different photovoltaic module types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabderakhmanova, T S; Frid, S E; Tarasenko, A B; Kiseleva, S V

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed. (paper)

  10. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  11. Municipal programs of photovoltaic energy development; Les programmes municipaux de developpement du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This study presents some remarkable actions carried out in several European municipalities for the promotion and development of photovoltaic applications: installation of solar cells on public buildings, integration of the photovoltaic energy in the urban plan, application in the transportation sector, programs of public information, of promotion, of incitation, of financing, solar electricity trade, promotion of the 'green current'. After a presentation of the general situation of photovoltaic energy in Europe, and of its development in France, nine case-forms present the experience of nine selected European cities in this domain (Amersfoort (NL), Barcelona (ES), Braedstrup (DK), Karlsruhe (DE), Lausanne (CH), Mataro (ES), Muenchen (ES), Palermo (IT), Zurich (CH)). (J.S.)

  12. Cross-Regulation Assessment of DIDO Buck-Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Elamalayil Soman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When medium- or high-voltage power conversion is preferred for renewable energy sources, multilevel power converters have received much of the interest in this area as methods for enhancing the conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. In such cases, multilevel, multi-input multi-output (MIMO configurations of DC-DC converters come to the scenario for integrating several sources together, especially considering the stringent regulatory needs and the requirement of multistage power conversion systems. Considering the above facts, a three-level dual input dual output (DIDO buck-boost converter, as the simplest form of MIMO converter, is proposed in this paper for DC-link voltage regulation. The capability of this converter for cross regulating the DC-link voltage is analyzed in detail to support a three-level neutral point clamped inverter-based grid connection in the future. The cross-regulation capability is examined under a new type of pulse delay control (PDC strategy and later compared with a three-level boost converter (TLBC. Compared to conventional boost converters, the high-voltage three-level buck boost converter (TLBBC with PDC exhibits a wide controllability range and cross regulation capability. These enhanced features are extremely important for better regulating variable output renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, wave, marine current, etc. The simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the claim.

  13. Wave Energy Converters based on Dielectric Elastomer generators: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Marco; Vertechy, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) are a very promising technology for the development of energy harvesting devices based on the variable-capacitance electrostatic generator principle. This paper discusses the potentialities of DE technology for advancing the ocean wave energy sector. In particular, three innovative concepts of wave energy converters with DE-based power take-off system are introduced and described.

  14. Cost Optimization of Mooring Solutions for Large Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    The increasing desire for using renewable energy sources throughout the world has resulted in a considerable amount of research into and development of concepts for wave energy converters. By now, many different concepts exist, but still, the wave energy sector is not at a stage that is considere...

  15. The Electrostatic Wind Energy Converter : Electrical performance of a high voltage prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djairam, D.

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is converted to electrical energy by letting the wind move charged particles against the direction of an electric field. The advantage of this type of conversion is that no rotational movement, which occurs in conventional wind turbines, is required. An electrostatic wind energy

  16. Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Converters: Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, B. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Copping, A. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suryan, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kramer, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    To better understand the state of instrumentation and capabilities for monitoring around marine energy converters, the U.S. Department of Energy directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington to convene an invitation-only workshop of experts from around the world to address instrumentation needs.

  17. Superconducting energy stabilizer with charging and discharging DC-DC converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Kostecki, E.L.; DeWinkel, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting energy stabilizer having multiple load connections and employing DC-DC conversion for storing energy in a superconducting inductive energy storage device having a first end and a second end, and for releasing the stored energy from the superconducting inductive energy storage device to a load or loads or to a utility or an industrial electrical distribution system, the superconducting energy stabilizer having multiple load connections and employing DC-DC conversion. It comprises: energy storage cell means for supplying energy to the load, discharging DC-DC converter means for releasing energy from the superconducting inductive energy storage device to the energy storage cell means, the discharging DC-DC converter means having input terminals, output terminals, and a discharging control line means for carrying signals controlling the operation of the discharging DC-DC converter means, one of the input terminals of the discharging DC-DC converter means coupled to the first end of the superconducting energy storage device

  18. A Decision Model for Choosing Among Photovoltaic Technologies to Generate Electricity at Grid-Connected Air Force Facilities: A Value-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    goals, but it is also carries significant political interest. 1.1.4. Photovoltaic Effect A monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell (Figure 2) is...developed the industry by creating small photovoltaic panels to power watches and calculators (Archer, 2001; Wronski and Carlson, 2001). Amorphous silicon...Clinton, 1999). One particularly promising renewable energy source is solar energy converted to electricity by solar photovoltaic panels . Previous

  19. A review of ocean energy converters, with an Australian focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to move away from carbon based fossil fuels has led to a renewed interest in unconventional energy sources. Of interest in this article are ocean waves and current and tidal flows. This paper reviews the numerous options for ocean energy conversion systems that are currently available. A basic nomenclature for the variety of systems is utilized to classify the devices. A variety of issues including competing use, boating, fishing, commercial shipping and tourism are discussed with respect to impacts on and from ocean renewable energy.

  20. High efficiency β radioisotope energy conversion using reciprocating electromechanical converters with integrated betavoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Rajesh; Li, Hui; Lal, Amit

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a 5.1% energy conversion efficiency Ni63 radioisotope power generator by integrating silicon betavoltaic converters with radioisotope actuated reciprocating piezoelectric unimorph cantilever converters. The electromechanical energy converter efficiently utilizes both the kinetic energy and the electrical charge of the 0.94μW β radiation from a 9mCi Ni63 thin film source to generate maximum (1) continuous betavoltaic electrical power output of 22nW and (2) pulsed piezoelectric electrical power output of 750μW at 0.07% duty cycle. The electromechanical converters can be potentially used to realize 100year lifetime power sources for powering periodic sampling remote wireless sensor microsystems.

  1. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    interface to the grid. In power electronics, the converter efficiency is characterized at fixed operating voltage for various output power. This type of characterization is not suitable for fuel cells, since as the power from the fuel cell increases, the cell voltage decreases. This paper analyses how......Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power...... the fuel cell I-V characteristics influences the power electronics converter efficiency and their consequence on the overall system. A loaddependent efficiency curve is presented based on experimental results from a 6 kW dc-dc converter prototype including the most suitable control strategy which maximizes...

  2. Integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) with grid connected residential photovoltaic energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Shireen, Wajiha

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an approach for integrating Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) to an existing residential photovoltaic system, to control and optimize the power consumption of residential load. Control involves determining the source from which residential load will be catered, where as optimization of power flow reduces the stress on the grid. The system built to achieve the goal is a combination of the existing residential photovoltaic system, PHEV, Power Conditioning Unit (PCU), and a controller. The PCU involves two DC-DC Boost Converters and an inverter. This paper emphasizes on developing the controller logic and its implementation in order to accommodate the flexibility and benefits of the proposed integrated system. The proposed controller logic has been simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK and further implemented using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) microcontroller, TMS320F28035, from Texas Instruments

  3. Further development of the SEA-Clam wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.; Peatfield, A.M.

    1984-04-01

    The final design of the SEA-Clam as a unit for a large 2 GW scheme has been described. This is the leading wave energy device arising out of the UK National Wave Energy Program and is seen as having the greatest potential for further development particularly for smaller scale applications. The small scale market for wave energy is examined and the design and cost parameters evaluated for the 250 kW to 1000 kW range of SEA-Clam units. Building a demonstration prototype rated at 650 kW and producing an annual average output of 250 kW is identified as the next step towards the commercial exploitation of wave energy.

  4. The calculation of energy storage flywheels of fiber composites with electric energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canders, W R

    1982-01-01

    The computation and the design of energy storage flywheels with electromechanical energy converters are considered in the present study. The most important stress parameters for flywheels of unidirectional laminate are determined, and criteria for the dimensioning of the flywheel are presented, taking into account centrifugal and compressive stresses. The required high speed of the flywheel is the dominating factor, which has to be considered also in the design of the driving engine for the storage device. The computation of the design characteristics of an outside-rotor motor with permanent-magnet excitation as an integral component of the storage device is discussed. The significance of the obtained results is illustrated with the aid of design examples and an application example in the area of vehicular technology.

  5. Photovoltaic test and demonstration project. [residential energy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The considered project consists of three subprojects related to applications, device performance and diagnostics, and endurance testing. The objectives of the applications subproject include the determination of the operating characteristics for a variety of photovoltaic conversion systems. A system test facility is being constructed in this connection and a prototype residence experiment is to be conducted. Market demand for solar cells is to be stimulated by demonstrating suitability of solar cells for specific near-term applications. Activities conducted in connection with device performance studies and diagnostics are also discussed along with developments in the area of endurance testing.

  6. Modelling the hydrokinetic energy resource for in-stream energy converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Hydrokinetic energy, referring to the energy contained in moving water, is a renewable energy source that has gained much attention the past years. The energy is found in all moving water masses, but is only economical to convert for water masses moving with high velocity, i.e. likely around 1 m/s and above. This energy can for example be found in tidal, ocean and river currents which flow through narrow straits and channels. Along the west coast of Norway, there are many sites where kinetic energy conversion would be possible due to the strong current present. The driving force behind the currents is the tidal wave that progresses northward along the coast and increases in strength. The models that so far have been used for estimating the resource in Norway have been shown to be uncertain since they do not account for the fact that the velocities and the water levels are altered when energy is extracted. These effects can be simulated with numerical models. A channel in the Dal river, the Soederfors channel, is situated downstream a hydropower plant and was simulated with the numerical model MIKE. The water level alteration due to turbines was simulated. It was shown to be a lot less than the water level alteration caused by the level change in the downstream lake. Velocity profiles measured at several different locations were used to estimate how the power coefficient was changed. Four turbine configurations were studied and it was shown that changes in the power coefficient were prominent only for a vertical shear profile with a strong gradient. At the Div. of Electricity, studies have been conducted on how to convert hydrokinetic energy to electricity since 2003. The main idea has been to use a system that limits the need for maintenance. The concept studied is a vertical axis turbine directly coupled to a permanent magnet generator. The Soederfors channel has, due to aspects such as the flow properties and velocity, been chosen as a site for an experimental

  7. Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James

    of the incident waves upon a wave device allows the possibility of accurately tuning the power-take off mechanism (the hydro-turbines for the Wave Dragon) to capture more energy. A digital filter method for performing this prediction in real-time with minimal computational effort is presented. Construction...... of digital filters is well known within signal processing, but their use for this application in Wave Energy is new. The filter must be designed carefully as the frequency components of waves travel at different speeds. Research presented in this thesis has advanced the development of the Wave Dragon device...

  8. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  9. Simplified Design Procedures for Moorings of Wave-Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Lars; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The goal of the report is that the reader shall be able to self-dependently make a first, preliminary analysis of wave-induced horizontal loads, motions and mooring forces for a moored floating wave energy device. Necessary prerequisites to attain that goal are the understanding of the physical p...

  10. Short-Term Forecasting of Electric Energy Generation for a Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh V.T.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short-term forecast of electric energy output of a photovoltaic (PV system towards Tomsk city, Russia climate variations (module temperature and solar irradiance. The system is located at Institute of Non-destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University. The obtained results show good agreement between actual data and prediction values.

  11. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  12. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  13. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  14. Efficiency gains of photovoltaic system using latent heat thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Fernandes, Gabriel; Singh, Baljit; Ganguly, Sayantan

    This paper presents experimental assessments of the thermal and electrical performance of photovoltaic (PV) system by comparing the latent heat-cooled PV panel with the naturally-cooled equivalent. It is commonly known that the energy conversion efficiency of the PV cells declines with the increment

  15. Energy-Efficient Capacitance-to-Digital Converters for Low-Energy Sensor Nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficiency is a key requirement for wireless sensor nodes, biomedical implants, and wearable devices. The energy consumption of the sensor node needs to be minimized to avoid battery replacement, or even better, to enable the device to survive on energy harvested from the ambient. Capacitive sensors do not consume static power; thus, they are attractive from an energy efficiency perspective. In addition, they can be employed in a wide range of sensing applications. However, the sensor readout circuit–i.e., the capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC)–can be the dominant source of energy consumption in the system. Thus, the development of energy-efficient CDCs is crucial to minimizing the energy consumption of capacitive sensor nodes. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose several energy-efficient CDC architectures for low-energy sensor nodes. First, we propose a digitally-controlled coarsefine multislope CDC that employs both current and frequency scaling to achieve significant improvement in energy efficiency. Second, we analyze the limitations of successive approximation (SAR) CDC, and we address these limitations by proposing a robust parasitic-insensitive opamp-based SAR CDC. Third, we propose an inverter-based SAR CDC that achieves an energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FoM) of 31fJ/Step, which is the best energy efficiency FoM reported to date. Fourth, we propose a differential SAR CDC with quasi-dynamic operation to maintain excellent energy efficiency for a scalable sample rate. In the second part of this dissertation, we study the matching properties of small integrated capacitors, which are an integral component of energy-efficient CDCs. Despite conventional wisdom, we experimentally illustrate that the mismatch of small capacitors can be directly measured, and we report mismatch measurements for subfemtofarad integrated capacitors. We also correct the common misconception that lateral capacitors match better than vertical capacitors

  16. Classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculations of photovoltaic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rus-Casas, C.; Aguilar, J.D.; Rodrigo, P.; Almonacid, F.; Pérez-Higueras, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a novel classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculation of grid-connected PV systems. • The methods are classified in direct and indirect methods. • Direct methods directly calculate the energy. Indirect methods calculate the energy from the power. • The classification can help the PV professionals in order to choose the most suitable method for each application. - Abstract: Estimating the energy provided by the generators of grid-connected photovoltaic systems is important in order to analyze their economic viability and supervise their operation. The energy harvesting calculation of a photovoltaic generator is not trivial; there are a lot of methods for this calculation. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculation of a generator of a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The methods are classified in two groups: (1) those that indirectly calculate the energy, i.e. they first calculate the power and from this, they calculate the energy, and (2) those that directly calculate the energy. Furthermore, the indirect methods are grouped in two categories: those that first calculate the I–V curve of the generator and from this, they calculate the power, and those that directly calculate the power. The study has shown that the existing methods differ in simplicity and accuracy, so that the proposed classification is useful in order to choose the most suitable method for each specific application

  17. Exergy, Energy, and Dynamic Parameter Analysis of Indigenously Developed Low-Concentration Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Yadav; Brijesh Tripathi; Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piecewise linear parabolic trough collector (PLPTC) is designed and developed to concentrate solar radiation on monocrystalline silicon based photovoltaic module. A theoretical model is used to perform electrical energy and exergy analysis of low-concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) system working under actual test conditions (ATC). The exergy efficiency of LCPV system is in the range from 5.1% to 4.82% with increasing rate of input exergy rate from 30.81 W to 96.12 W, when conce...

  18. Converting Wind Energy to Ammonia at Lower Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmali, Mahdi; Reese, Michael; McCormick, Alon V.; Cussler, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable wind energy can be used to make ammonia. However, wind-generated ammonia costs about twice that made from a traditional fossil-fuel driven process. To reduce the production cost, we replace the conventional ammonia condensation with a selective absorber containing metal halides, e.g., calcium chloride, operating at near synthesis temperatures. With this reaction-absorption process, ammonia can be synthesized at 20 bar from air, water, and wind-generated electricity, with rates comparable to the conventional process running at 150–300 bar. In our reaction-absorption process, the rate of ammonia synthesis is now controlled not by the chemical reaction but largely by the pump used to recycle the unreacted gases. The results suggest an alternative route to distributed ammonia manufacture which can locally supply nitrogen fertilizer and also a method to capture stranded wind energy as a carbon-neutral liquid fuel.

  19. Observatory of photovoltaic solar energy in France. Launching of the 19. edition - Quarterly publication, September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    After a brief and synthetic overview of trends regarding solar photovoltaic energy in France and in the World (evolution of the numbers of connections and installations), this publication proposes graphs which illustrate the evolution of the distribution of new electricity production capacities in France, in Europe and in the USA, the evolution of connected photovoltaic power in the different World regions, a comparison of levelized cost of electricity between the different production sources, the evolution of the share of photovoltaic electricity in raw power consumption, the quarterly evolution of the number and power of connected photovoltaic installations between 2008 and 2016, the quarterly evolution of connections and purchase prices for different power ranges (less than 9 kW, 9-100 kW, 100-250 kW, 250 kW-1 MW, more than 1 MW), the evolution of the number and power of queuing projects, the quarterly evolution of solar photovoltaic electricity purchase prices in France, the evolution of the impact on the CSPE (contribution to the electricity public service)

  20. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  1. Optimum technoeconomic energy autonomous photovoltaic solution for remote consumers throughout Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous photovoltaic systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers worldwide. Such an autonomous system comprises a number of photovoltaic panels, properly connected, and a battery storage device, along with the corresponding electronic equipment. Considering the high solar potential of most Greek territories, an integrated study is conducted based on long term solar potential experimental measurements in order to determine the optimum configuration of a stand alone photovoltaic system at representative locations all over Greece. The proposed solution 'guarantees' zero load rejections for all the areas and time periods examined. For this purpose, a fast and reliable numerical code 'PHOTOV-III' has been used. The algorithm provides analytical results concerning the energy autonomy and the operational status of the autonomous system components. Besides, the optimum panel tilt angle, minimizing the first installation cost of a small photovoltaic system, is predicted. Finally, by introducing available financial aspects, it is possible to determine the optimum system dimensions on a minimum first installation cost basis. According to the results obtained, an autonomous photovoltaic system can definitely contribute to solution of the urgent electrification problem of remote consumers spread throughout Greece, also improving their life quality level

  2. Two Level Versus Matrix Converters Performance in Wind Energy Conversion Systems Employing DFIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gongati Pandu Ranga; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2017-10-01

    Wind power capacity has received enormous growth during past decades. With substantial development of wind power, it is expected to provide a fifth of world's electricity by the end of 2030. In wind energy conversion system, the power electronic converters play an important role. This paper presents the two level and matrix converters performance in wind energy conversion system employing Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The DFIG is a wound rotor induction generator. Because of the advantages of the DFIG over other generators it is being used for most of the wind applications. This paper also discusses control of converters using the space vector pulse width modulation technique. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ® software is used to study the performance of the converters.

  3. Direct fission fragment energy converter - Magnetic collimator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, P. V.; Hart, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collimation, collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Specific characteristics of the individual system components and the entire system are evaluated. Analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling. In addition to the extensive computational effort, the scaled prototype experimental proof-of-principle program was conducted to validate basic physics of the concept. The program was focused on electromagnetic components and experimental demonstration of performance. This paper summarizes the final results of the 6-years research program including both computational and experimental efforts. Potential future research and development and anticipated applications are discussed. (authors)

  4. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  5. Renewable Energy, Authenticity, and Tourism: Social Acceptance of Photovoltaic Installations in a Swiss Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Helena Michel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing emergence of renewable energy sites in Switzerland, new impacts on the landscape can be observed. Above the Alpine village of Bellwald, a pilot project testing avalanche barriers as a possible site for photovoltaic installations was inaugurated in 2012. This study focused on social aspects of the project and asked questions about local residents' and tourists' perceptions of and attitudes toward the installations. Its findings reveal that the new elements are not perceived as a drastic intrusion into the landscape, because the view was already affected by the avalanche barriers, which are accepted because of their vital protective function. No significant difference was found between residents' and tourists' evaluation of the new photovoltaic installations. However, different factors influenced the perceptions of these 2 groups. In both groups, conceptions related to place played an important role in the evaluation of possible photovoltaic sites.

  6. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  7. Maximum power point tracking techniques for wind energy systems using three levels boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong Hung; Nollet, Frédéric; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents modeling and simulation of three level Boost DC-DC converter in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Three-level Boost converter has significant advantage compared to conventional Boost. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for a variable speed wind turbine using permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is also presented. Simulation of three-level Boost converter topology with Perturb and Observe algorithm and Fuzzy Logic Control is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results of this simulation show that the system with MPPT using fuzzy logic controller has better performance to the Perturb and Observe algorithm: fast response under changing conditions and small oscillation.

  8. Solar thermal power and photovoltaic energy are both developing; Solaire a concentration et solaire photovoltaique: la main dans la main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jannic, N.; Houot, G.

    2010-11-15

    Thermodynamic solar energy and photovoltaic energy are expected to reach together a quarter of the world electricity production by 2050. In France the development of thermodynamic solar plants is hampered by the high cost of land in the sunny regions. As for photovoltaic energy, France has the potentiality to become an important producer. Since 2006, the French government has supported photovoltaic energy by proposing incentive electricity purchase prices guaranteed for 20 years. In 2006, the Ines research institute was founded, one of its research fields is the development of high yield silicon cells. (A.C.)

  9. Energy balance measurements for the determination of physical and technical operation parameters of thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, K.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction into the fundamental theoretical principles of the thermionic Cs converter is followed by the set-up of a special measuring converter as proposed by J. Bohdansky which permits the defined setting of the electrode distance under service conditions. Measurements thus carried out present quantitative data on efficiency, on energy transfer between the electrodes by means of radiation and heat transfer, and on the actual collector potential, the latter which surprisingly shows a distance dependency. (orig./GG) [de

  10. Shallow water effects on wave energy converters with hydraulic power take-off system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashank Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water depth on the power absorption by a single heaving point absorber wave energy converter, attached to a hydraulic power take-off system, is simulated and analysed. The wave energy flux for changing water depths is presented and the study is carried out at a location in the north-west Portuguese coast, favourable for wave power generation. This analysis is based on a procedure to modify the wave spectrum as the water depth reduces, namely, the TMA spectrum (Transformation spectrum. The present study deals with the effect of water depth on the spectral shape and significant wave heights. The reactive control strategy, which includes an external damping coefficient and a negative spring term, is used to maximize power absorption by the wave energy converter. The presented work can be used for making decisions regarding the best water depth for the installation of point absorber wave energy converters in the Portuguese nearshore.

  11. Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.

  12. Cascaded H-Bridge with Bidirectional Boost Converters for Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a cascaded H-bridge converter for energy storage with bidirectional boost converter as charge/discharge unit. The disadvantage of the second harmonic on the main energy storage unit as well as its voltage variation with the state of charge is solved...... by this structure. The independent phase grid control is proposed for this topology. This strategy is able to control the average dc-link voltage for each phase independently and to balance the cells capacitors voltages. The balance of the energy storage units is achieved by controlling independently each cell...

  13. Model based feasibility study on bidirectional check valves in wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power force systems have been proposed as the primary stage for Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) when converting ocean waves into electricity, this to improve the overall efficiency of wave energy devices. This paper presents a model based feasibility study of using bidirectional check....../Off and bidirectional check valves. Based on the analysis it is found that the energy production may be slightly improved by using bidirectional check valves as compared to on/off valves, due to a decrease in switching losses. Furthermore a reduction in high flow peaks are realised. The downside being increased...

  14. Bidding Strategy of Virtual Power Plant with Energy Storage Power Station and Photovoltaic and Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the virtual power plants containing energy storage power stations and photovoltaic and wind power, the output of PV and wind power is uncertain and virtual power plants must consider this uncertainty when they participate in the auction in the electricity market. In this context, this paper studies the bidding strategy of the virtual power plant with photovoltaic and wind power. Assuming that the upper and lower limits of the combined output of photovoltaic and wind power are stochastically variable, the fluctuation range of the day-ahead energy market and capacity price is stochastically variable. If the capacity of the storage station is large enough to stabilize the fluctuation of the output of the wind and photovoltaic power, virtual power plants can participate in the electricity market bidding. This paper constructs a robust optimization model of virtual power plant bidding strategy in the electricity market, which considers the cost of charge and discharge of energy storage power station and transmission congestion. The model proposed in this paper is solved by CPLEX; the example results show that the model is reasonable and the method is valid.

  15. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  16. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  17. Study on High energy efficiency photovoltaic facility agricultural system in tropical area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic facility agriculture is developing rapidly in recent years, but there are many problems brought out, even in some important demonstration projects, due to the lack of standards. In order to solve some of these problems, we set up a photovoltaic facilities agricultural system in Guilinyang University City, Haikou, China and make an in-depth study on the photovoltaic facility agricultural system and its related problems. In this paper we disclose some of the experimental results. We plant corianders under two kinds of solar cell panels and general double glass assembly already sold on the market. Experiments showed that the square format cell panels are much better than row type, and the next one is general double glass assembly sold on the market, the last is the case without any shelter. 30 days after planting, the height of coriander plants are 50mm, 30mm, 23mm and 20mm correspondingly. The two typical solar cell panels have gaps between cells, and can save much more energy and improve power generation efficiency, we arrange the panels at optimum tilted angle, and design the system as open structure to save more energy. The photovoltaic facilities agricultural system we set up in Guilinyang University City can achieve much high solar energy efficiency than others and has broad application prospects.

  18. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    O'Boyle, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Whittaker, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An ...

  19. Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter is unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure leve...... on a jack-up rig. The results may thus not be directly transferable to other wave converter designs but do demonstrate that it is possible to harness wave energy without noise pollution to the marine environment.......Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter; a full-scale hydraulic point absorber, placed on a jack-up rig on the Danish North Sea coast. Noise was recorded 25 m from the converter with an autonomous recording unit (10 Hz to 20 kHz bandwidth). Median sound pressure levels...... were so low that they would barely be audible to marine mammals and the likelihood of negative impact from the noise appears minimal. A likely explanation for the low noise emissions is the construction of the converter where all moving parts, except for the absorbers themselves, are placed above water...

  20. Studi Komparasi Fungsi Keanggotaan Fuzzy sebagai Kontroler Bidirectional DC-DC Converter pada Sistem Penyimpan Energi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Prasetyono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional DC-DC converter is needed in the energy storage system. The converter topology used in this paper was a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC buck-boost converter. This converter worked in two ways, which the charging mode stored energy into battery when load current was less than nominal main DC current (set point and discharging mode transferred energy from battery to the load when its current exceeded set point value. Both of these modes worked automatically according to the load current. The charging and discharging currents were controlled by fuzzy logic controller which was implemented on microcontroller ARM Cortex-M4F STM32F407VG. This paper compares two types of fuzzy membership function (triangular and sigmoid in controlling bidirectional DC-DC converter. The results showed that fuzzy logic controller with triangle membership function and sigmoid as control bidirectional DC-DC converter had no significant different response, both had an average error for charging and discharging process under 4% with ripple current on the main DC bus around 0.5%. The computing time of program for fuzzy logic controller with triangular membership functions had 19.01% faster than sigmoid, and fuzzy logic computation time on a microcontroller with hardware floating point was 60% faster than software floating point.