Noise-free high-efficiency photon-number-resolving detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, Danna; Lita, Adriana E.; Miller, Aaron J.; Nam, Sae Woo
2005-01-01
High-efficiency optical detectors that can determine the number of photons in a pulse of monochromatic light have applications in a variety of physics studies, including post-selection-based entanglement protocols for linear optics quantum computing and experiments that simultaneously close the detection and communication loopholes of Bell's inequalities. Here we report on our demonstration of fiber-coupled, noise-free, photon-number-resolving transition-edge sensors with 88% efficiency at 1550 nm. The efficiency of these sensors could be made even higher at any wavelength in the visible and near-infrared spectrum without resulting in a higher dark-count rate or degraded photon-number resolution
Spectrum of a one-atom laser in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florescu, Lucia
2006-01-01
The emission spectrum of a single-emitter laser in a photonic crystal is presented. We consider a coherently pumped two-level emitter strongly coupled to a high-quality microcavity engineered within a photonic crystal. We show that the cavity spectrum consists of both elastic and inelastic components, for which we derive analytical expressions. Our study reveals enhanced, spectrally narrower emission resulting from the radiation reservoir of the photonic crystal. The cavity field spectral characteristics are fundamentally distinct from those of a corresponding microcavity in ordinary vacuum. At high pump intensities and for large discontinuities in the photon density of states between Mollow spectral components of atomic resonance fluorescence, the emitted intensity originating from the elastic spectral component increases with the intensity of the pump and the elastic component dominates the spectrum. In the case of a vanishing photon density of states in the spectral range surrounding the lower Mollow sideband and no dipolar dephasing, the cavity spectrum is elastic
Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Custidiano, E.R.; Valenzuela, M.R.; Dumont, J.L.; McDonnell, J.; Rene, L; Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M.
2011-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.
Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Custidiano, E.R., E-mail: ernesto7661@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Valenzuela, M.R., E-mail: meraqval@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Dumont, J.L., E-mail: Joseluis.Dumont@elekta.com [Elekta CMS Software, St.Louis, MO (United States); McDonnell, J., E-mail: josemc@express.com.ar [Cumbres Institute, Riobamba 1745, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rene, L, E-mail: luismrene@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Center, Crespo 953, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M., E-mail: juakcho@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina)
2011-06-15
Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Minsoo; Hong, Eugene; Won, Eunil; Yoon, Tai Hyun
2008-01-01
Quantum information science has been rapidly progressed and matured and matured thanks to the recent developments of the single photon detection technologies. Single photon detectors such as a Si avalanche photo diode(APD)in the infrared, an InGaAs/InP APD in the telecommunication band, and a super conducting transient edge sensor(TES)in the broad region of the spectrum have been widely used. Single photon detectors, however, operating at the ultraviolet to visible (370nm∼800nm)regions has not been actively investigated partly due to the lack of single photon and/or entangled photon sources and the lack of solid state single photon detectors. In this paper, we investigate the single photon detection characteristics of a Si multi pixel photon counter(MPPC), which has a high spectral responsivity between 300nm to 800nm, as a photon number resolving solid state detector. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the single photon detection set up at 399nm by using a temperature stabilized Si MPPC. The output beam of the laser being properly attenuated is directed to the MPPC module, at which fixed number of photo electrons corresponding to incident individual photon are generated at Geiger mode of the Si APD pixels. The detected photo current is converted into a digital signal by using a fast analog to digital converter and a digital oscilloscope stores the time sequence of the photo currents. Figure 2 shows the accumulated charges collected by MPPC at∼10.deg.C showing a clear single photon and two photons peaks, respectively, separated by ∼5 sigma of the coincidence counts at the two output ports of a Mach Zender interferometer as a function of optical path length difference. The research was supported by Seoul R and BD program(NT070127)and by the KRISS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Minsoo; Hong, Eugene; Won, Eunil; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2008-11-15
Quantum information science has been rapidly progressed and matured and matured thanks to the recent developments of the single photon detection technologies. Single photon detectors such as a Si avalanche photo diode(APD)in the infrared, an InGaAs/InP APD in the telecommunication band, and a super conducting transient edge sensor(TES)in the broad region of the spectrum have been widely used. Single photon detectors, however, operating at the ultraviolet to visible (370nm∼800nm)regions has not been actively investigated partly due to the lack of single photon and/or entangled photon sources and the lack of solid state single photon detectors. In this paper, we investigate the single photon detection characteristics of a Si multi pixel photon counter(MPPC), which has a high spectral responsivity between 300nm to 800nm, as a photon number resolving solid state detector. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the single photon detection set up at 399nm by using a temperature stabilized Si MPPC. The output beam of the laser being properly attenuated is directed to the MPPC module, at which fixed number of photo electrons corresponding to incident individual photon are generated at Geiger mode of the Si APD pixels. The detected photo current is converted into a digital signal by using a fast analog to digital converter and a digital oscilloscope stores the time sequence of the photo currents. Figure 2 shows the accumulated charges collected by MPPC at∼10.deg.C showing a clear single photon and two photons peaks, respectively, separated by ∼5 sigma of the coincidence counts at the two output ports of a Mach Zender interferometer as a function of optical path length difference. The research was supported by Seoul R and BD program(NT070127)and by the KRISS.
Time-independent inverse compton spectrum for photons from a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The general theoretical aspects of inverse Compton scattering was investigated and an equation for the timeindependent inverse Compton spectrum for photons from a plasma cloud of finite extent was derived. This was done by convolving the Kompaneets equation used for describing the evolution of the photon spectrum ...
Generation of photon number states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2006-01-01
The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states
Spectrum of acetylene fluorescence excited by single XUV photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmieder, R.W.
1982-01-01
The spectrum of visible emission from photofragments of acetylene excited by single 16.85 eV photons has been recorded for the first time. The spectrum is dominated by the Swan and Deslandres-d'Azambuja bands of C 2 and the 431.5 nm band of CH. The yields of these emissions are of the order 10 -3 photons per absorbed incident photon. The experimental conditions suggest that the emission results from primary C* 2 and CH* photofragments
Universal dependence of the total number albedo of photons on the mean number of photon scatterings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ljubenov Vladan L.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on photon reflection from plane targets based on Monte Carlo simulations performed by the MCNP code. Five materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper are examined in the area of initial photon energies of up to 200 keV. The values of the total number albedo for photons dependent on the initial photon energy or the mean number of photon scatterings are calculated and graphically presented. We have shown that the values of the total number albedo for different target materials, expressed as a function of the mean number of photon scatterings, are in good agreement with each other and can be approximated by simple, universal analytic functions obtained by the least squares method. The accuracy of these analytic appoximations is confirmed by their comparison with the results of PENELOPE and FOTELP Monte Carlo codes.
THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Elyiv, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miniati, F., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: elyiv@astro.ulg.ac.be, E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)
2012-10-20
Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).
Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu
1976-01-01
The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)
Interferometric control of the photon-number distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Esat Kondakci
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate deterministic control over the photon-number distribution by interfering two coherent beams within a disordered photonic lattice. By sweeping a relative phase between two equal-amplitude coherent fields with Poissonian statistics that excite adjacent sites in a lattice endowed with disorder-immune chiral symmetry, we measure an output photon-number distribution that changes periodically between super-thermal and sub-thermal photon statistics upon ensemble averaging. Thus, the photon-bunching level is controlled interferometrically at a fixed mean photon-number by gradually activating the excitation symmetry of the chiral-mode pairs with structured coherent illumination and without modifying the disorder level of the random system itself.
Polarimetry of coherent bremsstrahlung by analysis of the photon energy spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darbinyan, S.; Hakobyan, H.; Jones, R.; Sirunyan, A.; Vartapetian, H.
2005-01-01
A method of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) polarimetry based on the analysis of the shape of the photon energy spectrum is presented. The influence of a number of uncertainty sources, including the choice of atomic form-factors, has been analyzed. For a CB source consisting of a diamond radiator and multi-GeV electrons, an absolute accuracy of polarimetry at the level of 0.01-0.02 is attainable
Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping
2011-01-01
We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.
Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva S, A. [General Electric Healthcare, Antonio Dovali Jaime 70, Torre A 3er. piso, Col. Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2015-10-15
Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)
Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva S, A.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.
2015-10-01
Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6 MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is 78.1 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 188 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veksler, V.I.
1986-01-01
A two-photon mechanism of the formation of a continuous spectrum of photons emitted by products of metal sputtering is considered. The following process of the two-photon mechanism is considered: the continuous spectrum is formed under quadrupole two-photon transitions in sputtered excited atoms having vacancies at the d level in atoms of transition metals or at the of level in lanthanides found against the filled conduction band. It is shown that the suggested mechanism should play an essential role in the formation of the continuous spectrum of optical radiation
Photon spectrum and absorbed dose in brain tumor.
Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Silva-Sanchez, Angeles; Rivera-Montalvo, Teodoro
2016-11-01
Using Monte Carlo methods a BOMAB phantom inside a treatment hall with a brain tumor nearby the pituitary gland was treated with photons produced by a Varian 6MV linac. The photon spectrum and the absorbed dose were calculated in the tumor, pituitary gland and the head. The treatment beam was collimated to illuminate only the tumor volume; however photons were noticed in the gland. Photon fluence reaching the tumor is and 15.7 times larger than the fluence in the pituitary gland, on the other hand the absorbed dose in the tumor is 37.1 times larger than the dose in the gland because photons that reach the pituitary gland are scattered, by the head and the tumor, through Compton effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-23
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. H. Hara
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the hearing process is considered from a system engineering perspective. For those with total hearing loss, a cochlear implant is the only direct remedy. It first acts as a spectrum analyser and then electronically stimulates the neurons in the cochlea with a number of electrodes. Each electrode carries information on the separate frequency bands (i.e., spectrum of the original sound signal. The neurons then relay the signals in a parallel manner to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. Photonic and tactile hearing systems displaying the spectrum of sound are proposed as alternative paths to the section of the brain that processes sound. In view of the plasticity of the brain, which can rewire itself, the following conjectures are offered. After a certain period of training, a person without the ability to hear should be able to decipher the patterns of photonic or tactile displays of the sound spectrum and learn to ‘hear’. This is very similar to the case of a blind person learning to ‘read’ by recognizing the patterns created by the series of bumps as their fingers scan the Braille writing. The conjectures are yet to be tested. Designs of photonic and tactile systems displaying the sound spectrum are outlined.
Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum.
Lu, Tsung-Ju; Fanto, Michael; Choi, Hyeongrak; Thomas, Paul; Steidle, Jeffrey; Mouradian, Sara; Kong, Wei; Zhu, Di; Moon, Hyowon; Berggren, Karl; Kim, Jeehwan; Soltani, Mohammad; Preble, Stefan; Englund, Dirk
2018-04-30
We demonstrate a wide-bandgap semiconductor photonics platform based on nanocrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire. This photonics platform guides light at low loss from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible spectrum. We measure ring resonators with intrinsic quality factor (Q) exceeding 170,000 at 638 nm and Q >20,000 down to 369.5 nm, which shows a promising path for low-loss integrated photonics in UV and visible spectrum. This platform opens up new possibilities in integrated quantum optics with trapped ions or atom-like color centers in solids, as well as classical applications including nonlinear optics and on-chip UV-spectroscopy.
Measurement and model of the infrared two-photon emission spectrum of GaAs.
Hayat, Alex; Ginzburg, Pavel; Orenstein, Meir
2009-07-10
Two-photon emission from semiconductors was recently observed, but not fully interpreted. We develop a dressed-state model incorporating intraband scattering-related level broadening, yielding nondivergent emission rates. The spectrum calculations for high carrier concentrations including the time dependence of the screening buildup correspond well to our measured two-photon emission spectrum from GaAs.
Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon ..... This photon build-up is a function of thickness and atomic number of the sample and also the incident photon energy, which combine to ...
Characterization of the Photon Energy Spectrum of a 6 MV Linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez Bojorquez, M.; Larraga, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Celis, M. A.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.
2006-01-01
In this work we study the influence of the purity of the materials used in experimental transmission measurements to obtain data to reconstruct the photon energy spectrum of a 6 MV Linac. We also evaluate the contribution to PDDs due to electron contamination in the reconstructed spectrum
Generation of sub-Poissonian photon number distribution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Ramanujam, P. S.
1990-01-01
An optimization of a nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer to produce sub-Poissonian photon number distribution is proposed. We treat the system quantum mechanically and estimate the mirror parameters, the nonlinearity of the medium in the interferometer, and the input power to obtain minimal...... output uncertainty in the photon number. The power efficiency of the system is shown to be high....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T.; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.
2011-01-01
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A.S.
2014-01-01
The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectral photon distribution, produced by soft beta particles of 35 S (W max =164 keV), in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV, is measured by using a Si(Li) detector, having high energy resolution and efficiency at low energy region. The measured spectral IB photon distribution is compared with KUB theory and Coulomb corrected IB theories given by Nilsson, and Lewis and Ford. After applying the necessary corrections, the experimental and theoretical IB spectral photon distributions are compared in terms of the number of IB photon of energy k per m o c 2 per unit photon yield. In the low energy region (below 10 keV), the experimental results are in agreement with all the theories. However, in photon energy region of 10–50 keV, experimental results are in agreement with Coulomb corrected Nilsson theory only, within the experimental errors. Further, beyond 50 keV, the Nilsson theory is more close to the experimental results than the KUB, and the Lewis and Ford theories. Hence, the Nilsson theory is more accurate than the other theories given by KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at a high energy end. The experimental results reported here with Si(Li) detector are free from number of ambiguities in earlier measurements reported with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. The present results are indicating a relook into the theoretical considerations, given by different theories, while taking into account the Coulomb corrections for predicting the IB spectrum, particularly at high photon energy region. - Highlights: • The internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 35 S beta emitter, in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV. • These measurement are taken by using a Si(Li) detector. • Theoretical and experimental results are reported in terms of number of photons of energy k per m 0 c 2 per unit photon yield. • The Nilsson theory for IB is more accurate than KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at high photon energy region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrzanowski, H. M.; Bernu, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Hage, B.; Lam, P. K.; Symul, T. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Quantum Optics group, Department of Quantum Science, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Lund, A. P. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Ralph, T. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St. Lucia QLD 4072 (Australia)
2011-11-15
The nonlinearity of a conditional photon-counting measurement can be used to ''de-Gaussify'' a Gaussian state of light. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a technique for photon-number resolution using only homodyne detection. We then apply this technique to inform a conditional measurement, unambiguously reconstructing the statistics of the non-Gaussian one- and two-photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum states. Although our photon-number measurement relies on ensemble averages and cannot be used to prepare non-Gaussian states of light, its high efficiency, photon-number-resolving capabilities, and compatibility with the telecommunications band make it suitable for quantum-information tasks relying on the outcomes of mean values.
Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin
1989-03-01
The final electron energy spectrum under multi-photon beamstrahlung process is derived analytically in the classical and the intermediate regimes. The maximum disruption angle from the low energy tail of the spectrum is also estimated. The results are then applied to the TLC and the CLIC parameters. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Rotational temperature measurement of NO gas using two-photon excitation spectrum
Ozaki, Tadao; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ohsawa, Toshihiko
1981-04-01
The rotational temperature of nitric oxide gas has been measured by means of a single-beam two-photon excitation spectrum method using a pulsed continuously tunable dye laser. The nitric oxide gas was enclosed at about 40 Torr in a quartz cell which was put in an electric oven. The NO γ (0-0) band and R11+Q21 branches were used to obtain the two-photon excitation spectrum. The rotational temperatures were determined using the fact that molecules are distributed in the rotational levels according to the Boltzmann law. The temperature range was from room temperature to about 470 K. Observed temperatures were in good agreement with cell temperatures which were obtained by using a thermocouple.
Full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion via photonic nanofluids.
Liu, Xianglei; Xuan, Yimin
2017-10-12
Volumetric solar thermal conversion is an emerging technique for a plethora of applications such as solar thermal power generation, desalination, and solar water splitting. However, achieving broadband solar thermal absorption via dilute nanofluids is still a daunting challenge. In this work, full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion is demonstrated over a thin layer of the proposed 'photonic nanofluids'. The underlying mechanism is found to be the photonic superposition of core resonances, shell plasmons, and core-shell resonances at different wavelengths, whose coexistence is enabled by the broken symmetry of specially designed composite nanoparticles, i.e., Janus nanoparticles. The solar thermal conversion efficiency can be improved by 10.8% compared with core-shell nanofluids. The extinction coefficient of Janus dimers with various configurations is also investigated to unveil the effects of particle couplings. This work provides the possibility to achieve full-spectrum volumetric solar thermal conversion, and may have potential applications in efficient solar energy harvesting and utilization.
Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Duque, C. A.; Pérez-Quintana, I. V.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.
2017-03-01
The dispersion relations of two-dimensional photonic crystals made of uniaxial polaritonic cylinders arranged in triangular lattice are calculated. The particular case of the transverse magnetic polarization is taken into account. Three different uniaxial materials showing transverse phonon-polariton excitations are considered: aluminum nitride, gallium nitride, and indium nitride. The study is carried out by means of the finite-difference time-domain technique for the solution of Maxwell equations, together with the method of the auxiliary differential equation. It is shown that changing the filling fraction can result in the modification of both the photonic and polaritonic bandgaps in the optical dispersion relations. Wider gaps appear for smaller filling fraction values, whereas a larger number of photonic bandgaps will occur within the frequency range considered when a larger filling fraction is used. The effect of including the distinct wurtzite III-V nitride semiconductors as core materials in the cylinders embedded in the air on the photonic properties is discussed as well, highlighting the effect of the dielectric anisotropy on the properties of the polaritonic part of the photonic spectrum.
Conditional preparation of states containing a definite number of photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Boyd, Robert W.; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
2008-01-01
A technique for conditionally creating single-mode or multimode photon-number states is analyzed using Bayesian theory. We consider the heralded N-photon states created from the photons produced by an unseeded optical parametric amplifier when the heralding detector is the time-multiplexed photon-number-resolving detector recently demonstrated by Fitch et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68, 043814 (2003)] and simultaneously by Achilles et al. [Opt. Lett. 28, 2387 (2003)]. We find that even with significant loss in the heralding detector, fields with sub-Poissonian photon-number distributions can be created. We also show that heralded multimode fields created using this technique are more robust against detector loss than are single-mode fields
Vetrov, S Y
2001-01-01
The properties of the localized electromagnetic modes in the one-dimensional photon crystal with a structural defective layer are studied. The anisotropic layer of the nematic liquid layer is considered as the defect. It is shown that the frequency and coefficient of the defective modes attenuation essentially depend on the defective layer thickness and nematic optical axis orientation. The spectrum of the photon crystal transmittance with one or two defects in the lattice is studied. The possibility of controlling the the photon crystal transmittance spectrum on the count of changing the orientation of the nematic optical axis, for example, through the external electric field is shown with an account of strong anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sessler, A.M.
1995-04-01
Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy
Photon-number correlation for quantum enhanced imaging and sensing
Meda, A.; Losero, E.; Samantaray, N.; Scafirimuto, F.; Pradyumna, S.; Avella, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I.; Genovese, M.
2017-09-01
In this review we present the potentialities and the achievements of the use of non-classical photon-number correlations in twin-beam states for many applications, ranging from imaging to metrology. Photon-number correlations in the quantum regime are easily produced and are rather robust against unavoidable experimental losses, and noise in some cases, if compared to the entanglement, where losing one photon can completely compromise the state and its exploitable advantages. Here, we will focus on quantum enhanced protocols in which only phase-insensitive intensity measurements (photon-number counting) are performed, which allow probing the transmission/absorption properties of a system, leading, for example, to innovative target detection schemes in a strong background. In this framework, one of the advantages is that the sources experimentally available emit a wide number of pair-wise correlated modes, which can be intercepted and exploited separately, for example by many pixels of a camera, providing a parallelism, essential in several applications, such as wide-field sub-shot-noise imaging and quantum enhanced ghost imaging. Finally, non-classical correlation enables new possibilities in quantum radiometry, e.g. the possibility of absolute calibration of a spatial resolving detector from the on-off single-photon regime to the linear regime in the same setup.
Well logging method and apparatus using a continuous energy spectrum photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turcotte, R.E.
1976-01-01
In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus for logging an earth formation of interest is disclosed in which repetitive bursts of a continuous energy spectrum of photons are emitted that penetrate the media surrounding a borehole traversing the earth formation. Thereafter, indications of photons resulting from the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media are obtained, each indication being obtained at a different separation from the source along the axis of the borehole. Finally, the indications are compared to determine representations of a characteristic of the media surrounding the borehole. According to one aspect of the present invention, at least one of the indications is the result of annihilation photons produced by the interaction of the emitted photons and the surrounding media
The energy spectrum of 662 keV photons in a water equivalent phantom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Ozmutlu, E.N.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.; Sharaf, J.M.; Bradley, D.A.
2012-01-01
Investigation is made on the energy spectrum of photons originating from interactions of 662 keV primary gamma-ray photons emitted by a point source positioned at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom of dimensions 19 cm×19 cm×24 cm. Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering have been observed using a 51 mm×51 mm NaI(Tl) detector; good agreement being found between the measured and simulated response functions. The energy spectrum of the gamma photons obtained through the Monte Carlo simulation reveals local maxima at about 100 keV and 210 keV, being also observed in the experimental response function. Such spectra can be used as a method of testing the water equivalence of solid phantom media before their use for dosimetry measurements. - Highlights: ► Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering were observed. ► Energy distribution of γ-ray photons from a point source at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom. ► The method can be applied to various detector geometries.
Photon energy spectrum in B →Xs + γ and comparison with data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, A.; Greub, C.
1995-06-01
A comparison of the inclusive photon energy spectrum in the radiative decay B→X s +γ; measured recently by the CLEO collaboration, with the standard model is presented, using a B-meson wave function model and improving earlier perturbative QCD-based computations of the same. The dependence of the photon energy spectrum on the non-perturbative model parameters, p F , the b-quark Fermi momentum in the B hadron, and m q , the spectator quark mass, is explicitly shown, allowing a comparison of these parameters with the ones obtained from the analysis of the lepton energy spectrum in semileptonic B decays. Taking into account present uncertainties, we estimate BR(B→X s +γ)=(2.55±1.28)x10 -4 in the standard model, assuming vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke /vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke =1.0. Comparing this with CLEO measurement BR(B→X s +γ)=(2.32±0.67)x10 -4 implies vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke /vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke =1.1±0.43, in agreement with the CKM unitarity. (orig.)
Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources.
Ghorbani, Mahdi; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Davenport, David; Ahmadi Moghaddas, Toktam
2016-06-01
The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems.
Accessing photon number via an atomic time interval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camparo, J.C.; Coffer, J.G.
2002-01-01
We show that Rabi resonances can be used to assess field strength in terms of time at the atomic level. Rabi resonances are enhancements in the amplitude of atomic population oscillations when the Rabi frequency, Ω, 'matches' a field-modulation frequency, ω m . We demonstrate that Ω=2κω m and find that κ=1.03±0.05. Since Ω is defined by field strength (i.e., photon number) through atomic constants, and ω m may be referenced to an atomic clock, our work shows that Rabi resonances provide a connection between time and photon number
Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chrzanowski, H M; Assad, S M; Bernu, J; Hage, B; Lam, P K; Symul, T; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging. (paper)
Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Y.
1999-01-01
One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20keV≤E≤40keV) for materials with high atomic numbers. (author)
Is the number of photons conserved in an expanding universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Oliveira, L.A.R. de; Salim, J.M.
1988-01-01
A Friedman - like scenario in which - due to gravitational interaction - the total number of photons existing in the Universe changes as the Universe expands, is described. The photon number distribution function, in thermal equilibrium, exhibits an explicit dependence on a non-vanishing chemical potential term. This non-null value for the chemical potential of the photon is due to the presence of tidal effects, arising from the direct coupling of the photons - which, in a gravitational field, should not be treated as idealized point-like objects - to the curvature of space-time. As a result, the ratio nγ/n B between the numbers of photons and baryons in the Universe is shown to be not a constat, but rather a function of cosmic time, vanishing when the singularity of the standard FRW model is reached. In consequence, some of the supposed 'fundamental problems' of standard Cosmology (e.g., the explanation of the constancy of the ration nγ/n B and thus of the origin fo the total ammount of entropy observed today) are but apparent ones in the present scenario, and may be ipso facto solved. (author) [pt
Analysis of the photon spectrum in inclusive B --> X$_{s}\\gamma$ decays
Neubert, M
1994-01-01
Using a combination of the operator product and heavy quark expansions we resum the leading nonperturbative contributions to the inclusive photon spectrum in $B\\to X_s\\,\\gamma$ decays. The shape of the spectrum is determined by a structure function, which describes the distribution of the light-cone momentum fraction of the $b$-quark inside the $B$ meson. The moments of the spectrum are proportional to forward matrix elements of higher-dimension operators. As a byproduct, we obtain the bound $\\lambda_1<0$ for one of the fundamental parameters of the heavy quark effective theory. The integral over the $B\\to X_s\\,\\gamma$ structure function is related to the shape function that governs the fall-off of the lepton spectrum close to the endpoint in $B\\to X_u\\,\\ell\\,\\bar\
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U’Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G
2015-01-01
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A.; Fox, Anna E.; Linares, Antia Lamas; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Spring, Justin B.; Langford, Nathan K.; Walmsley, Ian A. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Gates, James C.; Smith, Peter G. R. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
Integration is currently the only feasible route toward scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number-resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to five photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2{+-}0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.
Experimental investigation of quadrupole virtual photon spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouffon, P.
1986-01-01
To test experimentally the quadrupole virtual photon spectrum calculation, the (e,α) excitation function of an isolated 2 + level at 20.14 MeV in 24 Mg was measured. The most recent calculations in DWBA, including nuclear size effects, are compared to this experimental curve. The differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩdE was measured 48 0 , 90 0 , 132 0 in the laboratory system, for total electron energies of 20.0, 20.8, 21.5, 24.0, 26.0, 28.0, 30.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 40.0 MeV. The reduced matrix element B(E2) of the 20,14 MeV level is extracted as a secondary product of this work. (author) [pt
Practical photon number detection with electric field-modulated silicon avalanche photodiodes.
Thomas, O; Yuan, Z L; Shields, A J
2012-01-24
Low-noise single-photon detection is a prerequisite for quantum information processing using photonic qubits. In particular, detectors that are able to accurately resolve the number of photons in an incident light pulse will find application in functions such as quantum teleportation and linear optics quantum computing. More generally, such a detector will allow the advantages of quantum light detection to be extended to stronger optical signals, permitting optical measurements limited only by fluctuations in the photon number of the source. Here we demonstrate a practical high-speed device, which allows the signals arising from multiple photon-induced avalanches to be precisely discriminated. We use a type of silicon avalanche photodiode in which the lateral electric field profile is strongly modulated in order to realize a spatially multiplexed detector. Clearly discerned multiphoton signals are obtained by applying sub-nanosecond voltage gates in order to restrict the detector current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tzara, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1958-07-01
A method for the production of photons with a narrow spectrum and of variable energy, based on the properties of the annihilation in flight of positrons, is examined in detail. The spectra of the photons produced and the yield of the process are given for various conditions. (author) [French] Une methode de production de photons de spectre etroit et d'energie variable, basee sur les proprietes de l'annihilation en vol des positons, est examinee en detail. Le spectre des photons produits, le rendement du processus sont donnes pour diverses conditions. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)
Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders
Celestin , Sebastien; Xu , Wei; Pasko , Victor P.
2015-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (−CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.
2015-01-01
We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB
Kubo, N
1995-04-01
To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubo, Naoki
1995-01-01
To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)
Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J
2012-01-01
We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)
Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2017-08-01
We present results of experimental and numerical investigation of supercontinuum generation in polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using chirped femtosecond pulses. The initial unchirped pump pulse source was a mode-locked Yb:KGW laser generating 52 nJ energy 110 fs duration pulses at 1030 nm with 76 MHz repetition rate. The nonlinear medium was a 32 cm long polarization maintaining PCF manufactured by NKT Photonics A/S. We demonstrated the influence of pump pulse chirp on spectral characteristics of supercontinuum. We showed that by chirping pump pulses positively or negatively one can obtain broader supercontinuum spectrum than in case of unchirped pump pulses at the same peak power. Moreover, the extension can be controlled by changing the amount of pump pulse chirp. In our case the supercontinuum spectrum width was extended by up to 115 nm (at maximum chirp value of +10500 fs2 that we could achieve in our setup) compared to the case of unchirped pump at the same peak power.
Continuum photon spectrum from Z1Z1 annihilations in universal extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melbéus, Henrik; Merle, Alexander; Ohlsson, Tommy
2012-01-01
We calculate the continuum photon spectrum from the pair annihilation of a Z 1 LKP in non-minimal universal extra dimensions. We find that, due to the preferred annihilation into W + W - pairs, the continuum flux of collinear photons is relatively small compared to the standard case of the B 1 as the LKP. This conclusion applies in particular to the spectral endpoint, where also the additional fermionic contributions are not large enough to increase the flux significantly. When searching for the line signal originating from Z 1 Z 1 annihilations, this is actually a perfect situation, since the continuum signal can be regarded as background to the smoking gun signature of a peak in the photon flux at an energy that is nearly equal to the mass of the dark matter particle. This signal, in combination with (probably) a non-observation of the continuum signal at lower photon energies, constitutes a perfect handle to probe the hypothesis of the Z 1 LKP being the dominant component of the dark matter observed in the Universe.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benz, Mark G. [Safer Pediatric Imaging and Engineering Horizons International, Lincoln, VT (United States); Benz, Matthew W. [Southboro Medical Group, Southboro, MA (United States); Birnbaum, Steven B. [Dartmouth Hitchcock Clinic Manchester, Department of Radiology, Manchester, NH (United States); Chason, Eric; Sheldon, Brian W. [Brown University, Division of Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Providence, RI (United States); McGuire, Dale [R and D Manager, C and G Technologies Inc., Jeffersonville, IN (United States)
2014-08-15
This feasibility study has shown that improved spatial resolution and reduced radiation dose can be achieved in pediatric CT by narrowing the X-ray photon energy spectrum. This is done by placing a hafnium filter between the X-ray generator and a pediatric abdominal phantom. A CT system manufactured in 1999 that was in the process of being remanufactured was used as the platform for this study. This system had the advantage of easy access to the X-ray generator for modifications to change the X-ray photon energy spectrum; it also had the disadvantage of not employing the latest post-imaging noise reduction iterative reconstruction technology. Because we observed improvements after changing the X-ray photon energy spectrum, we recommend a future study combining this change with an optimized iterative reconstruction noise reduction technique. (orig.)
Photon-number statistics in resonance fluorescence
Lenstra, D.
1982-12-01
The theory of photon-number statistics in resonance fluorescence is treated, starting with the general formula for the emission probability of n photons during a given time interval T. The results fully confirm formerly obtained results by Cook that were based on the theory of atomic motion in a traveling wave. General expressions for the factorial moments are derived and explicit results for the mean and the variance are given. It is explicitly shown that the distribution function tends to a Gaussian when T becomes much larger than the natural lifetime of the excited atom. The speed of convergence towards the Gaussian is found to be typically slow, that is, the third normalized central moment (or the skewness) is proportional to T-12. However, numerical results illustrate that the overall features of the distribution function are already well represented by a Gaussian when T is larger than a few natural lifetimes only, at least if the intensity of the exciting field is not too small and its detuning is not too large.
Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2018-01-01
We present results of experimental and numerical investigation of supercontinuum (SC) generation in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using chirped femtosecond pulses. The initial unchirped pump pulse source was a mode-locked Yb:KGW laser generating 52-nJ energy, 110-fs duration pulses at 1030 nm with a 76-MHz repetition rate. The nonlinear medium was a 32-cm-long polarization-maintaining PCF manufactured by NKT Photonics A/S. We demonstrated the influence of pump pulse chirp on spectral characteristics of a SC. We showed that by chirping pump pulses positively or negatively one can obtain a broader SC spectrum than in the case of unchirped pump pulses at the same peak power. Moreover, the extension can be controlled by changing the amount of pump pulse chirp. Numerical simulation results also indicated that pump pulse chirp yields an extension of SC spectrum.
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien
2014-01-01
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ DM−γ ≤ 8 × 10 −31 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ DM−γ ≤ 6 × 10 −40 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature
Photon-number-resolving SSPDs with system detection efficiency over 50% at telecom range
Zolotov, P.; Divochiy, A.; Vakhtomin, Yu.; Moshkova, M.; Morozov, P.; Seleznev, V.; Smirnov, K.
2018-02-01
We used technology of making high-efficiency superconducting single-photon detectors as a basis for improvement of photon-number-resolving devices. By adding optical cavity and using an improved NbN superconducting film, we enhanced previously reported system detection efficiency at telecom range for such detectors. Our results show that implementation of optical cavity helps to develop four-section device with quantum efficiency over 50% at 1.55 µm. Performed experimental studies of detecting multi-photon optical pulses showed irregularities over defining multi-photon through single-photon quantum efficiency.
Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.
1988-01-01
The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-01-01
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies
Photon cooperative effect in resonance spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veklenko, B.A.
1998-01-01
A systematic method is proposed for calculating the density matrix of subsystems interacting with their environment under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. The density matrix of photons resonantly interacting with a surrounding gas is calculated. It is shown that use of the Gibbs distribution allows one to completely eliminate inelastic processes from the calculations. A correct account of photon-photon correlators indicates the presence of new cooperative effects. A new branch of the polariton spectrum is predicted, which is due to the presence of excited atoms in the medium. With the help of the density matrix the mean filling numbers of the photon modes are calculated. In terms of wavelengths, we have obtained a generalization of the Planck formula which accounts for photon cooperative phenomena. The manifestation of these effects in kinetic processes is discussed
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2015-03-06
The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.
Jabir, M. V.; Apurv Chaitanya, N.; Aadhi, A.; Samanta, G. K.
2016-02-01
The “perfect” vortex is a new class of optical vortex beam having ring radius independent of its topological charge (order). One of the simplest techniques to generate such beams is the Fourier transformation of the Bessel-Gauss beams. The variation in ring radius of such vortices require Fourier lenses of different focal lengths and or complicated imaging setup. Here we report a novel experimental scheme to generate perfect vortex of any ring radius using a convex lens and an axicon. As a proof of principle, using a lens of focal length f = 200 mm, we have varied the radius of the vortex beam across 0.3-1.18 mm simply by adjusting the separation between the lens and axicon. This is also a simple scheme to measure the apex angle of an axicon with ease. Using such vortices we have studied non-collinear interaction of photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM) in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process and observed that the angular spectrum of the SPDC photons are independent of OAM of the pump photons rather depends on spatial profile of the pump beam. In the presence of spatial walk-off effect in nonlinear crystals, the SPDC photons have asymmetric angular spectrum with reducing asymmetry at increasing vortex radius.
Observation of squeezed states with strong photon-number oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehmet, Moritz; Vahlbruch, Henning; Lastzka, Nico; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-01
Squeezed states of light constitute an important nonclassical resource in the field of high-precision measurements, for example, gravitational wave detection, as well as in the field of quantum information, for example, for teleportation, quantum cryptography, and distribution of entanglement in quantum computation networks. Strong squeezing in combination with high purity, high bandwidth, and high spatial mode quality is desirable in order to achieve significantly improved performances contrasting any classical protocols. Here we report on the observation of 11.5 dB of squeezing, together with relatively high state purity corresponding to a vacuum contribution of less than 5%, and a squeezing bandwidth of about 170 MHz. The analysis of our squeezed states reveals a significant production of higher-order pairs of quantum-correlated photons and the existence of strong photon-number oscillations.
Zaske, Sebastian; Lenhard, Andreas; Becher, Christoph
2011-06-20
We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738 nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse telecommunications wavelengths.
Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L
2011-01-01
We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A.S.
2015-01-01
The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum of 89 Sr, which is a unique first forbidden beta emitter, is studied in the 1–100 keV photon energy regime. The IB spectrum is experimentally measured using a Si(Li) detector, which is efficient in this photon energy regime, and is compared with the IB distributions that are predicted by the Knipp, Uhlenbeck and Bloch (KUB), Nilsson, and Lewis and Ford theories. In the soft energy regime up to 15 keV, the measured results are in agreement with all the aforementioned theories. However, from 16–30 keV, the experimental results are in agreement with the Lewis and Ford theory, which applies to forbidden transitions, and at higher photon energies, the Nilsson theory best describes the measured results. The differences among the different theories also increase with the photon energy. The effect of the electrostatic Coulomb field on the IB process for beta emitters with different end-point energies is investigated by comparing the ratio of the IB probabilities predicted using the KUB and Nilsson theories for 35 S and 89 Sr, i.e., soft and hard beta emitters, respectively. The Coulomb effect is shown to be significant in the high photon energy regime and for beta emitters with low end-point energies. - Highlights: • Internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 89 Sr, a unique first forbidden beta emitter, is studied. • The measurements are taken in the photon energy regions of 1–100 keV with Si(Li) detector. • The measured results are deviating from Lewis and Ford theory and are close to the Nilsson theory. • The effect of Coulomb field on the IB process for different end point energy sources is investigated. • Effect of Coulomb field is more for low energy beta emitter towards the high energy end
Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.
2014-01-01
Roč. 104, č. 4 (2014), "041113-1"-"041113-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon- number resolving detector * twin beams * photon fields Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014
Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben
2015-02-01
The variation among energy thresholds in a multibin detector for photon-counting spectral CT can lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. Calibration of the energy thresholds can be used to achieve homogeneous threshold settings or to develop compensation methods to reduce the artefacts. We have developed an energy-calibration method for the different comparator thresholds employed in a photon-counting silicon-strip detector. In our case, this corresponds to specifying the linear relation between the threshold positions in units of mV and the actual deposited photon energies in units of keV. This relation is determined by gain and offset values that differ for different detector channels due to variations in the manufacturing process. Typically, the calibration is accomplished by correlating the peak positions of obtained pulse-height spectra to known photon energies, e.g. with the aid of mono-energetic x rays from synchrotron radiation, radioactive isotopes or fluorescence materials. Instead of mono-energetic x rays, the calibration method presented in this paper makes use of a broad x-ray spectrum provided by commercial x-ray tubes. Gain and offset as the calibration parameters are obtained by a regression analysis that adjusts a simulated spectrum of deposited energies to a measured pulse-height spectrum. Besides the basic photon interactions such as Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption, the simulation takes into account the effect of pulse pileup, charge sharing and the electronic noise of the detector channels. We verify the method for different detector channels with the aid of a table-top setup, where we find the uncertainty of the keV-value of a calibrated threshold to be between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.
Teleportation of displaced Fock states: Fidelity and their teleported photon number distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quintero, William; Ladera, Celso L, E-mail: clladera@usb.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2011-01-01
We consider the teleportation of displaced Fock states which are highly non-classical states of the quantized electromagnetic field which have a set of remarkable quantum properties that include the peculiar oscillations of their photon number distributions. We use the transfer operator formalism to show that the quantum teleportation of a DFS renders a finite superposition of orthonormal DFS's and find its explicit mathematical expression in terms of the compression parameter of the correlated EPR states of the quantum channel. The expression for a teleported Fock state is also derived as a particular case of DFS's teleportation. We finally apply these results to study the fidelity of the teleportation of DFS's and the teleportation of their photon number statistics.
Spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom in a double-band photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Han Zhuang; Tang Sing Hai; Dong Po; He Jun
2002-01-01
The spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic band gap (PBG) material has been investigated for the first time. Most interestingly it is shown that there is not only a black dark line, but also a narrow spontaneous line near the edges of the double photonic band. The positions of the dark line and narrow spontaneous line are near the transition from an empty upper level to a lower level. The lines stem from destructive and constructive quantum interferences, which induce population transfer between the two upper levels, in the PBG reservoirs. The effects of system parameters on the interference have been discussed in detail
Skrobala, A; Adamczyk, S; Kruszyna-Mochalska, M; Skórska, M; Konefał, A; Suchorska, W; Zaleska, K; Kowalik, A; Jackowiak, W; Malicki, J
2017-08-01
During radiotherapy, leakage from the machine head and collimator expose patients to out-of-field irradiation doses, which may cause secondary cancers. To quantify the risks of secondary cancers due to out-of-field doses, it is first necessary to measure these doses. Since most dosimeters are energy-dependent, it is essential to first determine the type of photon energy spectrum in the out-of-field area. The aim of this study was to determine the mean photon energy values for the out-of-field photon energy spectrum for a 6 MV photon beam using the GEANT 4-Monte Carlo method. A specially-designed large water phantom was simulated with a static field at gantry 0°. The source-to-surface distance was 92cm for an open field size of 10×10cm2. The photon energy spectra were calculated at five unique positions (at depths of 0.5, 1.6, 4, 6, 8, and 10cm) along the central beam axis and at six different off-axis distances. Monte Carlo simulations showed that mean radiation energy levels drop rapidly beyond the edge of the 6 MV photon beam field: at a distance of 10cm, the mean energy level is close to 0.3MeV versus 1.5MeV at the central beam axis. In some cases, the energy level actually increased even as the distance from the field edge increased: at a depth of 1.6cm and 15cm off-axis, the mean energy level was 0.205MeV versus 0.252MeV at 20cm off-axis. The out-of-field energy spectra and dose distribution data obtained in this study with Monte Carlo methods can be used to calibrate dosimeters to measure out-of-field radiation from 6MV photons. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Cerenkov light spectrum in an optical fiber exposed to a photon or electron radiation therapy beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambert, Jamil; Yin Yongbai; McKenzie, David R.; Law, Sue; Suchowerska, Natalka
2009-01-01
A Cerenkov signal is generated when energetic charged particles enter the core of an optical fiber. The Cerenkov intensity can be large enough to interfere with signals transmitted through the fiber. We determine the spectrum of the Cerenkov background signal generated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber exposed to photon and electron therapeutic beams from a linear accelerator. This spectral measurement is relevant to discrimination of the signal from the background, as in scintillation dosimetry using optical fiber readouts. We find that the spectrum is approximated by the theoretical curve after correction for the wavelength dependent attenuation of the fiber. The spectrum does not depend significantly on the angle between the radiation beam and the axis of the fiber optic but is dependent on the depth in water at which the fiber is exposed to the beam.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Eckerdal, O.; Alm Carlsson, G.
1998-01-01
Basic performance parameters are defined and analysed in order to optimise physical image quality in relation to the energy imparted to the patient in dental radiology. Air cavities were embedded in well-defined multi material, hard tissue phantoms to represent various objects in dento-maxillo-facial examinations. Basic performance parameters were: object contrast (C), energy imparted (ε) to the patient, signal-to-noise ration (SNR), C 2 /ε (film) and (SNR) / ε (digital imaging system) as functions of HVL (half-value layer), used to describe the photon energy spectrum. For the film receptor, the performance index C 2 /ε is maximum (optimal) at HVL values of 1.5-1.7 mm Al in the simulated Incisive, Premolar and Molar examinations. Other imaging tasks (examinations), not simulated here, may require other optimal HVL. For the digital imaging system (Digora) the performance index (SNR) 2 /ε, theoretically calculated, indicates that a lower value of HVL is optimal than with film as receptor. However, due to the limited number of bits (8 bits) in the analogue to digital converter (ADC) contrast resolution is degraded and calls for use of higher photon energies (HVL). Customised optimisations with proper concern for patient category, type of examination, diagnostic task is the ultimate goal of this work. The conclusions stated above give some general advice on the appropriate choice of photon energy spectrum (HVL). In particular situations, it may be necessary to use more dose demanding kV settings (lower HVL) in order to get sufficient image quality for the diagnostic task. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A novel photon management method is proposed for hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems. • Composite structured surfaces enable creditable ultra-broadband anti-reflection property. • Incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping brings spectral absorption and transmission. • The efficient photon management of the structured surface is also omnidirectional. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel ultra-broadband photon management structure is proposed for crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells used in the photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid system. Nanostructures are employed on both front and back side. Optical behavior of the structure in ultra-broadband (300–2500 nm) are investigated through the Finite Difference Time Domain method. By combing moth-eye and inverted-parabolic surface, a new composite surface structure is proposed for anti-reflection in the ultra-broadband wavelengths. Front metallic nanoparticles, plasmonic back reflector and metallic gratings are studied for light-trapping and the effect of plasmonic back reflector is validated by the experimental data of the external quantum efficiency. The effects of incident angle are discussed for metallic gratings. Numerical computation shows that the incorporation of anti-reflection and light-trapping can obtain high absorption in the solar cell and ensure the rest incident light transmits to the thermoelectric generator efficiently. This work shows potential full-spectrum utilization of solar energy for various photovoltaic devices related with hybrid photovoltaic–thermoelectric systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wittmann, Christoffer; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Takeoka, Masahiro
2010-01-01
We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using nonprobabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne...... detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver...
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons from the thermodynamic limit to small photon numbers
Nyman, Robert A.; Walker, Benjamin T.
2018-03-01
Photons can come to thermal equilibrium at room temperature by scattering multiple times from a fluorescent dye. By confining the light and dye in a microcavity, a minimum energy is set and the photons can then show Bose-Einstein condensation. We present here the physical principles underlying photon thermalization and condensation, and review the literature on the subject. We then explore the 'small' regime where very few photons are needed for condensation. We compare thermal equilibrium results to a rate-equation model of microlasers, which includes spontaneous emission into the cavity, and we note that small systems result in ambiguity in the definition of threshold.
On-chip generation of heralded photon-number states
Vergyris, Panagiotis; Meany, Thomas; Lunghi, Tommaso; Sauder, Gregory; Downes, James; Steel, M. J.; Withford, Michael J.; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-10-01
Beyond the use of genuine monolithic integrated optical platforms, we report here a hybrid strategy enabling on-chip generation of configurable heralded two-photon states. More specifically, we combine two different fabrication techniques, i.e., non-linear waveguides on lithium niobate for efficient photon-pair generation and femtosecond-laser-direct-written waveguides on glass for photon manipulation. Through real-time device manipulation capabilities, a variety of path-coded heralded two-photon states can be produced, ranging from product to entangled states. Those states are engineered with high levels of purity, assessed by fidelities of 99.5 ± 8% and 95.0 ± 8%, respectively, obtained via quantum interferometric measurements. Our strategy therefore stands as a milestone for further exploiting entanglement-based protocols, relying on engineered quantum states, and enabled by scalable and compatible photonic circuits.
A semi empirical formula for the angular differential number albedo of low-energy photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marković Srpko
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Low-energy photon reflection from water, aluminum, and iron is simulated by the MCNP code and results are com pared with similar Monte Carlo calculations. For the energy range from 60 to 150 keV and for the normal incidence of initial photons, a universal shape of the normalized angular differential number albedo is observed and after that fitted by the curve fit ting procedure in form of a second order polynomial over the polar angle. Finally, a one-parameter formula for the angular differential number albedo is developed and verified for water through the comparison of results with the semi empirical formulae and Monte Carlo calculations of other authors.
Graphene-based photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolesnikov, Anton A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.
2010-01-01
A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The photonic band structure and transmittance of such photonic crystal are calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals can be used effectively as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. Due to substantial suppression of absorption of low-frequency radiation in doped graphene the damping and skin effect in the photonic crystal are also suppressed. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.
Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2014-01-01
Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.
Quantum Flows for Secret Key Distribution in the Presence of the Photon Number Splitting Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis A. Lizama-Pérez
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Physical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD protocols, like the Bennett-Brassard (BB84, are forced to use attenuated coherent quantum states, because the sources of single photon states are not functional yet for QKD applications. However, when using attenuated coherent states, the relatively high rate of multi-photonic pulses introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the photon number splitting (PNS attack to brake the quantum key. Some QKD protocols have been developed to be resistant to the PNS attack, like the decoy method, but those define a single photonic gain in the quantum channel. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new QKD protocol, called ack-QKD, which is resistant to the PNS attack. Even more, it uses attenuated quantum states, but defines two interleaved photonic quantum flows to detect the eavesdropper activity by means of the quantum photonic error gain (QPEG or the quantum bit error rate (QBER. The physical implementation of the ack-QKD is similar to the well-known BB84 protocol.
True photonic band-gap mode-control in VCSEL structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Romstad, F.; Madsen, M.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect.......Photonic band-gap mode confinement in novel nano-structured large area VCSEL structures is confirmed by the amplified spontaneous emission spectrum. Both guide and anti-guide VCSEL structures are experimentally characterised to verify the photonic band-gap effect....
Full spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossa, Anselme F.; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the rigorous analytical determination of the spectrum of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models. To reach this goal, we exploit the hidden symmetries in these models by means of the unitary and similarity transformations in addition to the Bargmann-Fock space description. In each case, the purely quantum mechanical problem of the Rabi model studied is reduced to solutions for differential equations. This eventually gives a third-order differential equation for each of these models, which is reduced to a second-order differential equation by additional transformations. The analytical expressions of the wave functions describing the energy levels are obtained in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions
Photon production at CDF and DO/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, J.I.
1996-01-01
Prompt photon production has been studied in bar pp collisions at √s=1.8 TeV using the CDF and DO/ detectors at Fermilab. The measured inclusive isolated photon spectrum at CDF and DO/ are used to test NLO QCD predictions. The CDF result shows that additional soft radiation (K T ) in excess of NLO QCD is required to explain the data. No new resonance is observed in the photon+jet mass spectrum from DO/ which is consistent with NLO QCD predictions. The pseudorapidity distribution of the leading jet in photon events at CDF is compared to different parton distribution sets. The angular distribution is found to be better explained by a larger Bremsstrahlung contribution. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Vliet Arjen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
Total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle of low-energy photons reflected from water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marković Srpko
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The total number albedo and average cosine of the polar angle for water and initial photon energy range from 20 keV to 100 keV are presented in this pa per. A water shield in the form of a thick, homogenous plate and per pendicular incidence of the monoenergetic photon beam are assumed. The results were obtained through Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by means of the MCNP computer code. Calculated values for the total number albedo were compared with data previously published and good agreement was confirmed. The dependence of the average cosine of the polar angle on energy is studied in detail. It has been found that the total average cosine of the polar angle has values in the narrow interval of 0.66-0.67, approximately corresponding to the reflection angle of 48°, and that it does not depend on the initial photon energy.
Photon statistical properties of photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xue-Fen; Wang Shuai; Tang Bin
2014-01-01
We investigate photon statistical properties of the multiple-photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states (PA-TMSCS). We find that the photon statistical properties are sensitive to the compound phase involved in the TMSCS. Our numerical analyses show that the photon addition can enhance the cross-correlation and anti-bunching effects of the PA-TMSCS. Compared with that of the TMSCS, the photon number distribution of the PA-TMSCS is modulated by a factor that is a monotonically increasing function of the numbers of adding photons to each mode; further, that the photon addition essentially shifts the photon number distribution. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Optimal sub-Poissonian light generation from twin beams by photon-number resolving detectors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lamperti, M.; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.; Machulka, R.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Peřina Jr., J.
2013-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 20-25 ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon- number resolving * quantum correlation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2013
Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; Wang, Yong; Pang, Jingxiang; Wijk, Eduard Van; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Hua; Zhang, Liewei; Han, Jinxiang
2017-10-12
In this study, we investigated the spectral characteristics of Spontaneous Photon Emission (SPE) from the body surface of a human breast cancer-bearing nude mice model during the overall growth process of breast cancers. By comparing and analyzing the data, we found that there was a striking difference between tumor mice and healthy controls in the spectral distribution of SPE from the body surface of lesion site, even when the morphological changes at the lesion site were not obvious. The spectral distribution of SPE from the healthy site of the tumor mice also differed from that of the healthy controls as the breast cancer developed to a certain stage. In addition, the difference in spectrum was related with different growth states of tumors. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the spectral ratio (610-630/395-455 nm) and the logarithm of the tumor volume for both the lesion site (R 2 = 0.947; p spectrum of SPE was sensitive to changes in the tumor status.
Photons from the early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Oliva, L.; Ruggieri, M.; Plumari, S.; Scardina, F.; Peng, G. X.; Greco, V.
2017-07-01
We present results about photon-production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main novelty of our study is the calculation of the contribution of the early-stage photons to the photon spectrum. The initial stage is modeled by an ensemble of classical gluon fields which decay to a quark-gluon plasma via the Schwinger mechanism, and the evolution of the system is studied by coupling classical field equations to relativistic kinetic theory; photon production is then computed by including the pertinent collision processes into the collision integral. We find that the contribution of the early-stage photons to the direct photon spectrum is substantial for pT≈2 GeV and higher, the exact value depending on the collision energy; therefore, we identify this part of the photon spectrum as the sign of the early stage. Moreover, the amount of photons produced during the early stage is not negligible with respect to those produced by a thermalized quark-gluon plasma: We support the idea that there is no dark age in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Spectrum Control through Discrete Frequency Diffraction in the Presence of Photonic Gauge Potentials
Qin, Chengzhi; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Yugui; Sounas, Dimitrios; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Bing; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang; Alù; , Andrea; Lu, Peixiang
2018-03-01
By using optical phase modulators in a fiber-optical circuit, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate large control over the spectrum of an impinging signal, which may evolve analogously to discrete diffraction in spatial waveguide arrays. The modulation phase acts as a photonic gauge potential in the frequency dimension, realizing efficient control of the central frequency and bandwidth of frequency combs. We experimentally achieve a 50 GHz frequency shift and threefold bandwidth expansion of an impinging comb, as well as the frequency analogue of various refraction phenomena, including negative refraction and perfect focusing in the frequency domain, both for discrete and continuous incident spectra. Our study paves a promising way towards versatile frequency management for optical communications and signal processing using time modulation schemes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2002-01-01
We propose a method for preparing maximal path entanglement with a definite photon-number N, larger than two, using projective measurements. In contrast with the previously known schemes, our method uses only linear optics. Specifically, we exhibit a way of generating four-photon, path-entangled states of the form vertical bar 4,0>+ vertical bar 0,4>, using only four beam splitters and two detectors. These states are of major interest as a resource for quantum interferometric sensors as well as for optical quantum lithography and quantum holography
Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)
2016-12-15
We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
The fine granularity ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter provides a precise measurement of the photon energy and direction, as well as efficient rejection of background from fake photons, while the high precision inner detector allows also the reconstruction of photons that convert into electron-positron pairs.Isolated photons are measured using well-defined infrared-safe isolation criteria corrected for underlying event and the effects of additional proton-proton collisions. Differential cross sections for inclusive photons and diphotons are presented, and the spectrum of diphoton production is used to search for the Higgs boson in this decay channel.
Melanin fluorescence spectra by step-wise three photon excitation
Lai, Zhenhua; Kerimo, Josef; DiMarzio, Charles A.
2012-03-01
Melanin is the characteristic chromophore of human skin with various potential biological functions. Kerimo discovered enhanced melanin fluorescence by stepwise three-photon excitation in 2011. In this article, step-wise three-photon excited fluorescence (STPEF) spectrum between 450 nm -700 nm of melanin is reported. The melanin STPEF spectrum exhibited an exponential increase with wavelength. However, there was a probability of about 33% that another kind of step-wise multi-photon excited fluorescence (SMPEF) that peaks at 525 nm, shown by previous research, could also be generated using the same process. Using an excitation source at 920 nm as opposed to 830 nm increased the potential for generating SMPEF peaks at 525 nm. The SMPEF spectrum peaks at 525 nm photo-bleached faster than STPEF spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, M.P.; Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2010-01-01
The objective of present experiment, employing a scattering of 59.54 keV gamma photons, is to assign effective atomic number (Z eff ) to scientific samples (rare earths) of known composition. An HPGe semiconductor detector, placed at 90 o to the incident beam, detects gamma photons scattered from the sample under investigation. The experiment is performed on various elements with atomic number satisfying, 6≤Z≤82, for 59.54 keV incident photons. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the sample and air, is plotted as a function of atomic number and constituted a best fit-curve. From this fit-curve, the respective effective atomic numbers to samples of rare earths are determined. The agreement of measured values of Z eff with theoretical calculations is quite satisfactory.
Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cox Joel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Estepa Jiménez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Different types the spectrum of photons were studied; they were emitted from the flattening filter of a LINAC Varian 2100 C/D that operates at 15 MV. The simplified geometry of the LINAC head was calculated using the MCNPX code based on the studies of the materials of the flattening filter, namely, SST, W, Pb, Fe, Ta, Al, and Cu. These materials were replaced in the flattening filter to calculate the photon spectra at the output of this device to obtain the spectrum that makes an impact with the patient. The different spectra obtained were analyzed and compared to the emission from the original spectra configuration of the LINAC, which uses material W. In the study, different combinations of materials were considered in order to establish differences between the use of different materials and the original material, with the objective of establishing advantages and disadvantages from a clinical standpoint.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Christoph; Sangouard, N.; Drewsen, M.
2013-01-01
The ability to detect single photons with a high efficiency is a crucial requirement for various quantum information applications. By combining the storage process of a quantum memory for photons with fluorescence-based quantum state measurement, it is, in principle, possible to achieve high......-efficiency photon counting in large ensembles of atoms. The large number of atoms can, however, pose significant problems in terms of noise stemming from imperfect initial state preparation and off-resonant fluorescence. We identify and analyse a concrete implementation of a photon number resolving detector based...... larger than 93%. Moderate experimental parameters allow for repetition rates of about 3 kHz, limited by the time needed for fluorescence collection and re-cooling of the ions between trials. Our analysis may lead to the first implementation of a photon number resolving detector in atomic ensembles....
Photon signature analysis using template matching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradley, D.A., E-mail: d.a.bradley@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saripan, M.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wells, K. [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dunn, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, 3002 Rathbone Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)
2011-10-01
We describe an approach to detect improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by using a template matching procedure. This approach relies on the signature due to backstreaming {gamma} photons from various targets. In this work we have simulated cylindrical targets of aluminum, iron, copper, water and ammonium nitrate (nitrogen-rich fertilizer). We simulate 3.5 MeV source photons distributed on a plane inside a shielded area using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP{sup TM}) code version 5 (V5). The 3.5 MeV source gamma rays yield 511 keV peaks due to pair production and scattered gamma rays. In this work, we simulate capture of those photons that backstream, after impinging on the target element, toward a NaI detector. The captured backstreamed photons are expected to produce a unique spectrum that will become part of a simple signal processing recognition system based on the template matching method. Different elements were simulated using different sets of random numbers in the Monte Carlo simulation. To date, the sum of absolute differences (SAD) method has been used to match the template. In the examples investigated, template matching was found to detect all elements correctly.
Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur
2015-07-01
Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telnov, Valery
2001-01-01
High energy photon colliders (γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e + e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3)L e + e - . Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e + e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e + e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is ''an optical storage ring (optical trap)'' with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems
Ultra-fast Sensor for Single-photon Detection in a Wide Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Astghik KUZANYAN
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The results of computer simulation of heat distribution processes taking place after absorption of single photons of 1 eV-1 keV energy in three-layer sensor of the thermoelectric detector are being analyzed. Different geometries of the sensor with tungsten absorber, thermoelectric layer of cerium hexaboride and tungsten heat sink are considered. It is shown that by changing the sizes of the sensor layers it is possible to obtain transducers for registration of photons within the given spectral range with required energy resolution and count rate. It is concluded that, as compared to the single layer sensor, the thee-layer sensor has a number of advantages and demonstrate characteristics that make possible to consider the thermoelectric detector as a real alternative to superconducting single photon detectors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2014-01-01
Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol
Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states
Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value
The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the
Photon-photon and photon-hadron processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baron, N.C.
1993-11-01
Photon-photon and photon-hadron interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the framework of the impact parameter dependent equivalent photon approximation. Improvements of this method, like formfactor inclusion and geometrical modifications are developed. In disruptive relativistic heavy ion collisions where the heavy ions overlapp during the collision, electromagnetic processes are an important background to other mechanisms. In peripheral (non-disruptive) relativistic heavy ion collisions where the ions pass each other without strong interactions, the electromagnetic processes can be studied in their pure form. The lepton pair production is an important diagnostic tool in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The coherent γγ lepton pair production is therefore extensively studied in disruptive but also in non-disruptive collisions. The effects of strong interactions on the coherent γγ lepton pair production in disruptive collisions are discussed in terms of a simple stopping model. Coherent γγ dielectron production contributes to the dilepton production in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. As an example, the coherent dielectron production in π - p collisions is studied in terms of the equivalent photon approximation. Peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions open up new possibilities for γγ physics. Taking into account γA background reactions, typical γγ processes in the relevant invariant mass ranges are discussed. The extreme high energy part of the equivalent photon spectrum leads to hard photon-parton reactions. As a potential tool to investigate the gluon distribution function of nucleons, thee q anti q production via the γg fusion in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is studied. It is the purpose of this work to investigate how photon-photon and photon-hadron reactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions may contribute to the understanding of QCD and the standard model. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2007-01-01
An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of intensity distribution of multiply scattered events originating from interactions of 0.279 MeV photons with thick targets of soldering material. The observed pulse-height distributions are a composite of singly and multiply scattered events in addition to bremmstrahlung-and Rayleigh-scattered events. To evaluate the contribution of multiply scattered events, the spectrum of singly scattered events contributing to inelastic Compton peak is reconstructed analytically. The optimum thickness (saturation depth), at which the number of multiply scattered events saturates, has been measured. Monte Carlo calculations also support the present results
Rogers, Alan; Baets, Roel
2008-01-01
Photons and ElectronsHistorical SketchThe Wave Nature of LightPolarizationThe Electromagnetic SpectrumEmission and Absorption ProcessesPhoton Statistics The Behaviour of Electrons LasersSummaryWave Properties of LightThe Electromagnetic SpectrumWave RepresentationElectromagnetic WavesReflection and RefractionTotal Internal ReflectionInterference of LightLight WaveguidingInterferometersDiffractionGaussian Beams and Stable Optical ResonatorsPolarization OpticsThe Polarization EllipseCrystal OpticsRetarding WaveplatesA Variable Waveplate: The Soleil-Babinet Compensator Polarizing PrismsLinear BirefringenceCircular BirefringenceElliptical BirefringencePractical Polarization EffectsPolarization AnalysisThe Form of the Jones MatricesLight and Matter Emission, Propagation, and Absorption ProcessesClassical Theory of Light Propagation in Uniform Dielectric Media Optical Dispersion Emission and Absorption of LightOptical Coherence and CorrelationIntroductionMeasure of Coherence Wiener-Khinchin TheoremDual-Beam Interfe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, D.P.; Gautam, V.P.
1982-01-01
The integral electron photon spectra of cosmic rays at airplane altitude and Lenin Peak (altitudes 260 and 400 g-cm -2 air) have been estimated from the primary proton spectrum of Goddard Space Flight Group using Fermilab data of pp→π +- +X and conventional cascade theory. The derived electron-photon spectra fits well the experimental data of Ohta et al. (1975) and Cherdyntseva and Nikol'skii (1976) for energies above 4 TeV
Discrimination of optical coherent states using a photon number resolving detector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wittmann, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2010-01-01
The discrimination of non-orthogonal quantum states with reduced or without errors is a fundamental task in quantum measurement theory. In this work, we investigate a quantum measurement strategy capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error...... probabilities than can be obtained using non-probabilistic state discrimination. We find that appropriate postselection of the measurement data of a photon number resolving detector can be used to discriminate two coherent states with small error probability. We compare our new receiver to an optimal...
Resonance fluorescence spectrum in a two-band photonic bandgap crystal
Lee, Ray-Kuang; Lai, Yinchieh
2003-05-01
Steady state resonance fluorescence spectra from a two-level atom embedded in a photonic bandgap crystal and resonantly driven by a classical pump light are calculated. The photonic crystal is considered to be with a small bandgap which is in the order of magnitude of the Rabi frequency and is modeled by the anisotropic two-band dispersion relation. Non-Markovian noises caused by the non-uniform distribution of photon density states near the photonic bandgap are taken into account by a new approach which linearizes the optical Bloch equations by using the Liouville operator expansion. Fluorescence spectra that only exhibit sidebands of the Mollow triplet are found, indicating that there is no coherent Rayleigh scattering process.
Berube-Lauziere, Yves
The measurement-based quantum feedback scheme developed and implemented by Haroche and collaborators to actively prepare and stabilize specific photon number states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) is a milestone achievement in the active protection of quantum states from decoherence. This feat was achieved by injecting, after each weak dispersive measurement of the cavity state via Rydberg atoms serving as cavity sensors, a low average number classical field (coherent state) to steer the cavity towards the targeted number state. This talk will present the generalization of the theory developed for targeting number states in order to prepare and stabilize desired superpositions of two cavity photon number states. Results from realistic simulations taking into account decoherence and imperfections in a CQED set-up will be presented. These demonstrate the validity of the generalized theory and points to the experimental feasibility of preparing and stabilizing such superpositions. This is a further step towards the active protection of more complex quantum states than number states. This work, cast in the context of CQED, is also almost readily applicable to circuit QED. YBL acknowledges financial support from the Institut Quantique through a Canada First Research Excellence Fund.
Quantum theory of two-photon wavepacket interference in a beamsplitter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Kaige
2006-01-01
A general theory is derived for the interference of a two-photon wavepacket in a beamsplitter. The theory is presented in the Schroedinger picture so that the quantum nature of the two-photon interference is explicitly revealed. We find that the topological symmetry of the probability-amplitude spectrum of the two-photon wavepacket dominates the nature of the two-photon interference, which may be distinguished by the increase or decrease of the coincidence probability in the absence of interference. However, two-photon entanglement can be identified by the nature of the interference. We demonstrate the necessary and sufficient conditions for perfect two-photon interference. It is shown that a two-photon entangled state with an anti-symmetric spectrum passes through a 50/50 beamsplitter with perfect transparency. The theory provides us with a unified understanding of the various two-photon interference effects. (topical review)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif
2008-01-01
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic......, linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA, eff) and Z(PI, eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy...
Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 3K7 Ontario (Canada)
2008-07-14
A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration.
Study of nonlinear effects in photonic crystals doped with nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Mahi R
2008-01-01
A theory of nonlinear phenomena has been developed for a photonic crystal in the presence of a pump and a coupling laser field. The crystal is doped with an ensemble of four-level nanoparticle impurities. It is considered that the impurity particles are not only interacting with the photonic crystal but also with each other via dipole-dipole interaction. An expression for the susceptibility has been obtained using the density matrix method. The nonlinear effects due to the coupling and the pump fields have been included in the formulation. The absorption spectrum has been calculated in the presence of the strong coupling and pump fields for an isotropic photonic crystal made from dielectric spheres. The photonic crystal has a gap to midgap ratio of about 21%. It is predicted that the absorption spectrum in the photonic crystal can have zero, one, two or three absorptionless states by tuning one of the transition energies within the bands. This is an interesting phenomenon which can be used to make photonic switching devices. We have also calculated the absorption spectrum in the presence of the dipole-dipole interaction. It is found that a symmetric absorption spectrum changes to an asymmetric one due to this interaction. It is also found that there is a large enhancement in the absorption and the dispersion simultaneously for certain values of the detuning and concentration
Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...
Effects of X-rays spectrum on the dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez I, J. L.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.
2015-10-01
The X-ray equipment for diagnosis comes in different sizes and shapes depending on the scan type to perform. The X-ray spectrum is the energy distribution of the beam photons and consists of a continuous spectrum of photons braking and discrete spectrum due to the characteristic photons. The knowledge of the X-rays spectrum is important to understand like they affect the voltage changes (k Vp), current (m A), time (s) and the type of filter in the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and patient's body, the image receptor or other material that gets in the beam. Across the spectrum can be estimated the absorbed dose in any point of the patient, the quality of the image and the scattered radiation (which is related to the dose received by the equipment operator). The Monte Carlo method was used by MCNP5 code to calculate the spectrum of X-rays that occurs when a monoenergetic electron beam of 250 keV interact with targets of Mo, Rh and W. The spectra were calculated with and without filter, and the values of ambient dose equivalent were estimated, as well as the air kerma. (Author)
Gotoh, Toshiyuki
2012-11-01
Spectrum of passive scalar variance at very high Schmidt number up to 1000 in isotropic steady turbulence has been studied by using very high resolution DNS. Gaussian random force and scalar source which are isotropic and white in time are applied at low wavenumber band. Since the Schmidt number is very large, the system was integrated for 72 large eddy turn over time for the system to forgot the initial state. It is found that the scalar spectrum attains the asymptotic k-1 spectrum in the viscous-convective range and the constant CB is found to be 5.7 which is larger than 4.9 obtained by DNS under the uniform mean scalar gradient. Reasons for the difference are inferred as the Reynolds number effect, anisotropy, difference in the scalar injection, duration of time average, and the universality of the constant is discussed. The constant CB is also compared with the prediction by the Lagrangian statistical theory for the passive scalar. The scalar spectrum in the far diffusive range is found to be exponential, which is consistent with the Kraichnan's spectrum. However, the Kraichnan spectrum was derived under the assumption that the velocity field is white in time, therefore theoretical explanation of the agreement needs to be explored. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 21360082, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Quantum random number generator
Pooser, Raphael C.
2016-05-10
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.
Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem; Ebrahimpour, Zeinab; Moslemi, Fatemeh
2015-07-01
The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM)N, (GDM)N and (DMG)N, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N-1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.
Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, K.
2009-01-01
We present detailed computations of photon orbits emitted by flares at the ISCO of accretion disks around rotating black holes. We show that for sufficiently large spin parameter, i.e. $a > 0.94 M$, following a flare at ISCO, a sufficient number of photons arrive at an observer after multiple orbits around the black hole, to produce an "photon echo" of constant lag, i.e. independent of the relative phase between the black hole and the observer, of $\\Delta T \\simeq 14 M$. This constant time delay, then, leads to the presence of a QPO in the source power spectrum at a frequency $\
Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry
Aleksandrov, D; Hille, P T; Polichtchouk, B; Kharlov, Y; Sukhorukov, M; Wang, D; Shabratova, G; Demanov, V; Wang, Y; Tveter, T; Faltys, M; Mao, Y; Larsen, D T; Zaporozhets, S; Sibiryak, I; Lovhoiden, G; Potcheptsov, T; Kucheryaev, Y; Basmanov, V; Mares, J; Yanovsky, V; Qvigstad, H; Zenin, A; Nikolaev, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Yuan, X; Cai, X; Redlich, K; Pavlinov, A; Roehrich, D; Manko, V; Deloff, A; Ma, K; Maruyama, Y; Dobrowolski, T; Shigaki, K; Nikulin, S; Wan, R; Mizoguchi, K; Petrov, V; Mueller, H; Ippolitov, M; Liu, L; Sadovsky, S; Stolpovsky, P; Kurashvili, P; Nomokonov, P; Xu, C; Torii, H; Il'kaev, R; Zhang, X; Peresunko, D; Soloviev, A; Vodopyanov, A; Sugitate, T; Ullaland, K; Huang, M; Zhou, D; Nystrand, J; Punin, V; Yin, Z; Batyunya, B; Karadzhev, K; Nazarov, G; Fil'chagin, S; Nazarenko, S; Buskenes, J I; Horaguchi, T; Djuvsland, O; Chuman, F; Senko, V; Alme, J; Wilk, G; Fehlker, D; Vinogradov, Y; Budilov, V; Iwasaki, T; Ilkiv, I; Budnikov, D; Vinogradov, A; Kazantsev, A; Bogolyubsky, M; Lindal, S; Polak, K; Skaali, B; Mamonov, A; Kuryakin, A; Wikne, J; Skjerdal, K
2010-01-01
We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the it decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN {[}1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thermo-optically induced interactions in photon Bose-Einstein Condensates
Alaeian, Hadiseh; Bartels, Clara; Weitz, Martin
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), a new state of matter, emerges when the de Broglie wavelength of bosons becomes larger than the particle separation, leading to a macroscopic occupation of the system ground state. Followed by the first experimental demonstrations of BEC in cold atomic gases, this phase transition has been observed in other bosonic gases, as polaritons and phonons. The most recent one, photon BEC, is a promising candidate for a new generation of coherent photon sources. Due to their infancy, however, many of their properties are still unknown or only partly explored. In this talk I will present my latest results on the implications of photon interactions in photon BECs. In particular, I will investigate the effect of a thermo-optic non-linearity, leading to spatially non-local and delayed interactions. Starting from the steady state behavior, I will explore the spectrum of elementary excitations as a small perturbation. Moreover, I will discuss the resulting effective photon dispersion, manifesting various properties including possible superfluidity, as well as roton and maxon modes. The implications of physical parameters as absorption, number of photons in the condensate, and cavity trap on the dispersion will be discussed. The results of this study shed new light on the implication of interactions in photonic many-body systems. Hadiseh Alaeian acknowledges the generous support from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-04-01
The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status
Segmented-spectrum detection mechanism for medical x-ray in CdTe
Shi, Zaifeng; Meng, Qingzhen; Cao, Qingjie; Yao, Suying
2016-01-01
This paper presents a segmented X-ray spectrum detection method based on a layered X-ray detector in Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) substrate. We describe the three-dimensional structure of proposed detector pixel and investigate the matched spectrum-resolving method. Polychromatic X-ray beam enter the CdTe substrate edge on and will be absorbed completely in different thickness varying with photon energy. Discrete potential wells are formed under external controlling voltage to collect the photo-electrons generated in different layers, and segmented X-ray spectrum can be deduced from the quantity of photo-electrons. In this work, we verify the feasibility of the segmented-spectrum detection mechanism by simulating the absorption of monochromatic X-ray in a CdTe substrate. Experiments in simulation show that the number of photo-electrons grow exponentially with the increase of incident thickness, and photons with different energy will be absorbed in various thickness. The charges generated in different layers are collected into adjacent potential wells, and collection efficiency is estimated to be about 87% for different incident intensity under the 40000V/cm electric field. Errors caused by charge sharing between neighboring layers are also analyzed, and it can be considered negligible by setting appropriate size of electrodes.
The measurement of exposure rate and absorbed dose for photons of 6 to 7 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birchall, I.
1978-01-01
Using the 16 N source at the Universities Reactor Centre, which provides a source of high energy photons of 6 and 7 MeV, experiments have been carried out to provide a calibration point for secondary standard and general survey instruments. The source was designed primarily for shielding experiments and suffers from a number of disadvantages if precise dose or exposure data are required. In particular the exposure rate is low, the source is physically large and the energy spectrum is contaminated with lower energy photons. A summary of the basic techniques is given because of the inherent difficulties in dose measurements particularly for high energy photons. (author)
Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers
Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles
2014-12-01
Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.
A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.
1982-01-01
Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarkissian, Raymond, E-mail: RaymondSark@gmail.com; O' Brien, John [Electrophysics department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)
2015-01-21
Cross two photon absorption in silicon is characterized using a tapered fiber photonic crystal silicon waveguide coupler. There is a physical junction between the tapered fiber and the waveguide constituting a stand-alone device. This device is used to obtain the spectrum for cross two photon absorption coefficient per unit volume of interaction between photons of nondegenerate energy. The corresponding Kerr coefficient per unit volume of interaction is also experimentally extracted. The thermal resistance of the device is also experimentally determined and the response time of the device is estimated for on-chip all-optical signal processing and data transfer between optical signals of different photon energies.
Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J R; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, S; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, I J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, F; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R J; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, M; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D; Kartvelishvili, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, M J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, A; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Plinks, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, o B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, a N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
1998-01-01
The inclusive production of prompt photons with energy above 10 GeV is measured using the OPAL detector in hadronic Z^0 decays at LEP. In contrast to previous measurements, the prompt photons were not required to be isolated. The production rate and energy spectrum are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions for the quark-to-photon fragmentation function.
Filtering properties of Thue-Morse nano-photonic crystals containing high-temperature superconductor
Talebzadeh, Robabeh; Bavaghar, Mehrdad
2018-05-01
In this paper, we introduced new design of quasi-periodic layered structures by choosing order two of ternary Thue-Morse structure. We considered Superconductor-dielectric photonic crystal with mirror symmetric as (ABSSAB)N(BASSBA)N composed of two kinds of nano-scale dielectric layers (A and B) and high-temperature superconductor layers where N is the number of period. This structure is assumed to be the free space. By using the transfer matrix method and the two fluid model, we theoretically study the transmission spectrum of ternary Thue-Morse superconducting photonic crystals with mirror symmetry and introduce this structure as a narrow optical filter. We showed that transmission peak so-called defect mode appears itself inside the transmission spectrum of suggested structure as same as defective layered structure. Also, we analyzed the influence of various related parameters such as the operating temperature of superconductor layer on position of defect mode. The redshift of defect mode with increasing the operating temperature was observed.
Quadrature entanglement and photon-number correlations accompanied by phase-locking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamyan, H. H.; Manvelyan, S. B.; Adamyan, N. H.; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.
2006-01-01
We investigate quantum properties of phase-locked light beams generated in a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (NOPO) with an intracavity waveplate. This investigation continues our previous analysis presented in Phys. Rev. A 69, 053814 (2004), and involves problems of continuous-variable quadrature entanglement in the spectral domain, photon-number correlations as well as the signatures of phase-locking in the Wigner function. We study the role of phase-localizing processes on the quantum correlation effects. The peculiarities of phase-locked NOPO in the self-pulsing instability operational regime are also cleared up. The results are obtained in the P-representation as a quantum-mechanical calculation in the framework of stochastic equations of motion, as well as by numerical simulation based on the method of quantum state diffusion
Polarization of photons emitted by decaying dark matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Bonivento
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Radiatively decaying dark matter may be searched through investigating the photon spectrum of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We explore whether the properties of dark matter can be constrained through the study of a polarization state of emitted photons. Starting from the basic principles of quantum mechanics we show that the models of symmetric dark matter are indiscernible by the photon polarization. However, we find that the asymmetric dark matter consisted of Dirac fermions is a source of circularly polarized photons, calling for the experimental determination of the photon state.
Saturated two-photon absorption by atoms in a perturber gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nienhuis, G.
1980-01-01
We derive a general expression for the two-photon absorption spectrum of a three-state atom excited by two mono-chromatic radiation fields. Collisional line-broadening effects are incorporated, and the result allows inclusion of profiles with a validity outside the impact limit. Results of previous work are recovered in the appropriate limits. Saturation affects the different lines in the two-photon absorption spectrum in a different fashion. (orig.)
Photons emission processes in electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soto Vargas, C.W.
1996-01-01
The investigations involving the scattering sections arising in virtual an real photon emission processes of electron and positron scattering by an atomic nucleus, have the need for thorough and complete calculations of the virtual photon spectrum and then introduce the distorted wave formulation, which is mathematically involved an numerically elaborated, but accessible to its use in experimental electron scattering facilities. (author) [es
Selective optical contacting for solar spectrum management
Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhilong; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Wen, Xiaoming; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin
2017-02-01
Solar spectrum management using up/down conversion is an important method to improve the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. It asks for a monochromatic luminescence absorption at the band edge of the photovoltaic device to reduce both the sub-band-gap and over-band-gap energy losses. Here, we demonstrate an energy selective optical contacting concept to improve the luminescence transfer efficiency for spectrum management. By increasing both the luminescence emission and re-absorption ability through photonic resonance, an efficient photon transfer channel could be established between the luminescence emitter and the photovoltaic component in a near-field region. This concept is not only able to compensate the insufficient band edge absorption ability of the photovoltaic device, but also to break the far-field limitation of luminescence radiation. The energy selection on the optical spectrum naturally imposed by the mode resonance is also helpful to improve the monochromaticity of the luminescence yield. In this paper, a photonic crystal cavity is used to realize the optical contacting concept between a thin silicon film and spectrum converter. The optical power and photon flux transferred between different components are calculated analytically using the electromagnetic Green's function. The corresponding radiative dipole moment is estimated by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The example shows an over 80 times enhancement in the luminescence absorbance by the silicon layer, illustrating the great potential of this concept to be applied on nano-structured photovoltaic devices.
Sarina, Sarina; Jaatinen, Esa; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Yi Ming; Christopher, Philip; Zhao, Jin Cai; Zhu, Huai Yong
2017-06-01
By investigating the action spectra (the relationship between the irradiation wavelength and apparent quantum efficiency of reactions under constant irradiance) of a number of reactions catalyzed by nanoparticles including plasmonic metals, nonplasmonic metals, and their alloys at near-ambient temperatures, we found that a photon energy threshold exists in each photocatalytic reaction; only photons with sufficient energy (e.g., higher than the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals) can initiate the reactions. This energy alignment (and the photon energy threshold) is determined by various factors, including the wavelength and intensity of irradiation, molecule structure, reaction temperature, and so forth. Hence, distinct action spectra were observed in the same type of reaction catalyzed by the same catalyst due to a different substituent group, a slightly changed reaction temperature. These results indicate that photon-electron excitations, instead of the photothermal effect, play a dominant role in direct photocatalysis of metal nanoparticles for many reactions.
A thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal for monitoring glass transition.
Sun, Liguo; Xie, Zhuoying; Xu, Hua; Xu, Ming; Han, Guozhi; Wang, Cheng; Bai, Xuduo; Gu, ZhongZe
2012-03-01
An optical method was developed to monitor the glass transition of the polymer by taking advantage of reflection spectrum change of the thermally tunable inverse opal photonic crystal. The thermally tunable photonic bands of the polymer inverse opal photonic crystal were traceable to the segmental motion of macromolecules, and the segmental motion was temperature dependent. By observing the reflection spectrum change of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal during thermal treatment, the glass transition temperature of polystyrene was gotten. Both changes of the position and intensity of the reflection peak were observed during the glass transition process of the polystyrene inverse opal photonic crystal. The optical change of inverse opal photonic crystal was so large that the glass transition temperature could even be estimated by naked eyes. The glass transition temperature derived from this method was consistent with the values measured by differential scanning calorimeter.
Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators
Hart, Joseph D.; Terashima, Yuta; Uchida, Atsushi; Baumgartner, Gerald B.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi
2017-09-01
The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h (𝜖 ,τ ) as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.
Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph D. Hart
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h(,τ as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamshidi-Ghaleh, Kazem, E-mail: k-jamshidi@azaruinv.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimpour, Zeinab [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moslemi, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-07-15
The transmission spectrum properties of the one-dimensional ternary photonic crystal (1DTPC) structure, composed of dielectric (D), metal (M) and gain (G) materials, with three different arrangements of (DGM){sup N}, (GDM){sup N} and (DMG){sup N}, where N is the number of periodicity, were investigated. Two full photonic band gaps and N−1 resonant peaks, localized between them, were observed on transmittance spectra on near-UV spectrum region. When the gained layer was placed in front of the metal, the peaks appeared with higher resolution. There is a peak, localized on the higher band-edge of the first gap, which shows very interesting property than the other peaks. Thus, it amplifies and compresses faster with increase in the N and strength of the gain coefficient. The effects of the gain coefficient and periodicity number are graphically illustrated. This communication presents a PC structure that can be a good candidate to design an amplifying and compressing single or multi-channel optical filter in the UV region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajuddin, A.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Bradley, D.A.
1995-01-01
Mass attenuation coefficients for 12 selected moderate-to-high atomic-number elements have been obtained from good-geometry measurements made at five 241 Am photon energies of significant emission intensity. Particular interest focuses on measured values for photon energies close to absorption edges. Comparisons with renormalized cross-section predictions indicate agreement to within stated error limits for the majority of cases. Significant discrepancies (> 10%) are noted for Ta at 17.8 and 26.3 keV and W at 59.5 keV. Some support for a discrepancy between measurement and theory for W in the region of 60 keV is found in the reported measurements of others. (author)
Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices
Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique
2008-01-01
Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...
Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices
Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis
2005-01-01
Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, J.H.
1984-01-01
The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range
Association testing of copy number variants in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Crespi Bernard J
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been associated with an overlapping set of copy number variant loci, but the nature and degree of overlap in copy number variants (deletions compared to duplications between these two disorders remains unclear. Methods We systematically evaluated three lines of evidence: (1 the statistical bases for associations of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia with a set of the primary CNVs thus far investigated, from previous studies; (2 data from case series studies on the occurrence of these CNVs in autism spectrum disorders, especially among children, and (3 data on the extent to which the CNVs were associated with intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays. We also conducted new analyses of existing data on these CNVs in autism by pooling data from seven case control studies. Results Four of the CNVs considered, dup 1q21.1, dup 15q11-q13, del 16p11.2, and dup 22q11.21, showed clear statistical evidence as autism risk factors, whereas eight CNVs, del 1q21.1, del 3q29, del 15q11.2, del 15q13.3, dup 16p11.2, dup 16p13.1, del 17p12, and del 22q11.21, were strongly statistically supported as risk factors for schizophrenia. Three of the CNVs, dup 1q21.1, dup 16p11.2, and dup 16p13.1, exhibited statistical support as risk factors for both autism and schizophrenia, although for each of these CNVs statistical significance was nominal for tests involving one of the two disorders. For the CNVs that were statistically associated with schizophrenia but were not statistically associated with autism, a notable number of children with the CNVs have been diagnosed with autism or ASD; children with these CNVs also demonstrate a high incidence of intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays. Conclusions These findings suggest that although CNV loci notably overlap between autism and schizophrenia, the degree of strongly statistically
Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nysteen, Anders
In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...... the scattered photons. Even though the non-linearity also alters the pulse spectrum due to a four-wave mixing process, we demonstrate that input pulses with a Gaussian spectrum can be mapped to the output with up to 80 % fidelity. Using two identical two-level emitters, we propose a setup for a deterministic...... by the capturing process. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are promising for realizing few-photon non-linearities in solid-state implementations, although coupling to phonon modes in the surrounding lattice have significant influence on the dynamics. By accounting for the commonly neglected asymmetry between...
Direct photons in nuclear collisions at fair energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, S. M.
2009-01-01
Using the extrapolation of existing data, estimations of prompt-photon production at FAIR energies have been made. At y = y c.m. the rapidity density of prompt photons with p t > 1.5 GeV/c per central Au + Au event at 25 A GeV is estimated as ∼10 -4 . With the planned beam intensity 10 9 per second and 1% interaction probability, for 10% of most central events one can expect the prompt-photon rate ∼10 2 photons per second. Direct photons from the hadron scenario of ion collisions generated by the Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport approach with implemented meson scatterings πρ → πγ, ππ → ργ have been analyzed. Photons from short-living resonances (e.g., ω → π 0 γ) decaying during the dense phase of the collision should be considered as direct photons. They contribute significantly in the direct photon spectrum at p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At the FAIR energy 25 A GeV in Au + Au central collisions the HSD generator predicts, as a lower estimate, γ direct /γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 0.5% in the region p t = 0.5-1 GeV/c. At p t = 1.5-2 GeV/c γ prompt / γ ( π 0 ) ≅ 2%. Thermal direct photons have been evaluated with the Bjorken Hydro-Dynamics (BHD) model. The BHD spectra differ strongly from the HSD predictions. The direct-photon spectrum is very sensitive to the initial temperature parameter T 0 of the model. The 10-MeV increase in the T 0 value leads to ∼2 times higher photon yield.
Spectrum and light curve of a supernova shock breakout through a thick Wolf-Rayet wind
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svirski, Gilad; Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: swirskig@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2014-06-20
Wolf-Rayet stars are known to eject winds. Thus, when a Wolf-Rayet star explodes as a supernova, a fast (≳ 40, 000 km s{sup –1}) shock is expected to be driven through a wind. We study the signal expected from a fast supernova shock propagating through an optically thick wind and find that the electrons behind the shock driven into the wind are efficiently cooled by inverse Compton over soft photons that were deposited by the radiation-mediated shock that crossed the star. Therefore, the bolometric luminosity is comparable to the kinetic energy flux through the shock, and the spectrum is found to be a power law, whose slope and frequency range depend on the number flux of soft photons available for cooling. Wolf-Rayet supernovae that explode through a thick wind have a high flux of soft photons, producing a flat spectrum, νF {sub ν} = Const, in the X-ray range of 0.1 ≲ T ≲ 50 keV. As the shock expands into an optically thin wind, the soft photons are no longer able to cool the shock that plows through the wind, and the bulk of the emission takes the form of a standard core-collapse supernova (without a wind). However, a small fraction of the soft photons is upscattered by the shocked wind and produces a transient unique X-ray signature.
Spectrum and light curve of a supernova shock breakout through a thick Wolf-Rayet wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svirski, Gilad; Nakar, Ehud
2014-01-01
Wolf-Rayet stars are known to eject winds. Thus, when a Wolf-Rayet star explodes as a supernova, a fast (≳ 40, 000 km s –1 ) shock is expected to be driven through a wind. We study the signal expected from a fast supernova shock propagating through an optically thick wind and find that the electrons behind the shock driven into the wind are efficiently cooled by inverse Compton over soft photons that were deposited by the radiation-mediated shock that crossed the star. Therefore, the bolometric luminosity is comparable to the kinetic energy flux through the shock, and the spectrum is found to be a power law, whose slope and frequency range depend on the number flux of soft photons available for cooling. Wolf-Rayet supernovae that explode through a thick wind have a high flux of soft photons, producing a flat spectrum, νF ν = Const, in the X-ray range of 0.1 ≲ T ≲ 50 keV. As the shock expands into an optically thin wind, the soft photons are no longer able to cool the shock that plows through the wind, and the bulk of the emission takes the form of a standard core-collapse supernova (without a wind). However, a small fraction of the soft photons is upscattered by the shocked wind and produces a transient unique X-ray signature.
Photon beam convolution using polyenergetic energy deposition kernels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoban, P.W.; Murray, D.C.; Round, W.H.
1994-01-01
In photon beam convolution calculations where polyenergetic energy deposition kernels (EDKs) are used, the primary photon energy spectrum should be correctly accounted for in Monte Carlo generation of EDKs. This requires the probability of interaction, determined by the linear attenuation coefficient, μ, to be taken into account when primary photon interactions are forced to occur at the EDK origin. The use of primary and scattered EDKs generated with a fixed photon spectrum can give rise to an error in the dose calculation due to neglecting the effects of beam hardening with depth. The proportion of primary photon energy that is transferred to secondary electrons increases with depth of interaction, due to the increase in the ratio μ ab /μ as the beam hardens. Convolution depth-dose curves calculated using polyenergetic EDKs generated for the primary photon spectra which exist at depths of 0, 20 and 40 cm in water, show a fall-off which is too steep when compared with EGS4 Monte Carlo results. A beam hardening correction factor applied to primary and scattered 0 cm EDKs, based on the ratio of kerma to terma at each depth, gives primary, scattered and total dose in good agreement with Monte Carlo results. (Author)
Teaching of optics and photonics in a college astronomy course
Tremberger, George, Jr.; Flamholz, Alex; Marchese, Paul J.; Lieberman, David H.; Cheung, Tak D.
2004-10-01
Astronomy is among the most popular courses that students select to fulfill their college science requirement at Queensborough Community College, New York City. Recent advances in photonics now enable us to observe celestial objects from extrasolar planets to ultra deep space galaxies that are 13 billion light years away. These results are regularly reported in the popular press such as the New York Times and "Sky & Telescope" magazine. We upgraded our astronomy course to keep pace with these advances in optics and photonics. The laboratory hands-on exercises include observations in our observatory using a telescope with digital camera and CCD, spectrum analysis with grating, Java photonics simulation delivered over the Internet, and the use of virtual instruments in optics and photonics written with Labview. Advanced techniques such as interferometry are also included as demonstrations in the laboratory. The scientific principles were demonstrated to them to promote learning by inquiry. As a result of these teaching designs, the students gain a clearer understanding of the optics and photonics basis of the astronomical instrumentation reported in popular articles. The preliminary assessment was encouraging as measured by the number of questions received and the amount of popular press materials that the students brought to the classroom.
Energy-correction photon counting pixel for photon energy extraction under pulse pile-up
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Daehee; Park, Kyungjin; Lim, Kyung Taek; Cho, Gyuseong, E-mail: gscho@kaist.ac.kr
2017-06-01
A photon counting detector (PCD) has been proposed as an alternative solution to an energy-integrating detector (EID) in medical imaging field due to its high resolution, high efficiency, and low noise. The PCD has expanded to variety of fields such as spectral CT, k-edge imaging, and material decomposition owing to its capability to count and measure the number and the energy of an incident photon, respectively. Nonetheless, pulse pile-up, which is a superimposition of pulses at the output of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) in each PC pixel, occurs frequently as the X-ray flux increases due to the finite pulse processing time (PPT) in CSAs. Pulse pile-up induces not only a count loss but also distortion in the measured X-ray spectrum from each PC pixel and thus it is a main constraint on the use of PCDs in high flux X-ray applications. To minimize these effects, an energy-correction PC (ECPC) pixel is proposed to resolve pulse pile-up without cutting off the PPT by adding an energy correction logic (ECL) via a cross detection method (CDM). The ECPC pixel with a size of 200×200 µm{sup 2} was fabricated by using a 6-metal 1-poly 0.18 µm CMOS process with a static power consumption of 7.2 μW/pixel. The maximum count rate of the ECPC pixel was extended by approximately three times higher than that of a conventional PC pixel with a PPT of 500 nsec. The X-ray spectrum of 90 kVp, filtered by 3 mm Al filter, was measured as the X-ray current was increased using the CdTe and the ECPC pixel. As a result, the ECPC pixel dramatically reduced the energy spectrum distortion at 2 Mphotons/pixel/s when compared to that of the ERCP pixel with the same 500 nsec PPT.
A study on new types of metallic photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M.I.
2013-01-01
In this thesis, I tried to synthesize a one dimension dielectric photonic crystal. I have succeeded in depositing single layers of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide on glass substrates. Each single layer was characterized by a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, A Mirue interferometer, and a spectrophotometer. The refractive indices, extinction coefficients, and absorption coefficients of each single layer were calculated from the measured transmittance, reflectance, and thickness data. Using the calculated parameters (refractive indices) and measured parameters (thicknesses) the transmission spectrum of the one dimension photonic crystal composed of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide was modelled. Using the transfer matrix method, a comparative study of the one dimension-dielectric and metallic photonic crystals was done. Effect of the refractive index difference, filling factor, number of periods, Plasmon frequency, damping coefficient, and incidence angle on the transmittance of the dielectric and metallic photonic crystal was carried out. A multilayered structure composed of Silver and Gallium Nitride was designed to transmit in the visible region, block UV frequencies, and reflect the IR and microwave frequencies. Using a combination of MaxwellGarnett Approximation and the transfer matrix method; the properties of a nanocomposite photonic crystal consisting of Cryolite and spherical nanoparticles of silver distributed in a dielectric matrix of titanium dioxide was studied. Effect of the nanoparticle concentration, lattice constant and incidence angle on the polaritonic and structure photonic band gap were studied.
Time and spectrum-resolving multiphoton correlator for 300–900 nm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Thibault, Marilyne; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department for Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kolenderski, Piotr, E-mail: kolenderski@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department for Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-10-14
We demonstrate a single-photon sensitive spectrometer in the visible range, which allows us to perform time-resolved and multi-photon spectral correlation measurements at room temperature. It is based on a monochromator composed of two gratings, collimation optics, and an array of single photon avalanche diodes. The time resolution can reach 110 ps and the spectral resolution is 2 nm/pixel, limited by the design of the monochromator. This technique can easily be combined with commercial monochromators and can be useful for joint spectrum measurements of two photons emitted in the process of parametric down conversion, as well as time-resolved spectrum measurements in optical coherence tomography or medical physics applications.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klaers, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a 'white-wall' photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box
Klärs, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a "white-wall" photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.
Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.
de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T
2017-05-24
In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.
Coupled-resonator waveguide perfect transport single-photon by interatomic dipole-dipole interaction
Yan, Guo-an; Lu, Hua; Qiao, Hao-xue; Chen, Ai-xi; Wu, Wan-qing
2018-06-01
We theoretically investigate single-photon coherent transport in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide coupled to two quantum emitters with dipole-dipole interactions. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on the two atoms dipole-dipole interactions and the photon-atom couplings. The dipole-dipole interactions may change the dip positions in the spectra and the coupling strength may broaden the frequency band width in the transmission spectrum. We further demonstrate that the typical transmission spectra split into two dips due to the dipole-dipole interactions. This phenomenon may be used to manufacture new quantum waveguide devices.
Towards a measurement of the two-photon decay width of the Higgs boson at a photon collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moenig, K.; Rosca, A.
2007-05-01
A study of the measurement of the two photon decay width times the branching ratio of a Higgs boson with the mass of 120 GeV in photon-photon collisions is presented, assuming a γγ integrated luminosity of 80 fb -1 in the high energy part of the spectrum. The analysis is based on the reconstruction of the Higgs events produced in the γγ→H process, followed by the decay f the Higgs into a b anti b pair. A statistical error of the measurement of the two-photon width, Γ(H→γγ), times the branching ratio of the Higgs boson, BR(H →b anti b) is found to be 2.1 % for one year of data taking. (orig.)
Bochdansky, Alexander B; Clouse, Melissa A; Herndl, Gerhard J
2016-03-04
Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of "dragon kings." Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.
Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fedak Waldemar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.
Determination of the number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades based on power spectrum
Fedak, Waldemar; Anweiler, Stanisław; Gancarski, Wojciech; Ulbrich, Roman
2017-10-01
Technology of wind exploitation has been applied widely all over the world and has already reached the level in which manufacturers want to maximize the yield with the minimum investment outlays. The main objective of this paper is the determination of the optimal number of blades in the Cup-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Optimizing the size of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine allows the reduction of costs. The maximum power of the rotor is selected as the performance target. The optimum number of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine blades evaluation is based on analysis of a single blade simulation and its superposition for the whole rotor. The simulation of working blade was done in MatLab environment. Power spectrum graphs were prepared and compared throughout superposition of individual blades in the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The major result of this research is the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine power characteristic. On the basis of the analysis of the power spectra, optimum number of the blades was specified for the analysed rotor. Power spectrum analysis of wind turbine enabled the specification of the optimal number of blades, and can be used regarding investment outlays and power output of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Garcia, G.
1994-06-01
Hard photons produced in heavy-ions collisions at intermediate energies have been used in order to study hot and compresses nuclear matter created in these collisions (at Ganil). It was found that Bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in np collisions is the main mechanism of hard-photon production for the whole range of impact parameter. Moreover, it was observed a substantial decrease of the hardness of hard-photon spectrum. The BUU model reproduces very well the experimental results, showing that the hardness of the spectrum reflects, mainly, nuclear-matter compression in the first stage of the collision. A new method was developed to measure the density of the nuclear matter created at the beginning of the collision. BUU results and some experimental evidences point out that a significant contribution of hard photons are produced in the last stage of the collision: thermal hard photons. These photons are sensitive to the density oscillation of nuclear matter. Its production cross-section will constitute a measurement of the compressibility of nuclear matter and its spectrum a measure of the temperature. (from author) 64 figs., 60 refs.
K-edge energy-based calibration method for photon counting detectors
Ge, Yongshuai; Ji, Xu; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong
2018-01-01
In recent years, potential applications of energy-resolved photon counting detectors (PCDs) in the x-ray medical imaging field have been actively investigated. Unlike conventional x-ray energy integration detectors, PCDs count the number of incident x-ray photons within certain energy windows. For PCDs, the interactions between x-ray photons and photoconductor generate electronic voltage pulse signals. The pulse height of each signal is proportional to the energy of the incident photons. By comparing the pulse height with the preset energy threshold values, x-ray photons with specific energies are recorded and sorted into different energy bins. To quantitatively understand the meaning of the energy threshold values, and thus to assign an absolute energy value to each energy bin, energy calibration is needed to establish the quantitative relationship between the threshold values and the corresponding effective photon energies. In practice, the energy calibration is not always easy, due to the lack of well-calibrated energy references for the working energy range of the PCDs. In this paper, a new method was developed to use the precise knowledge of the characteristic K-edge energy of materials to perform energy calibration. The proposed method was demonstrated using experimental data acquired from three K-edge materials (viz., iodine, gadolinium, and gold) on two different PCDs (Hydra and Flite, XCounter, Sweden). Finally, the proposed energy calibration method was further validated using a radioactive isotope (Am-241) with a known decay energy spectrum.
Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiangbin
2003-01-01
We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme
Generalized quantum interference of correlated photon pairs
Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-01-01
Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source. PMID:25951143
Study of two photon production process in proton-proton collisions at 216 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrykin, A.S.
2002-01-01
The energy spectrum for high energy γ-rays (Eγ ≥ 10 MeV) from the process pp → γγX emitted at 90 deg. in the laboratory frame has been measured at 216 MeV. The resulting photon energy spectrum extracted from γ - γ coincidence events consists of a narrow peak (5.3σ) at a photon energy of about 24 MeV and a relatively broad peak (3.5σ) in the energy range of (50 - 70) MeV. This behavior of the photon energy spectrum is interpreted as a signature of the exotic dibaryon resonance d 1 * with a mass of about 1956 MeV which is assumed to be formed in the radiative process pp → γd 1 * followed by its electromagnetic decay via the d 1 * → ppγ mode. The experimental spectrum is compared with those obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations
Spectral perturbations from silicon diode detector encapsulation and shielding in photon fields.
Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders
2010-11-01
Silicon diodes are widely used as detectors for relative dose measurements in radiotherapy. The common manufacturing practice is to encapsulate the diodes in plastic for protection and to facilitate mounting in scanning devices. Diodes intended for use in photon fields commonly also have a shield of a high atomic number material (usually tungsten) integrated into the encapsulation to selectively absorb low-energy photons to which silicon diodes would otherwise over-response. However, new response models based on cavity theories and spectra calculations have been proposed for direct correction of the readout from unshielded (e.g., "electron") diodes used in photon fields. This raises the question whether it is correct to assume that the spectrum in a water phantom at the location of the detector cavity is not perturbed by the detector encapsulation materials. The aim of this work is to investigate the spectral effects of typical encapsulations, including shielding, used for clinical diodes. The effects of detector encapsulation of an unshielded and a shielded commercial diode on the spectra at the detector cavity location are studied through Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE-2005. Variance reduction based on correlated sampling is applied to reduce the CPU time needed for the simulations. The use of correlated sampling is found to be efficient and to not introduce any significant bias to the results. Compared to reference spectra calculated in water, the encapsulation for an unshielded diode is demonstrated to not perturb the spectrum, while a tungsten shielded diode caused not only the desired decrease in low-energy scattered photons but also a large increase of the primary electron fluence. Measurements with a shielded diode in a 6 MV photon beam proved that the shielding does not completely remove the field-size dependence of the detector response caused by the over-response from low-energy photons. Response factors of a properly corrected unshielded diode
Photons and photoneutrons spectra of a Linac of 15 MV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benites R, J. L.; Carrillo C, A.; Vega C, H. R.; Velazquez F, J. B.
2011-10-01
Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Muschik, Christine A.; Giedke, Geza
2010-01-01
We propose and analyze a multifunctional setup consisting of high-finesse optical cavities, beam splitters, and phase shifters. The basic scheme projects arbitrary photonic two-mode input states onto the subspace spanned by the product of Fock states |n>|n> with n=0,1,2,.... This protocol does no...... is especially attractive as a generalization to many modes allows for distribution and purification of entanglement in networks. In an alternative working mode, the setup allows for quantum nondemolition number resolved photodetection in the optical domain....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolanoski, H.
1983-03-01
Recent results on two-photon physics from the Tasso experiment are presented: the measurement of the two-photon production of Kanti K with the determination of the #betta##betta#-width of the f'(1515), an analysis of the angular correlations in the reaction #betta##betta#->rho 0 rho 0 ->π + π - π + π - and the observation of a narrow structure in the four pion mass spectrum around 2.1 GeV. In a separate part the experimental results on the total cross section for hadron production by two photons are reviewed. (orig.)
Photon management in solar cells
Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas
2015-01-01
Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...
Photon and neutral pion production in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_{NN}) = 130 GeV
Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Ganti, M S; Gutíerrez, T D; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D P; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Sen-Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konstantinov, A S; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Leontiev, V M; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, V; Moura; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A M; Vasilev, A N; Vasilev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N
2004-01-01
We report the first inclusive photon measurements about mid-rapidity (|y| photon photon decay channel. The fractional contribution of the pi0 -> photon photon decay to the inclusive photon spectrum decreases by 20% +/- 5% between pt = 1.65 GeV/c and pt = 2.4 GeV/c in the most central events, indicating that relative to pi0 -> photon photon decay the contribution of other photon sources is substantially increasing.
Designing of Metallic Photonic Structures and Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong-Sung Kim
2006-01-01
In this thesis our main interest has been to investigate metallic photonic crystal and its applications. We explained how to solve a periodic photonic structure with transfer matrix method and when and how to use modal expansion method. Two different coating methods were introduced, modifying a photonic structure's intrinsic optical properties and rigorous calculation results are presented. Two applications of metallic photonic structures are introduced. For thermal emitter, we showed how to design and find optimal structure. For conversion efficiency increasing filter, we calculated its efficiency and the way to design it. We presented the relation between emitting light spectrum and absorption and showed the material and structural dependency of the absorption spectrum. By choosing a proper base material and structural parameters, we can design a selective emitter at a certain region we are interested in. We have developed a theoretical model to analyze a blackbody filament enclosed by a metallic mesh which can increase the efficiency of converting a blackbody radiation to visible light. With this model we found that a square lattice metallic mesh enclosing a filament might increase the efficiency of incandescent lighting sources. Filling fraction and thickness dependency were examined and presented. Combining these two parameters is essential to achieve the maximum output result
Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueta, T
2010-01-01
Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.
Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver
Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji
2016-01-01
An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.
Optimization of a photon rejecter to separate electronic noise in a photon-counting detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Hyo-Min; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seung-Wan; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung
2012-01-01
Photon-counting-based X-ray imaging technology provides the capability to count individual photons and to characterize photon energies. The cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based photon-counting detector is limited in capability, however, under a high X-ray flux. A photon rejecter composed of aluminum, for example, can reduce this limitation by modulating the incident number of photons. In addition to this function, the optimal photon rejecter can separate electronic noise, which degrades image quality. The aim of this work was to optimize a photon rejecter for high-quality image acquisition by removing electronic noise from the actual pulse signal. The images and spectra were acquired using a micro-focus X-ray source with a CdTe-based photon-counting detector. We acquired data with various types of photon-rejecter materials composed of aluminum (Al) and iodine at three different tube voltages (50, 70, and 90 kVp). A phantom composed of high-atomic-number materials was imaged to evaluate the efficiency of the photon rejecter. Photon rejecters composed of 1-mm Al, 10-mm Al, and a combination of 10-mm Al and iodine provided optimum capability at 50, 70, and 90 kVp, respectively. Each optimal combination of photon-rejecter material and voltage effectively separated electronic noise from the actual pulse signal and gave the highest contrast-to-noise ratio for materials on the image. These optimized types of photon rejecters can effectively discriminate electronic noise and improve image quality at different tube voltages.
Searches for dark photons at the Mainz Microtron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merkel, H.; Achenbach, P.; Gayoso, C. Ayerbe; Beranek, T.; Bernauer, J. C.; Böhm, R.; Correa, L.; Denig, A.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Gómez, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Mihovilovič, M.; Middleton, D. G.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Rohrbeck, M.; Majos, S. Sánchez [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); and others
2013-11-07
The A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) operates high resolution spectrometers at very high luminosities for fixed target electron scattering experiments. The setup is well suited for the search for dark photons in the mass range between 50 MeV and 300 MeV. In these experiments, a possible dark photon would appear as a sharp peak in the mass spectrum of di-lepton electro-production. In this presentation the potential of the setup is presented and the possibilities for future experiments for dark photon searches at MAMI are discussed.
A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter
Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José
2017-02-01
Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.
Gamma ray spectrum from gravitino dark matter decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibarra, A.; Tran, D.
2007-09-15
Gravitinos are very promising candidates for the cold dark matter of the Universe. Interestingly, to achieve a sufficiently long gravitino lifetime, R-parity conservation is not required, thus preventing any dangerous cosmological influence of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. When R-parity is violated, gravitinos decay into photons and other particles with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, producing a diffuse gamma ray flux with a characteristic spectrum that could be measured in future experiments, like GLAST, AMS-02 or Cherenkov telescopes. In this letter we compute the energy spectrum of photons from gravitino decay and discuss its main qualitative features. (orig.)
Broadband high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy with laser frequency combs
Hipke, Arthur; Meek, Samuel A.; Ideguchi, Takuro; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie
2013-01-01
Two-photon excitation spectroscopy with broad spectral span is demonstrated at Doppler-limited resolution. We describe first Fourier transform two-photon spectroscopy of an atomic sample with two mode-locked laser oscillators in a dual-comb technique. Each transition is uniquely identified by the modulation imparted by the interfering comb excitations. The temporal modulation of the spontaneous two-photon fluorescence is monitored with a single photodetector, and the spectrum is revealed by a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2011-01-01
The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 x 40 matrix with bin mesh (E 1/2 ) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of ∼2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using 'MATLAB') are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.
Measurement of the pulse night spectrum Cerenkov flashes in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlemmer, G.
1981-03-01
The determination of the energy spectrum of Cosmic Rays is difficult because of the low particle density at high energies. Normally such observations would require detectors with large collecting areas and long measurement periods. However the difficulty can be overcome by measuring shower induced Cerenkov radiation, the photon density of which is proportional to the shower energy. The Cerenkov radiation measurements reported here were made using two photomultipliers connected to a coincidence counter unit. The shower energy was deduced from measurements of the height of the pulses observed at the multiplier output,which should be proportional to the number of Cerenkov photons arriving at the photocathode. In order to make meaningful statements about the shower energy the statistical response of the photomultiplier system had to be standardized. This calibration was carried out by illuminating the photomultiplier cathode with a pulsed LED of pulsewidth 5 ns. For different light intensities of the LED a pulse-height spectrum was taken at the multiplier output. In addition to the Cerenkov photons counted by the photomultipliers, there exists a strong constant background light intensity. This background can be eliminated by employing a coincidence amplifier with a resolution time of 10 ns. To reduce background induced accidental coincidences the apparatus was equipped with a variable trigger level. To test the apparatus the Cerenkov radiation induced by cosmic rays in a water basin and in the photomultiplier window itself was measured and compared to theoretical estimates. The agreement was good. The pulse height spectrum of atmospheric Cerenkov radiation was obtained at the Cosmic Ray Physics Laboratory at the Hafelekar Observatory near Innsbruck. The measurements obtained there allowed the exponnent $delta in the differential energy spectrum N(E) dE c.Esup(-$delta)dE of the primary Cosmic Radiation to be evaluated. The value of $delta in the energy range 2,5 x 10 14
Zhou, Xue; Li, Mingzhu; Wang, Kang; Li, Huizeng; Li, Yanan; Li, Chang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yongsheng; Song, Yanlin
2018-03-25
Stimulated emission in perovskite-embedded polymer opal structures is investigated. A polymer opal structure is filled with a perovskite, and perovskite photonic crystals are prepared. The spontaneous emission of the perovskite embedded in the polymer opal structures exhibits clear signatures of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) via gain modulation. The difference in refractive-index contrast between the perovskite and the polymer opal is large enough for retaining photonic-crystals properties. The photonic band gap has a strong effect on the fluorescence emission intensity and lifetime. The stimulated emission spectrum exhibits a narrow ASE rather than a wide fluorescence peak in the thin film. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C
2007-01-01
Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters
Range detection using entangled optical photons
Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco
2015-05-01
Quantum radar is an emerging field that shows a lot of promise in providing significantly improved resolution compared to its classical radar counterpart. The key to this kind of resolution lies in the correlations created from the entanglement of the photons being used. Currently, the technology available only supports quantum radar implementation and validation in the optical regime, as opposed to the microwave regime, because microwave photons have very low energy compared to optical photons. Furthermore, there currently do not exist practical single photon detectors and generators in the microwave spectrum. Viable applications in the optical regime include deep sea target detection and high resolution detection in space. In this paper, we propose a conceptual architecture of a quantum radar which uses entangled optical photons based on Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) methods. After the entangled photons are created and emerge from the crystal, the idler photon is detected very shortly thereafter. At the same time, the signal photon is sent out towards the target and upon its reflection will impinge on the detector of the radar. From these two measurements, correlation data processing is done to obtain the distance of the target away from the radar. Various simulations are then shown to display the resolution that is possible.
A small number of abnormal brain connections predicts adult autism spectrum disorder.
Yahata, Noriaki; Morimoto, Jun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Lisi, Giuseppe; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Miho; Yamada, Takashi; Megumi, Fukuda; Imamizu, Hiroshi; Náñez, José E; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kato, Nobumasa; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo
2016-04-14
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious lifelong condition, its underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Recently, neuroimaging-based classifiers for ASD and typically developed (TD) individuals were developed to identify the abnormality of functional connections (FCs). Due to over-fitting and interferential effects of varying measurement conditions and demographic distributions, no classifiers have been strictly validated for independent cohorts. Here we overcome these difficulties by developing a novel machine-learning algorithm that identifies a small number of FCs that separates ASD versus TD. The classifier achieves high accuracy for a Japanese discovery cohort and demonstrates a remarkable degree of generalization for two independent validation cohorts in the USA and Japan. The developed ASD classifier does not distinguish individuals with major depressive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder from their controls but moderately distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from their controls. The results leave open the viable possibility of exploring neuroimaging-based dimensions quantifying the multiple-disorder spectrum.
Squeezing via two-photon transitions
Savage, C. M.; Walls, D. F.
1986-05-01
The squeezing spectrum for a cavity field mode interacting with an ensemble of three-level 'Lambda-configuration' atoms by an effective two-photon transition is calculated. The advantage of the three-level Lambda system as a squeezing medium, that is, optical nonlinearity without atomic saturation, has recently been pointed out by Reid, Walls, and Dalton. Perfect squeezing is predicted at the turning points for dispersive optical bistability and good squeezing for a range of other cases. Three-level ladder atoms interacting by an effective two-photon transition are also shown to give perfect squeezing in the dispersive limit.
Actively doped solid core Photonic Bandgap Fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Broeng, Jes; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian
2010-01-01
Solid photonic bandgap fibers offer distributed spectral filtering with extraordinary high suppression. This opens new possibilities of artificially tailoring the gain spectrum of fibers. We present record-performance of such fibers and outline their future applications....
Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector
Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung
2017-08-01
We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.
Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan
2016-04-21
Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.
Two-photon direct frequency comb spectroscopy of alkali atoms
Palm, Christopher; Pradhananga, Trinity; Nguyen, Khoa; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Kimball, Derek
2012-11-01
We have studied transition frequencies and excited state hyperfine structure in rubidium using 2-photon transitions excited directly with the frequency-doubled output of a erbium fiber optical frequency comb. The frequency comb output is directed in two counterpropagating directions through a vapor cell containing the rubidium vapor. A pair of optical filters is used to select teeth of the comb in order to identify the transition wavelengths. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) measures fluorescence from a decay channel wavelength selected with another optical filter. Using different combinations of filters enables a wide range of transitions to be investigated. By scanning the repetition rate, a Doppler-free spectrum can be obtained enabling kHz-resolution spectral measurements. An interesting dependence of the 2-photon spectrum on the energy of the intermediate state of the 2-photon transition is discussed. Our investigations are laying the groundwork for a long-term research program to use direct frequency comb spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms.
MCNP: Photon benchmark problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.
1991-09-01
The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs
Study the multi-photon absorption process in two types of molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-azawi, H.R.
1986-01-01
The aim of the present work was to study the multi-photon absorption process in two types of molecules; spherical top such as SF 6 molecules and assymetric top such as CHOOH and C 2 H 4 molecules. This work also aimed to study the effect of buffer gas pressure (Ar), which is transparent to the infrared (IR) laser on the multiphoton absorption of both types of molecules. A pulsed (TEA) CO 2 laser was used as a source which generates multi-lines in the IR-region of the spectrum and an optoacoustic detector was used to detect the energy absorbed by the molecules. In this study, the relaxation process was found to be faster in the heavy molecules than that in the light ones. A limit in the Ar pressure was observed. Below this limit, the gas acted as an active buffer gas and above it, the multi-photon absorption process was quenched. This work also aimed to study the multi-photon absorption spectrum for the CHOOH molecules in the range (1067-1090 cm -1 ). This spectrum was found to be consistent with the linear absorption spectrum obtained for the same range. The density of the vibrational states as a function of the vibrational energy was studied for the molecules SF 6 , CHOOH and C 2 H 4 . The results were used to interpret (i) the difference in the energy absorbed by difference molecules at the same energy density and (ii) the non-linearity in the multi-photon absorption for CHOOH molecules. 1 tab.; 40 figs.; 70 refs
Photon counting and fluctuation of molecular movement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inohara, Koichi
1978-01-01
The direct measurement of the fluctuation of molecular motions, which provides with useful information on the molecular movement, was conducted by introducing photon counting method. The utilization of photon counting makes it possible to treat the molecular system consisting of a small number of molecules like a radioisotope in the detection of a small number of atoms, which are significant in biological systems. This method is based on counting the number of photons of the definite polarization emitted in a definite time interval from the fluorescent molecules excited by pulsed light, which are bound to the marked large molecules found in a definite spatial region. Using the probability of finding a number of molecules oriented in a definite direction in the definite spatial region, the probability of counting a number of photons in a definite time interval can be calculated. Thus the measurable count rate of photons can be related with the fluctuation of molecular movement. The measurement was carried out under the condition, in which the probability of the simultaneous arrival of more than two photons at a detector is less than 1/100. As the experimental results, the resolving power of photon-counting apparatus, the frequency distribution of the number of photons of some definite polarization counted for 1 nanosecond are shown. In the solution, the variance of the number of molecules of 500 on the average is 1200, which was estimated from the experimental data by assuming normal distribution. This departure from the Poisson distribution means that a certain correlation does exist in molecular movement. In solid solution, no significant deviation was observed. The correlation existing in molecular movement can be expressed in terms of the fluctuation of the number of molecules. (Nakai, Y.)
Study of energetic dependence of LiF TLDs for photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Paiva, Fabio; Branco, Isabela S.; Sena, Michelle K.S.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Helio
2015-01-01
The LiF TLDs are widely used for photon dosimetry. However, in the most case the energetic dependence of these TLDs are not taken into account. This work is a preliminary study of energetic photon dependence in LiF TLD (TLD 700, enriched with 7 Li). For this study it was utilized a methodology already used in others works that seek understand the dependence energetic of TLD. It was utilized three different X-ray spectrum and a 137 Cs source; Beyond the calculus utilized in previous works, it was built the calibration curve for each spectrum to see the difference in dosimetry that the energetic dependence could cause. (author)
Study of energetic dependence of LiF TLDs for photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Paiva, Fabio; Branco, Isabela S.; Sena, Michelle K.S.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: tcavalieri@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The LiF TLDs are widely used for photon dosimetry. However, in the most case the energetic dependence of these TLDs are not taken into account. This work is a preliminary study of energetic photon dependence in LiF TLD (TLD 700, enriched with {sup 7}Li). For this study it was utilized a methodology already used in others works that seek understand the dependence energetic of TLD. It was utilized three different X-ray spectrum and a {sup 137}Cs source; Beyond the calculus utilized in previous works, it was built the calibration curve for each spectrum to see the difference in dosimetry that the energetic dependence could cause. (author)
Topology optimized nanoparticles for near-infrared enhanced photon upconversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Julsgaard, Brian
This work is a part of the SunTune project which addresses efficiency improvements of solar modules by manipulating the spectrum of sunlight to better match the range of efficient current generation in silicon solar cells. Photons with energies below the band gap energy of silicon (...)converted into photons with higher energies through absorption in rare earth ions (Er3+) followed by radiative decay.This process converts otherwise non-absorbed long wavelength photos to shorter wavelength photons able to bridge the band gap energy and contribute to the energy generation of the solar modules...
Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.
2018-01-01
We discuss the evolution of the ratio in number of recombinations due to 2 s two photon escape and due to the escape of Lyman- α photons from the resonance during the epoch of cosmological recombination, within the width of the last scattering surface and near its boundaries. We discuss how this ratio evolves in time, and how it defines the profile of the Lyman- α line in the spectrum of CMB. One of the key reasons for explaining its time dependence is the strong overpopulation of the 2 p level relative to the 2 s level at redshifts z ≲ 750.
Ma, Shen; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Zhang, Wen; Peng, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Yu-Min
2016-01-11
We propose a new scheme based on quantum dot-bimodal cavity coupling system to realize all-optical switch and logic gates in low-photon-number regime. Suppression of mode transmission due to the destructive interference effect is theoretically demonstrated by driving the cavity with two orthogonally polarized pulsed lasers at certain pulse delay. The transmitted mode can be selected by designing laser pulse sequence. The optical switch with high on-off ratio emerges when considering one driving laser as the control. Moreover, the AND/OR logic gates based on photon polarization are achieved by cascading the coupling system. Both proposed optical switch and logic gates work well in ultra-low energy magnitude. Our work may enable various applications of all-optical computing and quantum information processing.
Photon Differentials in Space and Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny
2011-01-01
We present a novel photon mapping algorithm for animations. We extend our previous work on photon differentials [12] with time differentials. The result is a first order model of photon cones in space an time that effectively reduces the number of required photons per frame as well as efficiently...... reduces temporal aliasing without any need for in-between-frame photon maps....
Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina
2015-01-01
We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...
Two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
McLaren, M
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider geometrical two-photon optics of Bessel-Gaussian modes generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion of a Gaussian pump beam. We provide a general theoretical expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) spectrum...
Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern
2011-01-01
Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.
Photon statistics in an N-level (N-1)-mode system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozierowski, M.; Shumovskij, A.S.
1987-01-01
The characteristic and photon number distribution functions, the statistical moments of photon numbers and the correlations of modes are studied. The normally ordered variances of the photon numbers and the cross-correlation functions are calculated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, Y.Y.; Chang, Y.-R.; Lee, H.-Y.; Chang, H.-C.; Lim, T.-S.; Fann Wunshain
2009-01-01
The number of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (N-V) - in fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) has been determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and Monte Carlo simulations at the single particle level. By taking account of the random dipole orientation of the multiple (N-V) - fluorophores and simulating the probability distribution of their effective numbers (N e ), we found that the actual number (N a ) of the fluorophores is in linear correlation with N e , with correction factors of 1.8 and 1.2 in measurements using linearly and circularly polarized lights, respectively. We determined N a =8±1 for 28 nm FND particles prepared by 3 MeV proton irradiation
Overlapping levels described by identical quantum numbers in the spectrum of helium-like uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorshkov, V.; Karasiov, V.; Labzowsky, L.; Nefiodov, A.; Sultanaev, A.
1992-01-01
The dynamics of the decay of overlapping levels with identical quantum numbers and the formation of the spectral line contour are studied by the method of summation of diagrams for the S-matrix in the Furry picture. The result suggests that the shape of the contour differs significantly from the usual superposition of Breit-Wigner contours. The case of two adjacent levels 2s 2 and 2p 2 , with identical exact quantum numbers is considered in the spectrum of helium-like uranium under coherent excitation conditions of the initial state. (Author). 16 refs, 1 fig
Triplet-triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications.
Gray, Victor; Dzebo, Damir; Abrahamsson, Maria; Albinsson, Bo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper
2014-06-14
Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryzhanovskii, Boris V; Sokolov, G B
2000-01-01
The quasi-energy wave functions of a two-level atom in an electromagnetic field, the state of which represents a superposition of coherent states, were found. The fluorescence spectrum of an atom excited by such a field was investigated. It was shown that a spectral fluorescence mode corresponds to each mode of the quantum-statistical distribution of the field incident on the atom. This means that the number of statistical modes of the incident field may be recorded as the number of data bits of the information carried by the light pulse. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Resonant Photonic States in Coupled Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabarinathan J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Yanqiang; Yang Rongcan; Li Gang; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai
2011-01-01
By employing multiple conventional single-photon counting modules (SPCMs), which are binary-response detectors, instead of photon number resolving detectors, the nonclassicality criteria are investigated for various quantum states. The bounds of the criteria are derived from a system based on three or four SPCMs. The overall efficiency and background are both taken into account. The results of experiments with thermal and coherent light agree with the theoretical analysis. Compared with photon number resolving detectors, the use of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss-like scheme with multiple SPCMs is even better for revealing the nonclassicality of the fields, and the efficiency requirements are not so stringent. Some proposals are presented which can improve the detection performance with binary-response SPCMs for different quantum states.
Spectrally-Selective Photonic Structures for PV Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benedikt Bläsi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We review several examples of how spectrally-selective photonic structures may be used to improve solar cell systems. Firstly, we introduce different spectrally-selective structures that are based on interference effects. Examples shown include Rugate filter, edge filter and 3D photonic crystals such as artificial opals. In the second part, we discuss several examples of photovoltaic (PV concepts that utilize spectral selectivity such as fluorescence collectors, upconversion systems, spectrum splitting concepts and the intermediate reflector concept. The potential of spectrally selective filters in the context of solar cells is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredenberg, Erik; Danielsson, Mats; Stayman, J. Webster; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Aslund, Magnus [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Smidesvaegen 5, SE-171 41 Solna, Sweden and Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Smidesvaegen 5, SE-171 41 Solna (Sweden)
2012-09-15
Purpose: To provide a cascaded-systems framework based on the noise-power spectrum (NPS), modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) for quantitative evaluation of differential phase-contrast imaging (Talbot interferometry) in relation to conventional absorption contrast under equal-dose, equal-geometry, and, to some extent, equal-photon-economy constraints. The focus is a geometry for photon-counting mammography. Methods: Phase-contrast imaging is a promising technology that may emerge as an alternative or adjunct to conventional absorption contrast. In particular, phase contrast may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio compared to absorption contrast because the difference in phase shift between soft-tissue structures is often substantially larger than the absorption difference. We have developed a comprehensive cascaded-systems framework to investigate Talbot interferometry, which is a technique for differential phase-contrast imaging. Analytical expressions for the MTF and NPS were derived to calculate the NEQ and a task-specific ideal-observer detectability index under assumptions of linearity and shift invariance. Talbot interferometry was compared to absorption contrast at equal dose, and using either a plane wave or a spherical wave in a conceivable mammography geometry. The impact of source size and spectrum bandwidth was included in the framework, and the trade-off with photon economy was investigated in some detail. Wave-propagation simulations were used to verify the analytical expressions and to generate example images. Results: Talbot interferometry inherently detects the differential of the phase, which led to a maximum in NEQ at high spatial frequencies, whereas the absorption-contrast NEQ decreased monotonically with frequency. Further, phase contrast detects differences in density rather than atomic number, and the optimal imaging energy was found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than for absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredenberg, Erik; Danielsson, Mats; Stayman, J. Webster; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Åslund, Magnus
2012-01-01
Purpose: To provide a cascaded-systems framework based on the noise-power spectrum (NPS), modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) for quantitative evaluation of differential phase-contrast imaging (Talbot interferometry) in relation to conventional absorption contrast under equal-dose, equal-geometry, and, to some extent, equal-photon-economy constraints. The focus is a geometry for photon-counting mammography. Methods: Phase-contrast imaging is a promising technology that may emerge as an alternative or adjunct to conventional absorption contrast. In particular, phase contrast may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio compared to absorption contrast because the difference in phase shift between soft-tissue structures is often substantially larger than the absorption difference. We have developed a comprehensive cascaded-systems framework to investigate Talbot interferometry, which is a technique for differential phase-contrast imaging. Analytical expressions for the MTF and NPS were derived to calculate the NEQ and a task-specific ideal-observer detectability index under assumptions of linearity and shift invariance. Talbot interferometry was compared to absorption contrast at equal dose, and using either a plane wave or a spherical wave in a conceivable mammography geometry. The impact of source size and spectrum bandwidth was included in the framework, and the trade-off with photon economy was investigated in some detail. Wave-propagation simulations were used to verify the analytical expressions and to generate example images. Results: Talbot interferometry inherently detects the differential of the phase, which led to a maximum in NEQ at high spatial frequencies, whereas the absorption-contrast NEQ decreased monotonically with frequency. Further, phase contrast detects differences in density rather than atomic number, and the optimal imaging energy was found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than for absorption
Physics with Photons at the ATLAS experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Reale, V.
2008-01-01
The identification of photons in the ATLAS experiment is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. The photon-photon and photon-jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at the new energy range of the LHC. The photon-identification strategy in ATLAS will be presented along with photon-jet cross section measurements and the potential ATLAS constrains on the gluon structure function
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-03-01
Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.
Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.
Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav
2015-01-12
International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.
Two-zone model for the broadband Crab nebula spectrum: microscopic interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fraschetti F.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a simple two-zone interpretation of the broadband baseline Crab nebula spectrum between 10−5 eV and ~ 100 TeV by using two distinct log-parabola energetic electrons distributions. We determine analytically the very-high energy photon spectrum as originated by inverse-Compton scattering of the far-infrared soft ambient photons within the nebula off a first population of electrons energized at the nebula termination shock. The broad and flat 200 GeV peak jointly observed by Fermi/LAT and MAGIC is naturally reproduced. The synchrotron radiation from a second energetic electron population explains the spectrum from the radio range up to ~ 10 keV. We infer from observations the energy dependence of the microscopic probability of remaining in proximity of the shock of the accelerating electrons.
Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)
2013-01-15
Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical
The High Energy X-ray Spectrum of 4U1700-37 Observed from OSO-8
Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Maurer, G. S.; Orwig, L. E.
1979-01-01
The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius is identified as 4U1700-37. The 3.4-day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photon-number spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photo-number spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 96.8-min X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.
Chameleon-photon mixing in a primordial magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schelpe, Camilla A. O.
2010-01-01
The existence of a sizable, O(10 -10 -10 -9 G), cosmological magnetic field in the early Universe has been postulated as a necessary step in certain formation scenarios for the large-scale O(μG) magnetic fields found in galaxies and galaxy clusters. If this field exists then it may induce significant mixing between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) in the early Universe. The resonant conversion of photons into ALPs in a primordial magnetic field has been studied elsewhere by Mirizzi, Redondo and Sigl (2009). Here we consider the nonresonant mixing between photons and scalar ALPs with masses much less than the plasma frequency along the path, with specific reference to the chameleon scalar field model. The mixing would alter the intensity and polarization state of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We find that the average modification to the CMB polarization modes is negligible. However the average modification to the CMB intensity spectrum is more significant and we compare this to high-precision measurements of the CMB monopole made by the far infrared absolute spectrophotometer on board the COBE satellite. The resulting 95% confidence limit on the scalar-photon conversion probability in the primordial field (at 100 GHz) is P γ↔φ -2 . This corresponds to a degenerate constraint on the photon-scalar coupling strength, g eff , and the magnitude of the primordial magnetic field. Taking the upper bound on the strength of the primordial magnetic field derived from the CMB power spectra, B λ ≤5.0x10 -9 G, this would imply an upper bound on the photon-scalar coupling strength in the range g eff -13 GeV -1 to g eff -14 GeV -1 , depending on the power spectrum of the primordial magnetic field.
Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khadzhi, P. I.; Vasiliev, V. V.
2013-01-01
Optical nutation in the exciton range of spectrum is studied in the mean field approximation taking into account exciton-photon and elastic exciton-exciton interactions. It is shown that the features of nutation development are determined by the initial exciton and photon densities, the resonance detuning, the nonlinearity parameter, and the initial phase difference. For nonzero initial exciton and photon concentrations, three regimes of temporal evolution of excitons and photons exist: periodic conversion of excitons to photons and vice versa, aperiodic conversion of photons to excitons, and the rest regime. In the rest regime, the initial exciton and photon densities are nonzero and do not change with time. The oscillation amplitudes and periods of particle densities determined by the system parameters are found. The exciton self-trapping and photon trapping appearing in the system at threshold values of the nonlinearity parameter were predicted. As this parameter increases, the oscillation amplitudes of the exciton and photon densities sharply change at the critical value of the nonlinearity parameter. These two phenomena are shown to be caused by the elastic exciton-exciton interaction, resulting in the dynamic concentration shift of the exciton level
Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.
2013-01-01
to a collection efficiency of only 1-2 %, and efficient light extraction thus poses a major challenge in SPS engineering. Initial efforts to improve the efficiency have exploited cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) to efficiently couple the emitted photons to the optical cavity mode. An alternative approach......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light...
Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.
Effects of X-rays spectrum on the dose; Efectos del espectro de rayos X sobre la dosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez I, J. L.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T., E-mail: johann_greenday@hotmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)
2015-10-15
The X-ray equipment for diagnosis comes in different sizes and shapes depending on the scan type to perform. The X-ray spectrum is the energy distribution of the beam photons and consists of a continuous spectrum of photons braking and discrete spectrum due to the characteristic photons. The knowledge of the X-rays spectrum is important to understand like they affect the voltage changes (k Vp), current (m A), time (s) and the type of filter in the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and patient's body, the image receptor or other material that gets in the beam. Across the spectrum can be estimated the absorbed dose in any point of the patient, the quality of the image and the scattered radiation (which is related to the dose received by the equipment operator). The Monte Carlo method was used by MCNP5 code to calculate the spectrum of X-rays that occurs when a monoenergetic electron beam of 250 keV interact with targets of Mo, Rh and W. The spectra were calculated with and without filter, and the values of ambient dose equivalent were estimated, as well as the air kerma. (Author)
Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena
Tsai, Yu-Lin
2016-09-06
Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kierdaszuk, Borys
2013-03-01
We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (λmax 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) θ to cos(2) θ photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra.
Supernova brightening from chameleon-photon mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrage, C.
2008-01-01
Measurements of standard candles and measurements of standard rulers give an inconsistent picture of the history of the universe. This discrepancy can be explained if photon number is not conserved as computations of the luminosity distance must be modified. I show that photon number is not conserved when photons mix with chameleons in the presence of a magnetic field. The strong magnetic fields in a supernova mean that the probability of a photon converting into a chameleon in the interior of the supernova is high, this results in a large flux of chameleons at the surface of the supernova. Chameleons and photons also mix as a result of the intergalactic magnetic field. These two effects combined cause the image of the supernova to be brightened resulting in a model which fits both observations of standard candles and observations of standard rulers
Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the Early Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter
2009-05-01
The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB -13 GeV -1 nG for ALP masses below the eV scale. (orig.)
Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit
Zarifi, Atiyeh; Stiller, Birgit; Merklein, Moritz; Li, Neuton; Vu, Khu; Choi, Duk-Yong; Ma, Pan; Madden, Stephen J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2018-03-01
The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.
Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atiyeh Zarifi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.
Huyan, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Voytas, P.; Chandavar, S.; Hughes, M.; Minamisono, K.; Paulauskas, S. V.
2018-01-01
The yield of photons produced by electrons slowing down in CsI and NaI was studied with four electromagnetic physics constructors included in the Geant4 toolkit. The subsequent absorption of photons in detector geometries used for measurements of the β spectrum shape was also studied with a focus on the determination of the absorption fraction. For electrons with energies in the range 0.5-4 MeV, the relative photon yields determined with the four Geant4 constructors differ at the level of 10-2 in amplitude and the relative absorption fractions differ at the level of 10-4 in amplitude. The differences among constructors enabled the estimation of the sensitivity to Geant4 simulations for the measurement of the β energy spectrum shape in 6He decay using a calorimetric technique with ions implanted in the active volume of detectors. The size of the effect associated with photons escaping the detectors was quantified in terms of a slope which, on average, is respectively - 5 . 4 %/MeV and - 4 . 8 %/MeV for the CsI and NaI geometries. The corresponding relative uncertainties as determined from the spread of results obtained with the four Geant4 constructors are 0.0067 and 0.0058.
Cernansky, Robert; Martini, Francesco; Politi, Alberto
2018-02-01
We demonstrate on chip generation of correlated pairs of photons in the near-visible spectrum using a CMOS compatible PECVD Silicon Nitride photonic device. Photons are generated via spontaneous four wave mixing enhanced by a ring resonator with high quality Q-factor of 320,000 resulting in a generation rate of 950,000 $\\frac{pairs}{mW}$. The high brightness of this source offers the opportunity to expand photonic quantum technologies over a broad wavelength range and provides a path to develop fully integrated quantum chips working at room temperature.
Soltani, Osswa; Zaghdoudi, Jihene; Kanzari, Mounir
2018-06-01
By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method (TMM), we investigate theoretically the transmittance properties of a defective hybrid dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal that contains a superconducting material as a defect layer. The considered hybrid photonic structure is: H(LH) 7(HLSLH) P H(LH) 7 , where H is the high refractive index dielectric, L is the low refractive index dielectric, S is the superconducting material and P is the repetitive number. The results show that the variation of the number and the positions of the transmissions modes depend strongly on the repetitive number P, the temperature T and the thickness of the layer S. An improvement of the spectral response is obtained with the exponential gradation of layer thicknesses dj =d0 + βejα , where d0 is the initial thickness of the layer j, α and β are two particular constants for each material. In addition, the effect of the incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations on the transmittance spectrum is discussed. As a result, we propose a tunable narrow stop-band polychromatic filter that covers the visible wavelength.
Yamada, Takumi; Aharen, Tomoko; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2018-02-01
The determination of the band gap and exciton energies of lead halide perovskites is very important from the viewpoint of fundamental physics and photonic device applications. By using photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, we reveal the optical properties of CH3NH3PbCl3 single crystals in the near-band-edge energy regime. The one-photon PLE spectrum exhibits the 1 s exciton peak at 3.11 eV. On the contrary, the two-photon PLE spectrum exhibits no peak structure. This indicates photon recycling of excitonic luminescence. By analyzing the spatial distribution of the excitons and photon recycling, we obtain 3.15 eV for the band gap energy and 41 meV for the exciton binding energy.
Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper
2012-01-01
Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....
First experimental observation of double-photon Compton scattering using single gamma detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandhu, B.S.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.
2003-01-01
Full text: The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using single gamma detector, a technique avoiding the use of complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher order process. Here doubly differentiated collision cross-section integrated over direction of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, has been measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process
Two-photon polarization Fourier spectroscopy of metastable atomic hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, A.J.; Beyer, H.-J.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Sheikh, Z.A,; B-Z Univ., Multan
1997-01-01
A novel Fourier-transform spectroscopic method using two-photon polarization to determine the spectral distribution of the two photons emitted in the spontaneous decay of metastable atomic hydrogen is described. The method uses birefringent retardation plates and takes advantage of the subtle interplay between the spectral properties and the entangled polarization properties of the radiation emitted in the decay. Assuming the validity of the theoretical spectral distribution, it is shown that the experimental results agree well with theory. On the other hand, success in solving the inverse problem of determining the spectral distribution from the experimental results is limited by the small number of experimental points. However, making reasonable assumptions it is deduced that the observed spectrum is characterized by a broadband signal of width (0.43 ± 0.06) x 10 16 rad s -1 and centre angular frequency (0.77 ± 0.03) x 10 16 rad s -1 in good agreement with the predictions of 0.489 x 10 16 rad s -1 and 0.775 x 10 16 rad s -1 , respectively, obtained from the theoretical spectral distribution modified to take account of the absorption of the two-photon radiation in air. The values of 1.5 fs for the coherence time and 440 nm for the coherence length for single photons of the two-photon pair which are obtained from the measured bandwidth imply that, in the ideal case, these values are determined by the essentially zero lifetime of the virtual intermediate state of the decay process rather than the long lifetime of the metastable state which, it is suggested, determines the coherence time and coherence length appropriate to certain types of fourth-order interference experiments. (Author)
Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum
Bochdansky, A.B.; Clouse, M.A.; Herndl, G.
2016-01-01
Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000?m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500?m
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Shiqi [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Yang, Xiangbo, E-mail: 20001038@m.scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Chengyi Timon [School of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2014-03-01
Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Shiqi; Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Chengyi Timon
2014-01-01
Designing dielectric systems to create omnidirectional band gaps (OBGs) is an attractive topic in the field of photonic band gap (PBG) structures. In this Letter, we propose a new approach to create OBGs by ternary photonic heterostructures (TPHs) composed of three kinds of materials with different refractive indices and obtain the formulae of the structures of TPHs, i.e., those of the thicknesses of materials and the number of sub-ternary photonic crystals. It may provide a powerful technique for designing the structures being able to produce OBGs by use of usual materials, lowcost materials, and materials with low refractive indices, etc.
Dose calculation methods in photon beam therapy using energy deposition kernels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahnesjoe, A.
1991-01-01
The problem of calculating accurate dose distributions in treatment planning of megavoltage photon radiation therapy has been studied. New dose calculation algorithms using energy deposition kernels have been developed. The kernels describe the transfer of energy by secondary particles from a primary photon interaction site to its surroundings. Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport have been used for derivation of kernels for primary photon energies form 0.1 MeV to 50 MeV. The trade off between accuracy and calculational speed has been addressed by the development of two algorithms; one point oriented with low computional overhead for interactive use and one for fast and accurate calculation of dose distributions in a 3-dimensional lattice. The latter algorithm models secondary particle transport in heterogeneous tissue by scaling energy deposition kernels with the electron density of the tissue. The accuracy of the methods has been tested using full Monte Carlo simulations for different geometries, and found to be superior to conventional algorithms based on scaling of broad beam dose distributions. Methods have also been developed for characterization of clinical photon beams in entities appropriate for kernel based calculation models. By approximating the spectrum as laterally invariant, an effective spectrum and dose distribution for contaminating charge particles are derived form depth dose distributions measured in water, using analytical constraints. The spectrum is used to calculate kernels by superposition of monoenergetic kernels. The lateral energy fluence distribution is determined by deconvolving measured lateral dose distributions by a corresponding pencil beam kernel. Dose distributions for contaminating photons are described using two different methods, one for estimation of the dose outside of the collimated beam, and the other for calibration of output factors derived from kernel based dose calculations. (au)
Observation of higher-order diffraction features in self-assembled photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, Rajesh V.; Vijaya, R.
2007-01-01
The optical response of high quality three dimensionally (3D) ordered photonic crystals is analyzed in the high energy region. By tuning the reflectance with the angle of incidence of light, the peaks in the reflection spectrum that correspond to the first, second, and third order photonic stop bands and the van Hove singular point in the photon density of states are clearly distinguished. The high energy features have been observed for photonic crystals made from colloids of different diameters, having different index contrast and fabricated by two different self-assembly routes. The observation of van Hove singularity at near-normal incidence of light and its presence even in low index-contrast photonic crystals provide conclusive evidence that these high energy features are due to the perfect periodic ordering present in the photonic crystals with less defects and disorder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Audit, G; Botton, N de; Le Poittevin, G; Schuhl, C; Tamas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
A computer program has been used to calculate the spectrum of photons obtained from positron annihilation in flight; the calculation takes account of multiple scattering and energy loss of positrons in the annihilation target. Results are presented in the energy range 150-450 MeV which is the one of Saclay Linear Accelerator. As a check, results of the calculation are compared with measurements carried out at the Saclay Linac of 45 MeV. (author) [French] Nous avons ecrit un programme permettant de calculer le spectre des photons obtenus par annihilation en vol de positons; le calcul tient compte de la diffusion multiple et de la perte d'energie des positons dans la cible d'annihilation. Nous donnons une serie de resultats dans la zone d'energie de 150 a 450 MeV qui correspond aux possibilites de l'Accelerateur Lineaire de Saclay. Les resultats du calcul sont confrontes a des mesures effectuees a l'Accelerateur Lineaire de 45 MeV de Saclay. (auteur)
Petrenko, A.; Ofek, N.; Vlastakis, B.; Sun, L.; Leghtas, Z.; Heeres, R.; Sliwa, K. M.; Mirrahimi, M.; Jiang, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.
2015-03-01
Realizing a working quantum computer requires overcoming the many challenges that come with coupling large numbers of qubits to perform logical operations. These include improving coherence times, achieving high gate fidelities, and correcting for the inevitable errors that will occur throughout the duration of an algorithm. While impressive progress has been made in all of these areas, the difficulty of combining these ingredients to demonstrate an error-protected logical qubit, comprised of many physical qubits, still remains formidable. With its large Hilbert space, superior coherence properties, and single dominant error channel (single photon loss), a superconducting 3D resonator acting as a resource for a quantum memory offers a hardware-efficient alternative to multi-qubit codes [Leghtas et.al. PRL 2013]. Here we build upon recent work on cat-state encoding [Vlastakis et.al. Science 2013] and photon-parity jumps [Sun et.al. 2014] by exploring the effects of sequential measurements on a cavity state. Employing a transmon qubit dispersively coupled to two superconducting resonators in a cQED architecture, we explore further the application of parity measurements to characterizing such a hybrid qubit/cat state architecture. In so doing, we demonstrate the promise of integrating cat states as central constituents of future quantum codes.
Microscopic theory of photon-correlation spectroscopy in strong-coupling semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneebeli, Lukas
2009-11-27
While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atomic systems inspire physicists to demonstrate similar quantum-optical effects also in the semiconductor systems. In contrast to quantum optics with dilute atomic gases, the semiconductors exhibit a complicated many-body problem which is dominated by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and holes and by coupling with the semiconductor environment. This makes the experimental observation of similar quantum-optical effects in semiconductors demanding. However, there are already experiments which have verified nonclassical effects in semiconductors. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can exhibit the single-photon emission and generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. In fact, both atom and QD systems, embedded within a microcavity, have become versatile platforms where one can perform systematic quantum-optics investigations as well as development work toward quantum-information applications. Another interesting field is the strong-coupling regime in which the light-matter coupling exceeds both the decoherence rate of the atom or QD and the cavity resulting in a reversible dynamics between light and matter excitations. In the strong-coupling regime, the Jaynes-Cummings ladder is predicted and shows a photon-number dependent splitting of the new dressed strong-coupling states which are the polariton states of the coupled light-matter system. Although the semiclassical effect of the vacuum Rabi splitting has already been observed in QDs, the verification of the quantum-mechanical Jaynes-Cummings splitting is still missing mainly due to the dephasing. Clearly, the observation of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder in QDs
Broadband Doppler-limited two-photon and stepwise excitation spectroscopy with laser frequency combs
Hipke, Arthur; Meek, Samuel A.; Ideguchi, Takuro; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie
2014-07-01
Multiplex two-photon excitation spectroscopy is demonstrated at Doppler-limited resolution. We describe first Fourier-transform two-photon spectroscopy of an atomic sample with two mode-locked laser oscillators in a dual-comb technique. Each transition is uniquely identified by the modulation imparted by the interfering comb excitations. The temporal modulation of the spontaneous two-photon fluorescence is monitored with a single photodetector, and the spectrum of all excited transitions is revealed by a Fourier transform.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tannenbaum, M.J.
1980-01-01
In the range of electron energies available at Fermilab, 100 GeV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 500 GeV, coherent Bremsstrahlung in crystals, particularly diamond, gives a huge enhancement to the equivalent photon spectrum at large values of x where x = k/E. The photons in this enhancement are polarized. Requirements on electron beam energy spread, angular divergence and spot size imposed by the use of a diamond as a radiator are discussed. The physics program emphasizes hard processes and tests of QCD using polarization
A study of the effective atomic number of SixPb0.7-x(Fe2O30.3 ternary alloys for photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Buyukyildiz Mehmet
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The effective atomic number (Zeff of SixPb0.7-x(Fe2O30.3 ternary alloys was obtained for photons. Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C has been determined to obtain the Zeff of SixPb0.7-x(Fe2O30.3 ternary alloys of varying Si and Pb (10 %-60 % content for scattering of 59.54 keV g-rays at an angle of 130°. The theoretical R/C ratios of elements were plotted as a function of the atomic number and fitted to a polynomial equation. Experimental R/C values of alloys were then used to obtain Zeff using this fit equation. Also, Zeff values of these alloys were determined for the first time by interpolating the R/C of the material using the R/C data of adjacent elements in between the R/C of the alloy lies. The agreement between the interpolation method and the fit equation was quite satisfactory. The obtained Zeff for photon scattering were then compared to the Zeff for total photon attenuation obtained using the Auto-Zeff program. Significant variations were observed between the Zeff for scattering and the total attenuation of gamma rays.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zijing; Song Jie; Zhao Yuan; Wu Long
2017-01-01
Single-photon detectors possess the ultra-high sensitivity, but they cannot directly respond to signal intensity. Conventional methods adopt sampling gates with fixed width and count the triggered number of sampling gates, which is capable of obtaining photon counting probability to estimate the echo signal intensity. In this paper, we not only count the number of triggered sampling gates, but also record the triggered time position of photon counting pulses. The photon counting probability density distribution is obtained through the statistics of a series of the triggered time positions. Then Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimation (MVUE) method is used to estimate the echo signal intensity. Compared with conventional methods, this method can improve the estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity due to the acquisition of more detected information. Finally, a proof-of-principle laboratory system is established. The estimation accuracy of echo signal intensity is discussed and a high accuracy intensity image is acquired under low-light level environments. (paper)
Naboka, V. Yu.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.; Zinovjev, G. M.
2018-05-01
The photon transverse momentum spectrum and its anisotropy from Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider energy √{sN N}=2.76 TeV are investigated within the integrated hydrokinetic model (iHKM). Photon production is accumulated from the different processes at the various stages of relativistic heavy ion collisions: from the primary hard photons of very early stage of parton collisions to the thermal photons from equilibrated quark-gluon and hadron gas stages. Along the way a hadronic medium evolution is treated in two distinct, in a sense opposite, approaches: chemically equilibrated and chemically frozen system expansion. Studying the centrality dependence of the results obtained allows us to conclude that a relatively strong transverse momentum anisotropy of thermal radiation is suppressed by prompt photon emission which is an isotropic. We find out that this effect is getting stronger as centrality increases because of the simultaneous increase in the relative contribution of prompt photons in the soft part of the spectra. The substantial results obtained in iHKM with nonzero viscosity (η /s =0.08 ) for photon spectra and v2 coefficients are mostly within the error bars of experimental data, but there is some systematic underestimation of both observables for the near central events. We claim that a situation could be significantly improved if an additional photon radiation that accompanies the presence of a deconfined environment is included. Since a matter of a space-time layer where hadronization takes place is actively involved in anisotropic transverse flow, both positive contributions to the spectra and v2 are considerable, albeit such an argument needs further research and elaboration.
Numerical radiation dosimetry using Monte Carlo photon transport at diagnostic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioppolo, J.; Buckley, C.; Tuchyna, T.; Price, R.
2000-01-01
Full text: The Electron Gamma Shower 4 (EGS4) code has been installed on a WinNT workstation to allow the simulation of the dose absorbed in a patient during routine radiological examinations. Several additions to the code were required to form a theoretically sound model for use in the prediction of dose in the diagnostic energy range. Experimental measurements of dose using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) were directly compared with EGS4 simulations. A Philips diagnostic X-ray machine with a field size of 17x17cm was used to irradiate a homogeneous perspex slab 30x30x12cm. TLDs were placed at evenly spaced points symmetrically about the central beam perpendicular to the cathode-anode axis at a number of depths. A diagnostic energy X-ray spectrum was measured from a comparable X-ray machine with similar beam quality and provided as input for the EGS4 code. Diverging point source geometry of the output beam, plus a realistic 3D model of the homogeneous perspex block, were also used in the EGS4 code. The LSCAT low energy photon scattering expansion by Namito et al (KEK internal report 95-10, 1995) was used to incorporate the binding effect that orbital electrons have on incoherent photons with energies less than 100 keV. EGS4 simulations were performed with sufficient numbers of photon histories to produce statistical uncertainties < 5% in the distribution of dose. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chikkur, G.C.; Lagare, M.T.; Umakantha, N.
1981-01-01
Details of how a DK-2A spectrophotometer can be modified into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer for recording a low intensity spectrum, are reported. The single-photon count-rate converted into a DC voltage is applied at the appropriate stage in the sample channel amplifier circuit of a DK-2A to get the pen deflection proportional to the count-rate. A high intensity spectrum may be recorded in the usual way by merely turning the shaft of the mirror motor by 180 degrees. (author)
Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates
Chen, Yu; Li, Huan; Li, Mo
2012-09-01
Flexible microelectronics has shown tremendous promise in a broad spectrum of applications, especially those that cannot be addressed by conventional microelectronics in rigid materials and constructions. These unconventional yet important applications range from flexible consumer electronics to conformal sensor arrays and biomedical devices. A recent paradigm shift in implementing flexible electronics is to physically transfer highly integrated devices made in high-quality, crystalline semiconductors on to plastic substrates. Here we demonstrate a flexible form of silicon photonics using the transfer-and-bond fabrication method. Photonic circuits including interferometers and resonators have been transferred onto flexible plastic substrates with preserved functionalities and performance. By mechanically deforming, the optical characteristics of the devices can be tuned reversibly over a remarkably large range. The demonstration of the new flexible photonic systems based on the silicon-on-plastic (SOP) platform could open the door to many future applications, including tunable photonics, optomechanical sensors and biomechanical and bio-photonic probes.
One-dimensional photonic crystal design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mee, Cornelis van der; Contu, Pietro; Pintus, Paolo
2010-01-01
In this article we present a method to determine the band spectrum, band gaps, and discrete energy levels, of a one-dimensional photonic crystal with localized impurities. For one-dimensional crystals with piecewise constant refractive indices we develop an algorithm to recover the refractive index distribution from the period map. Finally, we derive the relationship between the period map and the scattering matrix containing the information on the localized modes.
Tutorial on X-ray photon counting detector characterization.
Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong
2018-01-01
Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism. Currently available methods and techniques for charactering major aspects including energy response, noise floor, energy resolution, count rate performance (detector efficiency), and charge sharing effect of photon counting detectors are comprehensively reviewed. Other characterization aspects such as point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF), contrast transfer function (CTF), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), bias voltage, radiation damage, and polarization effect are also remarked. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) pixelated photon counting detector is employed for part of the characterization demonstration and the results are presented. This review can serve as a tutorial for X-ray imaging researchers and investigators to understand, operate, characterize, and optimize photon counting detectors for a variety of applications.
Piccirillo, Bruno; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico
2015-10-19
The standard method for experimentally determining the probability distribution of an observable in quantum mechanics is the measurement of the observable spectrum. However, for infinite-dimensional degrees of freedom, this approach would require ideally infinite or, more realistically, a very large number of measurements. Here we consider an alternative method which can yield the mean and variance of an observable of an infinite-dimensional system by measuring only a two-dimensional pointer weakly coupled with the system. In our demonstrative implementation, we determine both the mean and the variance of the orbital angular momentum of a light beam without acquiring the entire spectrum, but measuring the Stokes parameters of the optical polarization (acting as pointer), after the beam has suffered a suitable spin-orbit weak interaction. This example can provide a paradigm for a new class of useful weak quantum measurements.
Constraining resonant photon-axion conversions in the Early Universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Inst.), Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2009-05-15
The presence of a primordial magnetic field would have induced resonant conversions between photons and axion-like particles (ALPs) during the thermal history of the Universe. These conversions would have distorted the blackbody spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this context, we derive bounds on the photon-ALP resonant conversions using the high precision CMB spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. We obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant g times the magnetic field strength B down to gB
Scattering of thermal photons by a 46 GeV positron beam at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini-Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.
1991-01-01
The scattering of thermal photons present in the vacuum pipe of LEP against the high energy positron beam has been detected. The spectrum of the back-scattered photons is presented for a positron beam energy of 46.1 GeV. Measurements have been performed in the interaction region 1 with the LEP-5 experiment calorimeter. (orig.)
Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2018-04-01
The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.
Calculation of HPGe Detector Response for NRF Photons Scattered from Threat Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, B. G.; Choi, H. D.
2009-01-01
Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) is a process of resonant nuclear absorption of photons, followed by deexcitation with emission of fluorescence photons. The cross section of NRF photons process is given by σ i max ≡ 2π(λ/2π) 2 2J+1/2J 0 +1 Γ 0 Γ i /Γ tot 2 , where λ is the wavelength of the photon, J 0 and J are the nuclear spins of the ground state and excited state, respectively, Γ 0 , Γ i and Γ tot are decay width for deexcitation to the ground state, to the i-th mode state and total decay width, respectively. NRF based security inspection technique uses the signatures of resonance energies of the fluorescence photon scattered from nuclides of the illicit materials in cargo container. NRF can be used to identify the material type, quantity and location. It is performed by measuring the fluorescence photon and the transmitted photon spectrum while irradiating Bremsstrahlung photon beam to the sample
Light Higgs production at a photon collider
Söldner-Rembold, S
2001-01-01
We present a preliminary study of the production of a light Higgs boson with a mass between 120 and 160 GeV in photon-photon collisions at a Compton collider. The event generator for the backgrounds to a Higgs signal due to b-barb and c-barc heavy quark pair production in polarized gamma gamma collisions is based on a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculation. For J sub z =0 the large double-logarithmic corrections up to four loops are also included. It is shown that the two-photon width of the Higgs boson can be measured with high statistical accuracy of about 2-10% for integrated gamma gamma luminosity in the hard part of the spectrum of 43 fb sup - sup 1. From this result the total Higgs boson width can be derived in a model independent way.
Davy, Nicholas C.; Sezen-Edmonds, Melda; Gao, Jia; Lin, Xin; Liu, Amy; Yao, Nan; Kahn, Antoine; Loo, Yueh-Lin
2017-08-01
Current smart window technologies offer dynamic control of the optical transmission of the visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum to reduce lighting, heating and cooling needs in buildings and to improve occupant comfort. Solar cells harvesting near-ultraviolet photons could satisfy the unmet need of powering such smart windows over the same spatial footprint without competing for visible or infrared photons, and without the same aesthetic and design constraints. Here, we report organic single-junction solar cells that selectively harvest near-ultraviolet photons, produce open-circuit voltages eclipsing 1.6 V and exhibit scalability in power generation, with active layers (10 cm2) substantially larger than those typical of demonstration organic solar cells (0.04-0.2 cm2). Integration of these solar cells with a low-cost, polymer-based electrochromic window enables intelligent management of the solar spectrum, with near-ultraviolet photons powering the regulation of visible and near-infrared photons for natural lighting and heating purposes.
Redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R H; Hughes, J P
1987-01-01
X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 +- 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 +- 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 +- 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 +- 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature.
Thermalization of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a `white wall' photon box
Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2010-07-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered-corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalized two-dimensional photon gas with a freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye-filled optical microresonator, acting as a `white wall' box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon-number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors provide both an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example of the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.
Schneebeli, L.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.
2008-08-01
It is shown that spectrally resolved photon-statistics measurements of the resonance fluorescence from realistic semiconductor quantum-dot systems allow for high contrast identification of the two-photon strong-coupling states. Using a microscopic theory, the second-rung resonance of Jaynes-Cummings ladder is analyzed and optimum excitation conditions are determined. The computed photon-statistics spectrum displays gigantic, experimentally robust resonances at the energetic positions of the second-rung emission.
A peak in the ηω mass spectrum from diffractive photoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, M.; Flower, P.; Hutton, J.S.; Kumar, B.R.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Sharp, P.H.; Barberis, D.; Davenport, M.; Lasalle, J.P.; Patrick, G.N.; Storr, K.M.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Clegg, A.B.; Flynn, P.J.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Ibbotson, M.; Newton, B.; Brookes, G.R.; Bunn, J.J.; Galbraith, W.; McClatchey, R.H.; Bussey, P.J.; Dainton, J.B.; Paterson, C.; Raine, C.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Diekmann, B.; Heinloth, K.; Jakob, H.P.; Jung, M.; Liebenau, V.; Paul, E.; Reidenbach, M.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schloesser, A.
1987-01-01
The ηω mass spectrum resulting from diffractive photoproduction, by photons of 25-50 GeV, shows a peak at a mass of 1.61±0.04 GeV and width of 0.23±0.08 GeV. Comparison with the corresponding ηρ 0 mass spectrum suggests that a resonance interpretation is favoured. (orig.)
Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.
2012-01-01
An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.
Single photon detection in the SQS mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, M.A.; Fraga, M.M.; Lima, E.P. de; Marques, R.F.; Neves, F.; Policarpo, A.
1997-01-01
Results are presented concerning the detection of single UV photons in self quenching streamer detectors by photoionization of one of the gas mixture components, in this case TEA (tri ethyl-amine), whose molecules have low photoionization potential and large absorption cross section. As a UV light source, a gas scintillation counter filled with krypton was used, whose emission light spectrum, centered at approximately 150 nm, overlaps well the photoionization spectrum of TEA. The mixtures studied were argon/ethane/TEA, argon/isobutane/TEA, argon/ethane/methylal/TEA and argon/isobutane/methylal/ TEA. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs
Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre
Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish
2007-01-01
Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...
Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics
2017-04-14
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0032 Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics Kuang-Hsiung Wu National Chiao Tung University Final Report 04/14/2017...DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Apr 2013 to 17 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-13-1-4022 “Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics” Date May 23th, 2016
Path entanglement of photons by non-local bunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenberg, H.; Hodelin, J.; Khoury, G.; Bouwmeester, D.
2005-01-01
Full Text:Path entangled photon states can be used to overcome classical limits on the accuracy of interferometric measurements such as the diffraction limit. These states are superpositions of finding n photons in one out of two (or more) paths. Using stimulated parametric down-conversion, we propose and demonstrate a method for generating heralded multiphoton path entanglement, without applying post-selection. parametric down-conversion is relatively easy to produce compared to pure Fock states as demanded by other proposals. By a special coincidence detection at one down converted arm, the photons of the second arm non-locally bunch into the desired state. Entanglement in photon number is created between two polarization modes rather than two paths. A polarization beam-splitter and a 2 wave plate can translate between the two representations. The experimental generation of a two-photon path entangled state was detected by observing interference at half the photon wavelength. The scheme is generally extendable to higher photon numbers
Vassiliev, Oleg N.; Kry, Stephen F.; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe
2018-03-01
This study concerns calculation of the average electronic stopping power for photon and electron sources. It addresses two problems that have not yet been fully resolved. The first is defining the electron spectrum used for averaging in a way that is most suitable for radiobiological modeling. We define it as the spectrum of electrons entering the sensitive to radiation volume (SV) within the cell nucleus, at the moment they enter the SV. For this spectrum we derive a formula that combines linearly the fluence spectrum and the source spectrum. The latter is the distribution of initial energies of electrons produced by a source. Previous studies used either the fluence or source spectra, but not both, thereby neglecting a part of the complete spectrum. Our derived formula reduces to these two prior methods in the case of high and low energy sources, respectively. The second problem is extending electron spectra to low energies. Previous studies used an energy cut-off on the order of 1 keV. However, as we show, even for high energy sources, such as 60Co, electrons with energies below 1 keV contribute about 30% to the dose. In this study all the spectra were calculated with Geant4-DNA code and a cut-off energy of only 11 eV. We present formulas for calculating frequency- and dose-average stopping powers, numerical results for several important electron and photon sources, and tables with all the data needed to use our formulas for arbitrary electron and photon sources producing electrons with initial energies up to ∼1 MeV.
Nonclassicality of Photon-Added Displaced Thermal State via Quantum Phase-Space Distributions
Zhang, Ran; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Du, Chuan-Xun; Wang, Ji-Suo
2018-02-01
We introduce a new kind of nonclassical mixed state generated by adding arbitrary photons to a displaced thermal state, i.e., the photon-added displaced thermal state (PADTS), and obtain the normalization factor, which is simply related to two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also discuss the nonclassicality of the PADTS by considering quantum phase-space distributions. The results indicate that the value of the photon count statistics is maximum when the number of detected photons is equal to the number of added photons, and that the photon-added operation has a similar modulation effect with increasing displacement. Moreover, the negative volume of the Wigner function for the PADTS takes a maximal value for a specific photon-added number.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di-Lun Yang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Tailoring Nd3+ emission spectrum by a neodymium-doped tellurite all-solid photonic bandgap fiber
Tong, Hoang Tuan; Demichi, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake
2018-02-01
A tellurite all-solid photonic bandgap fiber (ASPBF) whose cladding consists of 60 high-index rods arranged periodically around a central core was successfully fabricated. The diameter of high-index rod was about 5.0 μm and the distance between the center of two adjacent high-index rods was approximately 8.0 μm. The high-index rod was made of the TeO2-Li2O-WO3-MoO3-Nb2O5 (TLWMN) glass, the cladding was made of the TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-La2O3 (TZNL) glass as the background glass material and the central core was made of TZNL glass doped with 0.5 wt% of Nd2O3. A supercontinuum light from 0.6 to 2.4 μm was coupled into the core of fiber which is 2.2 cm long to measure its transmission spectrum. High transmission bands were obtained in the vicinity of 0.75 and 1.3 μm but the transmission was suppressed in the wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.06 μm. When a titanium∶Sapphire laser source at 0.75 μm was used, the emission spectrum was obtained with two peaks at 1.06 and 1.33 μm which are attributed to the 4F3/2->4I11/2 and 4F3/2->4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ion, respectively. The intensities of those emission peaks were compared with those obtained from a bulk glass having the same doping concentration of Nd3+. The results showed that by using tellurite ASPBF, the intensity of the 1.06-μm emission was suppressed by one-twelfth but the intensity of the 1.33-μm emission was maintained. This feature is very advantageous to filter out the 1.06-μm emission of Nd3+ ion in order to realize practical amplifier devices at 1.3 μm.
Site-controlled quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rigal, B.; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Jarlov, C.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate selective optical coupling of multiple, site controlled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to photonic crystal waveguide structures. The impact of the exact position and emission spectrum of the QDs on the coupling efficiency is elucidated. The influence of optical disorder and end-r...
Correction Method of Wiener Spectrum (WS) on Digital Medical Imaging Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, You Hyun
2009-01-01
Noise evaluation for an image has been performed by root mean square (RMS) granularity, autocorrelation function (ACF), and Wiener spectrum. RMS granularity stands for standard deviation of photon data and ACF is acquired by integration of 1 D function of distance variation. Fourier transform of ACF results in noise power spectrum which is called Wiener spectrum in image quality evaluation. Wiener spectrum represents noise itself. In addition, along with MTF, it is an important factor to produce detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The proposed evaluation method using Wiener spectrum is expected to contribute to educate the concept of Wiener spectrum in educational organizations, choose the appropriate imaging detectors for clinical applications, and maintain image quality in digital imaging systems.
Raffaelli, Francesco; Ferranti, Giacomo; Mahler, Dylan H.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Santamato, Alberto; Sinclair, Gary; Bonneau, Damien; Thompson, Mark G.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2018-04-01
Optical homodyne detection has found use as a characterisation tool in a range of quantum technologies. So far implementations have been limited to bulk optics. Here we present the optical integration of a homodyne detector onto a silicon photonics chip. The resulting device operates at high speed, up 150 MHz, it is compact and it operates with low noise, quantified with 11 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise. We perform on-chip quantum tomography of coherent states with the detector and show that it meets the requirements for characterising more general quantum states of light. We also show that the detector is able to produce quantum random numbers at a rate of 1.2 Gbps, by measuring the vacuum state of the electromagnetic field and applying off-line post processing. The produced random numbers pass all the statistical tests provided by the NIST test suite.
Das, Manoj; Shirasaki, A; Nayak, K P; Morinaga, M; Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K
2010-08-02
We show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of few atoms can be measured by using an optical nanofiber combined with the optical heterodyne and photon correlation spectroscopy. The observed fluorescence spectrum of the atoms near the nanofiber shows negligible effects of the atom-surface interaction and agrees well with the Mollow triplet spectrum of free-space atoms at high excitation intensity.
Study on sensing property of one-dimensional ring mirror-defect photonic crystal
Chen, Ying; Luo, Pei; Cao, Huiying; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Qiguang
2018-02-01
Based on the photon localization and the photonic bandgap characteristics of photonic crystals (PCs), one-dimensional (1D) ring mirror-defect photonic crystal structure is proposed. Due to the introduction of mirror structure, a defect cavity is formed in the center of the photonic crystal, and then the resonant transmission peak can be obtained in the bandgap of transmission spectrum. The transfer matrix method is used to establish the relationship model between the resonant transmission peak and the structure parameters of the photonic crystals. Using the rectangular air gate photonic crystal structure, the dynamic monitoring of the detected gas sample parameters can be achieved from the shift of the resonant transmission peak. The simulation results show that the Q-value can attain to 1739.48 and the sensitivity can attain to 1642 nm ṡ RIU-1, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the sensing structure. The structure can provide certain theoretical reference for air pollution monitoring and gas component analysis.
Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Yan
2014-07-01
We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xue-Xiang; Wang Yan; Yuan Hong-Chun
2014-01-01
We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.
2007-01-01
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy-absorption (Z PEAeff ) of essential amino acids histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine have been calculated by a direct method in the energy region of 1 keV to 20 MeV. The Z PEAeff values have been found to change with energy and composition of the amino acids. The variations of mass energy-absorption coefficient, effective atomic number for photon interaction (Z PIeff ) and Z PEAeff with energy are shown graphically. Significant differences exist between Z PIeff and the Z PEAeff in the energy region of 8-100 keV for histidine and threonine; 6-100 keV for leucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and valine; 15-400 keV for methionine. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and the possibility of defining two set values of these parameters at the K-absorption edge of high-Z element present in the amino acids are discussed. The reasons for using Z PEAeff rather than the commonly used Z PIeff in medical radiation dosimetry for the calculation of absorbed dose in radiation therapy are also discussed
A redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R.H.; Hughes, J.P.
1987-01-01
X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 ± 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 ± 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 ± 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 ± 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature. (author)
Three-photon laser spectroscopy of even-parity bound states of samarium atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomonaj, O.Yi.; Kudelich, O.Yi.
2002-01-01
The energy spectrum of highly-excited even-parity bound states of a Sm atom, lying in the energy range 34421.1 - 36031.8 cm -1 , is investigated using three-photon resonance-ionization spectroscopy. The energies and total momenta of 48 levels are determined. Eight new levels not observed before are discovered. Thirteen intense two-photon transitions, which can be used in the schemes of Sm atom effective photoionization, are observed
Optimization of Tapered Photonic Crystal Fibers for Blue-Enhanced Supercontinuum Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper
2012-01-01
Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the dispersive wavelength edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation....
Near-field photon wave mechanics in the Lorenz gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Ole
2007-01-01
Optical near-field interactions are studied theoretically in the perspective of photon wave mechanics paying particular attention to the dynamics in the wave-vector time domain. A unitary transformation is used to replace the scalar and longitudinal photon variables by so-called near-field and gauge photon variables. Dynamical equations are established for these types of photon variables, and it is shown that these equations are invariant against gauge transformations within the Lorenz gauge. The near-field photon is absent in the free-field limit, and the gauge photon can be eliminated by a suitable gauge transformation. Implicit solutions for the near-field, gauge, and transverse photon variables are obtained and discussed. The general theory is applied to an investigation of transverse photon propagation in a uniform solid-state plasma dominated by the diamagnetic field-matter interaction. It is found that the diamagnetic response can be incorporated in a quantum mechanical wave equation for a massive transverse photon. The Compton wave number of the massive photon equals the plasma wave number of the electron system. A dynamical equation describing the emission of a massive transverse photon from a mesoscopic source embedded in the plasma is finally established
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tokas, R.B.; Sarkar, P. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misal, J.S.; Maidul Haque, S.; Rao, K.D. [Photonics & Nanotechnology Section, BARC-Vizag, Autonagar, Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre facility, Visakhapatnam 530 012 (India); Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N.K. [Atomic & Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2016-01-29
One dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer has been fabricated by sequential asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of TiO{sub 2} and radio frequency magnetron sputtering of SiO{sub 2} to achieve wide omnidirectional photonic band in the visible region. The microstructure and optical response of the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} photonic crystal have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry respectively. The surface of the photonic crystal is very smooth having surface roughness of 2.6 nm. Reflection and transmission spectra have been measured in the wavelength range 300 to 1000 nm for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves. Wide high reflection photonic band gap (∆ λ = 245 nm) in the visible and near infrared regions (592–837 nm) at normal incidence has been achieved. The measured photonic band gap (PBG) is found well matching with the calculated photonic band gap of an infinite 1DPC. The experimentally observed omnidirectional photonic band 592–668 nm (∆ λ = 76 nm) in the visible region with band to mid-band ratio ∆ λ/λ = 12% for reflectivity R > 99% over the incident angle range of 0°–70° is found almost matching with the calculated omnidirectional PBG. The omnidirectional reflection band is found much wider as compared to the values reported in literature so far in the visible region for TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} periodic photonic crystal. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} 1DPC has been fabricated using magnetron sputtering technique. • Experimental optical response is found good agreement with simulation results. • Wide omnidirectional photonic band in the visible spectrum has been achieved.
Photon Differential Splatting for Rendering Caustics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Schjøth, Lars; Erleben, Kenny
2014-01-01
We present a photon splatting technique which reduces noise and blur in the rendering of caustics. Blurring of illumination edges is an inherent problem in photon splatting, as each photon is unaware of its neighbours when being splatted. This means that the splat size is usually based...... on heuristics rather than knowledge of the local flux density. We use photon differentials to determine the size and shape of the splats such that we achieve adaptive anisotropic flux density estimation in photon splatting. As compared to previous work that uses photon differentials, we present the first method...... where no photons or beams or differentials need to be stored in a map. We also present improvements in the theory of photon differentials, which give more accurate results and a faster implementation. Our technique has good potential for GPU acceleration, and we limit the number of parameters requiring...
Gys, Thierry
1999-01-01
Current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes have stimulated increased interest from a variety of fields such as astronomy, biomedical imaging and high- energy physics. These devices are sensitive to single photons over a photon energy spectrum defined by the transmission of the optical entrance window and the photo-cathode type. Their spatial resolution ranges from a few millimeters for pad hybrid photon detectors and multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes down to a few tens of microns for pixel hybrid photon detectors and electron-bombarded charge-coupled devices. Basic technological and design aspects are assessed in this paper. (21 refs).
Photon Propagation through Linearly Active Dimers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Delfino Huerta Morales
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We provide an analytic propagator for non-Hermitian dimers showing linear gain or losses in the quantum regime. In particular, we focus on experimentally feasible realizations of the PT -symmetric dimer and provide their mean photon number and second order two-point correlation. We study the propagation of vacuum, single photon spatially-separable, and two-photon spatially-entangled states. We show that each configuration produces a particular signature that might signal their possible uses as photon switches, semi-classical intensity-tunable sources, or spatially entangled sources to mention a few possible applications.
Particle acceleration and production of energetic photons in SN1987A
Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, Todor; Harding, Alice
1987-01-01
A pulsar wind model for the acceleration of particles in SN1987A is discussed. The expected photon flux is investigated in terms of the spectrum of parent protons and electrons, the nature of the region in which they propagate after acceleration, and the magnetic field and radiation environment which determines the subsequent fate of produced photons. The model is found to produce observable signals if the spin period of the pulsar is 10 ms or less.
Enhancement of intermediate-field two-photon absorption by rationally shaped femtosecond pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid; Gandman, Andrey; Amitay, Zohar
2008-01-01
We extend the powerful frequency-domain analysis of femtosecond two-photon absorption to the intermediate-field regime of considerable absorption yields, where additionally to the weak-field nonresonant two-photon transitions also four-photon transitions play a role. Consequently, we rationally find that the absorption is enhanced over the transform-limited pulse by any shaped pulse having a spectral phase that is antisymmetric around one-half of the transition frequency and a spectrum that is asymmetric around it (red or blue detuned according to the system). The enhancement increases as the field strength increases. The theoretical results for Na are verified experimentally
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.
Determination of energy distribution for photon and neutron microdosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todo, A.S.
1989-01-01
This work was undertaken to provide basic physical data for use in both microdosimetry and dosimetry of high energy photons and also in the neutron radiation field. It is described the formalism to determine the initial electron energy spectra in water irradiated by photons with energies up to 1 GeV. Calculations were performed with a Monte Carlo computer code, PHOEL-3, which is also described. The code treats explicitly the production of electron-positron pairs, Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption, and the emission of Auger electrons following the occurrence of K-shell vacancies in oxygen. The tables give directly the information needed to specify the absolute single-collision kerma in water, which approximates tissue, at each photon energy. Results for continuous photon energy spectra can be obtained by using linear interpolation with the tables. The conditions under which first-collision kerma approximate absorbed dose are discussed. A formula is given for estimating bremsstrahlung energy loss, one of the principal differences between kerma and absorbed dose in practical case. A study has been carried out, on the use of cylindrical, energy-proportional pulse-height detector for determining microdosimetric quantities, as neutron fractional dose spectra, D (L), in function of linear energy transfer, TLE. In the present study the Hurst detector was used and this device satisfies the requirement of the Bragg-Gray principle. It is developed a Monte Carlo Method to obtain the D(L) spectrum from a measured pulse-height spectrum H(h), and the knowledge of the distribution of recoil-particle track lenght, P(T) in the sensitive volume of the detector. These developed programs to find P(T) and D(L) are presented. The distribution of D(L) in LET were obtained using a known distribution of P(T) and the measured H(h) spectrum from sup(252)Cf neutron source. All the results are discussed and the conclusions are presented. (author)
Tuning Ag29 nanocluster light emission from red to blue with one and two-photon excitation.
Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Franck; Hamouda, Ramzi; Rayane, Driss; Dugourd, Philippe; Sanader, Željka; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Brevet, Pierre-François; Antoine, Rodolphe
2016-02-07
We demonstrate that the tuning of the light emission from red to blue in dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped Ag29 nanoclusters can be trigged with one and two photon excitations. The cluster stoichiometry was determined with mass spectrometry and found to be Ag29(DHLA)12. In a detailed optical investigation, we show that these silver nanoclusters exhibit a strong red photoluminescence visible to the naked eye and characterized by a quantum yield of nearly ∼2% upon one-photon excitation. In the nonlinear optical (NLO) study of the properties of the clusters, the two-photon excited fluorescence spectra were recorded and their first hyperpolarizability obtained. The two-photon absorption cross-section at ∼800 nm for Ag29(DHLA)12 is higher than 10(4) GM and the hyperpolarizability is 106 × 10(-30) esu at the same excitation wavelength. The two-photon excited fluorescence spectrum appears strongly blue-shifted as compared to the one-photon excited spectrum, displaying a broad band between 400 and 700 nm. The density functional theory (DFT) provides insight into the structural and electronic properties of Ag29(DHLA)12 as well as into interplay between metallic subunit or core and ligands which is responsible for unique optical properties.
Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot.
Patel, Raj B; Bennett, Anthony J; Cooper, Ken; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2010-07-09
Quantum interference lies at the foundation of many protocols for scalable quantum computing and communication with linear optics. To observe these effects the light source must emit photons that are indistinguishable. From a technological standpoint, it would be beneficial to have electrical control over the emission. Here we report of an electrically driven single-photon source emitting indistinguishable photons. The device consists of a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Indistinguishability of consecutive photons is tested in a two-photon interference experiment under two modes of operation, continuous and pulsed current injection. We also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum which we compare to both our continuous wave and pulsed experiments. In the former case, a visibility was measured limited only by the timing resolution of our detection system. In the case of pulsed injection, we employ a two-pulse voltage sequence which suppresses multi-photon emission and allows us to carry out temporal filtering of photons which have undergone dephasing. The characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel 'dip' is measured, resulting in a visibility of 64 +/- 4%.
Study on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat Varieties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yitao Liang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The photon emission signal in visible range (380 nm–630 nm was measured from various wheat kernels by means of a low noise photomultiplier system. To study the features of the photon emission signal, the spectrum estimation method of the photon emission signal is described for the first time. The biophoton emission signal, belonging to four varieties of wheat, is analyzed in time domain and frequency domain. It shows that the intensity of the biophoton emission signal for four varieties of wheat kernels is relatively weak and has dramatic changes over time. Mean and mean square value are obviously different in four varieties; the range was, respectively, 3.7837 and 74.8819. The difference of variance is not significant. The range is 1.1764. The results of power spectrum estimation deduced that the biophoton emission signal is a low frequency signal, and its power spectrum is mostly distributed in the frequency less than 0.1 Hz. Then three parameters, which are spectral edge frequency, spectral gravity frequency, and power spectral entropy, are adopted to explain the features of the kernels’ spontaneous biophoton emission signal. It shows that the parameters of the spontaneous biophoton emission signal for different varieties of wheat are similar.
Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells.
Ko, Doo-Hyun; Tumbleston, John R; Zhang, Lei; Williams, Stuart; DeSimone, Joseph M; Lopez, Rene; Samulski, Edward T
2009-07-01
We report organic solar cells with a photonic crystal nanostructure embossed in the photoactive bulk heterojunction layer, a topography that exhibits a 3-fold enhancement of the absorption in specific regions of the solar spectrum in part through multiple excitation resonances. The photonic crystal geometry is fabricated using a materials-agnostic process called PRINT wherein highly ordered arrays of nanoscale features are readily made in a single processing step over wide areas (approximately 4 cm(2)) that is scalable. We show efficiency improvements of approximately 70% that result not only from greater absorption, but also from electrical enhancements. The methodology is generally applicable to organic solar cells and the experimental findings reported in our manuscript corroborate theoretical expectations.
Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal
Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.
2003-01-01
This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.
Determining clinical photon beam spectra from measured depth dose with the Cimmino algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloch, P.; Altschuler, M.D.; Bjaerngard, B.E.; Kassaee, A.; McDonough, J.
2000-01-01
A method to determine the spectrum of a clinical photon beam from measured depth-dose data is described. At shallow depths, where the range of Compton-generated electrons increases rapidly with photon energy, the depth dose provides the information to discriminate the spectral contributions. To minimize the influence of contaminating electrons, small (6x6cm2 ) fields were used. The measured depth dose is represented as a linear combination of basis functions, namely the depth doses of monoenergetic photon beams derived by Monte Carlo simulations. The weights of the basis functions were obtained with the Cimmino feasibility algorithm, which examines in each iteration the discrepancy between predicted and measured depth dose. For 6 and 15 MV photon beams of a clinical accelerator, the depth dose obtained from the derived spectral weights was within about 1% of the measured depth dose at all depths. Because the problem is ill conditioned, solutions for the spectrum can fluctuate with energy. Physically realistic smooth spectra for these photon beams appeared when a small margin (about ±1%) was attributed to the measured depth dose. The maximum energy of both derived spectra agreed with the measured energy of the electrons striking the target to within 1 MeV. The use of a feasibility method on minimally relaxed constraints provides realistic spectra quickly and interactively. (author)
Photon pairs: Quantum chromodynamics continuum and the Higgs ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is the largest. Results are compared with data from the Fermilab Tevatron and predictions are made for the large hadron collider. The QCD continuum is shown to have a softer spectrum than the Higgs boson signal at the LHC. Keywords. Higgs; photon pairs; quantum chromodynamics. PACS Nos 12.15.Ji; 12.38.Cy; 13.85.
Particle acceleration model for the broad-band baseline spectrum of the Crab nebula
Fraschetti, F.; Pohl, M.
2017-11-01
We develop a simple one-zone model of the steady-state Crab nebula spectrum encompassing both the radio/soft X-ray and the GeV/multi-TeV observations. By solving the transport equation for GeV-TeV electrons injected at the wind termination shock as a log-parabola momentum distribution and evolved via energy losses, we determine analytically the resulting differential energy spectrum of photons. We find an impressive agreement with the observed spectrum of synchrotron emission, and the synchrotron self-Compton component reproduces the previously unexplained broad 200-GeV peak that matches the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) data beyond 1 GeV with the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) data. We determine the parameters of the single log-parabola electron injection distribution, in contrast with multiple broken power-law electron spectra proposed in the literature. The resulting photon differential spectrum provides a natural interpretation of the deviation from power law customarily fitted with empirical multiple broken power laws. Our model can be applied to the radio-to-multi-TeV spectrum of a variety of astrophysical outflows, including pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants, as well as to interplanetary shocks.
Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram
2010-05-01
An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.
Direct Photon Anisotropy and the Time Evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00360979
2016-07-22
Historically, the thermal photon inverse slope parameter has been interpreted as the thermalization temperature of the QGP. Observation of the thermal photon spectrum in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the ALICE and PHENIX experiments obtain the inverse slope parameter, but the obtained values are inconsistent with the thermalization temperature predicted by the hydrodynamic model. It has therefore been argued that the inverse slope parameter is not representative of the true QGP thermalization temperature because not all thermal photons are emitted at thermalization. This research will probe this assertion using an investigation of flow and nuclear suppression of thermal photons from ALICE Pb-Pb collisions at '\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76' TeV and comparison to p-p data at '\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76' TeV.
Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-08-18
We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Gaoxiang; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H
2005-01-01
We investigate the spontaneous-emission properties of a two-level atom embedded in a three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal. In addition to the modified density of states, the atom is driven by a coherent intense low-frequency field (LFF), which creates additional multiphoton decay channels with the exchange of two low-frequency photons and one spontaneous photon during an atomic transition. Due to the low frequency of the applied field, the various transition pathways may interfere with each other and thus give rise to a modified system dynamics. We find that even if all the atomic (bare and induced) transition frequencies are in the conducting band of the photonic crystal, there still may exist a photon-atom bound state in coexistence with propagating modes. The system also allows us to generate narrow lines in the spontaneous-emission spectrum. This spectrum is a function of the distance of the observer from the atom due to the band gap in the photonic crystal. The system properties depend on three characteristic frequencies, which are influenced by quantum interference effects. Thus these results can be attributed to a combination of interference and band-gap effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woods, M
2003-10-02
We present results from design studies carried out to investigate measurements of the flux, spectrum and polarization of undulator photons for SLAC Proposal E166. A transmission Compton polarimeter is considered for measuring the photon circular polarization. We also present results for measuring the flux and spectrum of positrons produced by the undulator photons in an 0.5X{sub 0} Titanium target. And we present some considerations for use of a transmission Compton polarimeter to measure the circular polarization of bremsstrahlung photons emitted by the polarized positrons in a thin radiator.
Nonperturbative aspects of the quark-photon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, M.R.
1994-01-01
The electromagnetic interaction with quarks is investigated through a relativistic, electromagnetic gauge-invariant treatment. Gluon dressing of the quark-photon vertex and the quark self-energy functions is described by the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and the Schwinger-Dyson equation in the rainbow approximation respectively. Results for the calculation of the quark-photon vertex are presented in both the time-like and space-like regions of photon momentum squared, however emphasis is placed on the space-like region relevant to electron scattering. The treatment presented here simultaneously addresses the role of dynamically generated q bar q vector bound states and the approach to asymptotic behavior. The resulting description is therefore applicable over the entire range of momentum transfers available in electron scattering experiments. Input parameters are limited to the model gluon two-point function which is chosen to reflect confinement and asymptotic freedom and are largely constrained by the obtained bound-state spectrum
Quantum numbers of anti-grand-unified-theory Higgs fields from the quark-lepton spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froggatt, C.D.; Nielsen, H.B.; Smith, D.J.
2002-01-01
A series of Higgs field quantum numbers in the anti-grand-unification model, based on the gauge group SMG 3 xU(1) f , is tested against the spectrum of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. A more precise formulation of the statement that the couplings are assumed of order unity is given. It is found that the corrections coming from this more precise assumption do not contain factors of the order of the number of colors, N c =3, as one could have feared. We also include a combinatorial correction factor, taking account of the distinct internal orderings within the chain Feynman diagrams in our statistical estimates. Strictly speaking our model predicts that the uncertainty in its predictions and thus the accuracy of our fits should be ±60%. Many of the best fitting quantum numbers give a higher accuracy fit to the masses and mixing angles, although within the expected fluctuations in a χ 2 . This means that our fit is as good as it can possibly be
Inclusive hard processes in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions
Glasman, Claudia
1999-01-01
Measurements of jet, prompt photon, high-pT hadron and heavy quark production in photon-induced processes provide tests of QCD and are sensitive to the photon parton densities. A review of the latest experimental results in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions is presented. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations for these measurements are discussed.
MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths.
Pomarico, Enrico; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Guerreiro, Thiago; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo
2012-10-08
We report on the realization of a synchronous source of heralded single photons at telecom wavelengths with MHz heralding rates and high heralding efficiency. This source is based on the generation of photon pairs at 810 and 1550 nm via Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) in a 1 cm periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal pumped by a 532 nm pulsed laser. As high rates are fundamental for multi-photon experiments, we show that single telecom photons can be announced at 4.4 MHz rate with 45% heralding efficiency. When we focus only on the optimization of the coupling of the heralded photon, the heralding efficiency can be increased up to 80%. Furthermore, we experimentally observe that group velocity mismatch inside long crystals pumped in a pulsed mode affects the spectrum of the emitted photons and their fibre coupling efficiency. The length of the crystal in this source has been chosen as a trade off between high brightness and high coupling efficiency.
Photon Production through Multi-step Processes Important in Nuclear Fluorescence Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagmann, C; Pruet, J
2006-01-01
The authors present calculations describing the production of photons through multi-step processes occurring when a beam of gamma rays interacts with a macroscopic material. These processes involve the creation of energetic electrons through Compton scattering, photo-absorption and pair production, the subsequent scattering of these electrons, and the creation of energetic photons occurring as these electrons are slowed through Bremsstrahlung emission. Unlike single Compton collisions, during which an energetic photon that is scattered through a large angle loses most of its energy, these multi-step processes result in a sizable flux of energetic photons traveling at large angles relative to an incident photon beam. These multi-step processes are also a key background in experiments that measure nuclear resonance fluorescence by shining photons on a thin foil and observing the spectrum of back-scattered photons. Effective cross sections describing the production of backscattered photons are presented in a tabular form that allows simple estimates of backgrounds expected in a variety of experiments. Incident photons with energies between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV are considered. These calculations of effective cross sections may be useful for those designing NRF experiments or systems that detect specific isotopes in well-shielded environments through observation of resonance fluorescence
Search for extra dimensions in the di-photon channel with the ATLAS experiment at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Bao, T.
2013-01-01
This thesis summarizes a search for manifestations of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) using 4.91 fb -1 of data collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In 2011, the LHC has provided proton-proton collisions at a center-of- mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. LED can potentially solve the so-called hierarchy problem, i.e. large apparent difference between two fundamental scales of the Standard Model (SM), the electroweak and the Planck scales. In the context of the ADD model (named after the authors N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos and G. Dvali) of LED, the effects of quantum gravity become much stronger than in the SM; possibly large enough to be observed at the LHC. There are two possibilities of graviton production in proton-proton collisions: direct graviton production and virtual graviton exchange. In this thesis, we present a search for the manifestation of extra dimensions via the effect of virtual graviton exchange on the di-photon final state. The di-photon invariant mass spectrum is studied and found to be in good agreement with SM background expectation. We set limits on the fundamental Planck scale of the ADD model using two different methods: a counting experiment and an analysis of the shape of the di-photon mass spectrum. The counting experiment yields limits between 2.62 and 3.92 TeV at 95% C.L., depending on the number of extra dimensions and the theoretical formalism used. The shape analysis yields slightly more stringent limits: the lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale improve by a factor of 1.04. (author)
Silicon photonics III systems and applications
Lockwood, David
2016-01-01
This book is volume III of a series of books on silicon photonics. It reports on the development of fully integrated systems where many different photonics component are integrated together to build complex circuits. This is the demonstration of the fully potentiality of silicon photonics. It contains a number of chapters written by engineers and scientists of the main companies, research centers and universities active in the field. It can be of use for all those persons interested to know the potentialities and the recent applications of silicon photonics both in microelectronics, telecommunication and consumer electronics market.
Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biro, L.P.
2010-01-01
Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.
The Advanced Photon Source: Performance and results from early operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moncton, D.E.
1997-01-01
The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is now providing researchers with extreme-brilliance undulator radiation in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum. All technical facilities and components are operational and have met design specifications. Fourteen research teams, occupying 20 sectors on the APS experiment hall floor, are currently installing beamline instrumentation or actively taking data. An overview is presented for the first operational years of the Advanced Photon Source. Emphasis is on the performance of accelerators and insertion devices, as well as early scientific results and future plans
Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH
Lambert, R W
2008-01-01
The production of Hybrid Photon Detectors to be used as the single-photon sensors for the RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment has recently finished. We present the quantum efficiency measurements of the entire sample of 550 tubes. The manufacturer has succeeded in consistently improving the quantum efficiency of the employed S20-type multi-alkali photocathode above our expectations, by a relative 27 % integrated over the energy spectrum. We also report measurements of the vacuum quality using the photocurrent of the device as a monitor for possible vacuum degradation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1980-01-01
A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions
Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters
Saulnier, Nicole A.
Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab
Photonic crystal fiber sensing characteristics research based on alcohol asymmetry filling
Shi, Fu-quan; Luo, Yan; Li, Hai-tao; Peng, Bao-jin
2018-02-01
A new type of Sagnac fiber temperature sensor based on alcohol asymmetric filling photonic crystal fiber is proposed. First, the corrosion of photonic crystal fiber and the treatment of air hole collapse are carried out. Then, the asymmetric structure of photonic crystal fiber is filled with alcohol, and then the structure is connected to the Sagnac interference ring. When the temperature changes, the thermal expansion effect of filling alcohol will lead to the change of birefringence of photonic crystal fiber, so that the interference spectrum of the sensor will drift along with the change of temperature. The experimental results show that the interference red shift will occur with the increase of temperature, and the temperature sensitivity is 0.1864nm/ °C. The sensor has high sensitivity to temperature. At the same time, the structure has the advantages of high stability, anti electromagnetic interference and easy to build. It provides a new method for obtaining birefringence in ordinary photonic crystal fibers.
Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu
2013-08-26
We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.
Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chahine, C.
1986-01-01
In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits
Soft X-ray production by photon scattering in pulsating binary neutron star sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bussard, R.W.; Meszaros, P.; Alexander, S.
1985-01-01
A new mechanism is proposed as a source of soft (less than 1 keV) radiation in binary pulsating X-ray sources, in the form of photon scattering which leaves the electron in an excited Landau level. In a plasma with parameters typical of such sources, the low-energy X-ray emissivity of this mechanism far exceeds that of bremsstrahlung. This copious source of soft photons is quite adequate to provide the seed photons needed to explain the power-law hard X-ray spectrum by inverse Comptonization on the hot electrons at the base of the accretion column. 13 references
High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric
2013-01-01
We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics
Generation of hot carriers for photon management in future photovoltaics
de Jong, E.M.L.D.; Saeed, S.; Sinke, W.C.; Gregorkiewicz, T.
2015-01-01
The most important limitation for the efficiency of photovoltaic energy conversion is related to the mismatch between the broadband character of the solar radiation and the spectral sensitivity of solar cells. Large losses appear at both sides of the solar spectrum. Low-energy photons are not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynoso, F; Cho, S
2015-01-01
Purpose: To develop an external beam surrogate of the Yb-169 brachytherapy source applying a filter-based spectrum modulation technique to 250 kVp x-rays. In-vitro/vivo studies performed with the modulated 250 kVp beam will help gauge the benefits of implementing gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy with the Yb-169 source. Methods: A previously validated MCNP5 model of the Phillips RT-250 orthovoltage unit was used to obtain the percentage depth dose (PDD) and filtered photon spectra for a variety of filtration and irradiation conditions. Photon spectra were obtained using the average flux F4 tally in air right after all collimation. A 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 water phantom was used to compute the PDD along the central axis (CAX) under the standards conditions of a 10 x 10 cm 2 field size at 50 cm SSD. Cylindrical cells of 4 cm in diameter and the energy deposition F6 tally were used along the CAX to score the doses down to 20 cm depth. The number of particle history was set to 2 x 10 8 in order to keep the relative uncertainty within each cell < 0.3%. The secondary electron spectrum within a gold-loaded tissue due to each photon spectrum was also calculated using EGSnrc and compared with that due to Yb-169 gamma rays. Results: Under the practical constraints for the spectrum modulation task, 250 kVp x-rays filtered by a 0.25 mm Erbium (Er) foil produced the best match with Yb-169 gamma rays, in terms of PDD and, more importantly, secondary electron spectrum. Conclusion: Modulation of 250kVp x-ray spectrum by an Er-filter was found effective in emulating the gamma ray spectrum of Yb-169. Possible benefits as predicted from the current MC model such as enhanced radiosensitization with the Er-filtered beam (as a surrogate of Yb-169) was confirmed with a separate in-vitro study. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Vishwanath P.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Total mass attenuation coefficients, µm, effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Neff, of different gases - carbon dioxide, methane, acetylene, propane, butane, and pentane used in radiation detectors, have been calculated for the photon energy of 1 keV to 100 GeV. Each gas has constant Zeff values between 0.10 to 10 MeV photon energies; however, these values are way far away from ICRU tissue. Carbon dioxide gas shows the closest tissue equivalence in the entire photon energy spectrum. Relative tissue equivalences of the mixtures of gases with respect to ICRU tissue are in the range of 0.998-1.041 for air, argon (4.5% + methane (95.5%, argon (0.5% + carbon dioxide (99.5%, and nitrogen (5% + methane (7% + carbon dioxide (88%. The gas composition of xenon (0.5% + carbon dioxide (99.5% shows 1.605 times higher tissue equivalence compared to the ICRU tissue. The investigated photon interaction parameters are useful for exposure and energy absorption buildup factors calculation and design, and fabrication of gaseous detectors for ambient radiation measurement by the Geiger-Muller detector, ionization chambers and proportional counters.
CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists
Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.
Alagappan, G; Png, C E
2015-01-28
Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.
Parameterization and generation of photon-induced K cross-sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bansal, Meenakshi; Mittal, Raj
2010-01-01
Theoretical K-shell photoionization and K X-ray fluorescence (K XRF) cross sections have been fitted empirically in polynomials of photon energy E and atomic number Z. This has been used to develop a computer code KCSPIF to generate K-shell photo-ionization and K XRF cross-sections for any element in the range 5≤Z≤95 and for photon energies, above K-edge-1500 keV, when only the atomic number and photon energy are supplied as the input.
Efficient Photon Recycling and Radiation Trapping in Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Waveguides
Dursun, Ibrahim; Zheng, Yangzi; Guo, Tianle; de Bastiani, Michele; Turedi, Bekir; Sinatra, Lutfan; Haque, Mohammed; Sun, Bin; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Garcia de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Sargent, Edward H.; Wu, Tao; Gartstein, Yuri N; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.; Malko, Anton V.
2018-01-01
. At longer separations, the PL spectrum develops a red-shifted emission peak accompanied by an appearance of well-resolved rise times in the PL kinetics. We developed quantitative modeling that accounts for bimolecular recombination and photon recycling
Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier
Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico
2018-04-01
The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.
Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T
2015-01-01
The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...
Hard processes in photon-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duchovni, E.
1985-03-01
In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained
Sousa, Felipe L. N.; Mojica-Sánchez, Lizeth C.; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Vaz, Elaine C. R.; Santa-Cruz, Petrus A.
2016-04-01
This work presents ‘intelligent papers’ obtained by functional inks printed on cellulose-sheets by DoD inkjet technology and their performance as a photonic device for UV-radiation dosimetry. The dosimeter operation is based on the photodegradation of the active part of a photonic ink, btfa (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione) ligands in Eu(III) complex, as a function of the UV dose (Jcm-2), and the one-way device is read by the luminescence quenching of (5D0 → 7F2) Eu3+ transition after UV exposure of the printed paper. The printed dosimeter presented an exponential behavior, measured here up to 10 Jcm-2 for UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, and it was shown that the number of jetted layers could fit the dosimeter sensitivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa, Felipe L N; Mojica-Sánchez, Lizeth C; Vaz, Elaine C R; Santa-Cruz, Petrus A; Gavazza, Sávia; Florencio, Lourdinha
2016-01-01
This work presents ‘intelligent papers’ obtained by functional inks printed on cellulose-sheets by DoD inkjet technology and their performance as a photonic device for UV-radiation dosimetry. The dosimeter operation is based on the photodegradation of the active part of a photonic ink, btfa (4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione) ligands in Eu(III) complex, as a function of the UV dose (Jcm −2 ), and the one-way device is read by the luminescence quenching of ( 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 ) Eu 3+ transition after UV exposure of the printed paper. The printed dosimeter presented an exponential behavior, measured here up to 10 Jcm −2 for UV-A, UV-B and UV-C, and it was shown that the number of jetted layers could fit the dosimeter sensitivity. (paper)
Transmission spectrum of a double quantum-dot-nanocavity system in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Jun; Jin Shiqi; Gong Shangqing; Qian Yong; Feng Xunli
2008-01-01
We investigate the optical transmission properties of a combined system which consists of two quantum-dot-nanocavity subsystems indirectly coupled to a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal. A Mollow-like triplet and the growth of sidebands are found, reflecting intrinsic optical responses in the complex microstructure
Wall, P J; Fleming, G R
2000-01-01
With time resolved two-photon techniques we determined the lifetime and two-photon spectrum of the forbidden S/sub 1/ state of beta - carotene (9+or-0.2 ps), lutein (15+or-0.5 ps) and the energy transferring carotenoids in LHC II (250+or-50 fs). (7 refs).
Full color camouflage in a printable photonic blue-colored polymer
Moirangthem, M.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.
2018-01-01
A blue reflective photonic polymer coating which can be patterned in full color, from blue to red, by printing with an aqueous calcium nitrate solution has been fabricated. Color change in the cholesteric liquid-crystalline polymer network over the entire visible spectrum is obtained by the use of
Statistical and physical content of low-energy photons in nuclear medicine imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagnon, D.; Pouliot, N.; Laperriere, L.; Harel, F.; Gregoire, J.; Arsenault, A.
1990-01-01
Limit in the energy resolution of present gamma camera technology prevents a total rejection of Compton events: inclusion of bad photons in the image is inescapable. Various methods acquiring data over a large portion of the spectrum have already been described. This paper investigates the usefulness of low energy photons using statistical and physical models. Holospectral Imaging, for instance, exploits correlation between energy frames to build an information related transformation optimizing primary photon image. One can also use computer simulation to show that a portion of low energy photons is detected at the same location (pixel) as pure primary photons. These events are for instance: photons undergoing scatter interaction in the crystal; photons undergoing a small angle backscatter or forwardscatter interaction in the medium, photons backscattered by the Pyrex into the crystal. For a 140 keV source in 10 cm of water and a 1/4 inch thick crystal, more than 6% of all the photons detected do not have the primary energy and still are located in the right 4 mm pixel. Similarly, it is possible to show that more than 5% of all the photons detected at 140 keV deposit their energy in more than one pixel. These results give additional support to techniques considering low energy photons and more sophisticated ways to segregate between good and bad events
Photon and decay data libraries for ORIGEN2 code based on JENDL FP decay data file 2000
Katakura, J I
2002-01-01
Photon and decay data libraries for the ORIGEN2 code have been updated by using JENDL FP Decay Data File 2000 (JENDL/FPD-00). As for the decay data, half-lives, branching ratios and recoverable energy values have been replaced with those of the JENDL/FPD-00 file. The data of the photon library has been also replaced with those of the JENDL/FPD-00 file in which photon data of the nuclides without measured data are calculated with a theoretical method. Using the updated photon library, the calculation of photon spectrum at a short time after fission event is able to be made.
Smith, Isaac C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.
2015-01-01
A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and…
Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2013-04-01
Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.
Status of soft photons in experiment E855
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woody, C.; Lissauer, D.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Ray, A.; Shapira, D.; Tincknell, M.; Clark, R.; Erd, C.; Schukraft, J.; Willis, W.
1990-01-01
Experiment E855 was carried out at the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study soft photon production near center of mass rapidity Y cm ∼ 0 in proton-nucleus collisions at 10 at 18 GeV/c. This was the first dedicated experiment to study this phenomenon at these lower energies. It is important to note that the related process of low mass dilepton pair production has been studied extensively at these energies and an excess signal of dileptons above known hadronic backgrounds has been firmly established. E855 was designed to measure photon production from P t ∼ 5 MeV/c up to several GeV/c. A search will be made for an excess of soft photons in the P t region below the Jacobian peak from π 0 decays, above that which is expected from hadronic bremsstrahlung. Any observed signal will be correlated with the total charged multiplicity in the event in order to determine its production mechanism. This correlation can be used to distinguish purely hadronic sources of soft photons, such as mesons decays and bremsstrahlung, which vary linearly with the charged multiplicity, and a thermal source of soft photons which would exhibit a quadratic dependence on the charged multiplicity. In addition, E855 will measure low energy photons from nuclear decays which can be a background for measuring soft photons near Y cm ∼ 0. These photons are also interesting from a nuclear physics point of view, since the spectrum of photons from nuclei excited by incident high energy protons gives a measure of the temperature of the excited nucleus and the amount of excitation energy which can be transferred to a nucleus in a high energy proton collision
Multi-photon Rabi oscillations in high spin paramagnetic impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertaina, S; Groll, N; Chen, L; Chiorescu, I
2011-01-01
We report on multiple photon monochromatic quantum oscillations (Rabi oscillations) observed by pulsed EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) of Mn 2+ (S = 5/2) impurities in MgO. We find that when the microwave magnetic field is similar or large than the anisotropy splitting, the Rabi oscillations have a spectrum made of many frequencies not predicted by the S = l/2 Rabi model. We show that these new frequencies come from multiple photon coherent manipulation of the multi-level spin impurity. We develop a model based on the crystal field theory and the rotating frame approximation, describing the observed phenomenon with a very good agreement.
Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)
2010-05-25
Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.
1982-03-01
We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips
Limits to the Fraction of High-energy Photon Emitting Gamma-Ray Bursts
Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang
2013-02-01
After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.
LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang
2013-01-01
After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.
Topology optimized gold nanostrips for enhanced near-infrared photon upconversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Julsgaard, Brian
2017-01-01
This letter presents a topology optimization study of metal nanostructures optimized for electric-field enhancement in the infrared spectrum. Coupling of such nanostructures with suitable ions allows for an increased photon-upconversion yield, with one application being an increased solar-cell...... efficiency by exploiting the long-wavelength part of the solar spectrum. In this work, topology optimization is used to design a periodic array of two-dimensional gold nanostrips for electric-field enhancements in a thin film doped with upconverting erbium ions. The infrared absorption band of erbium...
Plasmonic photonic crystals realized through DNA-programmable assembly.
Park, Daniel J; Zhang, Chuan; Ku, Jessie C; Zhou, Yu; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A
2015-01-27
Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals have well-established enhanced light-matter interactions via high Q factors. Their plasmonic counterparts based on arrays of nanoparticles, however, have not been experimentally well explored owing to a lack of available synthetic routes for preparing them. However, such structures should facilitate these interactions based on the small mode volumes associated with plasmonic polarization. Herein we report strong light-plasmon interactions within 3D plasmonic photonic crystals that have lattice constants and nanoparticle diameters that can be independently controlled in the deep subwavelength size regime by using a DNA-programmable assembly technique. The strong coupling within such crystals is probed with backscattering spectra, and the mode splitting (0.10 and 0.24 eV) is defined based on dispersion diagrams. Numerical simulations predict that the crystal photonic modes (Fabry-Perot modes) can be enhanced by coating the crystals with a silver layer, achieving moderate Q factors (∼10(2)) over the visible and near-infrared spectrum.
arXiv Squeezed relic photons beyond the horizon
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-11-14
Owing to the analogy with the ordinary photons in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, the Glauber theory is generalized to address the quantum coherence of the gauge field fluctuations parametrically amplified during an inflationary stage of expansion. The first and second degrees of quantum coherence of relic photons are then computed beyond the effective horizon defined by the evolution of the susceptibility. In the zero-delay limit the Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations exhibit a super-Poissonian statistics which is however different from the conventional results of the single-mode approximation customarily employed, in quantum optics, to classify the coherence properties of visible light. While in the case of large-scale curvature perturbations the degrees of quantum coherence coincide with the naive expectation of the single-mode approximation, the net degree of second-order coherence computed for the relic photons diminishes thanks to the effect of the polarizations. We suggest that the Han...
Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay; Rühmann, Antje; Poppe, Björn
2011-09-01
The varying low-energy contribution to the photon spectra at points within and around radiotherapy photon fields is associated with variations in the responses of non-water equivalent dosimeters and in the water-to-material dose conversion factors for tissues such as the red bone marrow. In addition, the presence of low-energy photons in the photon spectrum enhances the RBE in general and in particular for the induction of second malignancies. The present study discusses the general rules valid for the low-energy spectral component of radiotherapeutic photon beams at points within and in the periphery of the treatment field, taking as an example the Siemens Primus linear accelerator at 6 MV and 15 MV. The photon spectra at these points and their typical variations due to the target system, attenuation, single and multiple Compton scattering, are described by the Monte Carlo method, using the code BEAMnrc/EGSnrc. A survey of the role of low energy photons in the spectra within and around radiotherapy fields is presented. In addition to the spectra, some data compression has proven useful to support the overview of the behaviour of the low-energy component. A characteristic indicator of the presence of low-energy photons is the dose fraction attributable to photons with energies not exceeding 200 keV, termed P(D)(200 keV). Its values are calculated for different depths and lateral positions within a water phantom. For a pencil beam of 6 or 15 MV primary photons in water, the radial distribution of P(D)(200 keV) is bellshaped, with a wide-ranging exponential tail of half value 6 to 7 cm. The P(D)(200 keV) value obtained on the central axis of a photon field shows an approximately proportional increase with field size. Out-of-field P(D)(200 keV) values are up to an order of magnitude higher than on the central axis for the same irradiation depth. The 2D pattern of P(D)(200 keV) for a radiotherapy field visualizes the regions, e.g. at the field margin, where changes of
The FERMI-Elettra FEL Photon Transport System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zangrando, M.; Cudin, I.; Fava, C.; Godnig, R.; Kiskinova, M.; Masciovecchio, C.; Parmigiani, F.; Rumiz, L.; Svetina, C.; Turchet, A.; Cocco, D.
2010-01-01
The FERMI-Elettra free electron laser (FEL) user facility is under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy), and it will be operative in late 2010. It is based on a seeded scheme providing an almost perfect transform-limited and fully spatially coherent photon beam. FERMI-Elettra will cover the wavelength range 100 to 3 nm with the fundamental harmonics, and down to 1 nm with higher harmonics. We present the layout of the photon beam transport system that includes: the first common part providing on-line and shot-to-shot beam diagnostics, called PADReS (Photon Analysis Delivery and Reduction System), and 3 independent beamlines feeding the experimental stations. Particular emphasis is given to the solutions adopted to preserve the wavefront, and to avoid damage on the different optical elements. Peculiar FEL devices, not common in the Synchrotron Radiation facilities, are described in more detail, e.g. the online photon energy spectrometer measuring shot-by-shot the spectrum of the emitted radiation, the beam splitting and delay line system dedicated to cross/auto correlation and pump-probe experiments, and the wavefront preserving active optics adapting the shape and size of the focused spot to meet the needs of the different experiments.
Physics with photons at the ATLAS experiment
Pérez-Réale, V
2008-01-01
ATLAS is a general-purpose detector due to start operation next year at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide pairs of protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, and luminosities up to L = 10^34 cm^-2s^-1. The identification of photons is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. Events containing true high-p_T photons must be selected with high efficiency, while rejecting the bulk of high-p_T jet events produced with enormously larger rate through QCD processes. The photon--photon and photon--jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at high energy. It is also essential to understand these proceses as the dominant background in the search for certain new physics processes, notably the production and decay of Higgs bosons to photon pairs. There are large uncertaintin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.
Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-01-01
I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy γγ and eγ tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy γγ collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider
Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.
2012-01-01
A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.
Undulator A diagnostics at the Advanced Photon Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilinski, P.
1998-01-01
Diagnostics of Undulator A number-sign 2 (UA2) radiation was performed during the October 1997 mn at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The UA2 undulator is a standard 3.3-cm-period APS Undulator A, which was positioned downstream from the center of the straight section at Sector 8. The diagnostics included the angular-spectral measurements of the undulator radiation to determine the undulator radiation absolute spectral flux and the particle beam divergence. The results of the absolute spectral flux measurements are compared to the undulator spectrum calculated from measured undulator magnetic field. The particle's energy spread was determined from spectra comparison. Previously, the authors reported the first measurements made on Undulator A at the APS. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the results of the diagnostics performed on the Sector 8 undulator at the request of the IMM-CAT staff, and to present a more general discussion of undulator radiation sources at the APS and details of their diagnostics
LHCb: Quantum Efficiency of Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH
Lambert, Robert W
2007-01-01
The production of 550 hybrid photon detectors to be used within the LHCb RICH detectors has recently finished. Photonis-DEP have succeeded in consistently improving the tube quantum efficiency, by a relative 27,% with respect to preseries and prototype tubes, when integrated over the energy spectrum.
Action spectrum for photobleaching of human lenses by short wavelength visible irradiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kessel, Line; Larsen, Michael
2015-01-01
transmission with increasing laser irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For a 75 year old lens an effect corresponding to elimination of 15 years or more of optical ageing was obtained. This study of the spectral characteristics and intensity needed to bleach the human lens with single-photon laser effects found...... an action-spectrum peak at 420 nm tailing gradually off toward longer wavelengths and more steeply toward shorter wavelengths. The results may be used to guide experiments with two-photon bleaching....
Superthermal photon bunching in terms of simple probability distributions
Lettau, T.; Leymann, H. A. M.; Melcher, B.; Wiersig, J.
2018-05-01
We analyze the second-order photon autocorrelation function g(2 ) with respect to the photon probability distribution and discuss the generic features of a distribution that results in superthermal photon bunching [g(2 )(0 ) >2 ]. Superthermal photon bunching has been reported for a number of optical microcavity systems that exhibit processes such as superradiance or mode competition. We show that a superthermal photon number distribution cannot be constructed from the principle of maximum entropy if only the intensity and the second-order autocorrelation are given. However, for bimodal systems, an unbiased superthermal distribution can be constructed from second-order correlations and the intensities alone. Our findings suggest modeling superthermal single-mode distributions by a mixture of a thermal and a lasinglike state and thus reveal a generic mechanism in the photon probability distribution responsible for creating superthermal photon bunching. We relate our general considerations to a physical system, i.e., a (single-emitter) bimodal laser, and show that its statistics can be approximated and understood within our proposed model. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the statistics of the bimodal laser and our model reveals that the bimodal laser is an ideal source of bunched photons, in the sense that it can generate statistics that contain no other features but the superthermal bunching.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilic, R.D.; Vojvodic, V.I.; Orlic, M.P.
1981-01-01
The stochastic nature of photon interactions with matter and the characteristics of photon transport through real materials, are very well suited for applications of the Monte Carlo method in calculations of the energy-space distribution of photons. Starting from general principles of the Monte Carlo method, physical-mathematical model of photon transport from a pulsed source is given for the homogeneous air environment. Based on that model, a computer program is written which is applied in calculations of scattered photons delay spectra and changes of the photon energy spectrum. Obtained results provide the estimation of the timespace function of the electromagnetic field generated by photon from a pulsed source. (author)
Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S
2005-01-01
Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two
mm-Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for Ultra-High Speed Wireless Transmissions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Large FCC spectrum allocations for wireless transmission...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Yi; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit
2014-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saddi, M.B.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, B.
2006-01-01
The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using a single γ detector, a technique avoiding the use of the complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher-order process. Here doubly differential collision cross-sections integrated over the directions of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, are measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident γ photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The present results are in agreement with theory of this process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Yi, E-mail: yzou@utexas.edu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States)
2014-04-07
We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time.
Enhanced Size Selection in Two-Photon Excitation for CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.
Chen, Junsheng; Chábera, Pavel; Pascher, Torbjörn; Messing, Maria E; Schaller, Richard; Canton, Sophie; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu
2017-10-19
Cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section and bright photoluminescence (PL), have been demonstrated as stable two-photon-pumped lasing medium. With two-photon excitation, red-shifted PL spectrum and increased PL lifetime is observed compared with one-photon excitation. We have investigated the origin of such difference using time-resolved laser spectroscopies. We ascribe the difference to the enhanced size selection of NCs by two-photon excitation. Because of inherent nonlinearity, the size dependence of absorption cross-section under TPA is stronger. Consequently, larger size NCs are preferably excited, leading to longer excited-state lifetime and red-shifted PL emission. In a broad view, the enhanced size selection in two-photon excitation of CsPbBr 3 NCs is likely a general feature of the perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size distribution to influence their performance within NC-based nonlinear optical materials and devices.
Hadron production in photon-photon collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandita, P.N.; Singh, Y.
1976-01-01
We analyze deep-inelastic photon-photon collisions via the two-photon mechanism in electron-positron (-electron) colliding beams in a form especially suitable for experimental analysis. It is shown that by a helicity analysis similar to that used in electroproduction experiments, we can separate five of the eight structure functions describing the process γ* + γ* → hadrons. The helicity cross sections for this process and for the process with one real photon (inelastic electron-photon scattering) are related to structure functions, and are evaluated using quark light-cone algebra. There are anomalous contributions to the structure functions for the inelastic electron-photon scattering which arise both in parton as well as generalized vector-meson-dominance models. This suggests a connection between these two types of models for photon-photon scattering. Further, we use vector-meson dominance to construct a sum rule for sigma/sub gamma//sub gamma/ /sub arrow-right/ from which it is estimated that roughly 20% of the cross section should be built up from higher-mass vector states. Using a spectral representation for the total transverse cross section, and the ''aligned-jet'' vector-dominance model we achieve a connection, via a ''correspondence principle,'' with the parton model for the hadron multiplicities in photon-photon collisions. We also comment on inclusive pion multiplicities and the approach to scaling for photon-photon processes in the light-cone algebra
State of the Art in Photon-Density Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jarosz, Wojciech; Georgiev, Iliyan
2013-01-01
scattering. Since its introduction, photon-density estimation has been significantly extended in computer graphics with the introduction of: specialized techniques that intelligently modify the positions or bandwidths to reduce visual error using a small number of photons, approaches that eliminate error...
State of the Art in Photon Density Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jarosz, Wojciech; Bouchard, Guillaume
2012-01-01
scattering. Since its introduction, photon-density estimation has been significantly extended in computer graphics with the introduction of: specialized techniques that intelligently modify the positions or bandwidths to reduce visual error using a small number of photons, approaches that eliminate error...
Photons, photon jets and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim
2016-03-01
In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to ''photon jets''. For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance S → γγ can be mimicked by a process of the form pp → S → aa → 4γ, where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an e + e - pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to S → A'A' → e + e - e + e - , where there are no photons at all but the dark photon A' decays to e + e - pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.
Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis
Laurence, Ted A [Livermore, CA; Weiss, Shimon [Los Angels, CA
2009-10-06
A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.
Inverse photon-photon processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.
1981-12-01
We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way
Photon damping in cosmic-ray acceleration in active galactic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colgate, S.A.
1983-01-01
The usual assumption of the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays, greater than or equal to 10 18 eV in quasars, Seyfert galaxies and other active galactic nuclei is challenged on the basis of the photon interactions with the accelerated nucleons. This is similar to the effect of the black body radiation on particles > 10 20 eV for times of the age of the universe except that the photon spectrum is harder and the energy density greater by approx. = 10 15 . Hence, a single traversal, radial or circumferential, of radiation whose energy density is no greater than the emitted flux will damp an ultra high energy. Hence, it is unlikely that any reasonable configuration of acceleration can void disastrous photon energy loss. A different site for ultra high energy cosmic ray acceleration must be found
Advanced photon counting applications, methods, instrumentation
Kapusta, Peter; Erdmann, Rainer
2015-01-01
This volume focuses on Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), a powerful tool allowing luminescence lifetime measurements to be made with high temporal resolution, even on single molecules. Combining spectrum and lifetime provides a "fingerprint" for identifying such molecules in the presence of a background. Used together with confocal detection, this permits single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy in addition to ensemble measurements, opening up an enormous range of hot life science applications such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) and measurement of Förster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) for the investigation of protein folding and interaction. Several technology-related chapters present both the basics and current state-of-the-art, in particular of TCSPC electronics, photon detectors and lasers. The remaining chapters cover a broad range of applications and methodologies for experiments and data analysis, including the life sciences, defect centers in diamonds, super-resolution micr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juste, B.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Diez, S.; Campayo, J. M.
2012-01-01
A correct dose calculation in patient under radiotherapy treatments requires and accurate description of the radiation source. The main goal of the present work is to study the effects of initial electron beam characteristics on Monte Carlo calculated absorbed dose distribution for a 6 MeV linac photon beam. To that, we propose a methodology to determine the initial electron fluence before hitting the accelerator target for an Elektra Precisa medical linear accelerator. The method used for the electron radiation source description is based on a Software for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis (SUSA) and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 transport code. This electron spectrum has been validated by means of comparison of its resulting depth dose curve in a water cube with experimental data being the mean difference below the 1%. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, D.L.
1982-10-01
Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haissinski, J.
1986-06-01
The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2
Photonic band gap properties of one-dimensional Thue-Morse all-dielectric photonic quasicrystal
Yue, Chenxi; Tan, Wei; Liu, Jianjun
2018-05-01
In this paper, the photonic band gap (PBG) properties of one-dimensional (1D) Thue-Morse photonic quasicrystal (PQC) S4 structure are theoretically investigated by using transfer matrix method in Bragg condition. The effects of the center wavelength, relative permittivity and incident angle on PBG properties are elaborately analyzed. Numerical results reveal that, in the case of normal incidence, the symmetry and periodicity properties of the photonic band structure are presented. As the center wavelength increases, the PBG center frequency and PBG width decrease while the photonic band structure is always symmetrical about the central frequency and the photonic band structure repeats periodically in the expanding observation frequency range. With the decrease of relative permittivity contrast, the PBG width and the relative PBG width gradually decreases until PBG disappears while the symmetry of the photonic band structure always exists. In the case of oblique incidence, as the incident angle increases, multiple narrow PBGs gradually merge into a wide PBG for the TE mode while for the TM mode, the number of PBG continuously decreases and eventually disappears, i.e., multiple narrow PBGs become a wide passband for the TM mode. The research results will provide a reference for the choice of the material, the incident angle for the PBG properties and its applications of 1D Thue-Morse PQC.
Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poppe, M.
1986-02-01
This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)
Photon albedo coefficients as functions of μ/Zeff parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ljubenov Vladan L.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of photon reflection from planar targets for normal photon incidence and for different shielding materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper, in the range of the initial photon energies from 20 keV to 300 keV. Calculations of photon reflection parameters based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport have been performed using MCNP4C code. Integral reflection coefficients, presented as functions of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material, show universal behaviour for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Saba
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandic, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Boreli, F.
1989-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation (without secondary radiation) of the standard photon interactions (Compton scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair protection) for the complex slab's geometry is used in numerical code ACCA. A typical ACCA run will yield: (a) transmission of primary photon radiation differential in energy, (b) the spectrum of energy deposited in the target as a function of position and (c) the cumulative percent energy deposition as a function of position. A cumulative percent energy deposition of photon monoenergetic beam incident on simplest and complexity tissue slab and Fe slab are presented in this paper. (author). 5 refs.; 2 figs
Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.
2012-01-01
The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale reflectance is approximately angle-independent, leading to a stable wing pattern contrast. The spectral tuning of the original reflectance is verified by photonic band structure modelling. PMID:24098853
Comments on the observations of two-photon decay in n-p capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alburger, D.E.
1975-01-01
Two-photon decay in n-p capture has been reported as having a branching ratio of 10 -3 relative to single 2.23-MeV γ-ray emission. It is suggested that this result can be explained by crosstalk effects between detectors due to single γ rays, principally that associated with annihiliation in flight following pair production. The shape of the observed γ-γ coincidence spectrum is consistent with this type of crosstalk and the apparent two-photon branch is about what is expected from a rough calculation of the magnitude of the crosstalk effect
Meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da Silva, D. T.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitario UFPel, CP 354, 96010-900, Capao do Leao-RS (Brazil)
2013-03-25
The LHC opens a new kinematical regime at high energy, where several questions related to the description of the high-energy regime of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remain without satisfactory answers. Some open questions are the search for non-q-bar q resonances, the determination of the spectrum of q-bar q states and the identification of states with anomalous {gamma}{gamma} couplings. A possible way to study these problems is the study of meson production in two-photon interactions. In this contribution we calculate the meson production in two-photon interactions at LHC energies considering proton - proton collisions and estimate the total cross section for the production of the mesons {pi}, a, f, {eta} and {chi}.
Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ljubenov Vladan
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.
Review of dark photon searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denig, Achim
2016-01-01
Dark Photons are hypothetical extra-U(1) gauge bosons, which are motivated by a number of astrophysical anomalies as well as the presently seen deviation between the Standard Model prediction and the direct measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g − 2)μ. The Dark Photon does not serve as the Dark Matter particle itself, but acts as a messenger particle of a hypothetical Dark Sector with residual interaction to the Standard Model. We review recent Dark Photon searches, which were carried out in a global effort at various hadron and particle physics facilities. We also comment on the perspectives for future invisble searches, which directly probe the existence of Light Dark Matter particles.
Proceedings of the 6th symposium on advanced photon research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-06-01
The 6th Symposium on Advanced Photon Research was held at JAERI-Kansai in Kyoto on November 4-5, 2004. The symposium has been held once a year since 1999, to promote the advanced photon research through speeches, information exchanges, discussion by researchers on the front line of advanced photon research in Japan and abroad, not only reports of latest research results and plans at Advanced Photon Research Center. The numbers of speeches were 16, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 56, including the report of presentations and cooperative research and joint research performed in FY2003. The 56 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuss, M.C.; Garcia, G.; Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C.; Blanco, F.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Williart, A.; Garcia, G.; Huerga, C.; Tellez, M.
2010-01-01
In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)
Energy deposition model for I-125 photon radiation in water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuss, M.C.; Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Munoz, A.; Oller, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Limao-Vieira, P. [Laboratorio de Colisoes Atomicas e Moleculares, Departamento de Fisica, CEFITEC, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Williart, A.; Garcia, G. [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain); Huerga, C.; Tellez, M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)
2010-10-15
In this study, an electron-tracking Monte Carlo algorithm developed by us is combined with established photon transport models in order to simulate all primary and secondary particle interactions in water for incident photon radiation. As input parameters for secondary electron interactions, electron scattering cross sections by water molecules and experimental energy loss spectra are used. With this simulation, the resulting energy deposition can be modelled at the molecular level, yielding detailed information about localization and type of single collision events. The experimental emission spectrum of I-125 seeds, as used for radiotherapy of different tumours, was used for studying the energy deposition in water when irradiating with this radionuclide. (authors)
Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)
2008-06-11
We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.
Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles
Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.
2012-01-01
The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...
Two-dimensional 'photon fluid': effective photon-photon interaction and physical realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiao, R Y; Hansson, T H; Leinaas, J M; Viefers, S
2004-01-01
We describe a recently developed effective theory for atom-mediated photon-photon interactions in a two-dimensional 'photon fluid' confined to a Fabry-Perot resonator. The photons in the lowest longitudinal cavity mode will appear as massive bosons interacting via a renormalized delta-function potential with a strength determined by physical parameters such as the density of atoms and the detuning of the photons relative to the resonance frequency of the atoms. We discuss novel quantum phenomena for photons, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and bound state formation, as well as possible experimental scenarios based on Rydberg atoms in a microwave cavity, or alkali atoms in an optical cavity
Integrated Photonic Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing and Demultiplexing on Chip
2014-10-31
efficiency. At the same time, photon-efficiency beyond 10 bpp is projected by combining the demonstrated 65 number of OAM states per ring and multi-ring...bandwidth and a 9.6-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. At the same time, photon-efficiency beyond 10 bpp is projected by combining the demonstrated 65 number of
Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeuchle, Bjoern
2010-12-13
Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E{sub lab}=35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s{sub NN}){sup 1/2}=62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)
Direct photons in heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeuchle, Bjoern
2010-01-01
Direct photon emission from heavy-ion collisions has been calculated and compared to available experimental data. Three different models have been combined to extract direct photons from different environments in a heavy-ion collision: Thermal photons from partonic and hadronic matter have been extracted from relativistic, non-viscous 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations. Thermal and non-thermal photons from hadronic interactions have been calculated from relativistic transport theory. The impact of different physics assumptions about the thermalized matter has been studied. The models used for the determination of photons from both hydrodynamic and transport calculations have been elucidated and their numerical properties tested. The origin of direct photons, itemised by emission stage, emission time, channel and baryon number density, has been investigated for various systems, as have the transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow patterns of direct photons. Taking into account the full (vacuum) spectral function of the rho-meson decreases the direct photon emission by approximately 10% at low photon transverse momentum. In all systems that have been considered -- heavy-ion collisions at E lab =35 AGeV and 158 AGeV, (s NN ) 1/2 =62.4 GeV, 130 GeV and 200 GeV -- thermal emission from a system with partonic degrees of freedom is greatly enhanced over that from hadronic systems, while the difference between the direct photon yields from a viscous and a non-viscous hadronic system (transport vs. hydrodynamics) is found to be very small. Predictions for direct photon emission in central U+U-collisions at 35 AGeV have been made. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benites R, J. L.; Carrillo C, A. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Av. Enfermeria, Fracc. Fray Junipero Serra, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J. B., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Posgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico)
2011-10-15
Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-5, the photons and photoneutrons spectra generated in the head stock of the lineal accelerator (Linac) Varian of 15 MV of the Cancerology State of Nayarit were determined. For the calculations a heterogeneous head stock was modeled, more compatible with the work conditions. In the center of the head stock a tungsten target was located on a copper support, followed by the flattened filter. The photons and photoneutrons spectra were obtained accelerating electrons and making them collide against the target to produce photons by Bremsstrahlung, these photons were transported inside the head stock and the photons and photoneutrons spectra were calculated in a punctual detector located under the flattened filter and in the isocenter. The spectra were evaluated in punctual detectors that were located in the plane from the isocenter to the long of the X and Y axes each 20 cm, in an equidistant way, up to 2 m, so much in the longitudinal and transversal axes. In the calculations were used histories 5E(6) with the purpose of obtaining smaller uncertainties to 1%. It was found that the photons spectrum in the punctual detector inside the head stock presents a pick of 1.25 MeV in the energy interval of 0.5 and 1.5 MeV, later suffers a filtration and diminishes in asymptote form. This spectrum modifies when the beam reaches the isocenter, diminishing the low energy photons. Inside the head stock the photoneutrons spectrum shows a structure with two picks, one before 1 MeV and other after 1 MeV; this is for effect of the collimators geometry and the distance. Finally an increment of the total neutrons flow to 60 cm of distance of the isocenter on the Y axis was observed, due to the design geometry of the modeling heterogeneous head stock. (Author)
Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirk, A.P.
2017-05-15
As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer – a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material – applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers – and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency – are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.
Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirk, A.P.
2017-01-01
As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer – a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material – applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers – and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency – are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.
Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers
Kirk, A. P.
2017-05-01
As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer - a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material - applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers - and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency - are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.
Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy Of Metal Cluster-Adducts
Cox, D. M.; Kaldor, A.; Zakin, M. R.
1987-01-01
Recent development of the laser vaporization technique combined with mass-selective detection has made possible new studies of the fundamental chemical and physical properties of unsupported transition metal clusters as a function of the number of constituent atoms. A variety of experimental techniques have been developed in our laboratory to measure ionization threshold energies, magnetic moments, and gas phase reactivity of clusters. However, studies have so far been unable to determine the cluster structure or the chemical state of chemisorbed species on gas phase clusters. The application of infrared multiple photon dissociation IRMPD to obtain the IR absorption properties of metal cluster-adsorbate species in a molecular beam is described here. Specifically using a high power, pulsed CO2 laser as the infrared source, the IRMPD spectrum for methanol chemisorbed on small iron clusters is measured as a function of the number of both iron atoms and methanols in the complex for different methanol isotopes. Both the feasibility and potential utility of IRMPD for characterizing metal cluster-adsorbate interactions are demonstrated. The method is generally applicable to any cluster or cluster-adsorbate system dependent only upon the availability of appropriate high power infrared sources.
THE γ-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2012-01-01
We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband γ-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright γ-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of γ-ray pulsars—i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and γ-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with γ-ray peaks—all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.
On the omnipresent background gamma radiation of the continuous spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banjanac, R.; Maletić, D.; Joković, D., E-mail: yokovic@ipb.ac.rs; Veselinović, N.; Dragić, A.; Udovičić, V.; Aničin, I.
2014-05-01
The background spectrum of a germanium detector, shielded from the radiations arriving from the lower and open for the radiations arriving from the upper hemisphere, is studied by means of absorption measurements, both in a ground level and in an underground laboratory. The low-energy continuous portion of this background spectrum that peaks at around 100 keV, which is its most intense component, is found to be of very similar shape at the two locations. It is established that it is mostly due to the radiations of the real continuous spectrum, which is quite similar to the instrumental one. The intensity of this radiation is in our cases estimated to about 8000 photons/(m{sup 2}s·2π·srad) in the ground level laboratory, and to about 5000 photons/(m{sup 2}s·2π·srad) in the underground laboratory, at the depth of 25 m.w.e. Simulations by GEANT4 and CORSIKA demonstrate that this radiation is predominantly of terrestrial origin, due to environmental gamma radiations scattered off the materials that surround the detector (the “skyshine radiation”), and to a far less extent to cosmic rays of degraded energy. - Highlights: • We studied the low-energy part of continuous background spectra of germanium detectors. • The study was performed at the ground level and at the shallow underground sites. • The instrumental spectrum is due to radiations of the similar continuous spectrum. • The low-energy radiation is of both terrestrial and cosmic-ray origin. • In our study, we find that this radiation is of predominantly terrestrial origin.
Jet and hadron production in photon-photon collisions
Soldner-Rembold, Stefan
1999-01-01
Di-jet and inclusive charged hadron production cross-sections measured in photon-photon collisions by OPAL are compared to NLO pQCD calculations. Jet shapes measured in photon-photon scattering by OPAL, in deep-inelastic ep scattering by H1 and in photon-proton scattering by ZEUS are shown to be consistent in similar kinematic ranges. New results from TOPAZ on prompt photon production in photon-photon interactions are presented.
Scale-up of a Luminescent Solar Concentrator-Based Photomicroreactor via Numbering-up.
Zhao, Fang; Cambié, Dario; Janse, Jeroen; Wieland, Eric W; Kuijpers, Koen P L; Hessel, Volker; Debije, Michael G; Noël, Timothy
2018-01-02
The use of solar energy to power chemical reactions is a long-standing dream of the chemical community. Recently, visible-light-mediated photoredox catalysis has been recognized as the ideal catalytic transformation to convert solar energy into chemical bonds. However, scaling photochemical transformations has been extremely challenging due to Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law. Recently, we have pioneered the development of luminescent solar concentrator photomicroreactors (LSC-PMs), which display an excellent energy efficiency. These devices harvest solar energy, convert the broad solar energy spectrum to a narrow-wavelength region, and subsequently waveguide the re-emitted photons to the reaction channels. Herein, we report on the scalability of such LSC-PMs via a numbering-up strategy. Paramount in our work was the use of molds that were fabricated via 3D printing. This allowed us to rapidly produce many different prototypes and to optimize experimentally key design aspects in a time-efficient fashion. Reactors up to 32 parallel channels have been fabricated that display an excellent flow distribution using a bifurcated flow distributor (standard deviations below 10%). This excellent flow distribution was crucial to scale up a model reaction efficiently, displaying yields comparable to those obtained in a single-channel device. We also found that interchannel spacing is an important and unique design parameter for numbered-up LSC-PMs, which influences greatly the photon flux experienced within the reaction channels.
Single-photon light detection with transition-edge sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajteri, M.; Taralli, E.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.
2008-01-01
Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are micro calorimeters that measure the energy of incident single-photons by the resistance increase of a superconducting film biased within the superconducting-to-normal transition. TES are able to detect single photons from x-ray to IR with an intrinsic energy resolution and photon-number discrimination capability. Metrological, astronomical and quantum communication applications are the fields where these properties can be particularly important. In this work, we report about characterization of different TESs based on Ti films. Single-photons have been detected from 200 nm to 800 nm working at T c ∼ 100 m K. Using a pulsed laser at 690 nm we have demonstrated the capability to resolve up to five photons.
Characterization of photon-counting multislit breast tomosynthesis.
Berggren, Karl; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik
2018-02-01
It has been shown that breast tomosynthesis may improve sensitivity and specificity compared to two-dimensional mammography, resulting in increased detection-rate of cancers or lowered call-back rates. The purpose of this study is to characterize a spectral photon-counting multislit breast tomosynthesis system that is able to do single-scan spectral imaging with multiple collimated x-ray beams. The system differs in many aspects compared to conventional tomosynthesis using energy-integrating flat-panel detectors. The investigated system was a prototype consisting of a dual-threshold photon-counting detector with 21 collimated line detectors scanning across the compressed breast. A review of the system is done in terms of detector, acquisition geometry, and reconstruction methods. Three reconstruction methods were used, simple back-projection, filtered back-projection and an iterative algebraic reconstruction technique. The image quality was evaluated by measuring the modulation transfer-function (MTF), normalized noise-power spectrum, detective quantum-efficiency (DQE), and artifact spread-function (ASF) on reconstructed spectral tomosynthesis images for a total-energy bin (defined by a low-energy threshold calibrated to remove electronic noise) and for a high-energy bin (with a threshold calibrated to split the spectrum in roughly equal parts). Acquisition was performed using a 29 kVp W/Al x-ray spectrum at a 0.24 mGy exposure. The difference in MTF between the two energy bins was negligible, that is, there was no energy dependence on resolution. The MTF dropped to 50% at 1.5 lp/mm to 2.3 lp/mm in the scan direction and 2.4 lp/mm to 3.3 lp/mm in the slit direction, depending on the reconstruction method. The full width at half maximum of the ASF was found to range from 13.8 mm to 18.0 mm for the different reconstruction methods. The zero-frequency DQE of the system was found to be 0.72. The fraction of counts in the high-energy bin was measured to be 59% of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, P.B., E-mail: prose6@gatech.edu; Erickson, A.S., E-mail: anna.erickson@me.gatech.edu
2015-11-01
Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in {sup 11}B(d,n-γ){sup 12}C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example {sup 232}Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.
Topological Photonics for Continuous Media
Silveirinha, Mario
Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.
Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond.
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim; Schwaller, Pedro
2016-01-01
In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to "photon jets". For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance [Formula: see text] can be mimicked by a process of the form [Formula: see text], where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an [Formula: see text] pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to [Formula: see text], where there are no photons at all but the dark photon [Formula: see text] decays to [Formula: see text] pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.
Techniques to reduce memory requirements for coupled photon-electron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turcksin, Bruno; Ragusa, Jean; Morel, Jim
2011-01-01
In this work, we present two methods to decrease memory needs while solving the photon- electron transport equation. The coupled transport of electrons and photons is of importance in radiotherapy because it describes the interactions of X-rays with matter. One of the issues of discretized electron transport is that the electron scattering is highly forward peaked. A common approximation is to represent the peak in the scattering cross section by a Dirac distribution. This is convenient, but the integration over all angles of this distribution requires the use of Galerkin quadratures. By construction these quadratures impose that the number of flux moments be equal to the number of directions (number of angular fluxes), which is very demanding in terms of memory. In this study, we show that even if the number of moments is not as large as the number of directions, an accurate solution can be obtained when using Galerkin quadratures. Another method to decrease the memory needs involves choosing an appropriate reordering of the energy groups. We show in this paper that an appropriate alternation of photons/electrons groups allows to rewrite one transport problem of n groups as gcd successive transport problems of n/gcd groups where gcd is the greatest common divisor between the number of photon groups and the number of electron groups. (author)
Quantum imaging with undetected photons.
Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Borish, Victoria; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton
2014-08-28
Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging or ghost imaging, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information--knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected.
Assessment of radiotherapy photon beams: A practical and low cost methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reis, C.Q.M.; Nicolucci, P.
2017-01-01
Dosimetric properties of radiation beams used in radiotherapy are directly related to the energy spectrum produced by the treatment unit. Therefore, the development of methodologies to evaluate in a simple and accurate way the spectra of clinical beams can help establishing the quality control of the treatment. The purpose of this study is to present a practical and low cost methodology for determining primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams from transmission measurements in attenuators of aluminum and using the method of the inverse Laplace transform. Monte Carlo simulation with PENELOPE code was used in order to evaluate and validate the reconstructed spectra by the calculation of dosimetric parameters that characterize the beam. Percentage depth dose values simulated with a 6 MV reconstructed spectrum shows maximum difference of 4.4% when compared to values measured at the corresponding clinical beam. For a 10 MV beam that difference was around 4.2%. Results obtained in this study confirm the adequacy of the proposed methodology for assessing primary photon beams produced by clinical accelerators. - Highlights: • Primary spectra of radiotherapy photon beams are determined from transmission measurements. • Monte Carlo calculations are used to evaluate the method of the inverse Laplace transform. • The proposed methodology is practical and of low cost for clinical purposes. • Results are in fair agreement with literature and clinical data.
Fano resonance control in a photonic crystal structure and its application to ultrafast switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel; Hu, Hao
2014-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a photonic crystal structure that allows easy and robust control of the Fano spectrum. Its operation relies on controlling the amplitude of light propagating along one of the light paths in the structure from which the Fano resonance is obtained. Short-pulse dynamic ...... reshaping effect of the nonlinear Fano transfer function. As an example, we present a system application of a Fano structure, demonstrating its advantages by the experimental realiza- tion of 10 Gbit/s all-optical modulation with optical control power less than 1mW.......We experimentally demonstrate a photonic crystal structure that allows easy and robust control of the Fano spectrum. Its operation relies on controlling the amplitude of light propagating along one of the light paths in the structure from which the Fano resonance is obtained. Short-pulse dynamic...
Photon losses in cosmic ray acceleration in active galactic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colgate, S.A.
1984-01-01
The usual assumption of the acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, greater than or equal to 10 18 eV in quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and other active galactic nuclei is challenged on the basis of the photon interactions with the accelerated nucleons. This is similar to the effect of the black body radiation on particles > 10 20 eV for times of the age of the universe except that the photon spectrum is harder and the energy density greater by approx. = 10 13 . Hence, a single traversal, radial or circumferential, of radiation whose energy density is no greater than the emitted flux will damp an ultrahigh energy cosmic ray 10 20 eV by greater than 10 4 times its energy. Hence, it is unlikely that any reasonable configuration of acceleration can avoid disastrous photon energy loss. A different site for ultrahigh energy cosmic ray acceleration must be found
Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.; Ranft, J.
1996-01-01
Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model contains contributions from direct, resolved soft and resolved hard interactions. All free parameters of the model are determined in fits to hadron-hadron and photon-hadron cross section data. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. (author)
Square-lattice large-pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couny, F.; Roberts, John; Birks, T.A.
2008-01-01
We report on the design, fabrication and characterization of silica square-lattice hollow core photonic crystal fibers optimized for low loss guidance over an extended frequency range in the mid-IR region of the optical spectrum. The fiber's linear optical properties include an ultra-low group...... velocity dispersion and a polarization cross-coupling as low as -13.4dB over 10m of fiber....
Surface modification of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals for photocatalytic applications
Lim, Siew Yee; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel
2018-01-01
Herein, we report on the development of a rationally designed composite photocatalyst material by combining nanoporous anodic alumina-rugate filters (NAA-RFs) with photo-active layers of titanium dioxide (TiO2). NAA-RFs are synthesised by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and subsequently functionalised with TiO2 by sol-gel method to provide the photonic structures with photocatalytic properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband (PSB) of the surface-modified NAA-RFs can be precisely tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum to enhance the photon-toelectron conversion of TiO2 by `slow photon effect'. We systematically investigate the effect of the anodisation parameters (i.e. anodisation period and pore widening time) on the position of the PSB of NAA-RFs as well as the photocatalytic performances displayed by these photonic crystal structures. When the edges of the PSB of surfacemodified NAA-RFs are positioned closely to the absorption peak of the model organic dye (i.e. methyl orange - MO), the photocatalytic performance of the system to degrade these molecules is enhanced under simulated solar light irradiation due to slow photon effect. Our investigation also reveals that the photocatalytic activity of surface-modified NAA-RFs is independent of slow photon effect and enhances with increasing period length (i.e. increasing anodisation period) of the photonic structures when there is no overlap between the PSB and the absorption peak of MO. This study therefore provides a rationale towards the photocatalytic enhancement of photonic crystals by a rational design of the PSB, creating new opportunities for the future development of high-performance photocatalysts.
Photonics: how to get familiar with it
Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Strba, Anton
2010-12-01
Year 2010 brought the 50th anniversary of laser. Our century seems to be called the photon-century. Light in our lives plays both pervasive and primordial role. To describe the new role of today "interdisciplinary optics" a new term - photonics appeared. The term was coined in 1967 by Pierre Aigrain, a French scientist, who defined photonics as the science of the harnessing of light. Photonics encompasses the generation of light, the detection of light, the management of light through guidance, manipulation, and amplification, and most importantly, its utilisation for the benefit of mankind. Number of photonics applications proves its importance. On one side, there is a demand for skilled people with photonics training. On the other side, nearly everyone is affected by science in a way and it would be useful to have at least a basic understanding of scientific principles. However, it is not a brand-new idea, an effort to popularise new scientific achievements has still been present. The contribution is based on experience of popularising photonics to high school students and attracting undergraduate University students for basis of optics via photonics. The aim of it is to share and exchange experience.
Modeling the frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency of photon-counting x-ray detectors.
Stierstorfer, Karl
2018-01-01
To find a simple model for the frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of photon-counting detectors in the low flux limit. Formula for the spatial cross-talk, the noise power spectrum and the DQE of a photon-counting detector working at a given threshold are derived. Parameters are probabilities for types of events like single counts in the central pixel, double counts in the central pixel and a neighboring pixel or single count in a neighboring pixel only. These probabilities can be derived in a simple model by extensive use of Monte Carlo techniques: The Monte Carlo x-ray propagation program MOCASSIM is used to simulate the energy deposition from the x-rays in the detector material. A simple charge cloud model using Gaussian clouds of fixed width is used for the propagation of the electric charge generated by the primary interactions. Both stages are combined in a Monte Carlo simulation randomizing the location of impact which finally produces the required probabilities. The parameters of the charge cloud model are fitted to the spectral response to a polychromatic spectrum measured with our prototype detector. Based on the Monte Carlo model, the DQE of photon-counting detectors as a function of spatial frequency is calculated for various pixel sizes, photon energies, and thresholds. The frequency-dependent DQE of a photon-counting detector in the low flux limit can be described with an equation containing only a small set of probabilities as input. Estimates for the probabilities can be derived from a simple model of the detector physics. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature
Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori
2018-02-01
Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.
Proceedings of the fourth symposium on advanced photon research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2003-07-01
This report consists of 67 contributed papers of the Fourth Symposium on Advanced Photon Research, which was held at JAERI Advanced Photon Research Center in Kyoto on November 28-29, 2002. The numbers of speeches were 14, including 5 invited speeches, and the numbers of poster presentations were 62, including FY 2001 joint research and cooperative research presentations. The 66 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Sub-threshold investigation of two coupled photonic crystal cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schubert, Martin; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Skovgård, Troels Suhr
2009-01-01
The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed.......The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references
Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heusch, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e + e - annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed
Rapid creation of distant entanglement by multi-photon resonant fluorescence
Cohen, Guy Z.; Sham, L. J.
2014-03-01
We study a simple, effective and robust method for entangling two separate stationary quantum dot spin qubits with high fidelity using multi-photon Gaussian state. The fluorescence signals from the two dots interfere at a beam splitter. The bosonic nature of photons leads, in analogy with the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect, to selective pairing of photon holes (photon absences in the fluorescent signals). By the HOM effect, two photon holes with the same polarization end up at the same beam splitter output. As a result, two odd photon number detections at the outgoing beams, which must correspond to two photon holes with different polarizations, herald entanglement creation. The robustness of the Gaussian states is evidenced by the ability to compensate for photon absorption and noise by a moderate increase in the number of photons at the input. We calculate the entanglement generation rate in the ideal, non-ideal and near-ideal detector regimes and find substantial improvement over single-photon schemes in all three regimes. Fast and efficient spin-spin entanglement creation can form the basis for a scalable quantum dot quantum computing network. Our predictions can be tested using current experimental capabilities. This research was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office MURI award W911NF0910406, by NSF grant PHY-1104446 and by ARO (IARPA, W911NF-08-1-0487). The authors thank D. G. Steel for useful discussions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamyan, F.V.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Galumyan, P.I.
1980-01-01
An automatic system for measurement, processing and control of energy spectrum of polarized photons realized at the Yerevan electron synchrotron is described. For measuring energy spectra of intensive high energy photon beams a pair spectrometer is used which comprises an aluminium target-converter, an analizing magnet and 2 telescopes of scintillation counters for electron-positron pairs registration. the procedure of spectra measurement by the pair spectrometer is reduced to determining the converted e + e - pairs yield at certain values of the H field intensity of the analizing magnet. An algorithm of the data express-processing for operative monitoring of peak energy stability of electron coherent radiation spectrum is given. The spectra measurement results obtained under real experimental conditions are presented
Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)
2016-03-01
Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.
Photonic-Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps
2016-12-05
Photonic -Enabled RF Canceller with Tunable Time-Delay Taps Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Sivasubramaniam Yegnanarayanan, Bradley T. Perry MIT Lincoln...canceller design that uses photonics and a vector modulator architecture to provide a high number of canceller taps with tunable time-delays, which allow...microwave photonics , RF cancellation. I. INTRODUCTION In-Band Full-Duplex (IBFD) technologies are being consid- ered for 5th generation (5G) wireless
Hui, Zhan-Qiang
2011-10-01
Spectral gain induced by four-wave-mixing with multi-frequency pump was investigated by exploiting the data signal and continue lights co-propagation in dispersion flattened high nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The effects of wavelength drift of pump lights, polarization state of orthogonal or parallel of pump lights, polarization mismatch of signal light versus orthogonal pump lights, total power of signal and probe light on the spectrum gain were analyzed. The results show that good FWM gain effects with multi-frequency pump can be obtained in 36.4 nm wavelength range when power ratio of pump to probe light is appropriate and with identical polarization. Furthermore, the gain of FWM with multi-frequency pump is very sensitive to polarization fluctuation and the different idle waves obtain different gain with the variation in signal polarization state. Moreover, the impact of pump numbers was investigated. The obtained results would be helpful for further research on ultrahigh-speed all optical signal processing devices exploiting the FWM with multi-frequency pump in PCF for future photonics network.
Update on photon-photon collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arteaga-Romero, N.; Cochard, G.; Ong, S.; Amiens Univ., 80; Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Nicolaidis, A.; Parisi, J.; Courau, A.
1980-03-01
This report is the continuation of the 'Update' of last year (L.P.C. 79-03, March 1979, in French). In Part I, the structure functions of the photon in QCD are examined. It is shown that, while large psub(T) hadron production is similar to some extent in γγ collisions and in hadron-hadron collisions, the point-like nature of the photon introduces new terms which are entirely calculable, providing new means to test the dynamics of strong interactions. In Part II, problems of analysis in γγ experiments are discussed. The pros and cons of various options with regard to the measurement of outgoing electrons (non-tagging, finite-angle tagging, tagging at 0 0 ) are compared. It is shown that (a) non-tagging may be applied to the study of a limited number of processes only; (b) finite-angle tagging counters allow for various possibilities (double-tagging, single-tagging, double anti-tagging), but none of them is entirely satisfactory; (c) the ideal measurement is double tagging at 0 0 , provided the problem of bremsstrahlung saturation of the tagging counters can be solved
Efficient Photon Recycling and Radiation Trapping in Cesium Lead Halide Perovskite Waveguides
Dursun, Ibrahim
2018-05-26
Cesium lead halide perovskite materials have attracted considerable attention for potential applications in lasers, light emitting diodes and photodetectors. Here, we provide the experimental and theoretical evidence for photon recycling in CsPbBr3 perovskite microwires. Using two-photon excitation, we recorded photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes and emission spectra as a function of the lateral distance between PL excitation and collection positions along the microwire, with separations exceeding 100 µm. At longer separations, the PL spectrum develops a red-shifted emission peak accompanied by an appearance of well-resolved rise times in the PL kinetics. We developed quantitative modeling that accounts for bimolecular recombination and photon recycling within the microwire waveguide and is sufficient to account for the observed decay modifications. It relies on a high radiative efficiency in CsPbBr3 perovskite microwires and provides crucial information about the potential impact of photon recycling and waveguide trapping on optoelectronic properties of cesium lead halide perovskite materials.
Distinguishing spins in decay chains with photons at the large hardron collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Freitas, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Landwehr, A.; Wyler, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)
2009-04-15
Several models for physics beyond the Standard Model predict new particles with a decay signature including hard photons and missing energy. Two well-motivated examples are supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking (GMSB) and the standard model with two universal extra dimensions. Both models lead to decay chains with similar collider signatures, including hard photon emission. The main discriminating feature are the spins of the new particles. In this paper we discuss how information about the spins of the particles can be extracted from lepton-photon or quark-photon invariant mass distributions at the Large Hadron Collider. The characteristic shapes of the distributions are derived analytically and then studied in a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that for a typical GMSB mass spectrum with particle masses below 1 TeV, already 10 fb{sup -1} integrated luminosity at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy are sufficient to discriminate the two models with high significance. (orig.)
Distinguishing spins in decay chains with photons at the large hardron collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Freitas, A.; Landwehr, A.; Wyler, D.
2009-04-01
Several models for physics beyond the Standard Model predict new particles with a decay signature including hard photons and missing energy. Two well-motivated examples are supersymmetry with gauge-mediated breaking (GMSB) and the standard model with two universal extra dimensions. Both models lead to decay chains with similar collider signatures, including hard photon emission. The main discriminating feature are the spins of the new particles. In this paper we discuss how information about the spins of the particles can be extracted from lepton-photon or quark-photon invariant mass distributions at the Large Hadron Collider. The characteristic shapes of the distributions are derived analytically and then studied in a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. We find that for a typical GMSB mass spectrum with particle masses below 1 TeV, already 10 fb -1 integrated luminosity at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy are sufficient to discriminate the two models with high significance. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entezar, S. Roshan
2012-01-01
We investigate the position dependent spontaneous emission spectra of a Λ-type three-level atom with one transition coupled to the free vacuum reservoir and the other one coupled to a double-band photonic band gap reservoir with a defect mode in the band gap. It is shown that, for the atom at the defect location, we have a two-peak spectrum with a wide dark line due to the strong coupling between the atom and the defect mode. While, when the atom is far from the defect location (or in the absence of the defect mode), the spectrum has three peaks with two dark lines due to the coupling between the atom and the photonic band gap reservoir with the largest density of states near the band edges. On the other hand, we have a four-peak spectrum for the atom at the space in between. Moreover, the average spontaneous emission spectra of the atoms uniformly embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions are described. It is shown that the atoms embedded in high (low) dielectric regions far from the defect location, effectively couple to the modes of the lower (upper) photonic band. However, the atoms embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions at the defect location, are coupled mainly to the defect modes. While, the atoms uniformly embedded in high (low) dielectric regions with a normal distance from the defect location, are coupled to both of defect and lower (upper) photonic band modes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.
Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2012-01-30
We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.
Unbinned maximum likelihood fit for the CP conserving couplings for W + photon production at CDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lannon, K.
1994-01-01
We present an unbinned maximum likelihood fit as an alternative to the currently used fit for the CP conserving couplings W plus photon production studied at CDF. We show that a four parameter double exponential fits the E T spectrum of the photon very well. We also show that the fit parameters can be related to and by a second order polynomial. Finally, we discuss various conclusions we have reasoned from our results to the fit so far
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta-Ramos, J., E-mail: jperalta@ift.unesp.b [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nakwacki, M.S., E-mail: sole@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-02-01
We calculate the spectra of produced thermal photons in Au + Au collisions taking into account the nonequilibrium contribution to photon production due to finite shear viscosity. The evolution of the fireball is modeled by second-order as well as by divergence-type 2+1 dissipative hydrodynamics, both with an ideal equation of state and with one based on Lattice QCD that includes an analytical crossover. The spectrum calculated in the divergence-type theory is considerably enhanced with respect to the one calculated in the second-order theory, the difference being entirely due to differences in the viscous corrections to photon production. Our results show that the differences in hydrodynamic formalisms are an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of the value of {eta}/s from measured photon spectra. The uncertainty in the value of {eta}/s associated with different hydrodynamic models used to compute thermal photon spectra is larger than the one occurring in matching hadron elliptic flow to RHIC data.
Multiply excited molecules produced by photon and electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odagiri, T.; Kouchi, N.
2006-01-01
The photon and electron interactions with molecules resulting in the formation of multiply excited molecules and the subsequent decay are subjects of great interest because the independent electron model and Born-Oppenheimer approximation are much less reliable for the multiply excited states of molecules than for the ground and lower excited electronic states. We have three methods to observe and investigate multiply excited molecules: 1) Measurements of the cross sections for the emission of fluorescence emitted by neutral fragments in the photoexcitation of molecules as a function of incident photon energy [1-3], 2) Measurements of the electron energy-loss spectra tagged with the fluorescence photons emitted by neutral fragments [4], 3) Measurements of the cross sections for generating a pair of photons in absorption of a single photon by a molecule as a function of incident photon energy [5-7]. Multiply excited states degenerate with ionization continua, which make a large contribution in the cross section curve involving ionization processes. The key point of our methods is hence that we measure cross sections free from ionization. The feature of multiply excited states is noticeable in such a cross section curve. Recently we have measured: i) the cross sections for the emission of the Lyman- fluorescence in the photoexcitation of CH 4 as a function of incident photon energy in the range 18-51 eV, ii) the electron energy-loss spectrum of CH 4 tagged with the Lyman-photons at 80 eV incident electron energy and 10 electron scattering angle in the range of the energy loss 20-45 eV, in order to understand the formation and decay of the doubly excited methane in photon and electron interactions. [8] The results are summarized in this paper and the simultaneous excitation of two electrons by electron interaction is compared with that by photon interaction in terms of the oscillator strength. (authors)
Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin
2016-07-01
The production of structural colors based on graphene oxide (GO) pseudo-one-dimensional photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) in the visible spectrum is reported on page 3433 by W. Qi and co-workers. The structural colors could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion. Moreover, GO p1D-PhCs exhibit visible and rapid responsiveness to humidity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hard photon emission from high energy electrons and positrons in single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.
1991-01-01
A radiation of electrons and positrons in single crystals in coherent bremsstrahlung (CBS) region has been considered for the case when CBS has the most hard spectrum. Under this condition a particle moves near a crystalline plane (in fcc(d) crystal for axis (001) this is the plane (110)) and influence of the continuous plane potential should be taken into account. This potential gives additional contribution in soft part of the spectrum and affects on hard photon emission. Observation of this phenomena at high energy is discussed. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab
Limits of validity of photon-in-cell simulation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reitsma, A. J. W.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2008-01-01
A comparison is made between two reduced models for studying laser propagation in underdense plasma; namely, photon kinetic theory and the slowly varying envelope approximation. Photon kinetic theory is a wave-kinetic description of the electromagnetic field where the motion of quasiparticles in photon coordinate-wave number phase space is described by the ray-tracing equations. Numerically, the photon kinetic theory is implemented with standard particle-in-cell techniques, which results in a so-called photon-in-cell code. For all the examples presented in this paper, the slowly varying envelope approximation is accurate and therefore discrepancies indicate the failure of photon kinetic approximation for these cases. Possible remedies for this failure are discussed at the end of the paper
Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability ...
Angular shaping of fluorescence from synthetic opal-based photonic crystal.
Boiko, Vitalii; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Dolgov, Leonid; Kiisk, Valter; Sildos, Ilmo; Loot, Ardi; Gorelik, Vladimir
2015-01-01
Spectral, angular, and temporal distributions of fluorescence as well as specular reflection were investigated for silica-based artificial opals. Periodic arrangement of nanosized silica globules in the opal causes a specific dip in the defect-related fluorescence spectra and a peak in the reflectance spectrum. The spectral position of the dip coincides with the photonic stop band. The latter is dependent on the size of silica globules and the angle of observation. The spectral shape and intensity of defect-related fluorescence can be controlled by variation of detection angle. Fluorescence intensity increases up to two times at the edges of the spectral dip. Partial photobleaching of fluorescence was observed. Photonic origin of the observed effects is discussed.
Recursive relations for processes with n photons of noncommutative QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari, Abolfazl
2007-01-01
Recursion relations are derived in the sense of Berends-Giele for the multi-photon processes of noncommutative QED. The relations concern purely photonic processes as well as the processes with two fermions involved, both for arbitrary number of photons at tree level. It is shown that despite of the dependence of noncommutative vertices on momentum, in contrast to momentum-independent color factors of QCD, the recursion relation method can be employed for multi-photon processes of noncommutative QED
Experimental generation of an eight-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.
Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Peng, Liang; Li, Yu-Hu; Li, Li; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2011-11-22
Multi-partite entangled states are important for developing studies of quantum networking and quantum computation. To date, the largest number of particles that have been successfully manipulated is 14 trapped ions. Yet in quantum information science, photons have particular advantages over other systems. In particular, they are more easily transportable qubits and are more robust against decoherence. Thus far, the largest number of photons to have been successfully manipulated in an experiment is six. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, an eight-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a measured fidelity of 0.59±0.02, which proved the presence of genuine eight-partite entanglement. This is achieved by improving the photon detection efficiency to 25% with a 300-mW pump laser. With this state, we also demonstrate an eight-party quantum communication complexity scenario. This eight-photon entangled-state source may be useful in one-way quantum computation, quantum networks and other quantum information processing tasks.
Center of mass energy and system-size dependence of photon production at forward rapidity at RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty
2010-07-05
We present the multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of photons produced in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV. The photons are measured in the region -3.7 < {eta} < -2.3 using the photon multiplicity detector in the STAR experiment at RHIC. The number of photons produced per average number of participating nucleon pairs increases with the beam energy and is independent of the collision centrality. For collisions with similar average numbers of participating nucleons the photon multiplicities are observed to be similar for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at a given beam energy. The ratios of the number of charged particles to photons in the measured pseudorapidity range are found to be 1.4 {+-} 0.1 and 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 GeV and 200 GeV, respectively. The energy dependence of this ratio could reflect varying contributions from baryons to charged particles, while mesons are the dominant contributors to photon production in the given kinematic region. The photon pseudorapidity distributions normalized by average number of participating nucleon pairs, when plotted as a function of {eta} - ybeam, are found to follow a longitudinal scaling independent of centrality and colliding ion species at both beam energies.
Characteristics of the quarry as shielding for "2"4"1AmBe neutrons and monoenergetic photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Letechipia de L, C.; Salas L, M. A.; Rodriguez R, J. A.; Juarez A, C. A.
2016-09-01
Shielding is an important element in radiation protection since allows the management of radiation sources. Currently there are different materials of natural or anthropogenic origin that are used as shielding for both photons and neutrons. The quarry is a material of natural origin and abundant in our country, which is used in construction or for the manufacture of sculptures, however its characteristics as shielding have not been reported. In this paper we report some of the properties of the quarry as shielding for monoenergetic photons and for neutrons produced by an isotopic neutron source of "2"4"1AmBe. A quarry piece was used to determine its density and its chemical composition, with the XCOM code the elemental composition was determined and the mass interaction and total attenuation coefficients of the quarry were determined with photons of 10"-"3 to 10"-"5 MeV; the interaction coefficients included coherent dispersion, photoelectric absorption, Compton dispersion and the production of pairs in the nuclear and electronic field. Using the MCNP5 code, a narrow geometry attenuation experiment was modeled and the photon fluence was estimated that reaches a point detector at a distance of 42 cm from a point source, isotropic and monoenergetic photon when the source and the point detector were added quarry pieces of different thicknesses. The reduction of the number of photons as a function of the thickness of the quarry was used to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of the quarry before photons of 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 2 and 3 MeV that were the same as those calculated with the XCOM code. With the MCNP, the K a and H(10) transmission curves were also calculated. This same model was used to determined the variation of the "2"4"1AmBe neutron spectrum as a function of quarry thickness, as well as the E_R_O_T and H(10) transmission curves. (Author)
Nano-photonic light trapping near the Lambertian limit in organic solar cell architectures.
Biswas, Rana; Timmons, Erik
2013-09-09
A critical step to achieving higher efficiency solar cells is the broad band harvesting of solar photons. Although considerable progress has recently been achieved in improving the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, these cells still do not absorb upto ~50% of the solar spectrum. We have designed and developed an organic solar cell architecture that can boost the absorption of photons by 40% and the photo-current by 50% for organic P3HT-PCBM absorber layers of typical device thicknesses. Our solar cell architecture is based on all layers of the solar cell being patterned in a conformal two-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal architecture. This results in very strong diffraction of photons- that increases the photon path length in the absorber layer, and plasmonic light concentration near the patterned organic-metal cathode interface. The absorption approaches the Lambertian limit. The simulations utilize a rigorous scattering matrix approach and provide bounds of the fundamental limits of nano-photonic light absorption in periodically textured organic solar cells. This solar cell architecture has the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency to 10% for single band gap organic solar cells utilizing long-wavelength absorbers.
Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations of photon/electron dosimetry in microscale applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poneja, O.P.; Chawla, R.; Negreanu, C.; Stepanek, J.
2003-01-01
It is important to establish reliable calculational tools to plan and analyse representative microdosimetry experiments in the context of microbeam radiation therapy development. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the suitability of the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to adequately model photon/electron transport over micron distances. The case of a single cylindrical microbeam of 25-micron diameter incident on a water phantom has been simulated in detail with both MCNP4C and the code PSI-GEANT, for different incident photon energies, to get absorbed dose distributions at various depths, with and without electron transport being considered. In addition, dose distributions calculated for a single microbeam with a photon spectrum representative of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) have been compared. Finally, a large number of cylindrical microbeams ( a total of 2601 beams, placed on a 200-micron square pitch, covering an area of lcm 2 ) incident on a water phantom have been considered to study cumulative radial dose distributions at different depths. From these distributions, ratios of peak (within the microbeam) to valley (mid-point along the diagonal connecting two microbeams) dose values have been determined. The various comparisons with PSI-GEANT results have shown that MCNP4C, with its high flexibility in terms of its numerous source and geometry description options, variance reduction methods, detailed error analysis, statistical checks and different tally types, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of microbeam experiments. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Two-photon spectral amplitude of entangled states resolved in separable Schmidt modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avella, A; Brida, G; Gramegna, M; Shurupov, A; Genovese, M; Chekhova, M
2015-01-01
The ability to access high dimensionality in Hilbert spaces represents a demanding key-stone for state-of-the-art quantum information. The manipulation of entangled states in continuous variables, wavevector as well frequency, represents a powerful resource in this sense. The number of dimensions of the Hilbert space that can be used in practical information protocols can be determined by the number of Schmidt modes that it is possible to address one by one. In the case of wavevector variables, the Schmidt modes can be losslessly selected using single-mode fibre and a spatial light modulator, but no similar procedure exists for the frequency space. The aim of this work is to present a technique to engineer the spectral properties of biphoton light, emitted via ultrafast spontaneous parametric down conversion, in such a way that the two-photon spectral amplitude (TPSA) contains several non-overlapping Schmidt modes, each of which can be filtered losslessly in frequency variables. Such TPSA manipulation is operated by a fine balancing of parameters like the pump frequency, the shaping of pump pulse spectrum, the dispersion dependence of spontaneous parametric down-conversion crystals as well as their length. Measurements have been performed exploiting the group velocity dispersion induced by the passage of optical fields through dispersive media, operating a frequency-to-time two-dimensional Fourier transform of the TPSA. Exploiting this kind of measurement we experimentally demonstrate the ability to control the Schmidt modes structure in TPSA through the pump spectrum manipulation. (paper)
Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder
2015-10-01
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0369 TITLE: Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Betty Diamond...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maternal Brain-Reactive Antibodies and Autism Spectrum 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Disorder 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1...to approximately 5% of cases of ASD. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fetal brain; Autism spectrum disorder ; antibody; B cells; Caspr2 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
Near-Infrared Trigged Stimulus-Responsive Photonic Crystals with Hierarchical Structures.
Lu, Tao; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jun; Li, Yao; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di
2017-10-04
Stimuli-responsive photonic crystals (PCs) trigged by light would provide a novel intuitive and quantitative method for noninvasive detection. Inspired by the flame-detecting aptitude of fire beetles and the hierarchical photonic structures of butterfly wings, we herein developed near-infrared stimuli-responsive PCs through coupling photothermal Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), with hierarchical photonic structured butterfly wing scales as the template. The nanoparticles within 10 s transferred near-infrared radiation into heat that triggered the phase transition of PNIPAM; this almost immediately posed an anticipated effect on the PNIPAM refractive index and resulted in a composite spectrum change of ∼26 nm, leading to the direct visual readout. It is noteworthy that the whole process is durable and stable mainly owing to the chemical bonding formed between PNIPAM and the biotemplate. We envision that this biologically inspired approach could be utilized in a broad range of applications and would have a great impact on various monitoring processes and medical sensing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.; Ma, R.
2001-01-01
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)
Topology optimization for nano-photonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
Topology optimization is a computational tool that can be used for the systematic design of photonic crystals, waveguides, resonators, filters and plasmonics. The method was originally developed for mechanical design problems but has within the last six years been applied to a range of photonics...... applications. Topology optimization may be based on finite element and finite difference type modeling methods in both frequency and time domain. The basic idea is that the material density of each element or grid point is a design variable, hence the geometry is parameterized in a pixel-like fashion....... The optimization problem is efficiently solved using mathematical programming-based optimization methods and analytical gradient calculations. The paper reviews the basic procedures behind topology optimization, a large number of applications ranging from photonic crystal design to surface plasmonic devices...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Moerk, Jesper [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Oersteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Koenderink, A Femius, E-mail: yche@fotonik.dtu.dk [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2011-10-15
We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input single-photon wavepacket guided by the waveguide as the initial condition, and calculate the excitation probability of the emitter, as well as the time evolution of the transmitted and reflected fields. For single-photon wavepackets with a Gaussian spectrum and temporal shape, we obtain analytical solutions for the dynamics of absorption, with maximum atomic excitation {approx}40%. We furthermore propose a terminated waveguide to aid the single-photon absorption. We found that for an emitter placed at an optimal distance from the termination, the maximum atomic excitation due to an incident single-photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE {beta}-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency can be improved by a further 4% by engineering the dispersion. Efficient single-photon absorption by a single emitter has potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation. (paper)
Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams.
Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjö, Anders
2009-10-21
Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm(2), 10 x 10 cm(2) and 20 x 20 cm(2) fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.
Modeling silicon diode energy response factors for use in therapeutic photon beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eklund, Karin; Ahnesjoe, Anders
2009-01-01
Silicon diodes have good spatial resolution, which makes them advantageous over ionization chambers for dosimetry in fields with high dose gradients. However, silicon diodes overrespond to low-energy photons, that are more abundant in scatter which increase with large fields and larger depths. We present a cavity-theory-based model for a general response function for silicon detectors at arbitrary positions within photon fields. The model uses photon and electron spectra calculated from fluence pencil kernels. The incident photons are treated according to their energy through a bipartition of the primary beam photon spectrum into low- and high-energy components. Primary electrons from the high-energy component are treated according to Spencer-Attix cavity theory. Low-energy primary photons together with all scattered photons are treated according to large cavity theory supplemented with an energy-dependent factor K(E) to compensate for energy variations in the electron equilibrium. The depth variation of the response for an unshielded silicon detector has been calculated for 5 x 5 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 and 20 x 20 cm 2 fields in 6 and 15 MV beams and compared with measurements showing that our model calculates response factors with deviations less than 0.6%. An alternative method is also proposed, where we show that one can use a correlation with the scatter factor to determine the detector response of silicon diodes with an error of less than 3% in 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.A.
1988-01-01
A variant of the multisection filter and annular target geometry, with a designed angular acceptance of +-0.5 0 , has been utilised in measuring accurate, O(5%), absolute total differential scattering cross sections of 60 KeV photons for H 2 O, methyl methacrylate (C 5 H 8 O 2 ) n and nylon-6 (C 12 H 22 O 3 N 2 ) n in the angular scattering range of 2 0 -10 0 . The effects of molecular correlations manifest, to varying degree, in strong forward peaking of the scattered photon distribution. Comparison is made with available experiment and theory [pt
Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong
2008-09-15
We demonstrate that single photons from a rotating q-plate exhibit an entanglement in three degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum, and the rotational Doppler shift (RDS) due to the nonconservation of total spin and orbital angular momenta. We find that the rotational Doppler shift deltaomega = Omega((delta)s + deltal) , where s, l and Omega are quantum numbers of spin, orbital angular momentum, and rotating velocity of the q-plate, respectively. Of interest is that the rotational Doppler shift directly reflects the rotational symmetry of q-plates and can be also expressed as deltaomega = (Omega)n , where n = 2(q-1) denotes the fold number of rotational symmetry. Besides, based on this single-photon spin-orbit-RDS entanglement, we propose an experimental scheme to sort photons of different frequency shifts according to individual orbital angular momentum.
Optimized Binomial Quantum States of Complex Oscillators with Real Spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelaya, K D; Rosas-Ortiz, O
2016-01-01
Classical and nonclassical states of quantum complex oscillators with real spectrum are presented. Such states are bi-orthonormal superpositions of n +1 energy eigenvectors of the system with binomial-like coefficients. For large values of n these optimized binomial states behave as photon added coherent states when the imaginary part of the potential is cancelled. (paper)
Multipurpose silicon photonics signal processor core.
Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Crudgington, Lee; Thomson, David J; Khokhar, Ali Z; Li, Ke; Cao, Wei; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Capmany, José
2017-09-21
Integrated photonics changes the scaling laws of information and communication systems offering architectural choices that combine photonics with electronics to optimize performance, power, footprint, and cost. Application-specific photonic integrated circuits, where particular circuits/chips are designed to optimally perform particular functionalities, require a considerable number of design and fabrication iterations leading to long development times. A different approach inspired by electronic Field Programmable Gate Arrays is the programmable photonic processor, where a common hardware implemented by a two-dimensional photonic waveguide mesh realizes different functionalities through programming. Here, we report the demonstration of such reconfigurable waveguide mesh in silicon. We demonstrate over 20 different functionalities with a simple seven hexagonal cell structure, which can be applied to different fields including communications, chemical and biomedical sensing, signal processing, multiprocessor networks, and quantum information systems. Our work is an important step toward this paradigm.Integrated optical circuits today are typically designed for a few special functionalities and require complex design and development procedures. Here, the authors demonstrate a reconfigurable but simple silicon waveguide mesh with different functionalities.
Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.
Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.
1997-01-01
Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He + nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al
Silicon Photonics II Components and Integration
Lockwood, David J
2011-01-01
This book is volume II of a series of books on silicon photonics. It gives a fascinating picture of the state-of-the-art in silicon photonics from a component perspective. It presents a perspective on what can be expected in the near future. It is formed from a selected number of reviews authored by world leaders in the field, and is written from both academic and industrial viewpoints. An in-depth discussion of the route towards fully integrated silicon photonics is presented. This book will be useful not only to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers but also to graduate students who are interested in the fields of micro- and nanophotonics and optoelectronics.
Ezzati, A O; Xiao, Y; Sohrabpour, M; Studenski, M T
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to quantify the DNA damage induced in a clinical megavoltage photon beam at various depths in and out of the field. MCNPX was used to simulate 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm(2) 10-MV photon beams from a clinical linear accelerator. Photon and electron spectra were collected in a water phantom at depths of 2.5, 12.5 and 22.5 cm on the central axis and at off-axis points out to 10 cm. These spectra were used as an input to a validated microdosimetric Monte Carlo code, MCDS, to calculate the RBE of induced DSB in DNA at points in and out of the primary radiation field at three depths. There was an observable difference in the energy spectra for photons and electrons for points in the primary radiation field and those points out of field. In the out-of-field region, the mean energy for the photon and electron spectra decreased by a factor of about six and three from the in-field mean energy, respectively. Despite the differences in spectra and mean energy, the change in RBE was photon and electron spectra, these changes do not correlate with a change in RBE in a clinical MV photon beam as the electron spectra are dominated by electrons with energies >20 keV.
Counting constituents in molecular complexes by fluorescence photon antibunching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fore, S; Laurence, T; Hollars, C; Huser, T
2007-04-17
Modern single molecule fluorescence microscopy offers new, highly quantitative ways of studying the systems biology of cells while keeping the cells healthy and alive in their natural environment. In this context, a quantum optical technique, photon antibunching, has found a small niche in the continuously growing applications of single molecule techniques to small molecular complexes. Here, we review some of the most recent applications of photon antibunching in biophotonics, and we provide a guide for how to conduct photon antibunching experiments at the single molecule level by applying techniques borrowed from time-correlated single photon counting. We provide a number of new examples for applications of photon antibunching to the study of multichromophoric molecules and small molecular complexes.
Selective photon counter for digital x-ray mammography tomosynthesis
Goldan, Amir H.; Karim, Karim S.; Rowlands, J. A.
2006-03-01
Photon counting is an emerging detection technique that is promising for mammography tomosynthesis imagers. In photon counting systems, the value of each image pixel is equal to the number of photons that interact with the detector. In this research, we introduce the design and implementation of a low noise, novel selective photon counting pixel for digital mammography tomosynthesis in crystalline silicon CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 0.18 micron technology. The design comprises of a low noise charge amplifier (CA), two low offset voltage comparators, a decision-making unit (DMU), a mode selector, and a pseudo-random counter. Theoretical calculations and simulation results of linearity, gain, and noise of the photon counting pixel are presented.
Nonlinear optical sub-bandgap excitation of ZnO-based photonic resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bader, Christina A.; Zeuner, Franziska; Bader, Manuel H. W.; Zentgraf, Thomas; Meier, Cedrik [Department of Physics and Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)
2015-12-07
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile candidate for photonic devices due to its highly efficient optical emission. However, for pumping of ZnO photonic devices UV-sources are required. Here, we investigate the alternative usage of widely available pulsed near-infrared (NIR)-sources and compare the efficiency of linear and nonlinear excitation processes. We found that bulk ZnO, ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisk devices exhibit strong nonlinear response when excited with NIR pulses (λ ≈ 1060 nm). In addition, we show that the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} microdisks exhibit sharp whispering gallery modes over the blue-yellow part of the visible spectrum for both excitation conditions and high Q-factors up to Q = 4700. The results demonstrate that nonlinear excitation is an efficient way to pump ZnO photonic devices.
Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges
Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.
2016-03-01
This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.
Bona, Zachée; Nganso, Hugues Merlain Tetchou; Ekogo, Thierry Blanchard; Njock, Moïse Godfroy Kwato
2014-02-01
A fully relativistic multipole scheme is formulated to study two-photon emission processes in hydrogenlike ions with an infinitely heavy, pointlike, and spinless nucleus of charge up to 100. By making use of the Sturmian expansion of the Dirac-Coulomb Green function of the first order constructed by Szmytkowski, closed-form expressions are derived for arbitrary multipole channels. In the nonrelativistic limit, well-known formulas established previously are retrieved. For the sake of assessing the effectiveness of our approach, numerical applications are then carried out for two-photon decay rates of the selected 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 atomic states. To this end, radial integrals, the most crucial quantities involved in the matrix elements, are treated with great care by means of two suitable techniques that agree with each other quite closely so that very accurate values are obtained regardless of the choice of parameters, such as radial quantum numbers and orders of spherical Bessel functions of the first kind. In addition, the convergence and stability of computations are checked in connection with the intermediate-state summation, which appears within the second-order perturbation theory. As expected, the gauge invariance of our fully relativistic multipole numbers is confirmed. Relativistic effects, and the influence of the negative spectrum of the complete set of Dirac-Coulomb Sturmians of first order and retardation truncations in the transition operator are examined. Finally, a comparison is undertaken of our two-photon relativistic calculations with refined predictions of other authors based on finite basis-set methods widely employed over the past decades.
Photon attenuation properties of some thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2015-10-15
Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities for nuclear materials; thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds have been studied. The photon attenuation properties for the compounds have been investigated for partial photon interaction processes by photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production. The values of these parameters have been found to change with photon energy and interaction process. The variations of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically. Moreover, results have shown that these compounds are better shielding and suggesting smaller dimensions. The study would be useful for applications of these materials for gamma ray shielding requirement. (Author)
QED corrections to Planck's radiation law and photon thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partovi, M.H.
1994-01-01
Leading corrections to Planck's radiation formula and other photon thermodynamic functions arising from the pair-mediated photon-photon interaction are calculated. This interaction is found to be attractive and to cause a small increase in occupation number for all modes and a corresponding correction to the equation of state. The results are valid for the range of temperatures well below T e =5.9 GK, the temperature equivalent to the electron mass, a range for which the photon gas is essentially free of pair-produced electrons and positrons. An interesting effect of these corrections is the behavior of the photon gas as an elastic medium and its ability to propagate density perturbations. It is found that the cosmic photon gas subsequent to electron-positron annihilation would have manifested these elastic properties were it not for the presence of the free electrons and their dominance of the photon thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-04-01
Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.
Isolated photon production measurement in p-p collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ALICE detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mas, A.
2013-01-01
The high transverse momentum photon production in proton-proton collisions (p-p) is described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD). Among these photons, those produced directly by an energetic partonic interaction (called direct photons) are of great interest since their measurement allows to test pQCD predictions and it allows also the constraint of proton structure functions. The work of this thesis aims at studying and measuring direct photons produced in p-p collisions at 7 TeV with the ALICE detector. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is used to achieve this measurement which is based on an isolation procedure that allows to reduce background coming from other photon production modes (fragmentation, decay). Multiple aspects like EMCal data quality, photon identification as well as spectrum correction and its normalization are highlighted. Finally, the first isolated prompt photon cross-section measured with ALICE detector is presented, compared to theoretical predictions and to the last results from other LHC experiments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung
2011-01-01
Conventional X-ray systems and X-ray computed tomography (CT) systems, which use detectors operated in the integrating mode, are not able to reflect spectral information because the detector output is proportional to the energy fluence integrated over the whole spectrum. Photon-counting detectors have been considered as alternative devices. These detectors can measure the photon energy deposited by each event and improve the image quality. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of K-edge imaging using a photon-counting detector and evaluated the capability of material decomposition in X-ray images. The geometries of X-ray imaging systems equipped with cadmium telluride (CdTe) detectors and phantoms consisting of different materials were designed using Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) version 6.0. To observe the effect of a discontinuity in the attenuation due to the K-edge of a high atomic number material, we chose the energy windows to be one below and one above the K-edge absorption energy of the target material. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the target materials were increased at selective energy levels above the K-edge absorption energy because the attenuation is more dramatically increased at energies above the K-edge absorption energy of the material than at energies below that. The CNRs for the target materials in the K-edge image were proportional to the material concentration. The results of this study show that K-edge imaging can be carried out in conventional X-ray systems and X-ray CT systems using CdTe photon-counting detectors and that the target materials can be separated from background materials by using K-edge imaging. The photon-counting detector has potential to provide improved image quality, and this study will be used as a basis for future studies on photon-counting X-ray imaging.
Xing, Shuai; Wu, Tengfei; Li, Shuyi; Xia, Chuanqing; Han, Jibo; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Chunbo
2018-03-01
As a bridge connecting microwave frequency and optical frequency, femtosecond laser has important significance in optical frequency measurement. Compared with the traditional Ti-sapphire femtosecond optical frequency comb, with the advantages of compact structure, strong anti-interference ability and low cost, the fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb has a wider application prospect. An experiment of spectrum broadening in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber pumped by an Er-fiber mode-locked femtosecond laser is studied in this paper. Based on optical amplification and frequency doubling, the central wavelength of the output spectrum is 780nm and the average power is 232mW. With the femtosecond pulses coupled into two different photonic crystal fibers, the coverage of visible spectrum is up to 500nm-960nm. The spectral shape and width can be optimized by changing the polarization state for satisfying the requirments of different optical frequencies measurement.
Fabrication of self-assembled photonic-crystal structures by centrifugation and spin coating
Xu, Yan; Schneider, Garrett J.; Wetzel, Eric D.; Prather, Dennis W.
2003-11-01
We have developed a simple, low-cost process for the fabrication of high-quality three-dimensional artificial-opal and inverse-opal photonic crystals. The process is based on the self-assembly of a template from a uniform suspension of polystyrene microspheres, which is sintered for added strength and subsequently back-filled with high-index material. The template formation is assisted by a combination of centrifugation and spin-annealing, which requires relatively short process times and inexpensive laboratory equipment. The process has been used to fabricate polycrystalline photonic crystals with photonic stop gaps in the mid-IR portion of the spectrum. Details of the fabrication process and fabricated samples will be presented. In addition, Fourier-transform IR reflection spectroscopy has been used to characterize the samples; the results are shown to be in excellent agreement with band structure diffraction calculations.
Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of atoms in a hollow-core photonic crystal fibre
Okaba, Shoichi; Takano, Tetsushi; Benabid, Fetah; Bradley, Tom; Vincetti, Luca; Maizelis, Zakhar; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco; Katori, Hidetoshi
2014-01-01
Unlike photons, which are conveniently handled by mirrors and optical fibres without loss of coherence, atoms lose their coherence via atom–atom and atom–wall interactions. This decoherence of atoms deteriorates the performance of atomic clocks and magnetometers, and also hinders their miniaturization. Here we report a novel platform for precision spectroscopy. Ultracold strontium atoms inside a kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre are transversely confined by an optical lattice to prevent atoms from interacting with the fibre wall. By confining at most one atom in each lattice site, to avoid atom–atom interactions and Doppler effect, a 7.8-kHz-wide spectrum is observed for the 1S0−3P1(m=0) transition. Atoms singly trapped in a magic lattice in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres improve the optical depth while preserving atomic coherence time. PMID:24934478
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chai, Zhen; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang
2013-01-01
A low-power all-optical switching is presented based on the all-optical tunable Fano-like resonance in a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of polycrystalline lithium niobate. An asymmetric Fano-like line shape is achieved in the transmission spectrum by using two cascaded and uncoupled photonic crystal microcavities. The physical mechanism underlying the all-optical switching is attributed to the dynamic shift of the Fano-like resonance peak caused by variations in the dispersion relations of the photonic crystal structure induced by pump light. A large switching efficiency of 61% is reached under excitation of a weak pump light with an intensity as low as 1 MW cm −2 . (paper)
Optical properties of an atomic ensemble coupled to a band edge of a photonic crystal waveguide
Munro, Ewan; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Chang, Darrick E.
2017-08-01
We study the optical properties of an ensemble of two-level atoms coupled to a 1D photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), which mediates long-range coherent dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms. We show that the long-range interactions can dramatically alter the linear and nonlinear optical behavior, as compared to a typical atomic ensemble. In particular, in the linear regime, we find that the transmission spectrum contains multiple transmission dips, whose properties we characterize. Moreover, we show how the linear spectrum may be used to infer the number of atoms present in the system, constituting an important experimental tool in a regime where techniques for conventional ensembles break down. We also show that some of the transmission dips are associated with an effective ‘two-level’ resonance that forms due to the long-range interactions. In particular, under strong global driving and appropriate conditions, we find that the atomic ensemble is only capable of absorbing and emitting single collective excitations at a time. Our results are of direct relevance to atom-PCW experiments that should soon be realizable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yu Ran; Kang, Do Won; Kim, Hong Lae, E-mail: chkwon@kangwon.ac.kr, E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr; Kwon, Chan Ho, E-mail: chkwon@kangwon.ac.kr, E-mail: hlkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Molecular Science and Fusion Technology, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-07
Ionization energies and cationic structures of pyridine were intensively investigated utilizing one-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy with vacuum ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference frequency mixing in Kr. The present one-photon high-resolution MATI spectrum of pyridine demonstrated a much finer and richer vibrational structure than that of the previously reported two-photon MATI spectrum. From the MATI spectrum and photoionization efficiency curve, the accurate ionization energy of the ionic ground state of pyridine was confidently determined to be 73 570 ± 6 cm{sup −1} (9.1215 ± 0.0007 eV). The observed spectrum was almost completely assigned by utilizing Franck-Condon factors and vibrational frequencies calculated through adjustments of the geometrical parameters of cationic pyridine at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. A unique feature unveiled through rigorous analysis was the prominent progression of the 10 vibrational mode, which corresponds to in-plane ring bending, and the combination of other totally symmetric fundamentals with the ring bending overtones, which contribute to the geometrical change upon ionization. Notably, the remaining peaks originate from the upper electronic state ({sup 2}A{sub 2}), as predicted by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies and symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction calculations. Based on the quantitatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results, it was concluded that upon ionization the pyridine cation in the ground electronic state should have a planar structure of C{sub 2v} symmetry through the C-N axis.
Absorption in one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Junfei; Shen Yifeng; Liu Xiaohan; Fu Rongtang; Zi Jian; Zhu Zhiqiang
2004-01-01
We show theoretically that the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced considerably over the corresponding constituent metal. By properly choosing the structural and material parameters, the absorption of one-dimensional metallic-dielectric photonic crystals can be enhanced by one order of magnitude in the visible and in the near infrared regions. It is found that the absorptance of such photonic crystals increases with increasing number of periods. Rules on how to obtain a absorption enhancement in a certain frequency range are discussed. (letter to the editor)