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Sample records for phosphate filler-containing fast

  1. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T.R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe 3+ /Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300–700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass

  2. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashin, E.G.; Lisovskij, I.P.; Smakhtin, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10 8 nxcm -2 xs -1 . Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products

  3. Determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour by fast neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashin, E G; Lisovskii, I P; Smakhtin, L A

    1980-01-01

    A neutron-activation method is suggested for determination of fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour. Used as the source of fast neutrons was an NG-150M neutron generator with a maximum yield of 10/sup 8/ nxcm/sup -2/xs/sup -1/. Samples were irradiated in polyethylene ampoules using a pneumatic shuttle. Fluorine was determined with reference to the fluorine-18 isotope. The accuracy of determining fluorine in fodder phosphates and phosphorite flour is 1 to 4% (rel.) at a rate of not less than 10 samples per hour. The method is suitable for in-process testing of products.

  4. Development of a Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite for Fast Fluorogenic Detection of Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio R. Martínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Current procedures for the detection and identification of bacterial infections are laborious, time-consuming, and require a high workload and well-equipped laboratories. Therefore the work presented herein developed a simple, fast, and low cost method for bacterial detection based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a nutritive mixture and the fluorogenic substrate. Calcium phosphate ceramic nanoparticles were characterized and integrated with a nutritive mixture for the early detection of bacteria by visual as well as fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The composite was obtained by combining calcium phosphate nanoparticles (Ca:P ratio, 1.33:1 with a nutritive mixture of protein hydrolysates and carbon sources, which promote fast bacterial multiplication, and the fluorogenic substrate 4-methylumbellipheryl-β-d-glucuronide (MUG. The composite had an average particle size of 173.2 nm and did not show antibacterial activity against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. After an Escherichia coli suspension was in contact with the composite for 60–90 min, fluorescence detected under UV light or by fluorescence spectrophotometer indicated the presence of bacteria. Intense fluorescence was observed after incubation for a maximum of 90 min. Thus, this calcium phosphate nanocomposite system may be useful as a model for the development of other nanoparticle composites for detection of early bacterial adhesion.

  5. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zirconia filler containing composite core material and fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeaidi, Zaid Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using ANOVA and Multiple comparisons test. The lowest and highest failure loads were shown by groups LC (18.741±3.02) and MC (25.16±3.30) respectively. Group LC (18.741±3.02) showed significantly lower failure loads compared to groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) (pcomposite cores was comparable to teeth restored with conventional Zr free bulk fill composites. Zr filled bulk fill composites are recommended for restoration of endodontically treated teeth as they show comparable fracture resistance to conventional composite materials with less catastrophic failures.

  6. Impact of Prolonged Fasting on the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation in the Urine: Calcium Phosphate Lithogenesis during Prolonged Fasting in a Healthy Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad A; Aarabi, Mehdi; Shaker, Pouyan; Ghafarian, Amir M; Chamanian, Pouyan; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2018-03-02

    Intermittent fasting and curtailing water intake for extended periods were likely common in Paleolithic times. Today it occurs for religious and dietary reasons. This restriction in intake should cause a decrease in the urine flow rate while raising the concentration of certain substances in urine to the point of precipitation. In this study we measured the risk of CaHPO 4 precipitation following 18 hours of food and water deprivation. Urine samples were periodically collected from 15 healthy subjects who fasted and abstained from drinking any liquid for 18 hours. The urine constituents Ca 2+ , HPO 4 2- and pH involved in CaHPO 4 formation were measured at various times throughout the fasting day. A comparison was made with control data, which consisted of diurnal urine collections taken throughout a separate nonfasting day prior to the fasting day. The mean ± SEM urine flow rate decreased significantly from 0.93 ± 0.1 ml per minute in the control group to 0.37 ± 0.05 ml per minute in the fasting group (p water deprivation, there was no evidence that the calculated risk of CaHPO 4 precipitation in the healthy subjects had increased. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ishikawa, K; Nagayama, M; Kon, M; Asaoka, K; Suzuki, K

    1998-02-01

    The effect of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement (aw-FSCPC) was investigated in a preliminary evaluation of aw-FSCPC containing drugs. Flomoxef sodium was employed as the antibiotic and was incorporated into the powder-phase aw-FSCPC at up to 10%. The setting time, consistency, wet diametral tensile strength (DTS) value, and porosity were measured for aw-FSCPC containing various amounts of flomoxef sodium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted for the identification of products. To evaluate the drug-release profile, set aw-FSCPC was immersed in saline and the released flomoxef sodium was determined at regular intervals. The spread area of the cement paste as an index of consistency of the cement increased progressively with the addition of flomoxef sodium, and it doubled when the aw-FSCPC contained 8% flomoxef sodium. In contrast, the wet DTS value decreased with increase in flomoxef sodium content. Bulk density measurement and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the set mass was more porous with the amount of flomoxef sodium contained in the aw-FSCPC. The XRD analysis revealed that formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from aw-FSCPC was reduced even after 24 h, when the aw-FSCPC contained flomoxef sodium at > or = 6%. Therefore, the decrease of wet DTS value was thought to be partly the result of the increased porosity and inhibition of HAP formation in aw-FSCPC containing large amounts of flomoxef sodium. The flomoxef sodium release from aw-FSCPC showed the typical profile observed in a skeleton-type drug delivery system (DDS). The rate of drug release from aw-FSCPC can be controlled by changing the concentration of sodium alginate. Although flomoxef sodium addition has certain disadvantageous effects on the basic properties of aw-FSCPC, we conclude that aw-FSCPC is a good candidate for potential use as a DDS carrier that may be useful in surgical operations.

  8. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly(D,L-lactic acid nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu QW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Fu,1,* Yun-Peng Zi,1,* Wei Xu,1 Rong Zhou,1 Zhu-Yun Cai,1 Wei-Jie Zheng,1 Feng Chen,2 Qi-Rong Qian1 1Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(D,L-lactic acid (ACP-PLA nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63 cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due

  9. FAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqu...

  10. Structure and short time degradation studies of sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics loaded with simulated fast breeder (FBR) waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, A., E-mail: arvinda@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ambashta, R.D., E-mail: aritu@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ajithkumar, T. [Applied Catalysis Unit, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Sen, D.; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Wattal, P.K. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramics have been prepared using conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) routes. The structure of NZP ceramics, prepared using the HIP route, has been compared with conventionally sintered NZP using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ({sup 31}P and {sup 23}Na) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that NZP with no waste loading is aggressive toward the steel HIP-can during hot isostatic compaction and significant fraction of cations from the steel enter the ceramic material. Waste loaded NZP samples (10 wt% simulated FBR waste) show significantly low can-interaction and primary NZP phase is evident in this material. Upon exposure of can-interacted and waste loaded NZP to boiling water and steam, {sup 31}P NMR does not detect any major modifications in the network structure. However, the {sup 23}Na NMR spectra indicate migration of Na{sup +} ions from the surface and possible re-crystallization. This is corroborated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements carried out on these samples.

  11. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  12. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes ... Phosphate-containing foods and beverages include cola, wine, beer, whole grain cereals, nuts, dairy products and some ...

  13. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Impregnated with Potassium Phosphate in a Hydrogen Atmosphere for the Production of Phenol and Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Wang, Xin; Guo, Hao-qiang; Cui, Min-shu; Yang, Yong-ping

    2018-01-01

    A new technique was proposed to co-produce phenol and activated carbon (AC) from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with K3PO4 in a hydrogen atmosphere, followed by activation of the pyrolytic solid residues. Lab-scale catalytic fast pyrolysis experiments were performed to quantitatively determine the pyrolytic product distribution, as well as to investigate the effects of several factors on the phenol production, including pyrolysis atmosphere, catalyst type, biomass type, catalytic pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst impregnation content. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residues were activated to prepare ACs with high specific surface areas. The results indicated that phenol could be obtained due to the synergistic effects of K3PO4 and hydrogen atmosphere, with the yield and selectivity reaching 5.3 wt% and 17.8% from catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood with 8 wt% K3PO4 at 550°C in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique was adaptable to different woody materials for phenol production. Moreover, gas product generated from the pyrolysis process was feasible to be recycled to provide the hydrogen atmosphere, instead of extra hydrogen supply. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residue was suitable for AC preparation, using CO2 activation method, the specific surface area was as high as 1,605 m2/g. PMID:29515994

  14. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with potassium phosphate in a hydrogen atmosphere for the production of phenol and activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Wang, Xin; Guo, Hao-qiang; Cui, Min-shu; Yang, Yong-ping

    2018-02-01

    A new technique was proposed to co-produce phenol and activated carbon (AC) from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass impregnated with K3PO4 in a hydrogen atmosphere, followed by activation of the pyrolytic solid residues. Lab-scale catalytic fast pyrolysis experiments were performed to quantitatively determine the pyrolytic product distribution, as well as to investigate the effects of several factors on the phenol production, including pyrolysis atmosphere, catalyst type, biomass type, catalytic pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst impregnation content. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residues were activated to prepare ACs with high specific surface areas. The results indicated that phenol could be obtained due to the synergistic effects of K3PO4 and hydrogen atmosphere, with the yield and selectivity reaching 5.3 wt% and 17.8% from catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood with 8 wt% K3PO4 at 550 oC in a hydrogen atmosphere. This technique was adaptable to different woody materials for phenol production. Moreover, gas product generated from the pyrolysis process was feasible to be recycled to provide the hydrogen atmosphere, instead of extra hydrogen supply. In addition, the pyrolytic solid residue was suitable for AC preparation, using CO2 activation method, the specific surface area was as high as 1605 m2/g.

  15. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  16. The effects of inorganic phosphate and arsenate on both passive muscle visco-elasticity and maximum Ca2+ activated tension in chemically skinned rat fast and slow twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of adding either 25 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi) or its structural analogue arsenate (ASi) on both the maximum Ca2+ activated tension (Po) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) were investigated at 10 degrees C, using segments of single, chemically skinned rat muscle fibres. Whilst the results confirmed some previous findings on the effects of Pi on Po, they also showed that the addition of 25 mM ASi led to a large (approximately 50%) but completely reversible depression of Po in both the fast and slow twitch rat muscle fibres. Moreover, the depression of Po by ASi was greater at low than at high pH values. Examined in the presence of Dextran T-500, the passive tension and sarcomere length responses to a ramp stretch were found to be qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported in intact rat muscle fibres. Thus, the tension response to a ramp stretch, in the presence and absence of either 25 mM Pi or ASi, consisted of a viscous (P1), a visco-elastic (P2) and an elastic (P3) tension. However, the addition of either 25 mM Pi or ASi led to approximately 15-18% increase in the amplitude of the visco-elastic (P2) tension but had little or no effect on the amplitudes of the other two tension components (viscous, P1 and elastic, P3 tensions). Furthermore, neither compound significantly altered the relaxation rate of the passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension). These results show that Po (arising from cycling cross-bridges) and passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) are affected differently by both Pi and ASi and suggest that they may not share a common structural basis. The possibility that passive muscle visco-elasticity (P2 tension) arises from the gap-(titin) filament (as suggested previously by Mutungi and Ranatunga, 1996b J Physiol 496: 827-837) and that Pi and ASi increase its amplitude by interacting with the PEVK region of the filament are discussed.

  17. The Fast-Growing Brucella suis Biovar 5 Depends on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase and Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase but Not on Fbp and GlpX Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatases or Isocitrate Lyase for Full Virulence in Laboratory Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Brucella infect a range of vertebrates causing a worldwide extended zoonosis. The best-characterized brucellae infect domestic livestock, behaving as stealthy facultative intracellular parasites. This stealthiness depends on envelope molecules with reduced pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as revealed by the low lethality and ability to persist in mice of these bacteria. Infected cells are often engorged with brucellae without signs of distress, suggesting that stealthiness could also reflect an adaptation of the parasite metabolism to use local nutrients without harming the cell. To investigate this, we compared key metabolic abilities of Brucella abortus 2308 Wisconsin (2308W, a cattle biovar 1 virulent strain, and B. suis 513, the reference strain of the ancestral biovar 5 found in wild rodents. B. suis 513 used a larger number of C substrates and showed faster growth rates in vitro, two features similar to those of B. microti, a species phylogenomically close to B. suis biovar 5 that infects voles. However, whereas B. microti shows enhanced lethality and reduced persistence in mice, B. suis 513 was similar to B. abortus 2308W in this regard. Mutant analyses showed that B. suis 513 and B. abortus 2308W were similar in that both depend on phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis for virulence but not on the classical gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases Fbp-GlpX or on isocitrate lyase (AceA. However, B. suis 513 used pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PpdK and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PckA for phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis in vitro while B. abortus 2308W used only PpdK. Moreover, whereas PpdK dysfunction causes attenuation of B. abortus 2308W in mice, in B. suis, 513 attenuation occurred only in the double PckA-PpdK mutant. Also contrary to what occurs in B. abortus 2308, a B. suis 513 malic enzyme (Mae mutant was not attenuated, and this independence of Mae and the role of PpdK was confirmed by the lack of

  18. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  19. Phosphate additives in food--a health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Eberhard; Hahn, Kai; Ketteler, Markus; Kuhlmann, Martin K; Mann, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia has been identified in the past decade as a strong predictor of mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). For example, a study of patients in stage CKD 5 (with an annual mortality of about 20%) revealed that 12% of all deaths in this group were attributable to an elevated serum phosphate concentration. Recently, a high-normal serum phosphate concentration has also been found to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Therefore, phosphate additives in food are a matter of concern, and their potential impact on health may well have been underappreciated. We reviewed pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and EU databases (www.zusatzstoffe-online.de, www.codexalimentarius.de), with the search terms "phosphate additives" and "hyperphosphatemia." There is no need to lower the content of natural phosphate, i.e. organic esters, in food, because this type of phosphate is incompletely absorbed; restricting its intake might even lead to protein malnutrition. On the other hand, inorganic phosphate in food additives is effectively absorbed and can measurably elevate the serum phosphate concentration in patients with advanced CKD. Foods with added phosphate tend to be eaten by persons at the lower end of the socioeconomic scale, who consume more processed and "fast" food. The main pathophysiological effect of phosphate is vascular damage, e.g. endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. Aside from the quality of phosphate in the diet (which also requires attention), the quantity of phosphate consumed by patients with advanced renal failure should not exceed 1000 mg per day, according to the guidelines. Prospective controlled trials are currently unavailable. In view of the high prevalence of CKD and the potential harm caused by phosphate additives to food, the public should be informed that added phosphate is damaging to health. Furthermore, calls for labeling

  20. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura 799 ... vated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. ..... activation of genes involved in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to.

  1. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  2. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  3. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  4. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  5. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)

    1981-06-01

    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  6. Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease beyond Chronic Kidney Disease and Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinee Disthabanchong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate is essential for life but its accumulation can be detrimental. In end-stage renal disease, widespread vascular calcification occurs as a result of chronic phosphate load. The accumulation of phosphate is likely to occur long before the rise in serum phosphate above the normal range since several observational studies in both general population and early-stage CKD patients have identified the relationship between high-normal serum phosphate and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Consumption of food high in phosphate increases both fasting and postprandial serum phosphate and habitual intake of high phosphate diet is associated with aging, cardiac hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The decline in renal function and dietary phosphate load can increase circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 which may have a direct impact on cardiomyocytes. Increased FGF-23 levels in both CKD and general populations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and mortality. Increased extracellular phosphate directly affects endothelial cells causing cell apoptosis and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs causing transformation to osteogenic phenotype. Excess of calcium and phosphate in the circulation can promote the formation of protein-mineral complex called calciprotein particles (CPPs. In CKD, these CPPs contain less calcification inhibitors, induce inflammation, and promote VSMC calcification.

  7. Metal cation controls phosphate release in the myosin ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinghua; Huang, Furong; Nesmelov, Yuri E

    2017-11-01

    Myosin is an enzyme that utilizes ATP to produce a conformational change generating a force. The kinetics of the myosin reverse recovery stroke depends on the metal cation complexed with ATP. The reverse recovery stroke is slow for MgATP and fast for MnATP. The metal ion coordinates the γ phosphate of ATP in the myosin active site. It is accepted that the reverse recovery stroke is correlated with the phosphate release; therefore, magnesium "holds" phosphate tighter than manganese. Magnesium and manganese are similar ions in terms of their chemical properties and the shell complexation; hence, we propose to use these ions to study the mechanism of the phosphate release. Analysis of octahedral complexes of magnesium and manganese show that the partial charge of magnesium is higher than that of manganese and the slightly larger size of manganese ion makes its ionic potential smaller. We hypothesize that electrostatics play a role in keeping and releasing the abstracted γ phosphate in the active site, and the stronger electric charge of magnesium ion holds γ phosphate tighter. We used stable myosin-nucleotide analog complex and Raman spectroscopy to examine the effect of the metal cation on the relative position of γ phosphate analog in the active site. We found that in the manganese complex, the γ phosphate analog is 0.01 nm further away from ADP than in the magnesium complex. We conclude that the ionic potential of the metal cation plays a role in the retention of the abstracted phosphate. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  8. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  9. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  10. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  11. Better prospects for phosphate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The extraction of uranium as a by product of phosphate production is discussed. Techniques being commercially developed are described. The trend towards the wet process, in which sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the phosphate, producing phosphoric acid, is also the preferred method for uranium recovery. Recovery from a wet process phosphoric acid stream, integrated with phosphate fertilizer manufacture, is becoming increasingly commercially viable for the production of yellow-cake.

  12. on association of trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)

  13. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  14. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  15. Hyaluron Filler Containing Lidocaine on a CPM Basis for Lip Augmentation: Reports from Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tanja C; Sattler, Gerhard; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers is established. As monophasic polydensified hyaluronic acid products with variable density, CPM-HAL1 (Belotero Balance Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) and CPM-HAL2 (Belotero Intense Lidocaine, Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) are qualified for beautification and particularly natural-looking rejuvenation, respectively. The aim of this article was to assess the handling and outcome of lip augmentation using the lidocaine-containing hyaluronic acid fillers, CPM-HAL1 and CPM-HAL2. Data were documented from patients who received lip augmentation by means of beautification and/or rejuvenation using CPM-HAL1 and/or CPM-HAL2. Observation period was 4 months, with assessment of natural outcome, evenness, distribution, fluidity, handling, malleability, tolerability, as well as patient satisfaction and pain. A total of 146 patients from 21 German centers participated. Physicians rated natural outcome and evenness as good or very good for more than 95% of patients. Distribution, fluidity, handling, and malleability were assessed for both fillers as good or very good in more than 91% of patients. At every evaluation point, more than 93% of patients were very or very much satisfied with the product. A total of 125 patients (85.6%) experienced transient injection-related side effects. Pain intensity during the procedure was mild (2.72 ± 1.72 on the 0-10 pain assessment scale) and abated markedly within 30 minutes (0.42 ± 0.57). Lip augmentation with hyaluronic acid fillers produced a long-term cosmetic result. Due to the lidocaine content, procedural pain was low and transient. Accordingly, a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved that was maintained throughout the observation period. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, with nominal formula Cu(2)ScZr(PO(4))(3), has a beige coloration and displays fast Cu(+) cation conduction at elevated temperatures. It adopts a NASICON-type structure in the space group R3c. The examined crystal was an obverse-reverse twin with approximately equal twin compon...

  17. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  18. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Jesus Moreira de

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 or (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  19. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Jesus Moreira de

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C), and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 or (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  20. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  1. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  2. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  3. Eco-physiological studies on the uptake of the pollutants, copper, zinc and phosphate, by certain algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, B C; Kumar, H D

    1974-01-01

    Certain algae isolated from polluted and nonpolluted habitats were studied for their capacity to absorb copper, zinc, and phosphate from the ambient medium. They were found to possess a high gleaning capacity for these pollutants. The uptake of copper does not seem to require much metabolic energy and is independent of the growth of the alga, but the uptake of zinc seems to depend directly on its growth. Anacystis nidulans and Chlorella vulgaris are fast growing algae; they can absorb high amounts of phosphate and can be gainfully employed for retrieving the phosphate from the medium. However, the algae must be harvested before they excrete some of the phosphates back into the medium.

  4. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  5. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  6. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  7. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  8. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  9. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  10. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  11. Fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Peter

    Bogen omfatter en gennemgang af lovgivning, praksis og teori vedrørende køb af fast ejendom og offentligretlig og privatretlig regulering. Bogen belyser bl.a. de privatretlige emner: købers misligholdelsesbeføjelser, servitutter, naboret, hævd og erstatningsansvar for miljøskader samt den...

  12. Lack of awareness among future medical professionals about the risk of consuming hidden phosphate-containing processed food and drinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Phosphate toxicity is an important determinant of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, particularly those undergoing hemodialysis treatments. CKD patients are advised to take a low phosphate-containing diet, and are additionally prescribed with phosphate-lowering drugs. Since these patients usually seek guidance from their physicians and nurses for their dietary options, we conducted a survey to determine the levels of awareness regarding the high phosphate content in commercially processed food and drinks among medical and nursing students at the Hirosaki University School of Medicine in Japan. For this survey, 190 medical and nursing students (average age 21.7±3 years were randomly selected, and provided with a list of questions aimed at evaluating their awareness of food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate ingredients. While 98.9% of these students were aware of the presence of sugar in commercially available soda drinks, only 6.9% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid. Similarly, only 11.6% of these students were aware of the presence of phosphate in commercially processed food, such as hamburgers and pizza. Moreover, around two thirds of the surveyed students (67.7% were unaware of the harmful effects of unrestricted consumption of phosphate-containing food and drinks. About 28% of the surveyed students consume such "fast food" once a week, while 40% drink at least 1∼5 cans of soda drinks/week. After realizing the potential long-term risks of consuming excessive phosphate-containing food and drinks, 40.5% of the survey participants considered reducing their phosphate intake by minimizing the consumption of commercially processed "fast food" items and soda drinks. Moreover, another 48.4% of students showed interest in obtaining more information on the negative health effects of consuming excessive amounts of phosphate. This survey emphasizes the need for educational initiative to raise

  13. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  14. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  15. Fast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, E.; Linde, R.; Tiemens, U.; Weiss, H.

    1978-01-01

    A system has been constructed for fast tomosynthesis, whereby X-ray photographs are made of a single layer of an object. Twenty five X-ray tubes illuminate the object simultaneously at different angles. The resulting coded image is decoded by projecting it with a pattern of lenses that have the same form as the pattern of X-ray tubes. The coded image is optically correlated with the pattern of the sources. The scale of this can be adjusted so that the desired layer of the object is portrayed. Experimental results of its use in a hospital are presented. (C.F.)

  16. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  17. Phosphate removal from water using lithium intercalated gibbsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Li; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Tzou, Yu-Min; Liaw, Ren-Bao; Chang, Ta-Wei; Chen, Jen-Hshuan

    2007-08-17

    In this study, lithium intercalated gibbsite (LIG) was investigated for its effectiveness at removing phosphate from water and the mechanisms involved. LIG was prepared through intercalating LiCl into gibbsite giving a structure of [LiAl2(OH)6]+ layers with interlayer Cl- and water. The results of batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at various pHs exhibited an L-shape and could be fitted well using the Langmuir model. The Langmuir adsorption maximum was determined to be 3.0 mmol g(-1) at pH 4.5 and decreased with increasing pH. The adsorption of phosphate was mainly through the displacement of the interlayer Cl- ions in LIG. In conjunction with the anion exchange reaction, the formation of surface complexes or precipitates could also readily occur at lower pH. The adsorption decreased with increasing pH due to decreased H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO4(2-) molar ratio in solution and positive charges on the edge faces of LIG. Anion exchange is a fast reaction and can be completed within minutes; on the contrary, surface complexation is a slow process and requires days to reach equilibrium. At lower pH, the amount of adsorbed phosphate decreased significantly as the ionic strength was increased from 0.01 to 0.1M. The adsorption at higher pH showed high selectivity toward divalent HPO4(2-) ions with an increase in ionic strength having no considerable effect on the phosphate adsorption. These results suggest that LIG may be an effective scavenger for removal of phosphate from water.

  18. Phosphate removal from water using lithium intercalated gibbsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-L.; Cheng, C.-Y.; Tzou, Y.-M.; Liaw, R.-B.; Chang, T.-W.; Chen, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, lithium intercalated gibbsite (LIG) was investigated for its effectiveness at removing phosphate from water and the mechanisms involved. LIG was prepared through intercalating LiCl into gibbsite giving a structure of [LiAl 2 (OH) 6 ] + layers with interlayer Cl - and water. The results of batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at various pHs exhibited an L-shape and could be fitted well using the Langmuir model. The Langmuir adsorption maximum was determined to be 3.0 mmol g -1 at pH 4.5 and decreased with increasing pH. The adsorption of phosphate was mainly through the displacement of the interlayer Cl - ions in LIG. In conjunction with the anion exchange reaction, the formation of surface complexes or precipitates could also readily occur at lower pH. The adsorption decreased with increasing pH due to decreased H 2 PO 4 - /HPO 4 2- molar ratio in solution and positive charges on the edge faces of LIG. Anion exchange is a fast reaction and can be completed within minutes; on the contrary, surface complexation is a slow process and requires days to reach equilibrium. At lower pH, the amount of adsorbed phosphate decreased significantly as the ionic strength was increased from 0.01 to 0.1 M. The adsorption at higher pH showed high selectivity toward divalent HPO 4 2- ions with an increase in ionic strength having no considerable effect on the phosphate adsorption. These results suggest that LIG may be an effective scavenger for removal of phosphate from water

  19. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  20. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  1. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  2. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  3. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Removal of radioactive waste waters by calcium phosphate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Vukovic, Z.; Mandic, M.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of removal of radioactive strontium by coprecipitation and sorption with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which transformed into stable crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were investigated. The advantage of phosphate precipitation is a possibility not only for removal of radioactive strontium but also for incorporation of a strontium ion into stable structure of HA. calcium phosphate was precipitated from highly saturated solution by fast reagent mixing. Kinetic experiments were performed using strontium nitrate solution labeled with 8 5 Sr. The amount of radionuclide uptake by the solid phase was determined radiometrically at different time intervals. It was found that ACP phase firmly retains coprecipitated impurities up to 150 min, of reaction time when partial rejection of strontium into the solution occurred. In sorption experiments after prolonged time of equilibrium the firm incorporation of 8 5 Sr stable crystalline structure of HA was detected. The incorporation of 8 5 Sr into crystalline HA was analysed in detail in the paper /S. Raicevic, et. al., J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., Articles, Vol. 204, No 2, 1996/ (author)

  5. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to almost all forward-looking studies, the world’s energy consumption will increase in the future decades, mostly because of the growing world population and the long-term development of emerging countries. The effort to contain global warming makes it hard to exclude nuclear energy from the global energy mix. Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium (a natural, finite resource), whereas some future Generation IV reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR), starting with an initial fissile load, will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in LWR. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources and the nuclear power demand as estimated by various international organisations. Uranium is currently produced from conventional sources. The estimated quantities of uranium evolve over time in relation to their rate of extraction and the discovery of new deposits. Contrary to conventional resources, unconventional resources – because they are hardly used – also exist. These resources are more uncertain both in terms of their quantities and the feasibility of recovering them. Recovering uranium from seawater would guarantee a virtually infinite resource of nuclear fuel, but its technical and economic feasibility has yet to be demonstrated, and huge advances need to be achieved in this direction. According to different publications on phosphate reserves, the potential amount of uranium recoverable from phosphates can be estimated at around 4 MtU. Furthermore, the production of uranium as a by-product of phosphate is determined by the world production of

  6. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  7. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  8. FAST: FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Lawrence

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available FAST (FAST Analysis of Sequences Toolbox provides simple, powerful open source command-line tools to filter, transform, annotate and analyze biological sequence data. Modeled after the GNU (GNU’s Not Unix Textutils such as grep, cut, and tr, FAST tools such as fasgrep, fascut, and fastr make it easy to rapidly prototype expressive bioinformatic workflows in a compact and generic command vocabulary. Compact combinatorial encoding of data workflows with FAST commands can simplify the documentation and reproducibility of bioinformatic protocols, supporting better transparency in biological data science. Interface self-consistency and conformity with conventions of GNU, Matlab, Perl, BioPerl, R and GenBank help make FAST easy and rewarding to learn. FAST automates numerical, taxonomic, and text-based sorting, selection and transformation of sequence records and alignment sites based on content, index ranges, descriptive tags, annotated features, and in-line calculated analytics, including composition and codon usage. Automated content- and feature-based extraction of sites and support for molecular population genetic statistics makes FAST useful for molecular evolutionary analysis. FAST is portable, easy to install and secure thanks to the relative maturity of its Perl and BioPerl foundations, with stable releases posted to CPAN. Development as well as a publicly accessible Cookbook and Wiki are available on the FAST GitHub repository at https://github.com/tlawrence3/FAST. The default data exchange format in FAST is Multi-FastA (specifically, a restriction of BioPerl FastA format. Sanger and Illumina 1.8+ FastQ formatted files are also supported. FAST makes it easier for non-programmer biologists to interactively investigate and control biological data at the speed of thought.

  9. Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcelli, Steven

    The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.

  10. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr S. Al-Sanabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1 application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2 improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3 biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields.

  11. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.

    1976-01-01

    The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

  12. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  13. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  14. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  15. Biosynthesis and characterization of layered iron phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weijia; He Wen; Wang Meiting; Zhang Xudong; Yan Shunpu; Tian Xiuying; Sun Xianan; Han Xiuxiu; Li Peng

    2008-01-01

    Layered iron phosphate with uniform morphology has been synthesized by a precipitation method with yeast cells as a biosurfactant. The yeast cells are used to regulate the nucleation and growth of layered iron phosphate. The uniform layered structure is characterized by small-angle x-ray diffraction (SAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to analyze the chemical bond linkages in organic–inorganic hybrid iron phosphate. The likely synthetic mechanism of nucleation and oriented growth is discussed. The electrical conductivity of hybrid iron phosphate heat-treated at different temperatures is presented

  16. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  17. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  18. Bio-treatment of phosphate from synthetic wastewater using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the efficient phosphate utilizing isolates were used to remove phosphate from synthetic phosphate wastewater was tested using batch scale process. Hence the objective of the present study was to examine the efficiency of bacterial species individually for the removal of phosphate from synthetic phosphate ...

  19. Pentose phosphates in nucleoside interconversion and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Maria G; Camici, Marcella; Mascia, Laura; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ipata, Piero L

    2006-03-01

    Ribose phosphates are either synthesized through the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, or are supplied by nucleoside phosphorylases. The two main pentose phosphates, ribose-5-phosphate and ribose-1-phosphate, are readily interconverted by the action of phosphopentomutase. Ribose-5-phosphate is the direct precursor of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, for both de novo and 'salvage' synthesis of nucleotides. Phosphorolysis of deoxyribonucleosides is the main source of deoxyribose phosphates, which are interconvertible, through the action of phosphopentomutase. The pentose moiety of all nucleosides can serve as a carbon and energy source. During the past decade, extensive advances have been made in elucidating the pathways by which the pentose phosphates, arising from nucleoside phosphorolysis, are either recycled, without opening of their furanosidic ring, or catabolized as a carbon and energy source. We review herein the experimental knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which (a) ribose-1-phosphate, produced by purine nucleoside phosphorylase acting catabolically, is either anabolized for pyrimidine salvage and 5-fluorouracil activation, with uridine phosphorylase acting anabolically, or recycled for nucleoside and base interconversion; (b) the nucleosides can be regarded, both in bacteria and in eukaryotic cells, as carriers of sugars, that are made available though the action of nucleoside phosphorylases. In bacteria, catabolism of nucleosides, when suitable carbon and energy sources are not available, is accomplished by a battery of nucleoside transporters and of inducible catabolic enzymes for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and for pentose phosphates. In eukaryotic cells, the modulation of pentose phosphate production by nucleoside catabolism seems to be affected by developmental and physiological factors on enzyme levels.

  20. A clinical study of serum phosphate and magnesium in type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi.R, Julius Amaldas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess serum phosphate and magnesium level in type-2 diabetic patients in comparison with those of control subjects. Methodology: There were 100 diabetic patients and 100 age matched non-diabetic (control subjects included in this study. Serum phosphate, serum magnesium and fasting and postprandial blood sugar measured among the diabetic and control groups using SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Results: Serum phosphate level was significantly lower in diabetic patients (2.92 ± 0.75 as compared to control subjects (3.38 ± 0.49. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients (0.9 ± 0.15 compared to controls (2.75 ± 0.46 Conclusion: The study reveals that hyperglycemia may reduce serum levels of magnesium and phosphorus.

  1. Removal of phosphate from solution by adsorption and precipitation of calcium phosphate onto monohydrocalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shintaro; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2012-10-15

    The sorption behavior and mechanism of phosphate on monohydrocalcite (CaCO(3)·H(2)O: MHC) were examined using batch sorption experiments as a function of phosphate concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures, and reaction times. The mode of PO(4) sorption is divisible into three processes depending on the phosphate loading. At low phosphate concentrations, phosphate is removed by coprecipitation of phosphate during the transformation of MHC to calcite. The sorption mode at the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations is most likely an adsorption process because the sorption isotherm at the conditions can be fitted reasonably with the Langmuir equation. The rapid sorption kinetics at the conditions is also consistent with the adsorption reaction. The adsorption of phosphate on MHC depends strongly on ionic strength, but slightly on temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of MHC obtained from the regression of the experimental data to the Langmuir equation are higher than those reported for stable calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) in any conditions. At high phosphate concentrations, the amount of sorption deviates from the Langmuir isotherm, which can fit the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations. Speciation-saturation analyses of the reacted solutions at the conditions indicated that the solution compositions which deviate from the Langmuir equation are supersaturated with respect to a certain calcium phosphate. The obtained calcium phosphate is most likely amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)·xH(2)O). The formation of the calcium phosphate depends strongly on ionic strength, temperature, and reaction times. The solubility of MHC is higher than calcite and aragonite because of its metastability. Therefore, the higher solubility of MHC facilitates the formation of the calcium phosphates more than with calcite and aragonite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fasting and rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Jokar

    2015-01-01

    Fasting is one of the important religious practices of Muslims, in which the individuals abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Fasting is not obligatory or even not allowed, in case it causes health problems to the fasting individual. Rheumatic diseases are a major group of chronic diseases which can bring about numerous problems while fasting. The aim of this article is to review the impact of Islamic fasting on rheumatic patients, based on the scientific evidences.

  3. Cyanotoxins: a poison that frees phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A

    2010-10-12

    Autotrophic organisms obtain phosphorus from the environment by secreting alkaline phosphatases that act on esters, resulting in inorganic phosphate that is then taken up. New work shows that the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum obtains inorganic phosphate by secreting the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin, which induces alkaline phosphatase in other phytoplankton species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy of phosphites and phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Findley, G.L.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) of trimethyl and triethyl phosphite, trimethyl and triethyl phosphate and four substituted phosphates are presented. Assignments are based on analogies to the UPS of phosphorus trichloride and phosphoryl trichloride and are substantiated by CNDO/2 computations. The mechanisms of P-O (axial) bond formation is discussed.

  6. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, B.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the potential and limitations for recovery of phosphate from secondary materials in the production process for white phosphorus. This thermal process involves the feeding of phosphate rock, cokes and pebbles to a furnace. The reducing conditions in the furnace promote the

  7. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... To evaluate phosphate solubilization of ... and MHB had the potential to solubilize these phosphates by decreasing the pH and confirmed that ... Minerals like N, P, K, Ca, S, Zn, Cu and Sr are ... sterile distilled water, chopped, homogenized in 10 ml sterile .... The role of carbon source is important in mineral.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glycolytic pathway; in this step, a molecule called glucose-6-phosphate is converted to another molecule called fructose-6-phosphate. When GPI remains a single molecule (a monomer) it is involved in the development and maintenance of nerve cells ( neurons ). In this context, it is often known as ...

  9. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... patterns. Four insoluble phosphate sources; purulia rock phosphate (PRP), mussourie rock phosphate. (MRP) ... community composition analysis (Garland, 1996a) and ..... the threshold level that enabled only a few species to.

  10. Sonochemical precipitation of amorphous uranium phosphates from trialkyl phosphate solutions and their thermal conversion to UP2O7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doroshenko, I.; Žurková, J.; Moravec, Z.; Bezdička, Petr; Pinkas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, SEP (2015), s. 157-162 ISSN 1350-4177 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Uranium * Phosphates * Sonochemistry * Nuclear waste * Trimethyl phosphate * Triethyl phosphate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  11. Brittle and ductile adjustable cement derived from calcium phosphate cement/polyacrylic acid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ju, Chien-Ping; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

    2008-12-01

    Bone filler has been used over the years in dental and biomedical applications. The present work is to characterize a non-dispersive, fast setting, modulus adjustable, high bioresorbable composite bone cement derived from calcium phosphate-based cement combined with polymer and binding agents. This cement, we hope, will not swell in simulated body fluid and keep the osteogenetic properties of the dry bone and avoid its disadvantages of being brittle. We developed a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (TTCP/DCPA)-polyacrylic acid with tartaric acid, calcium fluoride additives and phosphate hardening solution. The results show that while composite, the hard-brittle properties of 25wt% polyacrylic acid are proportional to CPC and mixing with additives is the same as those of the CPC without polyacrylic acid added. With an increase of polyacrylic acid/CPC ratio, the 67wt% samples revealed ductile-tough properties and 100wt% samples kept ductile or elastic properties after 24h of immersion. The modulus range of this development was from 200 to 2600MPa after getting immersed in simulated body fluid for 24h. The TTCP/DCPA-polyacrylic acid based CPC demonstrates adjustable brittle/ductile strength during setting and after immersion, and the final reaction products consist of high bioresorbable monetite/brushite/calcium fluoride composite with polyacrylic acid.

  12. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  13. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Lamellar zirconium phosphates to host metals for catalytic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Plata, Daniel; Infantes-Molina, Antonia; Rodríguez-Aguado, Elena; Braos-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2018-02-27

    In the present study a porous lamellar zirconium phosphate heterostructure (PPH) formed from zirconium(iv) phosphate expanded with silica galleries (P/Zr molar ratio equal to 2 and (Si + Zr)/P equal to 3) was prepared to host noble metals. Textural and structural characterization of PPH-noble metal materials was carried out in order to elucidate the location and dispersion of the metallic particles and the properties of the resulting material to be used in catalytic processes. In the present paper, their activity in the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction of dibenzofuran (DBF) was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the structure of the pillared zirconium phosphate material was not modified by the incorporation of Pt and Pd. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a different dispersion of the noble metal. The acidity of the resulting PPH-noble metal materials also changed, although in all cases the acidity was of weak nature, and the incorporation of noble metals affected Brønsted acid sites as observed from 31 P NMR spectra. In general, the textural, structural and acidic properties of the resulting materials suggest that PPH can be considered a good candidate to be used as a catalytic support. Thus, the catalytic results of the PPH-noble metal samples indicated that the Pd sample showed a stable behavior probably ascribed to a high dispersion of the active phase. However, the Pt sample suffered from fast deactivation. The selectivity to the reaction products was strongly dependent on the noble metal employed.

  15. Titrimetric determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobkowska, A.

    1978-01-01

    The titrimetric method involving the reduction of U(VI) to uranium(IV) by iron(II) in phosphoric acid, selective oxidation of the excess of iron(II) and potentiometric titration with dichromate was directly used for the determination of uranium in tributyl phosphate mixtures. The procedure was applied to solutions containing more than 2 mg of uranium in the sample but the highest precision and accuracy were obtained in the range from 20 to 200 mg of uranium. Dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate as well as the other radiolysis products of TBP had no influence on the results of determinations. (author)

  16. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  17. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare

    1996-01-01

    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  18. HCUP Fast Stats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — HCUP Fast Stats provides easy access to the latest HCUP-based statistics for health information topics. HCUP Fast Stats uses visual statistical displays in...

  19. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  20. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  1. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  2. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Nigel J; El Buri, Ashref; Adams, David R; Pyne, Susan

    2017-09-15

    The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine and this is catalysed by two sphingosine kinase isoforms (SK1 and SK2). Here we discuss structural functional aspects of SK1 (which is a dimeric quaternary enzyme) that relate to coordinated coupling of membrane association with phosphorylation of Ser225 in the 'so-called' R-loop, catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions (e.g. TRAF2, PP2A and G q ). S1P formed by SK1 at the plasma-membrane is released from cells via S1P transporters to act on S1P receptors to promote tumorigenesis. We discuss here an additional novel mechanism that can operate between cancer cells and fibroblasts and which involves the release of the S1P receptor, S1P 2 in exosomes from breast cancer cells that regulates ERK-1/2 signalling in fibroblasts. This novel mechanism of signalling might provide an explanation for the role of S1P 2 in promoting metastasis of cancer cells and which is dependent on the micro-environmental niche. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  4. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.

    1974-12-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  5. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. The fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: brief description of fast reactors; advantage in conserving uranium resources; experience, in UK and elsewhere, in fast reactor design, construction and operation; safety; production of plutonium, security aspects; consideration of future UK fast reactor programme. (U.K.)

  7. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery...

  8. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  9. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto; Marihus Altoé Baldotto; Fábio Lopes Olivares; Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i) to select and characterize diazotrophs abl...

  10. Uranium recovery from phosphate rocks concentrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, M.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The reserves, geological data, chemical data and technical flowsheet from COPEBRAS and Goiasfertil ores are described, including the process of mining ore concentration. Samples of Goiasfertil ores are analysed by gravimetric analysis, for phosphate, and spectrofluorimetry for uranium. (author)

  11. Hanford phosphate precipitation filtration process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B.W.; McCabe, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this filter study was to evaluate cross-flow filtration as effective solid-liquid separation technology for treating Hanford wastes, outline operating conditions for equipment, examine the expected filter flow rates, and determine proper cleaning. A proposed Hanford waste pre-treatment process uses sodium hydroxide at high temperature to remove aluminum from sludge. This process also dissolves phosphates. Upon cooling to 40 degrees centigrade the phosphates form a Na7(PO4)2F9H2O precipitate which must be removed prior to further treatment. Filter studies were conducted with a phosphate slurry simulant to evaluate whether 0.5 micron cross-flow sintered metal Mott filters can separate the phosphate precipitate from the wash solutions. The simulant was recirculated through the filters at room temperature and filtration performance data was collected

  12. short communication agronomic effectiveness of novel phosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    igneous Dorowa (Zimbabwe) phosphate rock was investigated in a greenhouse ... are higher than the levels considered desirable for acidulation was selected based on proportions ... The analysis for dry matter yield of and P uptake by maize ...

  13. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, J. P.; Vite T, J.; Castillo S, M.; Vite T, M.

    2009-01-01

    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  14. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Geochemistry and mineralogy of Ogun phosphate rock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    m deep) within the same location. The pellets ... diffracted rays are collected by a detector and the information relayed to a ... Ogun phosphate deposits were formed in shallow marine ... process thus confirming the earlier work done by Jones.

  16. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... phosphate solubilization is accompanied by acid production. Thus, the evidence ..... of organic acids. (Khan et al., 2010) such as acetate, lactate, oxalate, ... (2014) also observed that oxalic acid was secreted by L. fraterna to ...

  17. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Szelag, P.; Novák, M.; Mastný, L.; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Steel * phosphates * coatings * structure Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  18. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  19. Synthesis and characterization of porous calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados C, F.; Serrano G, J.; Bonifacio M, J.

    2007-01-01

    The porous calcium phosphate was prepared by the continuous precipitation method using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 salts. The synthesized material was structurally and superficially characterized using the XRD, BET, IR TGA and SEM techniques. The obtained inorganic material was identified as calcium phosphate that presents a great specific area for what can be efficiently used as adsorbent material for adsorption studies in the radioactive wastes treatment present in aqueous solution. (Author)

  20. Removal of organic wastes containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    TBP in dodecane and kerosene is one of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by the Purex process. The following methods were investigated for removing the organic solvents: adsorption on suitable solids, extraction, reaction with neutral salts, and saponification with acids or alkalis. Results showed that the best method of TBP removal is saponification with alkali hydroxides, either with dibutyl phosphate or with ortho-phosphate

  1. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  2. Phosphate transporter mediated lipid accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under phosphate starvation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Antoni W; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, when phosphate transporters pho88 and pho86 were knocked out they resulted in significant accumulation (84% and 43%) of triacylglycerol (TAG) during phosphate starvation. However in the presence of phosphate, TAG accumulation was only around 45% in both pho88 and pho86 mutant cells. These observations were confirmed by radio-labeling, fluorescent microscope and RT-PCR studies. The TAG synthesizing genes encoding for acyltransferases namely LRO1 and DGA1 were up regulated. This is the first report for accumulation of TAG in pho88Δ and pho86Δ cells under phosphate starvation conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ramadan, fasting and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  4. Ramadan, faste og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Urfan Zahoor; Lykke, Jacob Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In Islam, the month of Ramadan is a period of fasting lasting 29 or 30 days. Epidemiological studies among Muslims in Denmark have not been conducted, but studies show, that fasting among pregnant Muslim women is common. Fasting does not increase the risk of growth restriction or preterm delivery......, but there are reports of decreased foetal movements. Furthermore, the fasting may have long-term health consequences for the offspring, especially when they reach their middle age. According to Islam and the interpretation, pregnant and breast-feeding women are allowed to postpone the fasting of the month of Ramadan...

  5. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatomi, Yutaka

    2018-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator that works on five kinds of S1P receptors located on the cell membrane. In the circulation, S1P is distributed to HDL, followed by albumin. Since S1P and HDL share several bioactivities, S1P is believed to be responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HDL. Plasma S1P levels are reportedly lower in subjects with coronary artery disease, suggesting that S1P might be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In basic experiments, however, S1P appears to possess both pro-atherosclerotic and anti-atherosclerotic properties; for example, S1P possesses anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and vaso-relaxation properties and maintains the barrier function of endothelial cells, while S1P also promotes the egress and activation of lymphocytes and exhibits pro-thrombotic properties. Recently, the mechanism for the biased distribution of S1P on HDL has been elucidated; apolipoprotein M (apoM) carries S1P on HDL. ApoM is also a modulator of S1P, and the metabolism of apoM-containing lipoproteins largely affects the plasma S1P level. Moreover, apoM modulates the biological properties of S1P. S1P bound to albumin exerts both beneficial and harmful effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, while S1P bound to apoM strengthens anti-atherosclerotic properties and might weaken the pro-atherosclerotic properties of S1P. Although the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated, apoM and S1P might be novel targets for the alleviation of atherosclerotic diseases in the future. PMID:28724841

  7. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  8. Role of Phosphate Transport System Component PstB1 in Phosphate Internalization by Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek, L; Premachandra, D; Webster, W A J; Bräu, L

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the synthesis of active uptake systems, such as the Pst phosphate transport system. To understand the mechanisms that facilitate phosphate accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme, phosphate transport systems were identified, revealing a redundancy of Pst phosphate uptake systems that exists across three distinct operons. Four separate PstB system components were identified. pstB1 was determined to be a suitable target for creating phenotypic mutations that could result in the accumulation of excessive levels of phosphate through its overexpression or in a reduction of the capacity to accumulate phosphate through its deletion. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), it was determined that pstB1 mRNA levels increased significantly over 64 h in cells cultured in 0 mM added phosphate and decreased significantly in cells exposed to high (12.8 mM) phosphate concentrations compared to the level in cells cultured under normal (0.8 mM) conditions. Possible compensation for the loss of PstB1 was observed when pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels increased, particularly in cells starved of phosphate. The overexpression of pstB1 increased phosphate uptake by N. punctiforme and was shown to functionally complement the loss of PstB in E. coli PstB knockout (PstB - ) mutants. The knockout of pstB1 in N. punctiforme did not have a significant effect on cellular phosphate accumulation or growth for the most part, which is attributed to the compensation for the loss of PstB1 by alterations in the pstB2, pstB3, and pstB4 mRNA levels. This study provides novel in vivo evidence that PstB1 plays a functional role in phosphate uptake in N. punctiforme IMPORTANCE: Cyanobacteria have been evolving over 3.5 billion years and have become highly adept at growing under limiting nutrient levels. Phosphate is crucial for the survival and prosperity of all organisms. In bacteria, limited phosphate availability promotes the

  9. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  10. Plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate is elevated in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg M Kowalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctional lipid metabolism is a hallmark of obesity and insulin resistance and a risk factor for various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. In addition to the well known increase in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids, recent work in humans and rodents has shown that obesity is associated with elevations in the bioactive class of sphingolipids known as ceramides. However, in obesity little is known about the plasma concentrations of sphinogsine-1-phosphate (S1P, the breakdown product of ceramide, which is an important signaling molecule in mammalian biology. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of obesity on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with markers of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma S1P levels were determined in high-fat diet (HFD-induced and genetically obese (ob/ob mice along with obese humans. Circulating S1P was elevated in both obese mouse models and in obese humans compared with lean healthy controls. Furthermore, in humans, plasma S1P positively correlated with total body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c (%, total and LDL cholesterol. In addition, fasting increased plasma S1P levels in lean healthy mice. CONCLUSION: We show that elevations in plasma S1P are a feature of both human and rodent obesity and correlate with metabolic abnormalities such as adiposity and insulin resistance.

  11. Translocation of metal phosphate via the phosphate inorganic transport system of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, H.W; Abee, T.; Kortstee, G.J J; Konings, W.N; Zehnder, A.J B

    1994-01-01

    P-i transport via the phosphate inorganic transport system (Pit) of Escherichia coil was studied in natural and artificial membranes. P-i uptake via Pit is dependent on the presence of divalent cations, like Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, or Mn2+, which form a soluble, neutral metal phosphate (MeHPO(4)) complex.

  12. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  13. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  14. Fast reactors worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Vignon, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution of fast reactors over the past 30 years, and their present status. Fast reactor development in different countries is described, and the present position, with emphasis on cost reduction and collaboration, is examined. The French development of the fast breeder type reactor is reviewed, and includes: the acquisition of technical skills, the search for competitive costs and the spx2 project, and more advanced designs. Future prospects are also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  16. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  17. Synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel from waste incineration fly ash and bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Kidoguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-01-01

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled into calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. Various properties of the intermediate and calcium phosphate hydrogel from them were characterized and compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the intermediate from the incineration fly ash and calcium phosphate glass was more brittle than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. The electric conductivity of crystallized hydrogel obtained from all raw materials increases exponentially with temperature. However, the crystallized hydrogel from incineration fly ash has lower electric conductivity and lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and the reagent. Moreover, the difference in electric conductivity between these crystallized hydrogels decreases with temperature. Compared with using the reagent as a raw material, bone powder provides a 25% reduction in the usage of H 3 PO 4 to acquire the crystallized hydrogel which has the highest conductivity. These experimental results suggest that the incineration fly ash and bone powder are useful calcium sources for the synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel

  18. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  19. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands.

  20. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  1. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  2. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  3. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  4. Method of decomposing treatment for radioactive organic phosphate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose the organic phosphoric-acid ester wastes containing radioactive material, which is produced from spent fuel reprocessing facilities, into inorganic materials using a simple device, under moderate conditions and at high decomposing ratio. Method: Radioactive organic phosphate wates are oxidatively decomposed by H 2 O 2 in an aqueous phosphoric-acid solution of metal phosphate salts. Copper phosphates are used as the metal phosphate salts and the decomposed solution of the radioactive organic phosphate wastes is used as the aqueous solution of the copper phosphate. The temperature used for the oxidizing decomposition ranges from 80 to 100 0 C. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. Fast multichannel analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, A; Przybylski, M M; Sumner, I [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1982-10-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format.

  6. A fast multichannel analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, A.; Przybylski, M.M.; Sumner, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10 7 s -1 has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaair, H; Labjar, H; Britel, O

    2017-09-01

    Ceramics play a key role in several biomedical applications. One of them is bone grafting, which is used for treating bone defects caused by injuries or osteoporosis. Calcium-phosphate based ceramic are preferred as bone graft biomaterials in hard tissue surgery because their chemical composition is close to the composition of human bone. They also have a marked bioresorbability and bioactivity. In this work, we have developed methods for synthesis of β-tricalcium phosphate apatite (β-TCP). These products were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  9. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  10. Calcium phosphate ceramics in drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Edgington, Joe; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-04-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) particulates, cements and scaffolds have attracted significant interest as drug delivery vehicles. CaP systems, including both hydroxyapaptite and tricalcium phosphates, possess variable stoichiometry, functionality and dissolution properties which make them suitable for cellular delivery. Their chemical similarity to bone and thus biocompatibility, as well as variable surface charge density contribute to their controlled release properties. Among specific research areas, nanoparticle size, morphology, surface area due to porosity, and chemistry controlled release kinetics are the most active. This article discusses CaP systems in their particulate, cements, and scaffold forms for drug, protein, and growth factor delivery toward orthopedic and dental applications.

  11. Performance of pineapple slips inoculated with diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides fixing N2, some diazotrophic bacteria or diazotrophs, also synthesize organic acids and are able to solubilize rock phosphates, increasing the availability of P for plants. The application of these bacteria to pineapple leaf axils in combination with rock phosphate could increase N and P availability for the crop, due to the bacterial activity of biological nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The objectives of this study were: (i to select and characterize diazotrophs able to solubilize phosphates in vitro and (ii evaluate the initial performance of the pineapple cultivars Imperial and Pérola in response to inoculation with selected bacteria in combination with rock phosphate. The experiments were conducted at Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, in 2009. In the treatments with bacteria the leaf contents of N, P and K were higher than those of the controls, followed by an increase in plant growth. These results indicate that the combined application of diazotrophic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria Burkholderia together with Araxá rock phosphate can be used to improve the initial performance of pineapple slips.

  12. Islamic Fasting and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting in normal individuals and diabetics. During fasting days of Ramadan, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meal taken bepore dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and defend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting; but fasting is not recommended for type 1, non complaint, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals and well controlled diabetics, those with uncontrolled diabetics and diabetics with complications should consult physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

  13. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  14. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  15. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  16. Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiullah Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%, lowest free acid (6 % and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.

  17. Evaluation of intestinal phosphate binding to improve the safety profile of oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Robijn

    Full Text Available Prior to colonoscopy, bowel cleansing is performed for which frequently oral sodium phosphate (OSP is used. OSP results in significant hyperphosphatemia and cases of acute kidney injury (AKI referred to as acute phosphate nephropathy (APN; characterized by nephrocalcinosis are reported after OSP use, which led to a US-FDA warning. To improve the safety profile of OSP, it was evaluated whether the side-effects of OSP could be prevented with intestinal phosphate binders. Hereto a Wistar rat model of APN was developed. OSP administration (2 times 1.2 g phosphate by gavage with a 12h time interval induced bowel cleansing (severe diarrhea and significant hyperphosphatemia (21.79 ± 5.07 mg/dl 6h after the second OSP dose versus 8.44 ± 0.97 mg/dl at baseline. Concomitantly, serum PTH levels increased fivefold and FGF-23 levels showed a threefold increase, while serum calcium levels significantly decreased from 11.29 ± 0.53 mg/dl at baseline to 8.68 ± 0.79 mg/dl after OSP. OSP administration induced weaker NaPi-2a staining along the apical proximal tubular membrane. APN was induced: serum creatinine increased (1.5 times baseline and nephrocalcinosis developed (increased renal calcium and phosphate content and calcium phosphate deposits on Von Kossa stained kidney sections. Intestinal phosphate binding (lanthanum carbonate or aluminum hydroxide was not able to attenuate the OSP induced side-effects. In conclusion, a clinically relevant rat model of APN was developed. Animals showed increased serum phosphate levels similar to those reported in humans and developed APN. No evidence was found for an improved safety profile of OSP by using intestinal phosphate binders.

  18. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: The unclear role of phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable

  19. Uranium-phosphate relationship in phosphated chalks of the Mons and Picardie Bassins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinif, Y; Charlet, J M; Dupuis, C; Robaszynski, F [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium)

    1981-11-30

    The lithological and geochemical conditions relative to the ''Senonian'' phosphatic chalks are relatively simple in the Basins of Mons (Belgium) and of Picardy (France). Their characteristics permit us to study chiefly the uranium-phosphate relation. It appears a very good linear correlation between the phosphate and the uranium. The coefficient U/P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ remains a constant from the bottom to the top of the same section, but changes in space for synchronic formations (lateral variation of geochemical facies) and in time for two separated basins.

  20. Molecular identification of phosphate solubilizing bacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phosphate solubilizing bacterium was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of upland rice and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The gene sequence showed 99% homology with Alcaligenes faecalis. Based on the gene sequence homology, it was identified as A. faecalis. Interaction effect of this bacterium on growth ...

  1. Biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was examined in microcosms containing sediment and water from five different ecosystems as part of studies to elucidate the environmental fate of phosphate ester flame retardants. Biodegradation of [ 14 C]BPDP was monitored in the environmental microcosms by measuring the evolution of 14 CO 2 . Over 37% of BPDP was mineralized after 8 weeks in microcosms from an ecosystem which had chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals. In contrast, only 1.7% of BPDP was degraded to 14 CO 2 in samples collected from a noncontaminated site. The exposure concentration of BPDP affected the percentage which was degraded to 14 CO 2 in microcosms from the two most active ecosystems. Mineralization was highest at a concentration of 0.1 mg of BPDP and was inhibited with 10- and 100-fold higher concentrations of BPDP. The authors observed adaptive increases in both microbial populations and phosphoesterase enzymes in some sediments acclimated to BPDP. Chemical analyses of the residues in the microcosms indicated undegraded BPDP and minor amounts of phenol, tert-butylphenol, diphenyl phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate as biodegradation products. These data suggest that the microbial degradation of BPDP results from at least three catabolic processes and is highest when low concentrations of BPDP are exposed to sediment microorganisms of eutrophic ecosystems which have high phosphotri- and diesterase activities and previous exposure to anthropogenic chemicals

  2. Cadmium versus phosphate in the world ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, Hein J.W. de; Saager, Paul M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Meer, Jaap van der

    1994-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the best studied trace metals in seawater and at individual stations exhibits a more or less linear relation with phosphate. The compilation of all data from all oceans taken from over 30 different published sources into one global dataset yields only a broad scatterplot of Cd

  3. Characterization of Fe -doped silver phosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... to their several spe- cial properties such as large thermal expansion coefficients, ... increase the conductivity of these glasses is to increase the modifier or dopant ... phosphate glasses were measured by the a.c. impedance spectroscopic .... and Fe2O3-doped Ag2O–P2O5 glasses were determined from. DSC curves and ...

  4. Metal complex derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohol, D.; Blinn, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Derivatives of hydrogen uranyl phosphate were prepared by incorporating transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix. The transition metal complexes employed include bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II), bis(1,3-propanediamine)copper(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,12-tetraazacyclopentadecane)copper(II), (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)nickel(II) chloride, (triethylenetetramine)nickel(II) and others. The chemical analyses of these derivatives indicated that the incorporation of the transition metal complexes into the uranyl phosphate matrix via ion exchange was not stoichiometric. The extent of ion exchange is dependent on the size and structure of the transition metal complex. All complexes were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, electronic and infrared spectra, thermal analyses and chemical analysis. An attempt was made to correlate the degree of quenching of the luminescence of the uranyl ion to the spacing between the uranyl phosphate layers in the derivatives

  5. (VAM) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... mycorrhiza (VAM), and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) individually and in .... Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out at a 0.05 level of significance on the data and SPSS version 13.0 was used.

  6. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis and AC impedance. Under dry atmosphere the pure crystalline and amorphous phosphates exhibit an intrinsic conductivity of up to 10-5 S cm-1 at 250 °C. In the presence of atmospheric humidity the conductivity of both types...

  7. Nuclear waste immobilization in iron phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Menghini, Jorge E.; Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Iron-phosphate glasses have become important in the nuclear waste immobilization area because they have some advantages over silicate-based glasses, such as a lower processing temperature and a higher nuclear waste load without losing chemical and mechanical properties. Structure and chemical properties of iron-phosphate glasses are determined in terms of the main components, in this case, phosphate oxide along with the other oxides that are added to improve some of the characteristics of the glasses. For example, Iron oxide improves chemical durability, lead oxide lowers fusion temperature and sodium oxide reduces viscosity at high temperature. In this work a study based on the composition-property relations was made. We used different techniques to characterize a series of iron-lead-phosphate glasses with uranium and aluminium oxide as simulated nuclear waste. We used the Arquimedes method to determine the bulk density, differential temperature analysis (DTA) to determine both glass transition temperature and crystallization temperature, dilatometric analysis to calculate the linear thermal expansion coefficient, chemical durability (MCC-1 test) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also applied some theoretic models to calculate activation energies associated with the glass transition temperature and crystallization processes. (author)

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands using polythene plastic containers and were analysed for the nitrate and phosphate levels using uV – visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had ...

  9. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    phosphate using a dilute H2O2 oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in ... production of H2 by photo-reduction of water under UV light irradiation. ... have been extensively studied and used as acid catalysts, adsorbents and ion ... mesoporous silica materials is also of outstanding interest because of their ...

  10. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it

  11. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    ABSTRACT. Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus. (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different ...

  13. Isolation and characterization of efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of biofertilizer have great practical importance for increasing fertility of the soil and reducing environmental pollution. Screening and characterizing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) strains from different agroecologies of Tigray soil and in vitro assessment for the adaptability under different abiotic stress ...

  14. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, H.

    1986-01-01

    Results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous phosphates and arsenates. The results of phase studies deal with compound formation and characterization, coexisting phases and limiting physical or chemical properties. The uranyl phosphates evolve oxygen at higher temperatures and the arsenates lose arsenic oxide vapour. These phenomena give the possibility to describe their thermodynamic stabilities. Thus oxygen pressures of uranyl phosphates have been measured using a static, non-isothermal method. Having made available the pure anhydrous compounds in the course of this investigation, molar thermodynamic quantities have been measured as well. These include standard enthalpies of formation from solution calorimetry and high-temperature heat-capacity functions derived from enthalpy increments measured. Some attention is given to compounds with uranium in valencies lower than six which have been met during the investigation. An evaluation is made of the thermodynamics of the compounds studied, to result in tabulized high-temperature thermodynamic functions. Relative stabilities within the systems are discussed and comparisons of the uranyl phosphates and the arsenates are made. (Auth.)

  15. Thermochemical investigations on uranyl phosphates and arsenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, H.

    1986-11-01

    The results are described of a study of the thermochemical stability of anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates. A number of aspects of chemical technological importance are indicated in detail. The synthesized anhydrous uranyl phosphates and arsenates were very hygroscopic, so that experiments on these compounds had to be carried out under moisture-free conditions. Further characterisation of these compounds are given, including a study of their thermal stabilities and phase relations. The uranyl phosphates reduced reversibly at temperatures of the order of 1100 to 1600 0 C. This makes it possible to express their relative stabilities quantitatively, in terms of the oxygen pressures of the reduction reactions. The thermal decomposition of uranyl arsenates did not occur by reduction, as for the phosphates, but by giving off arsenic oxide vapour. The results of measurements of enthalpies of solution led to the determination of the enthalpies of formation, heat capacity and the standard entropies of the uranyl arsenates. The thermochemical functions at high-temperatures could consequently be calculated. Attention is paid to the possible formation of uranium arsenates, whose uranium has a valency lower than six, hitherto not reported in literature. It was not possible to prepare arsenates of tetravalent uranium. However, three new compounds were observed, one of these, UAsO 5 , was studied in some detail. (Auth.)

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... may help in the growth of algae (Beavington,. 1977). Determination of phosphate ion in drinking water. 50cm3 of water sample was pipetted into a 500cm3 volumetric flask, 5cm3 of Ammonium molybdate solution and 3.0cm3 of ascorbic acid were added with swirling, the mixture was diluted to the mark with ...

  17. PREVENTION OF PHOSPHATE - INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro

    1962-01-01

    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  18. Substoichiometric determination of uranium in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N; Hanzawa, K; Imura, H

    1986-01-01

    The substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for U(VI) in a synergic extraction system of an excess amount of a chelating agent hexafluoroacetylacetone (HHFA) and a substoichiometric amount of U(VI) can be precisely extracted, and U down to ppm levels can be accurately determined by the present method. This method was applied to the analysis of a phosphate rock.

  19. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro154032bit

    Research Article http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v9i2.9. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS), V9(2):262-273,2017 ©CNCS, Mekelle University, ISSN:2220-184X. Isolation and Characterization of Efficient Phosphate Solubilizing Bacillus (PSB) from Different Agro-ecological Zones of Tigray Soil, Ethiopia. Kibrom, F.G.

  1. Intercalation of cyclic ketones into vanadyl phosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Trchová, Miroslava; Dybal, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 178, č. 1 (2005), s. 314-320 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : vanadyl phosphate Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2005

  2. Calcium phosphate saturation in seawater around the Andaman Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Ionic product (IP) of calcium phosphate is calculated at some stations around Andaman Island. The depthwise variations of the ionic product of calcium phosphate seem to follow a normal trend with maximum saturation value between 100 to 200 m. Using...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  4. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Food & Bioengineering Department, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003 ... Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. ... In food industry, starch phosphate.

  5. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  6. Analyses of uranium in some phosphate commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, N.H.M.; Sohsah, M.; Mohammad, H.M.; Sadek, M.

    2005-01-01

    The raw materials used in manufacturing of phosphate fertilizer products were derived from rocks. Rocks contain a remarkable of natural radioactivity. Uranium and phosphorous were originally initiated at the same time of the initiated rocks. The purpose of this research is to investigate solubility of uranium phosphate species at the phosphate fertilizer samples, samples including; raw phosphate material, single super phosphates (SSP) granules and powdered, triple super phosphates (TSP) and phosphogypsum samples were obtained from Abu-Zabal factory in Egypt. Solubility of uranium phosphate species was estimated. It was found that, less than half of the uranium phosphate species are soluble in water. The soluble uranium may be enter into the food chains by plant. Therefore, restriction should be done in order to limit contamination of land and the public

  7. Recovery of uranium and the lanthanides from phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F; Awadalla, F T; Zailaf, M

    1986-06-01

    A process is proposed for the treatment of phosphate rock for the recovery of uranium and lanthanides. The process assures the production of phosphatic fertilisers without polluting the environment with radioactive material.

  8. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  9. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  10. Fast track-hoftealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Gromov, Kirill; Kristensen, Billy B

    2017-01-01

    Fast-track surgery implies a coordinated perioperative approach aimed at reducing surgical stress and facilitating post-operative recovery. The fast-track programme has reduced post-operative length of stay and has led to shorter convalescence with more rapid functional recovery and decreased...... morbidity and mortality in total hip arthroplasty. It should now be a standard total hip arthroplasty patient pathway, but fine tuning of the multiple factors in the fast-track pathway is still needed in patients with special needs or high comorbidity burden....

  11. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  12. Transfer of Some Major and Trace Elements From Phosphate Rock to Super-Phosphate Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefya, H.I.; Bin-Jaz, A.A.; Zaied, M.E.; Badran, H.M.; Badran, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the transfer of some major and trace elements from phosphate rock (PR) to single (SSP) and triple (TSP) superphosphate fertilizers. Samples from a fertilizer plant and local market were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Cluster analysis indicated that the inner-relationship among the concentration of the elements in PR, SSP, and TSP are different. Only one element (Mo) has concentration in SSP higher than phosphate rock. The production process of these two types of superphosphate leads to transfer higher portion of Mn, B, Cu, Mo, Sr, and V present in the phosphate rock to SSP than TSP. The potentially hazardous element Cd is also transmitted more to SSP than TSP, and Cr is equally transferred to both types. The mean elemental concentrations normalized to the percentage of P 2 O 5 demonstrate that for most elements they are the higher concentrations in SSP are linked to the phosphate contents

  13. Radioactivity of phosphate ores from Karatas-Mazidag phosphate deposit of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuez, T.; Varinlioglu, A.; Kose, A.; Akyuez, S.

    2000-01-01

    The specific activities of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the composite samples of phosphate ores of type I (grey-coloured ore, with high P 2 O 5 (21-35%) and low calcite content) and of type II (grey coloured calcite ore, with low P 2 O 5 content (5-17%)) of Karatas-Mazidag phosphate deposit, Turkey, have been determined by gamma spectrometry together with phosphatic animal feed ingredients. The concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be up to 557, 625, 26 and 297 Bq x kg -1 , respectively. Radium equivalent activities of samples were calculated and compared with those given in the literature. Uranium concentration of the individual phosphate samples, from which composite samples of ores of type I and II have been prepared, were found to show and increasing trend with increasing P 2 O 5 and F concentrations. (author)

  14. Extrusion-based, three-dimensional printing of calcium-phosphate scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Lukasz

    Small or large bone defects, can occur due to a variety of reasons: congenital disorders, infections, tumors, or traumas which can lead to significant disabilities. There is an assortment of bone grafting procedures, each having their own respective advantages and disadvantages and exhibiting certain essential characteristics. Among the available grafts, autogenous (autograft), allograft, xenograft, and alloplasts, all exhibit a minimum of two-thirds of the essential characteristics and have been proven useful in fully or partially repairing skeletal defects. However, different host-to-grafting material responses have been reported and should be taken into consideration when determining treatment options. A large range of physical and chemical properties can be achieved with calcium phosphate based materials, which possess two of the ideal characteristics for grafting procedures: osteoconduction and osseointegration. Calcium phosphate based scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tri-calcium phosphate (beta-TCP), or a combination of both (HA/beta-TCP) were investigated as materials for three-dimensional printing process to create layer-by-layer structures for use as bone regeneration scaffolds. Different calcium-phosphate phases will result in different degrees of in vivo dissolution and/or cell-mediated resorption. There has been a growing interest in BCP because it has been shown that this material improves the formation of new bone inside the implanted scaffold. The literature indicates that the faster dissolution rate of ?-TCP would be greatly responsible of this enhancement. However, in vitro tests indicate that fast dissolution can decrease the mechanical strength of BCP scaffolds. Furthermore, studies reported that HA has higher mechanical strength and lower degradation rate than beta-TCP. Therefore, the HA/beta-TCP ratio is a key parameter controlling the performance of the scaffold for bone repair applications, since it determines degradation rate

  15. Sorption of cesium on titanium and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.N.; Mel'nik, N.A.; Rudenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium phosphates were prepared from mineral raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Their capability to recover cesium cations from the model solutions and liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was studied. Titanium phosphate prepared from solutions formed by titanite breakdown demonstrates greater distribution coefficients of cesium as compared to zirconium phosphate. Titanium phosphate as a cheaper agent featuring greater sorption capacity was recommended for treatment of LRW to remove cesium [ru

  16. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J

    2009-06-01

    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  17. Comparative study on in vitro biocompatibility of synthetic octacalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate ceramics used clinically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shinji; Anada, Takahisa; Honda, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Osamu

    2012-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the extent to which calcium phosphate bone substitute materials, including osteoconductive octacalcium phosphate (OCP), display cytotoxic and inflammatory responses based on their dissolution in vitro. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics, which are clinically used, as well as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and synthesized OCP were compared. The materials were well characterized by chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and the pH of culture media after immersion of the materials were determined. The colony forming rate of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts was estimated with extraction of the materials. Proliferation of bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α production by THP-1 cells grown on the material-coated plates were examined. The materials had characteristics that corresponded to those reported. DCPD was shown to dissolve the most in the culture media, with a marked increase in phosphate ion concentration and a reduction in pH. ST-2 cells proliferated well on the materials, with the exception of DCPD, which markedly inhibited cellular growth. The colony forming capacity was the lowest on DCPD, while that of the other calcium phosphates was not altered. In contrast, TNF-α was not detected even in cells grown on DCPD, suggesting that calcium phosphate materials are essentially non-inflammatory, while the solubility of the materials can affect osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular attachment. These results indicate that OCP is biocompatible, which is similar to the materials used clinically, such as HA. Therefore, OCP could be clinically used as a biocompatible bone substitute material.

  18. Phosphate and phosphate fertilizer sector: structure and future prospects. [Uranium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaidi, B

    1981-12-01

    A statement of the past evolution of this sector's structure is given. Various prospective studies which have been made are reviewed and lead to the precision of the phosphate requirement in the year 2000 which is between 200 and 250 Mt. Only a small section p. 696-697 is devoted to recovery of uranium contained in phosphate and prospects in this field are given.

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of Ogun and Sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gypsum, calcite and lime were associated with both rock phosphates indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in water, probably because it ... fertilizers and direct application in crop production. Keywords: Phosphorus, apatite, crop production, fertilizer, Ogun rock phosphate, Sokoto rock phosphate ...

  20. The phosphate balance : current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, van R.J.; Vee, van der G.; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.; Ehlert, P.A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  1. The phosphate balance : Current developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enk, R.J. van; Acera, L.K.; Schuiling, R.D.; Ehlert, P.; de Wilt, J.G.; van Haren, R.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is essential for agricultural production and therefore plays a key role in the global production of food and biofuels. There are no agricultural alternatives for phosphate, and a substantial fraction of our annual phosphate consumption is dispersed into the environment where it is largely

  2. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riboflavin-5-phosphate. 582.5697 Section 582.5697 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of use...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b...

  5. Coordination chemistry of sugar-phosphate complexes with palladium(II), rhenium(V) and zinc(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinborn, Christian Martin

    2013-05-21

    As described before, some studies dealing with coordination chemistry of sugar phosphates are available but no analogous complexes of Zn{sup II} have been investigated yet. The primary goal of this work is, therefore, to fill this gap. In order to stay close to the active sites of enzymes such as class-II-aldolase, the simple metal fragment Zn{sup II}(dien) is used. NMR spectroscopy is used primarily as analytical method since it enables the investigation of both complex equilibria in solution and pH dependence of metal-binding sites. Since this approach is challenging due to the fast metal-ligand exchange and the absence of CIS values, it is necessary to improve the significance of NMR data collected from sugar-phosphate complexes with Zn{sup II}. Hence, further experiments are performed with molecules similar to sugar phosphates such as reducing and methylated sugars or polyols. Beside NMR spectroscopy, crystal-structure analysis will be used to get more detailed information about the binding pattern of the complexes. Additionally, sugar-phosphate complexes of Pd{sup II} are investigated. Further experiments are conducted, on the one hand, to synthesise more sugarphosphate complexes with ReVON2 fragments, and, on the other hand, to grow crystals confirming the theory about mixed sugar-core-phosphate chelation.

  6. Radiological impact of natural radioactivity in Egyptian phosphate rocks, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bahi, S.M.; Sroor, A.; Mohamed, Gehan Y.; El-Gendy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in phosphate rocks and its products were measured using a high- purity germanium detector (HPGe). The obtained activity results show remarkable wide variation in the radioactive contents for the different phosphate samples. The average activity concentration of "2"3"5U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K was found as (45, 1031, 786, 85 and 765 Bq/kg) for phosphate rocks, (28, 1234, 457, 123 and 819 Bq/kg) for phosphate fertilizers, (47, 663, 550, 79 and 870 Bq/kg) for phosphogypsum and (25, 543, 409, 54 and 897 Bq/kg) for single super phosphate respectively. Based on the measured activities, the radiological parameters (activity concentration index, absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor and indoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and total excess lifetime cancer risk) were estimated to assess the radiological hazards. The total excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) has been calculated and found to be high in all samples, which related to high radioactivity, representing radiological risk for the health of the population. - Highlights: • Level of radioactivity of phosphate rocks and by-products samples. • The radiological health hazard parameters. • Radiological risk to the health of the population. • The excess lifetime cancer risk factor.

  7. Phosphate uptake kinetics for four species of submerged freshwater macrophytes measured by a 33P phosphate radioisotope technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina Høj; Andersen, Frede Østergaard; Jensen, Henning S.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) uptake kinetics were determined in shoot and root tissues for four freshwater macrophyte species, Littorella uniflora, Potamogeton perfoliatus, Myriophyllum alterniflorum and Elodea canadensis, using a radioactive 33P phosphate technique. Collection of plant material in the oligotr...

  8. FastStats: Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... measles, mumps, rubella: 91.9% (2015) Percent of adolescents aged 13-17 years vaccinated against measles, mumps, ...

  9. Fast neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    A proton recoil technique has been developed for inducing thermoluminescence with incident fast neutrons. CaF 2 was used as the TL phosphor, and cane sugar and polyethylene were used as proton radiators. The phosphor and the hydrogeneous material powders were well mixed, encapsulated in glass tubes and exposed to Am-Be sources, resulting in recoils from incident fast neutrons of energy between 0,25 and 11,25 MeV. The intrinsic response of pure CaF 2 to fast neutrons without a hydrogeneous radiator was checked by using LiF (TLD-700). Glow curves were recorded from room temperature up to 350 0 C after different doses of neutrons and gamma rays of 60 Co. First collision dose due to fast neutrons in tissue like materials such as cane sugar and polyethylene was also calculated [pt

  10. Dounreay fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, R.; Eggar, T.; Skeet, T.

    1992-01-01

    The short debate which followed a private notice question asking for a statement on Government policy on the future of the European fast breeder nuclear research programme is reported verbatim. In response to the question, the Minister for Energy said that the Government had decided in 1988 that the Dounreay prototype fast reactor would close in 1994. That decision had been confirmed. Funding of fast breeder research and development beyond 1993 is not a priority as commercialization is not expected until well into the next century. Dounreay will be supported financially until 1994 and then for its subsequent decommissioning and reprocessing of spent fuel. The debate raised issues such as Britain losing its lead in fast breeder research, loss of jobs and the Government's nuclear policy in general. However, the Government's position was that the research had reached a stage where it could be left and returned to in the future. (UK)

  11. CMS Fast Facts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  12. Brug af faste vendinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bjærge, Esben

    Ordbogen indelholder tekstproduktionsangivelser til ca. 17.000 idiomer, ordsprog, bevingede ord og andre faste vendinger. Det drejer sig bl.a. om angivelser til betydningen, grammatik, kollokationer, eksempler, synonymer og antonymer....

  13. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pcooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Infrared-spectroscopy analysis of zinc phosphate and nickel and manganese modified zinc phosphate coatings on electrogalvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Kirlene Salgado; Alvarenga, Evandro de Azevedo; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha

    2011-01-01

    Hopeite-type phosphate coatings in which zinc is partially replaced by other metals like manganese and nickel are of great interest for the automotive and home appliance industries. Such industries use phosphate conversion coatings on galvanized steels in association with cataphoretic electro painting. Zinc phosphates modified with manganese and nickel are isomorphic with the hopeite, and the phase identification using X-ray diffraction is difficult. In this paper, the phosphate coatings are identified using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  15. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  16. Extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI) with tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaramurthi, N.M.; Desai, G.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction and separation of uranium from salicylate media using tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate dissolved in xylene as an extractant. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of pH, salicylate concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and diluent. The method permits the separation of uranium from thorium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, copper, vanadium and chromium from binary mixtures and is applicable to the analysis of uranium in synthetic samples. The method is precise, accurate, fast and selective. (author) 5 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. One-step synthesis of magnetite core/zirconia shell nanocomposite for high efficiency removal of phosphate from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Xing, Mingchao; Fang, Wenkan; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetite core/zirconia shell nanocomposite was prepared by one-step method. • Fe/Zr molar ratio of 4/1 allowed high magnetization and high adsorption capacity. • The nanocomposite had good selectivity towards phosphate. • Ligand exchange was the adsorption mechanism of phosphate. • Desorption of adsorbed phosphate could be achieved by NaOH treatment. - Abstract: A self-assembled magnetite core/zirconia shell (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticle material was fabricated by the one-step co-precipitation method to capture phosphate from water. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} with different Fe/Zr molar ratios were obtained and characterized by XRD, TEM, BET surface area and magnetization. It was shown that, with the decreasing of Fe/Zr molar ratio, magnetization decreased whereas surface area and adsorption capacity of phosphate increased. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} with the ratio of higher than 4:1 had satisfactory magnetization property (>23.65 emu/g), enabling rapid magnetic separation from water and recycle of the spent adsorbent. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} reached 27.93–69.44 mg/g, and the adsorption was fast (90% of phosphate removal within 20 min). The adsorption decreases with increasing pH, and higher ionic strength caused slight increase in adsorption at pH > about 5.5. The presence of chloride, nitrate and sulfate anions did not bring about significant changes in adsorption. As a result, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} performed well to remove phosphate from real wastewater. These results were interpreted by the ligand exchange mechanism, i.e., the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. Results suggested that phosphate reacted mainly with surface hydroxyl groups but diffusion into interior of zirconia phase also contributed to adsorption. The adsorbed phosphate could be desorbed with a NaOH treatment and the regenerated Fe

  18. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB and organic acids (oxalic & malic on phosphate (P solubilization from phosphate rock (PR and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM, and PSB strain (Bacillus sp. were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1, plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1, and plant biomass (33.26 mg. Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1 compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH.

  20. Prevention of radioactive contamination in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.

    1995-01-01

    In this work was studied the separation of uranium from the phosphate rock to decrease the level of radioactivity in the phosphate fertilizers, this prevents the redistribution of uranium in the environment. The uranium leaching conditions from phosphate rock were estimated using alkaline solutions. The changes in the natural phosphate rock after leaching were studied. The amenability to separate the uranium from phosphate rock with ammonium carbonate / bicarbonate solution was determined. The uranium extraction was approximately 40%. The leaching conditions showed high selectivity for uranium without changes in the ore structure. The bulk ore was not dissolved. (Author)

  1. Radical-induced dephosphorylation of fructose phosphates in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Sonntag, C. von

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen free N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions of D-fructose-1-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate were γ-irradiated. Inorganic phosphate and phosphate free sugars (containing four to six carbon atoms) were identified and their G-values measured. D-Fructose-1-phosphate yields (G-values in parentheses) inorganic phosphate (1.6), hexos-2-ulose (0.12), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.16), tetrulose (0.05) and 3-deoxytetrulose (0.15). D-Fructose-6-phosphate yields inorganic phosphate (1.7), hexos-5-ulose (0.1), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.36), 3-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose and 2-deoxyhexos-5-ulose (together 0.18). On treatment with alkaline phosphatase further deoxy sugars were recognized and in fructose-1-phosphate G(6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose) was increased to a G-value of 0.4. Dephosphorylation is considered to occur mainly after OH attack at C-5 and C-1 in fructose-1-phosphate and at C-5 and C-6 in fructose-6-phosphate. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Radiophotoluminescence from silver-doped phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Nanto, H.; Kurobori, T.; Konnai, A.; Yanagida, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Shimotsuma, Y.; Sakakura, M.

    2011-01-01

    Glass dosimeter utilizing radiophotoluminescence (RPL) is one of accumulation type solid state dosimeters, which is based on luminescence phenomenon of silver (Ag + ions)-doped phosphate glass exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, to clarify the emission mechanism of yellow and blue RPL peaks, optical properties of Ag + -doped glass, such as optical absorption spectrum, RPL excitation spectrum before and after X-ray irradiation as well as the lifetime of both RPL peaks are measured. From the results, we discuss the emission mechanism of yellow (peaked at 2.21 eV) and blue (peaked at 2.70 eV) RPL using a proposed energy band diagram for RPL emission and excitation in Ag + -doped phosphate glass. It is found that the radiative lifetime of blue RPL is three orders of magnitude faster than that of yellow RPL.

  3. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and renal vasoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boye L

    2018-01-01

    ) and in conjunction with increased S1P release in pathophysiological situations like sepsis and ischemia-reperfusion incidents, this effect could be relevant in acute kidney injury with parallel decreases in renal blood flow and GFR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Guan et al. in their article "Mechanisms of sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated vasoconstriction of rat afferent arterioles" (1) address the signaling events associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated renal afferent vasoconstriction and show in......, technically demanding, blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation that S1P signaling relies predominantly on transmembrane calcium influx from the extracellular fluid through L-type calcium channels with contribution from oxidative stress metabolites(1) . So not only is new information on S1P signaling...

  4. Radon Progeny in Egyptian Underground Phosphate Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hady, M.A.; Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to the workers in uranium mines, the staff of other underground mines, such as workers in underground phosphate mines, can be exposed to 222 Rn and its progeny. In this study the individual radon progeny concentrations were measured in three Egyptian underground phosphate mines to estimate the occupational exposure of the workers at those sites. A filter method was used to measure individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po). The reported mean values of radon progeny concentrations exceed the action levels which are recommended by ICRP 65 (1993). Based on the measured individual radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Po) in these mines, the annual effective dose for the workers has been calculated using the lung dose model of ICRP 66 (1994). According to the obtained results, some countermeasures were recommended in this study to minimise these exposure levels. (author)

  5. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10 6 average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO 2 depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  6. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TTPIXE analysis of phosphate rocks and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Ontalba, M.A.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Bolivar, J.P.; Silva, M.F. da

    1999-01-01

    The TTPIXE technique was used for the determination of the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples. All the samples came from a fertilizer industry site in Huelva (SW of Spain). The analyses were done using proton beams from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the 'Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear' (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal). The aim was to obtain data about the distribution of the different elements in the process of P 2 O 5 production in the factory. The information obtained allowed evaluation of the effectiveness of the chemical treatment employed, and gave a detailed information about the elemental composition of phosphogypsum, the main by-product of phosphate fertilizer production. These data can be useful to define the phosphogypsum management and to evaluate its environmental impact

  8. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  9. The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate regulates mechanical pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rose Z; Hoffman, Benjamin U; Morita, Takeshi; Campos, Stephanie M; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Brem, Rachel B

    2018-01-01

    Somatosensory neurons mediate responses to diverse mechanical stimuli, from innocuous touch to noxious pain. While recent studies have identified distinct populations of A mechanonociceptors (AMs) that are required for mechanical pain, the molecular underpinnings of mechanonociception remain unknown. Here, we show that the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P Receptor 3 (S1PR3) are critical regulators of acute mechanonociception. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of S1PR3, or blockade of S1P production, significantly impaired the behavioral response to noxious mechanical stimuli, with no effect on responses to innocuous touch or thermal stimuli. These effects are mediated by fast-conducting A mechanonociceptors, which displayed a significant decrease in mechanosensitivity in S1PR3 mutant mice. We show that S1PR3 signaling tunes mechanonociceptor excitability via modulation of KCNQ2/3 channels. Our findings define a new role for S1PR3 in regulating neuronal excitability and establish the importance of S1P/S1PR3 signaling in the setting of mechanical pain thresholds. PMID:29561262

  10. Rock phosphate solubilizing and cellulolytic actinomycete isolates of earthworm casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Four microbial isolates, OP2, OP3, OP6, and OP7, of earthworm casts of Pontoscolex corethrurus were found to be acid tolerant actinomycetes and efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers that could grow fast on NH4Cl-enriched or N-free carboxymethyl cellulose or glucose as sole carbon source. CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) induced production of extracellular cellulase enzyme and the production of reducing sugar in all the isolates. RP solubilizing power was observed to be inversely related to glucose consumption. The most efficient RP solubilizer was found to consume the least glucose. Growth was faster on cellulose than on glucose media. N-free CMC induced greater glucose production than NH4Cl-enriched CMC medium. Both CMC and glucose media were acidified by all the isolates, however, RP solubilizing power decreased with acidification. Solubilization power was greatest with isolate OP7, which also produced the greatest amount of reducing sugar per gram CMC. Both RP solubilizing power and the cellulolytic efficiency varied among isolates. A minimum of 631 µg P/0.1 g RP and a maximum of 951.4 µg P/0.1 g RP was recorded.

  11. Reaction Mechanisms of Magnesium Potassium Phosphate Cement and its Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei

    Magnesium potassium phosphate cement (MKPC) is a kind of cementitious binder in which the chemical bond is formed via a heterogeneous acid-base reaction between dead burned magnesia powder and potassium phosphate solution at room temperature. Small amount of boron compounds can be incorporated in the cement as a setting retarder. The final reaction product of MgO-KH2PO4-H 2O ternary system is identified as magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate, MgKPO4·6H2O. However, the mechanisms and procedures through which this crystalline product is formed and the conditions under which the crystallization process would be influenced are not yet clear. Understanding of the reaction mechanism of the system is helpful for developing new methodologies to control the rapid reaction process and furthermore, to adjust the phase assemblage of the binder, and to enhance the macroscopic properties. This study is mainly focused on the examination of the reaction mechanism of MKPC. In addition, the formulation optimization, microstructure characterization and field application in rapid repair are also systematically studied. The chemical reactions between magnesia and potassium dihydrogen phosphate are essentially an acid-base reaction with strong heat release, the pH and temperature variation throughout the reaction process could provide useful information to disclose the different stages in the reaction. However, it would be very difficult to conduct such tests on the cement paste due to the limited water content and fast setting. In the current research, the reaction mechanism of MKPC is investigated on the diluted MKPC system through monitoring the pH and temperature development, identification of the solid phase formed, and measurement of the ionic concentration of the solution. The reaction process can be explained as follows: when magnesia and potassium phosphate powder are mixed with water, phosphate is readily dissolved, which is instantly followed by the dissociation of

  12. Phosphate sorption characteristics of European alpine soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Kopáček, Jiří; Camarero, L.; Garcia-Pausas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2011), s. 862-870 ISSN 0361-5995 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/09/0567; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Grant - others:EU EMERGE(CZ) EVK1-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : phosphate sorption * alpine soil s * acidification Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.979, year: 2011

  13. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria around Indian peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    nitrophenylphosphate by the culture. One mole of nitrophenol is equivalent to 1 atom of phosphorus. The absorbance was read at 418 nm using DU-6 Beckmann spectrophotometer. The activity was expressed as ?mol.Pml-1d-1. The cultures which showed good phosphate... suitable controls. Growth was measured at 600 nm using DU-6 Beckmann spectrophotometer and phosphatase activity was measured as described earlier. For testing the rate of survival of PSB on various carriers 2 g of finely powdered sediment, rice...

  14. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface has remained a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of fissile uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB's) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, are a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is key to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection. Our other fundamental objective is to synthesize and correctly characterize the uranyl phosphate phases that form in the geochemical conditions under consideration. This report summarizes work conducted at the University of Notre Dame through November of 2003 under DOE grant DE-FG07-02ER63489, which has been funded since September, 2002. The objectives at Notre Dame are development of synthesis techniques for uranyl phosphate phases, together with detailed structural and chemical characterization of the myriad of uranyl phosphate phases that may form under geochemical conditions under consideration

  15. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it was possible to obtain thin CaP layers with an extremely wide range of chemical and morphological characteristics. Various CaP phases and phase mixtures were deposited and a broad diversity of coatin...

  16. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  17. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  18. Biodiesel production over copper vanadium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Yang, Lixia; Yu, Zhongxi; Guo, Xin; Xin, Xinquan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, copper vanadium phosphate (CuVOP) with three-dimensional network structure was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and was characterized by Infrared spectrum (IR), elemental analysis (EA), EDXRF (energy dispersive X ray fluorescence) etc. Moreover, soybean oil was used as feedstock for producing biodiesel, and biodiesel was produced by CuVOP-catalyzed transesterification process. Response surface methodology was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for the maximum conversion to biodiesel, and the effects of amount of catalyst, ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated by the 2 4 full-factorial central composite design. The maximum conversion is obtained at amount of catalyst of 1.5%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6.75, reaction temperature of 65 o C and reaction time of 5 h. Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP resulted very active in the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. -- Research highlights: → Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP with three-dimensional network structure was prepared successfully. Moreover, for the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol under atmospheric pressure, CuVOP had higher catalytic activity and the effects of production conditions such as amount of catalysts etc. were analyzed by response surface methodology.

  19. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  20. Phosphate phosphors for solid-state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Kartik N. [N.S. Science and Arts College, Bhadrawati (India). Dept. of Physics; Swart, H.C. [University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Dept. of Physics; Dhoble, S.J. [R.T.M. Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Park, Kyeongsoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Essential information for students in researchers working towards new and more efficient solid-state lighting. Comprehensive survey based on the authors' long experience. Useful both for teaching and reference. The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  1. Radiochemical studies on amorphous zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, A; Moores, G E [Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry

    1981-01-01

    Amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) is used in some hemodialysis machines for the regeneration of dialysate. Its function is to adsorb ammonium ions formed by the pretreatment of urea by urease. It also adsorbs Ca, Mg and K ions but leaches phosphate ions which are then removed (along with F/sup -/ ions) by a bed of hydrous zirconium oxide. The sodium form of ZrP is used although other forms have been suggested for use. The work reported here describes some preliminary radiochemical studies on the mechanism of release of phosphate ions and its possible relationship to sodium ion-exchange. /sup 32/P labelled material (HHZrP) was used for elution experiments with deionized water and buffer solutions having the pH's 4.2, 7.0 and 9.2. Buffer solutions used were as supplied by BDH. Elution was at four different temperatures in the range 293 to 363/sup 0/C. In the second series of experiments HHZrP was suspended in a NaCl solution labelled with /sup 22/Na. From this, /sup 22/Na labelled ZrP (NaHZrP) was prepared and eluted in the same way as the HHZrP. Results are given and discussed.

  2. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  4. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Structure investigations on zirconium phosphate preparates by means of DTA, ETA, and TG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbell, J.D.; Specht, S.; Born, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The simultanous DTA, ETA and TG inorganic ion exchanger based on zirconium phosphate enables the clear interpretation of the effects occuring. In particular it can be seen that the fast transition in amorphous preparates at high temperature of a badly defined form of pyrophosphate into the cubic crystalline substances, however a measurable energy release by means of DTA is not observed due to the slight mobility of the atoms in the crystal lattice. This effect on the other hand may be seen using ETA. In addition, an exothermal reaction occuring in some preparates, especially in cation charged ones, was traced back to the forming of part-crystalline structures which could be especially fast and sensitively characterized using DTA. (orig.) [de

  6. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsifi ed Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seline Glorieux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsifi ed meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The eff ect of seven diff erent phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had litt le eff ect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06 % TSPP was suffi cient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsifi ed meat products can be signifi cantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  7. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  8. The variable charge of andisols as affected by nanoparticles of rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M.; Nurlaeny, N.; Devnita, R.; Fitriatin, B. N.; Sandrawati, A.; Supriatna, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Andisols has a great potential as agriculture land, however, it has a high phosphorus retention, variable charge characteristics and high value of zero net charge or pH0. The research is aimed to study the effects of nanoparticles of rock phosphate (NPRP) and biofertilizer (phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB) on soil pH, pHo (zero point of charge, ZPC) and organic-C in one subgroup of Andisols, namely Acrudoxic Durudands, Ciater Region West Java. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 in Soil Physics Laboratory and Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Fertility, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. This experiment used a completely randomized factorial design, consisting of two factors and three replications. The first factor was nanoparticles of rock phosphate consist of 4 doses 0; 25; 50 and 75 g/1 kg soil and the second factor was biofertilizer dose consist of g/1 kg soil and without biofertilizer. Total treatment combinations were 8 with 3 replications, so there were 24 experimental plots. The results showed that in general NPRR and biofertilizer will decrease the value of soil pH throughout the incubation periods. There is an interaction between nanoparticles of rock phosphate and biofertilizer in decreasing pHo in the first month of incubation, but after 4-month incubation period, NPRP increased. Interaction between 75 g nanoparticles of rock phosphate with 1 g biofertilizer/1 kg soil in fourth months of incubation decreased soil organic-C to 3.35%.

  9. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1990-01-01

    The author criticises the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's fast breeder reactor programme in his evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Energy in January 1990. He argues for power generation by renewable means and greater efficiency in the use rather than in the generation of electricity. He refutes the arguments for nuclear power on the basis of reduced global warming as he claims support technology produces significant amounts of carbon dioxide in any case. Serious doubts are raised about the costs of a fast breeder reactor programme compared to, say, generation by pressurised water reactors. The idea of a uranium scarcity in several decades is also refuted. The reliability of fast breeder reactor technology is called into question. He argues against reprocessing plutonium for economic, health and safety reasons. (UK)

  10. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  11. Fast harmonic field mapper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, R.; Fowler, M.; Hanawa, H.; Riedel, J.; Qua, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    In early 1983 it was decided to mount coils on arms separated by 120 degrees and buck them out so that the third harmonic dphi/dt component would be cancelled and thus the first and second field harmonics could be very accurately measured. The original intention was to do as others had done, namely, use fast ADC's to read the voltages, and computer process the result to get the Fourier components. However, because of the 100 to 1 dynamic range of the fast ADC's and the likelihood that noise would be a problem, the authors decided to do things differently. Using a fast Fourier transform analyzer was considered, but this instrument is very expensive, so they decided to use a completely electronic analog approach: The authors decided to use active bandpass filters to render the harmonic components

  12. Fast beam radiofrequency spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipkin, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The combination of a fast atom or ion beam derived from a small accelerator with radiofrequency spectroscopy methods provides a powerful method for measuring the fine structure of atomic and molecular systems. The fast beam makes possible measurements in which two separated oscillatory fields are used to obtain resonance lines whose widths are less than the natural line width due to the lifetimes of the states. The separated oscillatory field lines have, in addition, a number of features which make possible measurements with greater precision and less sensitivity to systematic errors. The fast beam also makes accessible multiple photon radiofrequency transitions whose line width is intrinsically narrower than that of the single photon transitions and which offer great potential for high precision measurements. This report focuses on the techniques and their promise. Recent measurements of the fine structure of H and He + are used as illustrations

  13. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays the fast-breeder reactor is a negative symbol of advanced technology which is getting out of control and, due to its complexity, is incomprehensible for politicians and therefore by-passes the established order. The author lists the most important decisions over state aid to the fast-breeder-reactors up until the mid-seventies and uses documents from the appropriate advisory bodies as reference. He was also aided by interviews with those directly involved with the project. The empirical facts forces us to discard our traditional view of the relationship between state and industry with regard to advanced technology. The author explains that it is impossible to find any economic value in the fast-breeder reactor. The insight gained through this project allows him to draw conclusions which apply to all aspects of state aid to advanced technology. (orig.) [de

  14. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda

    2009-07-01

    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  15. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  16. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  17. Formation Mechanism of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Stones: A Component Analysis of Urinary Nanocrystallites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The components of urinary nanocrystallites in patients with magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP stones were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, fast Fourier transformation (FFT, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The main components of the stones were MAP hexahydrate (MAP·6H2O, magnesium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (MgHPO4·3H2O, and a small amount of calcium phosphate (CaP, while the main components of urinary nanocrystallites were MgHPO4·3H2O, CaP, and MAP monohydrate (MAP·H2O. MAP·H2O induced the formation of MAP stones as seed crystals. MgHPO4·3H2O was accompanied by the appearance of MAP·6H2O. The formation mechanism of MAP stones and influencing factors were discussed on the basis of the components of urine nanocrystallites. A model diagram of MAP stone formation was also put forward based on the results. Formation of MAP stones was closely related to the presence of high amounts of MAP crystallites in urine. Urinary crystallite condition and changes in urine components could indicate the activity of stone diseases.

  18. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  19. Proton Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Freeman, R R; Hatchett, S P; MacKinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R B

    2006-04-01

    Fast ignition (FI) by a laser generated ballistically focused proton beam is a more recently proposed alternative to the original concept of FI by a laser generated beam of relativistic electrons. It has potential advantages in less complex energy transport into dense plasma. Recent successful target heating experiments motivate further investigation of the feasibility of proton fast ignition. The concept, the physics and characteristics of the proton beams, the recent experimental work on focusing of the beams and heating of solid targets and the overall prospects for proton FI are discussed

  20. Fast breeder project (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Activities performed during the 1st quarter of 1976 at or on behalf of the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project are given a survey. The following project subdivisions are dealt with: Fuel rod development; materials testing and developments; corrosion studies and coolant analyses; physical experiments; reactor theory; safety of fast breeders; instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring; effects on the environment; sodium technology tests; thermodynamic and fluid flow tests in gas. (HR) [de

  1. Magnetically Assisted Fast Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, W.-M.; Gibbon, P.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Li, Y.-T.

    2015-01-01

    Fast ignition (FI) is investigated via integrated particle-in-cell simulation including both generation andtransport of fast electrons, where petawatt ignition lasers of 2 ps and compressed targets of a peak density of300 g cm−3 and areal density of 0.49 g cm−2 at the core are taken. When a 20 MG static magnetic field isimposed across a conventional cone-free target, the energy coupling from the laser to the core is enhancedby sevenfold and reaches 14%. This value even exceeds that obtained u...

  2. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Research concentrated on three major areas during the last twelve months: (1) investigations of energy fluence and absorbed dose measurements using crystalline and hot pressed TLD materials exposes to ultrasoft beams of photons, (2) fast neutron kerma factor measurements for several important elements as well as NE-213 scintillation material response function determinations at the intense ''white'' source available at the WNR facility at LAMPF, and (3) kerma factor ratio determinations for carbon and oxygen to A-150 tissue equivalent plastic at the clinical fast neutron radiation facility at Harper Hospital, Detroit, MI. Progress summary reports of these efforts are given in this report

  3. Moms og fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af reguleringsforpligte......I artiklen gives et overblik over, hvorledes fast ejendom behandles momsmæssigt. Derfor findes en kort skitsering af reglerne for moms på byggearbejder, afgrænsningen mellem momspligtig og momsfri udlejning, muligheden for frivillig registrering af udlejning samt opgørelse af...

  4. Fast ejendom II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder.......Fremstillingen påviser, at lov om forbrugerbeskyttelse ved erhvervelse af fast ejendom mv. lider af en række svagheder og at ankenævnspraksis bevæger sig væk fra retspraksis på en række områder....

  5. Effects of education on low-phosphate diet and phosphate binder intake to control serum phosphate among maintenance hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : For phosphate control, patient education is essential due to the limited clearance of phosphate by dialysis. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials about dietary and phosphate binder education have been scarce. Methods : We enrolled maintenance hemodialysis patients and randomized them into an education group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 22. We assessed the patients' drug compliance and their knowledge about the phosphate binder using a questionnaire. Results : The primary goal was to increase the number of patients who reached a calcium-phosphorus product of lower than 55. In the education group, 36 (75.0% patients achieved the primary goal, as compared with 16 (72.7% in the control group (P = 0.430. The education increased the proportion of patients who properly took the phosphate binder (22.9% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.087, but not to statistical significance. Education did not affect the amount of dietary phosphate intake per body weight (education vs. control: -1.18 ± 3.54 vs. -0.88 ± 2.04 mg/kg, P = 0.851. However, the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio tended to be lower in the education group (-0.64 ± 2.04 vs. 0.65 ± 3.55, P = 0.193. The education on phosphate restriction affected neither the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score (0.17 ± 4.58 vs. -0.86 ± 3.86, P = 0.363 nor the level of dietary protein intake (-0.03 ± 0.33 vs. -0.09 ± 0.18, P = 0.569. Conclusion : Education did not affect the calcium-phosphate product. Education on the proper timing of phosphate binder intake and the dietary phosphate-to-protein ratio showed marginal efficacy.

  6. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  7. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Phosphate: A Tracer for Phosphate Sources and Cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, University of California, CA (United States); Young, M. B.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C. [U.S. Geological Survey, University of California, CA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting macro-nutrient for primary productivity and anthropogenic P-loading to aquatic ecosystems is one of the leading causes of eutrophication in many ecosystems throughout the world. Because P has only one stable isotope, traditional isotope techniques are not possible for tracing sources and cycling of P in aquatic systems. However, much of the P in nature is bonded to four oxygen (O) atoms as orthophosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The P-O bonds in orthophosphate are strongly resistant to inorganic hydrolysis and do not exchange oxygen with water without biological mediation (enzyme-mediated recycling). Thus, the oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic phosphate ({delta}{sup 18}O{sub p}) may be used as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Recently, several studies have been conducted utilizing {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} as a tracer for phosphate sources and cycling in various aquatic environments. Specifically, work to date indicates that {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} is useful for determining sources of phosphate to aquatic systems if these sources have unique isotopic signatures and phosphate cycling within the system is limited compared to input fluxes. In addition, because various processes imprint specific fractionation effects, the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} tracer can be utilized to determine the degree of phosphorous cycling and processing through the biomass. This chapter reviews several of these studies and discusses the potential to utilize the {delta}{sup 18}O{sub p} of phosphate in rivers and streams. (author)

  8. Dielectric aluminium phosphate thin films. Couches minces dielectriques de phosphate d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviero, S. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Avinens, C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Ibanez, A. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Giuntini, J.C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 -Montpellier (France)); Philippot, E. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France))

    1993-04-01

    Aluminium phosphate thin films on silicium substrate have been carried out from tributylphosphate and aluminium acetylacetonate precursors in solution through the ''pyrosol'' process. It can be observed a large range of chemical analysis in terms of experimental conditions. These thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry. Their electrical characteristics, defined from direct current and alternative current measurements, are quite different to those of the crystallized phosphate and can be explained by P-O and Al-O ''dangling bond'' existence. (orig.).

  9. Reduction of nucleotides by ionizing radiation: uridine 5' phosphate, and cytidine 3' phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Potter, W.R.; Budzinski, E.E.

    1974-01-01

    Anions formed by the addition of an electron to the uracil base were observed in single crystals of the barium salt of uridine 5' phosphate x irradiated at 4.2 0 K. The hyperfine coupling tensor for the C 6 -H proton was deduced from ENDOR measurements; the principal values are -59.12, -32.92 and -16.24 MHz. Similar measurements were made on single crystals of cytidine 3' phosphate. The principal values for the C 6 -H proton hyperfine coupling in the anion formed on the cytosine base are -59.26, -33.98 and -14.68 MHz. (U.S.)

  10. The reduction of nucleotides by ionizing radiation: uridine 5' phosphate and cytidine 3' phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, H.C.; Potter, W.R.; Budzinski, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    Anions formed by the addition of an electron to the uracil base were observed in single crystals of the barium salt of uridine 5' phosphate x-irradiated at 4.2 degreeK. The hyperfine coupling tensor for the C 6 --H proton was deduced from ENDOR measurements; the principal values are -59.12, -32.92, and -16.24 MHz. Similar measurements were made on single crystals of cytidine 3' phosphate. The principal values for the C 6 --H proton hyperfine coupling in the anion formed on the cytosine base are -59.26, -33.98, and -14.68 MHz

  11. [Preoperative fasting. An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, C D; Breuer, J P; Gust, R; Wichmann, M; Adolph, M; Senkal, M; Kampa, U; Weissauer, W; Schleppers, A; Soreide, E; Martin, E; Kaisers, U; Falke, K J; Haas, N; Kox, W J

    2003-11-01

    In Germany the predominant standard of preoperative care for elective surgery is fasting after midnight, with the aim of reducing the risk of pulmonary aspiration. However, for the past several years the scientific evidence supporting such a practice has been challenged. Experimental and clinical studies prove a reliable gastric emptying within 2 h suggesting that, particularly for limited intake of clear fluids up to 2 h preoperatively, there would be no increased risk for the patient. In addition, the general incidence of pulmonary aspiration during general anaesthesia (before induction, during surgery and during recovery) is extremely low, has a good prognosis and is more a consequence of insufficient airway protection and/or inadequate anaesthetic depth rather than due to the patient's fasting state. Therefore, primarily to decrease perioperative discomfort for patients, several national anaesthesia societies have changed their guidelines for preoperative fasting. They recommend a more liberal policy regarding per os intake of both liquid and solid food, with consideration of certain conditions and contraindications. The following article reviews the literature and gives an overview of the scientific background on which the national guidelines are based. The intention of this review is to propose recommendations for preoperative fasting regarding clear fluids for Germany as well.

  12. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path

  13. FastStats: Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... 69 [PDF – 9.8 MB] Vaccination coverage among adolescents 13-17 years of age Health, United States, ...

  14. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  15. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were

  16. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Viden om faste vendinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bjærge, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Ordbogen indeholder ca. 17.000 idiomer, ordsprog, bevingede ord og andre faste vendinger, som der oplyses mest muligt om. Hertil hører oplysninger om betydningen, grammatik, kollokationer, synonymer, stil, ordforbindelsestype, etymologiske angivelser og andre baggrundsoplysninger, links til...

  18. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  19. FAST goes underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlund, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The FAST-M Cost Estimating Model is a parametric model designed to determine the costs associated with mining and subterranean operations. It is part of the FAST (Freiman Analysis of Systems Techniques) series of parametric models developed by Freiman Parametric Systems, Inc. The rising cost of fossil fuels has created a need for a method which could be used to determine and control costs in mining and subterranean operations. FAST-M fills this need and also provides scheduling information. The model works equally well for a variety of situations including underground vaults for hazardous waste storage, highway tunnels, and mass transit tunnels. In addition, costs for above ground structures and equipment can be calculated. The input for the model may be on a macro or a micro level. This allows the model to be used at various stages in a project. On the macro level, only general conditions and specifications need to be known. On the micro level, the smallest details may be included. As with other FAST models, reference cases are used to more accurately predict costs and scheduling. This paper will address how the model can be used for a variety of subterranean purposes

  20. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  1. Project fast breeder (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of the fast breeder project (PSB) contains contributions of the participating institutes on the four subjects: 1) Development of oxidic fuel rods and materials for the SNR line, 2) Physics and safety investigations for the SNR line, 3) Carbidic fuel elements, and 4) Back-up solution with gaseous coolant. (HK) [de

  2. Fast ejendom, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    , værdiforringende forhold, der ligger uden for ejendommen og andre særlige tilfælde. Bogen uddyber andre emner omtalt i 1. udgave, eksempelvis erhvervelsesbetingelser, købsoptioner, ansvarsfraskrivelse, licitationssalg mv. Bogen er det første af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen...

  3. Handel med fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    Bogen tilstræber at give et overblik over nogle af de vigtigste generelle problemområder på markedet for ejendomshandel, der jo bliver mere og mere kompliceret. Værket er opdelt i følgende hovedafsnit: Ejendomsbegrebet. Indgåelse af aftale om salg af fast ejendom. Begrænsninger i adgangen til...

  4. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    -robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  5. Nanolensed Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, David

    2017-12-01

    It is suggested that fast radio bursts can probe gravitational lensing by clumpy dark matter objects that range in mass from 10-3 M ⊙-102 M ⊙. They may provide a more sensitive probe than observations of lensings of objects in the Magellanic Clouds, and could find or rule out clumpy dark matter with an extended mass spectrum.

  6. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking).

  7. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  8. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.; van der Velde, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters through co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water in an agricultural experimental catchment of a small lowland river. We physically separated tube drain effluent from groundwater discharge before it entered a ditch in an agricultural field. Through continuous discharge measurements and weekly water quality sampling of groundwater, tube drain water, exfiltrated groundwater, and surface water, we investigated Fe(II) oxidation kinetics and P immobilization processes. The oxidation rate inferred from our field measurements closely agreed with the general rate law for abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by O2. Seasonal changes in climatic conditions affected the Fe(II) oxidation process. Lower pH and lower temperatures in winter (compared to summer) resulted in low Fe oxidation rates. After exfiltration to the surface water, it took a couple of days to more than a week before complete oxidation of Fe(II) is reached. In summer time, Fe oxidation rates were much higher. The Fe concentrations in the exfiltrated groundwater were low, indicating that dissolved Fe(II) is completely oxidized prior to inflow into a ditch. While the Fe oxidation rates reduce drastically from summer to winter, P concentrations remained high in the groundwater and an order of magnitude lower in the surface water throughout the year. This study shows very fast immobilization of dissolved P during the initial stage of the Fe(II) oxidation process which results in P-depleted water before Fe(II) is completely depleted. This cannot be explained by surface complexation of phosphate to freshly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides but indicates the formation of Fe(III)-phosphate precipitates. The formation of Fe(III)-phosphates at redox gradients

  9. A new ion selective electrode method for determination of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu and its pharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Hamza

    2017-02-01

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly vinyl chloride (PVC membrane sensors for the determination of (OP were described. The sensors are based on the use of the ion association complexes of (OP cation with sodium tetraphenylborate–oseltamivir phosphate (NaTPB–OP, tungestosilisate–oseltamivir phosphate (TS–OP, phosphomolbdate–oseltamivir phosphate (PM–OP and phosphotungestate–oseltamivir phosphate (PT–OP as ion exchange sites in the PVC matrix. The performance characteristics of these sensors, which were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations, reveal a fast, stable and linear response for (OP over the concentration range from 10−5 to 10−2 mol L−1 with cationic slopes of 51.5 ± 0.3, 50 ± 0.5, 55 ± 0.2 and 50 ± 0.4 mV per decade across an extended OP concentration range from 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1 for NaTPB–OP, TS–OP, PM–OP and PT–OP, respectively. The direct potentiometric determination of (OP using the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 99.9, 99.8, 99.9 and 99.7 for NaTPB–OP, TS–OP, PM–OP and PT–OP, respectively. The sensors are used for determination of (OP in tablets. The method was successfully applied to commercial pharmaceuticals, Tamiflu. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in the quality control assessment of (OP. The developed method was found to be simple, accurate and precise when compared with a reported HPLC method.

  10. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  11. 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determination of Phosphate Compartmentation in Leaves of Reproductive Soybeans (Glycine max L.) as Affected by Phosphate Nutrition 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Michael J.; Blevins, Dale G.; Sierzputowska-Gracz, Hanna

    1989-01-01

    Most leaf phosphorus is remobilized to the seed during reproductive development in soybean. We determined, using 31P-NMR, the effect phosphorus remobilization has on vacuolar inorganic phosphate pool size in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves with respect to phosphorus nutrition and plant development. Phosphate compartmentation between cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools was observed and followed in intact tissue grown hydroponically, at the R2, R4, and R6 growth stages. As phosphorus in the nutrient solution decreased from 0.45 to 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak became less prominent relative to cytoplasmic phosphate and hexose monophosphate peaks. At a nutrient phosphate concentration of 0.05 millimolar, the vacuolar phosphate peak was not detectable. At higher levels of nutrient phosphate, as plants progressed from the R2 to the R6 growth stage, the vacuolar phosphate peak was the first to disappear, suggesting that storage phosphate was remobilized to a greater extent than metabolic phosphate. Under suboptimal phosphate nutrition (≤ 0.20 millimolar), the hexose monophosphate and cytoplasmic phosphate peaks declined earlier in reproductive development than when phosphate was present in optimal amounts. Under low phosphate concentrations (0.05 millimolar) cytoplasmic phosphate was greatly reduced. Carbon metabolism was coincidently disrupted under low phosphate nutrition as shown by the appearance of large, prominent starch grains in the leaves. Cytoplasmic phosphate, and leaf carbon metabolism dependent on it, are buffered by vacuolar phosphate until late stages of reproductive growth. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666705

  12. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grof, Y.; Even, O.; Schlesinger, T.; Margaliot, M.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors)

  13. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  14. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grof, Y; Even, O; Schlesinger, T; Margaliot, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors).

  15. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  16. Preparation of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics were prepared by slip casting and molding method respectively. By these two different methods, different microstructures can be got. By slip casting method, the pore size was 100- 350μm and 20- 80μm; pores were opened, interconnected and ball-like; the grain size was 2- 4 μm.By molding method, the pore size was 100-500 μm and 1-10μm; the grain size was 2-8μm. By slip casting method regular and interconnected pores can be got. By molding method the porosity and strength can be adjusted easily.

  17. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Amauri Antiquera [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  18. Preparation and characterization of bioceramics produced from calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriotis, O.; Katsamenis, O.L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Mouzakis, D.E. [Technological Educational Institute of Larisa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, T.E.I of Larissa, 411 10, Larissa (Greece); Bouropoulos, N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Rio Patras (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The present work reports a method for preparing calcium phosphate ceramics by calcination of calcium phosphate cements composed mainly of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). It was found that hardened cements calcinied at temperatures from to 600 to 1300 C were transformed to tricalcium phosphates. Moreover the compressive strength was determined and porosity was estimated as a function of the calcination temperature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honglian Dai; Xinyu Wang; Yinchao Han; Xin Jiang; Shipu Li

    2011-01-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and Na2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 glass binder were synthesized and mixed, and then the biodegradable porous calcium phosphate ceramics were successfully prepared by foaming and sintering at 850℃. The as-prepared ceramics possess a high porosity with partial three-dimension interconnected macro- and micro-pores. As in vitro experiment testified, the calcium phosphate ceramics (CPCs) has good degradability.

  20. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  1. Preoperative fasting times: Prescribed and actual fasting times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current international guidelines for preoperative fasting for elective surgery are 6 ... to determine whether this policy was being followed and patients were being starved ..... recommended fasting time, so that autonomous patients take care.

  2. Characterization of the denitrifying fraction of phosphate accumulating organisms in biological phosphate removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhold, Jens; Filipe, Carlos D.M.; Daigger, Glen T.

    1999-01-01

    fractions of PAO are performed and compared. This study extends on previously reported results (Kerrn-Jespersen and Henze, 1993) in that the pH was controlled to around pH 7 to assure that phosphate precipitation was minimal, and in the measurement of PHB and PHV. With regards to the latter, the paper also...

  3. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng

    1993-01-01

    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  4. Aqueous phosphate removal using nanoscale zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeelbi, Talal; Bezbaruah, Achintya

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles have been used for the remediation of a wide variety of contaminants. NZVI particles have high reactivity because of high reactive surface area. In this study, NZVI slurry was successfully used for phosphate removal and recovery. Batch studies conducted using different concentrations of phosphate (1, 5, and 10 mg PO 4 3− -P/L with 400 mg NZVI/L) removed ∼96 to 100 % phosphate in 30 min. Efficacy of the NZVI in phosphate removal was found to 13.9 times higher than micro-ZVI (MZVI) particles with same NZVI and MZVI surface area concentrations used in batch reactors. Ionic strength, sulfate, nitrate, and humic substances present in the water affected in phosphate removal by NZVI but they may not have any practical significance in phosphate removal in the field. Phosphate recovery batch study indicated that better recovery is achieved at higher pH and it decreased with lowering of the pH of the aqueous solution. Maximum phosphate recovery of ∼78 % was achieved in 30 min at pH 12. The successful rapid removal of phosphate by NZVI from aqueous solution is expected to have great ramification for cleaning up nutrient rich waters.

  5. Phosphate analysis of natural sausage casings preserved in brines with phosphate additives as inactivating agent - Method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, J J; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, J L M; Veldhuizen, E J A

    2009-01-01

    Certain phosphates have been identified as suitable additives for the improvement of the microbial and mechanical properties of processed natural sausage casings. When mixed with NaCl (sodium chloride) and used under specific treatment and storage conditions, these phosphates are found to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and classical swine fever via treated casings. The commercially available Quantichrom™ phosphate assay kit has been evaluated as to whether it can serve as a reliable and low-tech method for routine analysis of casings treated with phosphate. The outcome of this study indicates that this particular assay kit has sufficient sensitivity to qualitatively determine the presence of phosphate in treated casings without interference of naturally occurring phosphate in salt used for brines in which casings are preserved.

  6. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  7. Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, W.I.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site a few miles north of Richland, Washington, is a major link in the chain of development required to sustain and advance Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology in the United States. This 400 MWt sodium cooled reactor is a three loop design, is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy, and is the largest research reactor of its kind in the world. The purpose of the facility is three-fold: (1) to provide a test bed for components, materials, and breeder reactor fuels which can significantly extend resource reserves; (2) to produce a complete body of base data for the use of liquid sodium in heat transfer systens; and (3) to demonstrate inherent safety characteristics of LMFBR designs

  8. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  9. Fast geometric algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis addresses a number of important problems that fall within the framework of the new discipline of Computational Geometry. The list of topics covered includes sorting and selection, convex hull algorithms, the L 1 hull, determination of the minimum encasing rectangle of a set of points, the Euclidean and L 1 diameter of a set of points, the metric traveling salesman problem, and finding the superrange of star-shaped and monotype polygons. The main theme of all the work was to develop a set of very fast state-of-the-art algorithms that supersede any rivals in terms of speed and ease of implementation. In some cases existing algorithms were refined; for others new techniques were developed that add to the present database of fast adaptive geometric algorithms. What emerges is a collection of techniques that is successful at merging modern tools developed in analysis of algorithms with those of classical geometry

  10. The ELETTRA fast magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasini, D.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the fast magnets to be used to inject the electron beam into the 2 GeV storage ring Elettra is presented and discussed. Injection makes use of two types of fast magnets: the septa and the kickers. There are two identical septa magnets of the so called 'eddy current' type, which will be housed in a vacuum tank. The orbit bump is generated by four identical kicker magnets symmetrically placed around the mid-point of a single straight section: they will be in air with an internal vacuum chamber. Extensive electric and magnetic tests have been performed on prototypes, and the relevant results are presented and discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Fast timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of pulses with very fast risetimes for timing purposes involves many problems because of the large equivalent bandwidths involved. For pulses with risetimes in the 150 ps range (and full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 400 ps) bandwidths in excess of 1GHz are required. Furthermore, these very narrow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 1 mA carry very small charges ( -12 coulomb), therefore, requiring very sensitive trigger circuits. The difficulty increases when timing characteristics in the picosecond range are sought especially when a wide input signal amplitude range causes a time-walk problem. The fast timing discriminator described has a time-walk of approximately +-75 ps over the input signal range from 80 mV to 3V. A schematic of the discriminator is included, and operation and performance are discussed

  12. Fast reactor database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This publication contains detailed data on liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs), specifically plant parameters and design details. Each LMFR power plant is characterized by about 400 parameters, by design data and by relevant materials. The report provides general and detailed design characteristics including structural materials, data on experimental, demonstration, prototype and commercial size LMFRs. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers and university students and professors. The report includes updated information contained in IAEA previous publications on LMFR plant parameters: IWGRF/51 (1985) and IWGFR/80 (1991) and reflects experience gained from two consultants meetings held in Vienna (1993,1994). This compilation of data was produced by members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR)

  13. Fast electrochemical actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, I V; Postnikov, A V; Svetovoy, V B

    2016-01-01

    Lack of fast and strong microactuators is a well-recognized problem in MEMS community. Electrochemical actuators can develop high pressure but they are notoriously slow. Water electrolysis produced by short voltage pulses of alternating polarity can overcome the problem of slow gas termination. Here we demonstrate an actuation regime, for which the gas pressure is relaxed just for 10 μs or so. The actuator consists of a microchamber filled with the electrolyte and covered with a flexible membrane. The membrane bends outward when the pressure in the chamber increases. Fast termination of gas and high pressure developed in the chamber are related to a high density of nanobubbles in the chamber. The physical processes happening in the chamber are discussed so as problems that have to be resolved for practical applications of this actuation regime. The actuator can be used as a driving engine for microfluidics. (paper)

  14. PHENIX Fast TOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aria [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chiu, Mickey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mannel, Eric [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, Sean [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lynch, Don [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Boose, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Northacker, Dave [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Alfred, Marcus [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Lindesay, James [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Chujo, Tatsuya [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Inaba, Motoi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Nonaka, Toshihiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, Wataru [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Sakatani, Ikumi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, Masahiro [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Choi, Ihnjea [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of PHENIX Fast TOF group who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the FY2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The goals for this test beam experiment are to verify the timing performance of the two types of time-of-flight detector prototypes.

  15. Fast diamond photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics

  17. Fast antihydrogen beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The motivation for production and precision spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms is outlined. An experimental configuration is considered, concerning laser-microwave spectroscopy of a fast hydrogen beam with characteristics similar to those of an antihydrogen beam emanating from an antiproton-positron overlap region in an antiproton storage ring. In particular, a possible experiment for the measurement of the ground state hyperfine structure splitting is described. (orig.)

  18. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Water diffusion in phosphate-containing hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.A.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the kinetics and diffusion of liquids through polymeric hydrogels is critical for the successful design and application of these materials in biomedical field, particularly as controlled drug delivery systems. In this study, the mechanisms of water transport and parameters that describe the diffusion process in crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methyloxyethylene phosphate), poly(HEMA-co-MOEP) polymers were investigated. The copolymerisation of HEMA with MOEP was initiated by γ radiolysis with full conversion of monomer to polymer. The sorption of water into the polymers with 0 - 30 mol% MOEP was monitored gravimetrically over a period of 2 - 3 weeks. This study provided an insight into the diffusion mechanism and showed that the PHEMA hydrogel displayed concentration-independent Fickian diffusion. As the concentration of MOEP in the network increased, the diffusion rate and the rigidity of the network also increased in a linear fashion. NMR imaging was used in conjunction with the gravimetric study to elucidate the transport mechanisms, diffusion coefficients and proportionality constants governing the water diffusion in the phosphate-containing polymers. The hydrogels with 3 - 20 mol% MOEP exhibited exponential concentration-dependent Fickian diffusion and the transport mechanism in the system with 30 mol% MOEP was shown to be anomalous. The systems with greater concentrations of MOEP displayed a high degree of fracturing during water sorption and resulted in the ultimate destruction of the cylindrical geometry

  20. Computational Design of Biomimetic Phosphate Scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Wood, Elizabeth Baker; Truelsen, Sigurd Friis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus has long been the target of much research, but in recent years the focus has shifted from being limited only to reducing its detrimental environmental impact, to also looking at how it is linked to the global food security. Therefore, the interest in finding novel techniques for phosph......Phosphorus has long been the target of much research, but in recent years the focus has shifted from being limited only to reducing its detrimental environmental impact, to also looking at how it is linked to the global food security. Therefore, the interest in finding novel techniques...... for phosphorus recovery, as well as improving existing techniques, has increased. In this study we apply a hybrid simulation approach of molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics to investigate the binding modes of phosphate anions by a small intrinsically disordered peptide. Our results confirm...... phosphate could be the starting point of new novel technological approaches toward phosphorus recovery, and they represent an excellent model system for investigating the nature and dynamics of functional de novo designed intrinsically disordered proteins....

  1. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnug, Ewald [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Faculty 2 - Life Sciences; Haneklaus, Nils [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme

    2012-12-15

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10{sup 6} average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO{sub 2} depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  2. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term?

  3. ADT fast losses MD

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua Ferrando, BM; Sapinski, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Valuch, D

    2013-01-01

    The fast beam losses in the order of 1 ms are expected to be a potential major luminosity limitation for higher beam energies after the LHC long shutdown (LS1). Therefore a Quench Test is planned in the winter 2013 to estimate the quench limit in this timescale and revise the current models. This experiment was devoted to determination the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT) as a system for fast losses induction. A non-standard operation of the ADT was used to develop the beam oscillation instead of suppressing them. The sign flip method had allowed us to create the fast losses within several LHC turns at 450 GeV during the previous test (26th March 2012). Thus, the ADT could be potentially used for the studies of the UFO ("Unidentied Falling Object") impact on the cold magnets. Verification of the system capability and investigations of the disturbed beam properties were the main objectives of this MD. During the experiment, the pilot bunches of proton beam were excited independently in the horizontal and vertical ...

  4. Fast Light Optical Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation space missions are currently constrained by existing spacecraft navigation systems which are not fully autonomous. These systems suffer from accumulated dead-reckoning errors and must therefore rely on periodic corrections provided by supplementary technologies that depend on line-of-sight signals from Earth, satellites, or other celestial bodies for absolute attitude and position determination, which can be spoofed, incorrectly identified, occluded, obscured, attenuated, or insufficiently available. These dead-reckoning errors originate in the ring laser gyros themselves, which constitute inertial measurement units. Increasing the time for standalone spacecraft navigation therefore requires fundamental improvements in gyroscope technologies. One promising solution to enhance gyro sensitivity is to place an anomalous dispersion or fast light material inside the gyro cavity. The fast light essentially provides a positive feedback to the gyro response, resulting in a larger measured beat frequency for a given rotation rate as shown in figure 1. Game Changing Development has been investing in this idea through the Fast Light Optical Gyros (FLOG) project, a collaborative effort which began in FY 2013 between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), and Northwestern University. MSFC and AMRDEC are working on the development of a passive FLOG (PFLOG), while Northwestern is developing an active FLOG (AFLOG). The project has demonstrated new benchmarks in the state of the art for scale factor sensitivity enhancement. Recent results show cavity scale factor enhancements of approx.100 for passive cavities.

  5. Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-08-21

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of intermittent fasting regimens, summarize the evidence on the health benefits of intermittent fasting, and discuss physiological mechanisms by which intermittent fasting might lead to improved health outcomes. A MEDLINE search was performed using PubMed and the terms "intermittent fasting," "fasting," "time-restricted feeding," and "food timing." Modified fasting regimens appear to promote weight loss and may improve metabolic health. Several lines of evidence also support the hypothesis that eating patterns that reduce or eliminate nighttime eating and prolong nightly fasting intervals may result in sustained improvements in human health. Intermittent fasting regimens are hypothesized to influence metabolic regulation via effects on (a) circadian biology, (b) the gut microbiome, and (c) modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as sleep. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens offer promising nonpharmacological approaches to improving health at the population level, with multiple public health benefits.

  6. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  7. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  8. Serum Lipid Profile: Fasting or Non-fasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Serum lipid profile has now become almost a routine test. It is usually done in fasting state due to certain limitations in non-fasting serum sample. In the recent past efforts have been made to simplify blood sampling by replacing fasting lipid profile with non-fasting lipid profile. However, fasting specimen is preferred if cardiovascular risk assessment is based on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol. A lot has yet to be done in this area. Till then we have to believe...

  9. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  10. Coupling between phosphate and calcium homeostasis: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granjon, David; Bonny, Olivier; Edwards, Aurélie

    2017-12-01

    We developed a mathematical model of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO 4 ) homeostasis in the rat to elucidate the hormonal mechanisms that underlie the regulation of Ca and PO 4 balance. The model represents the exchanges of Ca and PO 4 between the intestine, plasma, kidneys, bone, and the intracellular compartment, and the formation of Ca-PO 4 -fetuin-A complexes. It accounts for the regulation of these fluxes by parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D 3 , fibroblast growth factor 23, and Ca 2+ -sensing receptors. Our results suggest that the Ca and PO 4 homeostatic systems are robust enough to handle small perturbations in the production rate of either PTH or vitamin D 3 The model predicts that large perturbations in PTH or vitamin D 3 synthesis have a greater impact on the plasma concentration of Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] p ) than on that of PO 4 ([PO 4 ] p ); due to negative feedback loops, [PO 4 ] p does not consistently increase when the production rate of PTH or vitamin D 3 is decreased. Our results also suggest that, following a large PO 4 infusion, the rapidly exchangeable pool in bone acts as a fast, transient storage PO 4 compartment (on the order of minutes), whereas the intracellular pool is able to store greater amounts of PO 4 over several hours. Moreover, a large PO 4 infusion rapidly lowers [Ca 2+ ] p owing to the formation of CaPO 4 complexes. A large Ca infusion, however, has a small impact on [PO 4 ] p , since a significant fraction of Ca binds to albumin. This mathematical model is the first to include all major regulatory factors of Ca and PO 4 homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  12. Fast reactors: potential for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: basic facts about conventional and fast reactors; uranium economy; plutonium and fast reactors; cooling systems; sodium coolant; safety engineering; handling and recycling plutonium; safeguards; development of fast reactors in Britain and abroad; future progress. (U.K.)

  13. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  14. Functionalization of lambda-zirconium phosphate with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    EDTA is commonly added to food packaging in order to complex metal ions .... Gaza strip in which the natural water suffers from very high degree of hardness. ... exchange reactions proceed very fast and the OHH2O- phase, ZrPO4OHH2O.

  15. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  16. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount ( 2 S or K 2 S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOXtrademark residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in all these cases is

  17. Phosphate retention by soil in relation to waste disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The disposal of large amounts of domestic sewage water and liquid manure, both containing dissolved phosphates, is often problematic. Discharge of these into (shallow and standing) surface waters is highly undesirable, as phosphate is considered to be one of the prime causes of eutrophication. If,

  18. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/026/04/0415-0422. Keywords. Calcium phosphate cements; hydroxyapatite; bioceramics; bone substitute; orthopedic; dental. Abstract. A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented.

  19. Radiological impacts of uranium recovery in the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This article characterizes the occupational and public radiological health impacts associated with phosphate mining and milling. These impacts are related to the phosphate industry's uranium production potential and are compared with those associated with conventional uranium mining and milling. The radiological impacts resulting from occupational and nonoccupational exposures are assessed. Occupational exposures in phosphate facilities are compared to background exposures and radiological population dose assessments, which characterize important radionuclides and exposure pathways. The following conclusions were reached: (1) public consequences of phosphate mining will occur whether or not uranium is recovered as a by-product, (2) radiological consequences of phosphate mining may be comparable to those associated with uranium mining and milling per unit uranium production, (3) radiological impacts via surface waterways and crops fertilized with uranium-bearing phosphates are of minor consequence, and (4) major radiological public health problems associated with phosphate mining are related to radon and radon progeny exposures in structures built on reclaimed lands or with phosphate mining residues, although the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to evaluate with current data

  20. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was the removal of phosphate and nitrate by sodium alginate seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata) beads from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate and nitrate on the seagrass beads were optimized under different operational parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial ...

  1. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a

  2. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu

    2010-01-01

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe 3+ , which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  3. Biotemplate synthesis of monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Feng; Li Dongxu, E-mail: dongxuli@njut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Monodispersed iron phosphate hollow microspheres with a high degree of crystallization were prepared through a facile in situ deposition method using rape pollen grains as a biotemplate. The functional group on the surface of the pollen grains could adsorb Fe{sup 3+}, which provided the nucleation sites for growth of iron phosphate nanoparticles. After being sintered at 600 deg. C for 10 h, the pollen grains were removed and iron phosphate hollow microspheres were obtained. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction were applied to characterize the morphology and crystalline structure of the pollen grains, iron phosphate-coated pollen grains and iron phosphate hollow microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravity analyses were performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the iron phosphate-coated pollen grains during the calcinations. Energy dispersive spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interaction between the pollen grains and iron phosphate. The effect of the pollen wall on the surface morphology of these iron phosphate hollow microspheres was also proven in this work.

  4. Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.; van der Valk, Chantal M.; Dalmeijer, Remco A.J.; Meijer, Gert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The biomimetic route allows the homogeneous deposition of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings on porous implants by immersion in simulated physiologic solution. In addition, various Ca-P phases, such as octacalcium phosphate (OCP) or bone-like carbonated apatite (BCA), which are stable only at low

  5. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  6. Evaluation methods used for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to evaluate the different selection methods and select inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria as potential plant-growth promoters. Bacterial isolates obtained from sugarcane roots and soil were tested using solid growth media containing bicalcium phosphate and Irecê Apatite ground rock phosphate as ...

  7. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  8. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation of bitumen was found to be associated with the production of carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas and oil. As a result of using nitrogen limited and phosphate limited media, 1750 and 1250 cm3 of gas and 0.95 and 0.85 g/l of oil were obtained respectively. Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on ...

  9. Effect of humic substances on the precipitation of calcium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Hermann H. HAHN; Erhard HOFFMANN; Peter G. WEIDLER

    2006-01-01

    For phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater, the effect of humic substances (HS) on the precipitation of calcium phosphate was studied. Batch experiments of calcium phosphate precipitation were undertaken with synthetic water that contained 20 mg/L phosphate (as P) and 20 mg/L HS (as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) at a constant pH value in the range of 8.0-10.0. The concentration variations of phosphate, calcium (Ca) and HS were measured in the precipitation process; the crystalline state and compositions of the precipitates were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, respectively. It showed that at solution pH 8.0, the precipitation rate and removal efficiency of phosphate were greatly reduced by HS, but at solution pH ≥9.0,the effect of HS was very small. The Ca consumption for the precipitation of phosphate increased when HS was added; HS was also removed from solution with the precipitation of calcium phosphate. At solution pH 8.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 3.5 mg/L, and at pH ≥ 9.0 and HS concentrations ≤ 10 mg/L, the final precipitates were proved to be hydroxyapatite (HAP) by XRD. The increases of solution pH value and initial Ca/P ratio helped reduce the influence of HS on the precipitation of phosphate.

  10. Interaction between calcium and phosphate adsorption on goethite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitatively, little is known about the ion interaction processes that are responsible for the binding of phosphate in soil, water, and sediment, which determine the bioavailability and mobility of phosphate. Studies have shown that metal hydroxides are often responsible for the binding of PO4 in

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Phosphate in Delirium after Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane-Victoria Idland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Phosphate is essential for neuronal activity. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with altered phosphate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with hip fracture were assessed for delirium before and after acute surgery. Prefracture dementia was diagnosed by an expert panel. Phosphate was measured in CSF obtained immediately before spinal anesthesia (n = 77 and in serum (n = 47. CSF from 23 cognitively healthy elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia was also analyzed. Results: Hip fracture patients with prevalent delirium had higher CSF phosphate concentrations than those without delirium (median 0.63 vs. 0.55 mmol/L, p = 0.001. In analyses stratified on dementia status, this difference was only significant in patients with dementia. Serum phosphate was ∼1 mmol/L; there was no association between serum phosphate concentration and delirium status. CSF phosphate did not correlate with serum levels. Conclusion: Patients with delirium superimposed on dementia have elevated phosphate levels.

  12. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  13. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  14. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate RemovalThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D. Dionysiou. Phosphate Removal using Modified Bayoxide®E33 Adsorption Media. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, issue}: 96-107, (2015).

  15. Uranium determination in phosphatized materials by drop electrode polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, F.M.C. de; Abrao, A.

    1987-01-01

    An uranium determination procedure in phosphate rocks and crude phosphoric acid is outlined polarography is used. Uranium is previously separedted by extraction with tri-n-byte phosphate 10%-petroleum ether using aluminium nitrate as salting out agent. (M.L.J.) [pt

  16. Fast reactors in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazachkovskii, O

    1981-02-01

    The possible applications are discussed of fast reactor nuclear power plants. Basic differences are explained in fast and thermal reactors, mainly with a view to nuclear fuel utilization. Discussed in more detail are the problems of nuclear fuel reproduction and the nost important technical problems of fast reactors. Flow charts are shown of heat transfer for fast reactors BN-350 (loop design) and BN-600 (integral coolant circuit design). Main specifications are given for demonstration and power fast reactors in operation, under construction and in project-stage.

  17. Knowledge management in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Swaminathan, P.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the work that is being carried out in Knowledge Management of Fast Reactors at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) including a few examples of how the knowledge acquired because of various incidents in the initial years has been utilized for the successful operation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor. It also briefly refers to the features of the IAEA initiative on the preservation of Knowledge in the area of Fast Reactors in the form of 'Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System' (FR-KOS), which is based on a taxonomy for storage and mining of Fast Reactor Knowledge. (author)

  18. A comparison of the interfacial tension of tri-iso-amyl phosphate and tri-n-butyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasulu, B.; Rajeswari, S.; Suresh, A.; Antony, M.P.; Sivaraman, N.

    2016-01-01

    In our recent studies, Tri-iso-amyl Phosphate (TiAP) was found to be a potential extractant for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. It has excellent extraction characteristics, higher capacity to load Pu(IV) without third phase formation, lower aqueous solubility etc. Mixer-Settler runs with TiAP showed excellent extraction and stripping behavior of uranium and plutonium. Physiochemical properties are considered to be important parameters for a solvent to be qualified for the processing of spent nuclear fuels. Prior to the deployment of TiAP in a reprocessing plant, it is necessary to measure the interfacial tension of TiAP. The present study deals with the measurement of interfacial tension (G/IFT) of neat and 1.1M solutions of TiAP and TBP in n-dodecane (DD) (degraded and undegraded solvents). The samples were irradiated in a 60 Co gamma chamber with a dose rate of 5 kGy/hr. IFT of neat and 1.1M solutions of TiAP and TBP in n-DD were measured against 4M HNO 3 at 303K by Drop weight method in which G is given by G = (V´ (r aq - r org ) ´ g) / (2 ´ p ´ r ´ f s ), where f s is the Smith's correction factor, f s = (1 - r/R), V is the volume of the drop at the moment of separation, r aq and r org are the densities of the aqueous and the organic phases, respectively, r is the radius at the capillary tip, R is the drop radius at the moment of separation and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Results indicate that IFT of neat TiAP-HNO 3 system (11.2) is marginally lower than that of 1.1M TiAP/DD-HNO 3 system

  19. Effect of Ramadan fasting in Saudi Arabia on serum bone profile and immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahijri, Suhard M; Ajabnoor, Ghada M; Borai, Anwar; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Chrousos, George P

    2015-10-01

    Each year Muslims fast from dawn to sunset for 1 month (Ramadan). In Saudi Arabia, the sleep-wake cycle during Ramadan is severely disturbed and is associated with abolition of the circadian cortisol rhythm, exposing Saudis to continuously increased cortisol levels, which may influence the immune response. In addition to cortisol, sleep and fasting affect the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and hence bone metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of Ramadan type fasting on secretory patterns of PTH, markers of bone metabolism, and serum immunoglobulins. Blood samples from healthy young volunteers were collected at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. (± 1 hour) before (Shaban) and 2 weeks into Ramadan. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, 25-OH vitamin D, intact PTH (iPTH), and immunoglobulin (Ig) A, M and G were measured. During Ramadan, evening-adjusted calcium was higher (p = 0.036) and phosphate lower (p Ramadan mean morning phosphate was higher and the evening level lower was than Shabaan values (p = 0.010 and p Ramadan (p = 0.003 and p = 0.021 for morning and evening, respectively). Changes in dietary practices during Ramadan modulated PTH secretion to a pattern which might be beneficial to bone health. Combined effects of fasting and disturbed sleep led to a noted decrease in IgG level. Therefore, a possible beneficial effect of fasting on bone turnover is combined with decreased immune response.

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting on urinary risk factors for calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladipour, Amir Hossein; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Parvin, Mahmoud; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh

    2012-01-01

    Even though dehydration could aggravate formation of urinary calculi, the effects of fluid and food restriction on calculus formation is not thoroughly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction in Ramadan fasting on urinary factors in kidney and urinary calculus formation. Fifty-seven men aged 30 to 55 years old, including 37 recurrent calcium calculus formers and 20 with no history of kidney calculi were evaluated for blood tests, ultrasonography investigations, urinalysis, urine culture, and also 24-hour urine collection test. Metabolites including calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, and creatinine were measured before and during Ramadan fasting. The values of calculus-precipitating solutes as well as inhibitory factors were documented thoroughly. Total excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium in 24-hour urine and also urine volume during fasting were significantly lower than those in the nonfasting period. Urine concentration of calcium during fasting was significantly lower than nonfasting (P calculus formation. We did not find enough evidence in favor of increased risks of calculus formation during Ramadan fasting.

  1. Fast photomultiplier ELUP 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, L.I.; Belokon', V.A.; Krasin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    High-velocity photomultiplier is described. The latter is recommended to be used in nuclear physics, plasma physics, nuclear medical diagnostics and at measurement of fast-occurring process parameters. Main specifications are as follows: range of spectral sensitivity - 0.2-0.7 μm; limit of dinamic characteristic linearity - up to 5A; dark current at +20 deg C ambient temperature - maximum 10-8A, time of anode pulse growth - maximum 8 ns; photocathode quantum yield in the maximum of spectral characteristic (λ max =380-420 nm) - 24-26%; supply voltage - 4-5 kV

  2. Fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period

  3. The fast encryption package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matt

    1988-01-01

    The organization of some tools to help improve passwork security at a UNIX-based site is described along with how to install and use them. These tools and their associated library enable a site to force users to pick reasonably safe passwords (safe being site configurable) and to enable site management to try to crack existing passworks. The library contains various versions of a very fast implementation of the Data Encryption Standard and of the one-way encryption functions used to encryp the password.

  4. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first industrial-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) is the Superphenix I at Crays-Melville. It was designed and built by Novatome, a French company, and Ansaldo, an Italian company. The advantages of FBRs are summarized. The status of Superphenix and the testing schedule is given. The stages in its power escalation in 1986 are given. The article is optimistic about the future for FBRs and expects FBRs to take over from PWRs at the beginning of the 21st Century. To achieve economic viability, European financial cooperation for the research and development programme is advocated. (UK)

  5. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  6. Fast multichannel scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayasu, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Nagai, S.

    1987-01-01

    A fast multichannel scaler achieving the minimum dwell time of 50 ns is described. The dead time due to memory cycle is eliminated by 4-phase operation of parallel-4 groups of counter RAMs. The MCS has 4 k channels in total. Differential nonlinearity is less than 0.4%. If an input pulse arrives near the channel boundary, it is caught temporarily for both channels and then sorted to go into a proper channel. Thus, the dead time near the channel boundary is also eliminated

  7. EFFECT OF SODIUM PHOSPHATES ON SELECTED FOOD GRADE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect in vitro of selected sodium phosphates (under the corporate names Hexa 68, Hexa 70, Trikrystal, FST, Pyro 52, KPS, Didi on selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Seven different concentrations of each phosphate were used. Sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phosphates was observed in broth supplemented with salts. In vitro was showed a negative effect of various phosphates on growth of selected gram-positive bacteria. Orthophosphates and diphosphates (pyrophosphates did not have significant inhibitory effect on tested bacteria at neutral pH. With the exception of phosphate Trikrystal has not been found in vitro significant inhibitory effects on gram-negative bacteria.doi:10.5219/141

  8. Isolation of phosphate solubiliser fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Diana Fernanda; Perez, Hernando; Valencia Hernando

    2002-01-01

    Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region, which has been described as a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995). This plant has high productivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability. In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungi processed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were araza is cultivated at two regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizing phosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most important species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichoderma aureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichoderma strain 1 y Trichoderma strain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomyces strain 3, Gongronella butleri and Fusarium oxysporum

  9. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  10. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  11. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  12. A study of phosphate absorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Rees, Nicholas; O'Hare, Dermot

    2009-10-21

    A study of the mechanism of phosphate adsorption by magnesium iron hydroxycarbonate, [Mg(2.25)Fe(0.75)(OH)(6)](CO(3))(0.37).0.65H(2)O over a range of pH has been carried out. The efficiency of the phosphate removal from aqueous solution has been investigated between pH 3-9 and the resulting solid phases have been studied by elemental analysis, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, HRTEM, EDX and solid-state MAS (31)P NMR. The analytical and spectroscopic data suggest that phosphate removal from solution occurs not by anion intercalation of the relevant phosphorous oxyanion (H(2)PO(4)(-) or HPO(4)(2-)) into the LDH but by the precipitation of either an insoluble iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate and/or a magnesium phosphate hydrate.

  13. Uranyl phosphate mineral in Gapyeong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    An uranyl phosphate crystal from Gapeong area is studied by means of single crystal x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic qualitative analysis of chemical contents. The crystal is identified as meta-ankoleite which has a unit cell of super structure with a=b=6.99 A, c=17.69 A and space group P4 2 22. There exists some indication in the total fluorescent spectrum of the sample that potassium may be partially substituted by calcium. The chemical formula of this meta-ankoleite may be expressed by Ksub(1-2x)Casub(x)(UO 2 PO 4 ) (H 2 O)sub(3-x). (Author)

  14. Radiation exposure levels in phosphate mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon, radon daughter concentration and gamma ray exposure rate were measured at different places in the phosphate mining areas of Syria. The grab sampling method was used. For radon measurements, discrete air samples without progeny were collected over short periods of time, whereas daughters were collected on filter paper. A three-count procedure was used for the measurement of radon daughter concentrations to improve accuracy. The measurements were carried out at 37 locations selected in the mines, factories, offices and homes in the mining area. The sampling was repeated monthly for a full calendar year. Workers and their families were classified in different categories according to the nature of their jobs. The doses were estimated using proper occupancy factors. The dose equivalent from radon daughters varies from 1 mSv.y -1 to a maximum of 10 mSv.y -1 . Radon concentrations vary from 100 Bq.m -3 to several hundreds. (author)

  15. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  16. Study of some properties of zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospert, J.

    1963-05-01

    Zirconium phosphate has been studied with a view to using it as an ion exchanger: the first objective was to develop a method of preparation easy to apply and also reproducible. To this end, several tests were carried out varying the molar ratios of phosphorus and of zirconium. Some physical properties such as the diffraction of X-rays were examined. The work then involved certain chemical properties, particularly the percentages of free water and structural water given by the loss on calcination, the Karl-Fisher method and the weight losses by thermogravimetry. Finally an attempts was made to apply the exchanger to the separation of alkaline ions. The static tests showed that the order of fixation of these ions was Cs + > Rb + >> K + > Na + . Tests with columns showed that Na + and K + were easily separable, as was the Rb + -Cs + mixture, this last pair being fairly difficult to dissociate. (author) [fr

  17. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 3 2P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 4 5Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE

  18. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Roy, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    This publication deals with the direct application of phosphate rock (PR) sources to agriculture. Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient and its deficiency restricts crop yields severely. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic, and often extremely P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fibre production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers such as superphosphates are commonly recommended to correct P deficiencies, but most developing countries import these fertilizers, which are often in limited supply and represent a major outlay for resource-poor farmers. In addition, intensification of agricultural production in these countries necessitates the addition of P not only to increase crop production but also to improve soil P status in order to avoid further soil degradation. Hence, it is imperative to explore alternative P sources. Under certain soil and climate conditions, the direct application of PR, especially where available locally, has proved to be an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the more expensive superphosphates. PR deposits occur worldwide, but few are mined (for use mainly as raw materials to manufacture water-soluble P fertilizers). The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Coordinated Research Project called 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilizers, in particular rock phosphates'. This was implemented by institutes of developing and industrialized countries from 1993 to 1998. The results obtained yielded new information on: chemistry of soil P; tests for available soil P; phosphate nutrition of crops; agronomic effectiveness of PR products; and P fertilizer recommendations with particular emphasis on PR use. Within the framework of the integrated plant nutrition systems promoted by

  19. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  20. Inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Claudia F; Dos-Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2014-07-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. The route of Pi utilization begins with Pi transport across the plasma membrane. Here, we analyzed the gene sequences and compared the biochemical profiles, including kinetic and modulator parameters, of Pi transporters in unicellular eukaryotes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the recent findings regarding Pi uptake mechanisms in microorganisms, such as the fungi Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the parasite protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Pi uptake is the key step of Pi homeostasis and in the subsequent signaling event in eukaryotic microorganisms. Biochemical and structural studies are important for clarifying mechanisms of Pi homeostasis, as well as Pi sensor and downstream pathways, and raise possibilities for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal Decomposition of Nitrated Tributyl Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Hou, Y.; Barefield, E.K.; Tedder, D.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Contact between tributyl phosphate and aqueous solutions of nitric acid and/or heavy metal nitrate salts at elevated temperatures can lead to exothermic reactions of explosive violence. Even though such operations have been routinely performed safely for decades as an intrinsic part of the Purex separation processes, several so-called ''red oil'' explosions are known to have occurred in the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union. The most recent red oil explosion occurred at the Tomsk-7 separations facility in Siberia, in April 1993. That explosion destroyed part of the unreinforced masonry walls of the canyon-type building in which the process was housed, and allowed the release of a significant quantity of radioactive material

  2. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Adaptive to Vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahar Muzakhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms identified as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB adaptive to vinasse were successfully screened from sugarcane soil from an agriculatural estate in Jatiroto. By conducting a screening on Pikovskaya’s agar medium (PAM, we found that five different isolates were detected as PSB (pvk-5a, pvk-5b, pvk-6b, pvk-7a, and pvk-8a. Of the five isolates only three could be grown and were found to be adaptive to vinasse based medium without any nutrients added (pvk-5a, pvk-5b and pvk-7a. The three isolates were characterized as coccus and Gram negative with no endospores detected. We suggest that these three isolates can be used as biofertilizer agent to support organic farming.

  3. Structure-solubility relationships in fluoride-containing phosphate based bioactive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharyar, Yaqoot

    The dissolution of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses critically affects their biomedical applications. Most commercial fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses have been designed in the soda-lime-silica system. However, their relatively slow chemical dissolution and the adverse effect of fluoride on their bioactivity are stimulating the study of novel biodegradable materials with higher bioactivity, such as biodegradable phosphate-based bioactive glasses, which can be a viable alternative for applications where a fast release of active ions is sought. In order to design new biomaterials with controlled degradability and high bioactivity, it is essential to understand the connection between chemical composition, molecular structure, and solubility in physiological fluids.Accordingly, in this work we have combined the strengths of various experimental techniques with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, to elucidate the impact of fluoride ions on the structure and chemical dissolution of bioactive phosphate glasses in the system: 10Na2O - (45-x) CaO - 45P2O5 - xCaF2, where x varies between 0 -- 10 mol.%. NMR and MD data reveal that the medium-range atomic-scale structure of thse glasses is dominated by Q2 phosphate units followed by Q1 units, and the MD simulations further show that fluoride tends to associate with network modifier cations to form alkali/alkaline-earth rich ionic aggregates. On a macroscopic scale, we find that incorporating fluoride in phosphate glasses does not affect the rate of apatite formation on the glass surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, fluoride has a marked favorable impact on the glass dissolution in deionized water. Similarly, fluoride incorporation in the glasses results in significant weight gain due to adsorption of water (in the form of OH ions). These macroscopic trends are discussed on the basis of the F effect on the atomistic structure of the glasses, such as the F-induced phosphate network re-polymerization, in a

  4. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  5. Chemistry of tetravalent actinides phosphates. The thorium phosphate-diphosphate as immobilisation matrix of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacheux, N.

    2002-01-01

    The author presents in this document its scientific works from 1992 to 2001, in order to obtain the enabling to manage scientific and chemical researches at the university Paris Sud Orsay. The first part gives an abstract of the thesis on the characterizations, lixiviation and synthesis of uranium and thorium based phosphate matrix in the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage. The second part presents briefly the researches realized at the CEA, devoted to a reliable, independent and accurate measure of some isotopes activity. The last part presents the abstracts of researches activities from 1996 to 2001 on the tetravalent actinides phosphates chemistry, the sintering of PDT and solid solutions of PDTU and the kinetic and thermodynamical studies of the PDT dissolution. Many references and some publication in full text are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Study of the tributyl phosphate - 30% dodecane solvent; Etude du solvant phosphate tributylique - 30 % dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 92 (France)

    1967-07-01

    This study, originating mainly from a literature survey, gives the principal chemical and physical features of the tributyl-phosphate (TBP) agent diluted at 30 volumes per cent in dodecane. The mixture is a very commonly used extractant in nuclear fuel processing. In this paper, the main following points are reported: -) the components (TBP and diluents) -) the TBP-diluents systems (non-loaded), -) the TBP-diluents-water systems, -) TBP-diluents-water-nitric acid systems, and -) industrial solvents. (author) [French] Cette etude, d'origine bibliographique, regroupe les caracteristiques physico-chimiques essentielles du phosphate tributylique (TBP) dilue a 30% en volume dans du dodecane. Ce melange constitue un agent d'extraction tres utilise dans le traitement des combustibles nucleaires. Les principaux points traites sont les suivants: -) les constituants (TBP et diluants), -) les systemes TBP-diluants non charges, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau-acide nitrique, et -) les solvants industriels. (auteur)

  7. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao; He, Shui Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  8. The use of phosphates in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphite preparations are now an important alternative in plant protection against new, invasive pathogens of the genus Phytophthora and/or Pythium. It is crucial to intervene when alien, invasive oomycetes are carried to plantations or forest stands and attack fine roots via zoospores. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of phosphite application to induce resistance to tree pathogens. Phosphate-based fertilizers have been used successfully in nurseries, where application is relatively easy by means of foliar sprays. the traditional fungicides, which are effective in combating fungi, however, fail to control oomycetes. Instead, they mask the disease, which, in turn, causes serious damage to seedlings after they have been planted in a suitable environment. Moreover, the number of effective fungicides available for forest plant protection has continued to decrease in the last decade. The effectiveness of the chemicals is reduced due to their frequent use and their similarity in terms of the active compound or the mechanism of action. Given the low diversity of active compounds, it is necessary to monitor the development of resistance of pathogens to fungicides by means of molecular biology (sequencing and quantitative PCR. Minimising the undesired side effects of chemicals on both, mycorrhizal fungi and pathogens can be achieved by strict adherence to rigorous security measures and, where possible, frequently changing the active compounds to alternatives such as phosphites. The significance of phosphate and phosphite uptake by trees is still a matter of debate, especially under field conditions. Nevertheless, phosphites are environmentally friendly compounds, which constitute an alternative or complement to the traditional chemicals (in accordance with the Directive on Integrated Plant management.

  9. Unsymmetrical phosphate as extractant for the extraction of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, R.H.; Jayaram, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) was first used as an extractant in 1944, during Manhattan project for the separation of actinides and further explored by Warf in 1949 for the extraction of Ce(IV) from aqueous nitric acid. TBP was further used as an extractant in the Plutonium Uranium Recovery by Extraction (PUREX) process. To meet the stringent requirements of the nuclear industry TBP has been extensively investigated. In spite of its wide applicability, TBP suffers from various disadvantages such as high aqueous solubility, third phase formation, chemical and radiation degradation leading to the formation of undesired products. It also suffers from incomplete decontamination of the actinides from fission products. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems associated with TBP by way of using higher homologues of TBP such as Tri-iso amyl phosphate (TiAP), Tri-secondary butyl phosphate (TsBP), Tri amyl phosphate (TAP). It was found that in some cases the results were considerably better than those obtained with TBP for uranium/thorium extraction. The extraction of nitric acid by TBP and its higher homologues which are symmetrical are well documented. However, no solvent has emerged clearly superior than TBP. Here in we report the extraction of nitric acid with neutral unsymmetrical phosphates and study them as extractants for the extraction of nitric acid. Dibutyl secbutyl phosphate, dibutyl pentyl phosphate and dibutyl heptyl phosphate were synthesised for this purpose and the extraction of nitric acid was studied in n-dodecane. The results indicate that the substitution of one of the alkyl groups of the symmetrical phosphate adjacent to the phosphoryl (P=O) group of the phosphate does not have any pronounced effect on the extraction capacity of nitric acid. (author)

  10. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Three Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgou, En Hr; Haghgoo, Roza; Roholahi, Mohamad R; Ghorbani, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of casein phos-phopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and three calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP and TCP) on increasing the microhardness of human enamel after induction of erosion. A total of 26 healthy human-impacted third molar teeth were chosen, and their hardness measured using a microhardness testing machine. The samples were immersed in Coca Cola (pH = 4.7) for 8 minutes. Then, micro-hardness was measured again, and these samples were randomly divided into four groups (two control groups and two experimental groups). (1) Negative control group: Artificial saliva was used for 10 minutes, (2) positive control group: Fluoride gel was used for 10 minutes, (3) β-TCP group: TCP was used for 10 minutes, (4) CCP-ACP group: CCP-ACP was used for 10 minutes. The final microhardness of those samples was measured, and the changes in microhardness of teeth within group and between groups were analyzed using the paired and analysis of variance tests respectively. Results were considered statistically significant at a level of p < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in microhard-ness between CPP-ACP group and TCP group (p = 0.368) during the time microhardness significantly dropped after soaking in soda. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP increased the microhardness of teeth. The increase in hardness in the TCP group was higher than in the CPP-ACP group, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.36). Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and TCP can affect the remineralization of erosive lesions.

  11. Studies on extraction behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid medium using tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP)/ n-dodecane as extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, S.T.; Tripathi, S.C.; Singh, S.K.; Gandhi, P.M.; Janardan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Tri-iso-amyl phosphate is a higher homologue of TBP, retaining many advantages of TBP while eliminating or mitigating its disadvantages. Its longer, branched alkyl chain, resists third phase formation during overloading of actinides. The TiAP is being considered as an alternative of TBP for the reprocessing of Fast Breeder Reactor fuels due to its various advantages over TBP

  12. Fast delta Hadamard transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Weston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    In many fields (e.g., spectroscopy, imaging spectroscopy, photoacoustic imaging, coded aperture imaging) binary bit patterns known as m sequences are used to encode (by multiplexing) a series of measurements in order to obtain a larger throughput. The observed measurements must be decoded to obtain the desired spectrum (or image in the case of coded aperture imaging). Decoding in the past has used a technique called the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) whose chief advantage is that it can reduce the computational effort from N 2 multiplies of N log 2 N additions or subtractions. However, the FHT has the disadvantage that it does not readily allow one to sample more finely than the number of bits used in the m sequence. This can limit the obtainable resolution and cause confusion near the sample boundaries (phasing errors). Both 1-D and 2-D methods (called fast delta Hadamard transforms, FDHT) have been developed which overcome both of the above limitations. Applications of the FDHT are discussed in the context of Hadamard spectroscopy and coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays. Special emphasis has been placed on how the FDHT can unite techniques used by both of these fields into the same mathematical basis

  13. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  14. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two dramatic demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the Integral Fast Reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics and also makes possible a simplified closed fuel cycle and waste process improvements

  15. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the integral fast reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics also makes possible a simplified close fuel cycle and waste process improvements. The paper describes the IFR concept, the inherent safety, tests, and status of IFR development today

  16. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  17. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ≥7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  18. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  19. Characterization of iron phosphate glasses prepared by microwave heating; Obtencao de vidros fosfatos contendo ferro por meio do aquecimento em fornos de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Jesus Moreira de

    2006-07-01

    Phosphate glasses have been investigated since the fifties, because they are relatively easy to prepare, have low melting temperatures (1000 deg C - 1200 deg C), and low glass transition. However, these glasses were very sensitive to humidity, showing a very low chemical durability. Iron phosphate glasses have been prepared by melting inorganic precursors in conventional electric furnaces and induction furnaces. By adding iron, phosphate glasses became chemical resistant and were thought to be used as nuclear waste forms or mechanical resistance fibers. The use of microwaves has been investigated because it makes possible a fast and homogeneous heating of the materials. Microwave promotes the self-heating of the material by the interaction of the external electromagnetic field with the molecules and ions of the material. Niobium phosphate glasses was also produced already through the heating of precursors in microwave ovens. Other glasses containing iron in theirs structure was produced by conventional furnaces and they had your structures analyzed. But even so, it was not still published synthesis of iron phosphate glasses starting from the melting of precursors materials in microwave ovens. In the present work mixtures of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were exposed to microwave energy with electromagnetic waves of 2,45 GHz. It was proposed that the absorption of this radiation for the material causes the heating from room temperature to melting temperature. The obtained iron phosphate glasses was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and Differential Thermal Analysis. Iron phosphate glasses were also produced in electrical furnaces for comparison. (author)

  20. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Christopher S; Coldrick, Zachary; Tate, Daniel J; Donoghue, Jack Marsden; Grieve, Bruce

    2018-02-10

    An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N -allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP.

  1. Phosphate limitation induces sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Vagner Alexandre; Ferreira da Cruz, Angela; Nunis da Silva, Antonio; Corrêa, Luiz Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The cell cycle is controlled by numerous mechanisms that ensure correct cell division. If growth is not possible, cells may eventually promote autophagy, differentiation, or apoptosis. Microorganisms interrupt their growth and differentiate under general nutrient limitation. We analyzed the effects of phosphate limitation on growth and sporulation in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii using kinetic data, phase-contrast, and laser confocal microscopy. Under phosphate limitation, zoospores germinated and subsequently formed 2-4 spores, regardless of the nutritional content of the medium. The removal of phosphate at any time during growth induced sporulation of vegetative cells. If phosphate was later added to the same cultures, growth was restored if the cells were not yet committed to sporulation. The cycles of addition and withdrawal of phosphate from growth medium resulted in cycles of germination-growth, germination-sporulation, or germination-growth-sporulation. These results show that phosphate limitation is sufficient to interrupt cell growth and to induce complete sporulation in B. emersonii. We concluded that the determination of growth or sporulation in this microorganism is linked to phosphate availability when other nutrients are not limiting. This result provides a new tool for the dissection of nutrient-energy and signal pathways in cell growth and differentiation.

  2. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  3. Availability of native and added phosphates for the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, W.B.; Boaretto, A.E.; Muraoka, T.

    1995-01-01

    In superficial composite samples of two Red-Yellow Latosols with different physical and chemical properties, analyses were carried out on inorganic form of phosphorus as well as the availability of native and added phosphates. The method applied was soil phosphorus fractionation associated with isotopic dilution technique ( 32 P). The samples were taken from pots containing soils incubated for a month with fluid phosphatic fertilizers (phosphoric acid and 10-30-00 suspension) and solid phosphatic fertilizers (mono ammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate), at the rate of 210 mg P 2 O 5 /kg of soil. A control treatment was included. In both soils the availability of inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased at the following order: H 2 O-P > Al-P > Fe-P > CA-P > occluded-P. The water soluble and aluminium phosphates represented the main source of available P for the newly fertilizer, the iron phosphates were also an important source of available phosphorus. The soil phosphorus fixing capacity influenced the availability of native and added phosphates. (author). 17 refs, 3 tabs

  4. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  6. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Leger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho [A novel iterative scheme for the very fast and accurate solution of non-LTE radiative transfer problems. Astrophys J 1995;455:646]; it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry

  7. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, E.K.

    1976-11-01

    Estimated reactivity effects of fission products in the SNR-300 fast breeder are given. Neutron cross sections of 127 I and 129 I are also given. Results of the in-pile canning failure experiments on fuel pins R54-F35 and F39 are discussed. Sinter experiments using mixed UC-UN powders are reported. Results of tensile tests on high-dose and low-dose irradiated specimens of 18Cr1 1Ni stainless steel (DIN 1.4948) used in the SNR-300 reactor vessel are given. It is shown that the aerosol behaviour in condensing sodium vapour can be described by the same MADCA model developed for the decay of aerosols in condensing water vapour. Results of heat transfer measurements in the electrically heated 28-rod bundle under liquid-phase and subsequently under two-phase conditions are commented on

  8. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years, scientists from Argonne have developed an advanced breeder reactor with a closed self contained fuel cycle. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a new reactor concept, adaptable to a variety of designs, that is based on a fuel cycle radically different from the CRBR line of breeder development. The essential features of the IFR are metal fuel, pool layout, and pyro- and electro-reprocessing in a facility integral with the reactor plant. The IFR shows promise to provide an inexhaustible, safe, economic, environmentally acceptable, and diversion resistant source of nuclear power. It shows potential for major improvement in all of the areas that have led to concern about nuclear power

  9. The calcium phosphate coating of soy lecithin nanoemulsion with performance in stability and as an oxygen carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu B.

    This work studied the relationship between surfactant, oil, and water, by building ternary phase diagrams, the goal of which was to identify the oil-in-water phase composition. The resulting nano-sized emulsion was coated with dicalcium phosphate by utilizing the ionic affinity between calcium ions and the emulsion surface. Since the desired function of the particle is as an oxygen carrier, the particle stability, oxygen capacity, and oxygen release rate were investigated. The first step in the process was to construct ternary phase diagrams with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) and soy derived lecithin. The results showed that the lecithin surfactant formed an oil-in-water phase region that was 36 times greater than that of DOPA. With the desired phase composition set, the lecithin emulsion was extruded, resulting in a well-dispersed nanosized particle. A pH titration study of the emulsion found an optimized calcium phosphate coating condition at pH 8.8, at which, the calcium ion had a greater affinity for the emulsion surface than phosphate. A Hill plot was used to show calcium cooperativeness on the emulsion surface which suggested one calcium ion binds to one lecithin molecule. The lecithin emulsion particles were then coated with calcium phosphate using a layering technique that allowed for careful control of the coating thickness. The overall particle hydrodynamic radius was consistent with the growth of the calcium phosphate coating, from 8 nm to 28 nm. This observation was further supported with cryo-TEM measurements. The stability of the coated emulsion was tested in conditions that simulate practical thermal, physical, and time-dependent conditions. Throughout the tests, the coated emulsion exhibited a constant mono-dispersed particle size, while the uncoated emulsion size fluctuated greatly and exhibited increased polydispersion. The fast mixing method with the stopped-flow apparatus was employed to test the product as an oxygen carrier, and it

  10. In-situ high temperature XRD of calcium phosphate biomaterial using DEHPA as the starting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muslim

    2009-01-01

    A process to produce calcium phosphate biomaterial was done using an organic based phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as its starting material. The gel obtained from this reaction was used to study calcium phosphate transformation using in-situ XRD with temperature ranges from room temperature to 1300 degree C. The results obtained from this analysis show the following phase transformation: Gel β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 β-TCP + HA α-TCP + HA, β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 forms at 400 degree C and as we heat the sample at 1000 degree C peaks belonging to β- TCP and HA appears showing the transformation of the β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 phase. When the sample is heated up further to 1200 degree C, β-TCP is transform into α-TCP. In the cold in-situ study, XRD analysis was performed on the sample from room temperature to -140 degree C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100 degree C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature. (Author)

  11. Fast reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    1.Three aspects of nonproliferation relevant to nuclear power are: Pu buildup in NPP spent fuel cooling ponds (∼ 104 t in case of consumption of ∼ 107 t cheap uranium). Danger of illegal radiochemical extraction of Pu for weapons production; Pu extraction from NPP fuel at the plants available in nuclear countries, its burning along with weapon-grade Pu in NPP reactors or in special-purpose burners; increased hazard of nuclear weapons sprawl with breeders and closed fuel cycle technology spreading all over the world. 2.The latter is one of major obstacles to creation of large-scale nuclear power. 3.Nuclear power of the first stage using 235 U will be able to meet the demands of certain fuel-deficient countries and regions, replacing ∼ 5-10% of conventional fuels in the global consumption for a number of decades. 4.Fast reactors of the first generation and the currently employed fuel technology are far from exhausting their potential for solving economic problems and meeting the challenges of safety, radioactive waste and nonproliferation. Development of large-scale nuclear power will become an option accepted by society for solving energy problems in the following century, provided a breeder technology is elaborated and demonstrated in the next 15-20 years, which would comply with the totality of the following requirement: full internal Pu breeding deterministic elimination of severe accidents involving fuel damage and high radioactivity releases: fast runaway, loss of coolant, fires, steam and hydrogen explosions, etc.; reaching a balance between radioactive wastes disposed of and uranium mined in terms of radiation hazard; technology of closed fuel cycle preventing its use for Pu extraction and permitting physical protection from fuel thefts;economic competitiveness of nuclear power for most of countries and regions, i.e. primarily the cost of NPPs with fat reactors is to be below the cost of modern LWR plants, etc

  12. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate by granular biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Hiren M.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as plasticizer for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins and as a solvent extractant of rare earth metals. In nuclear power industry, it is used as a solvent for the extraction of uranium and plutonium salts during fuel reprocessing. TBP does not occur naturally in the environment. It is sparingly soluble in water and once released into soil or aquatic systems, is only moderately biodegradable. There are many proposed mechanisms for TBP biodegradation, which involve stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to orthophosphate and n-butanol and mono-oxygenase based transformation and then degradation. Microbial processes involving multispecies consortia offer better choice over monoculture processes for degradation of complex wastes. Processes based on immobilized microbial consortia are characterized by significantly reduced settling time, high stability in presence of varying organic load, effective mineralization and amenability to bioaugmentation, which make them a good choice for bioremediation and waste water treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of aerobic microbial granules (also known as granular biofilms) for efficient biodegradation of TBP. For this purpose, we set up 4 litre cylindrical sequencing batch reactors (SBR) in triplicates and inoculated them with sludge (mean sludge size ∼ 60 mm) obtained from an operating wastewater treatment plant. The SBRs were operated on a 6h cycle with 66% volumetric exchange ratio. The reactors were fed with synthetic waste water along with 90 mM acetate and 0.5 mM TBP. The concentration of TBP was slowly raised to 2mM. After 3 months of operation, microbial granules (mean size: 2.05 mm) capable of TBP degradation were observed in the reactors. Gas chromatographic analysis of samples showed that after 6h of operational cycle 2 mM initial concentration of TBP was reduced to 0.2 mM, after which there was no further degradation. Cessation

  13. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  14. New fast reactor installation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The large size and complexity of fast reactor installations are emphasised and these difficulties will be increased with the advent of fast reactors of higher power. In this connection a new concept of fast reactor installation is described with a view to reducing the size of the installation and enabling most components, including even the primary vessel, to be constructed within the confines of a workshop. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  15. Fast mixed spectrum reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.J.C.; Fischer, G.J.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    The Fast Mixed Spectrum Reactor is a highly promising concept for a fast reactor with improved features of proliferation resistance, and excellent utilization of uranium resources. In technology, it can be considered to be a branch of fast breeder development, though its operation and implications are different from those of FBR'S in important respects. Successful development programs are required in several areas to bring FMSR to reality, but the payoff from a successful program can be high

  16. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  17. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  18. Calcium phosphate-PEG-insulin-casein (CAPIC) particles as oral delivery systems for insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morçöl, T; Nagappan, P; Nerenbaum, L; Mitchell, A; Bell, S J D

    2004-06-11

    An oral delivery system for insulin was developed and functional activity was tested in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. Calcium phosphate particles containing insulin was synthesized in the presence of PEG-3350 and modified by aggregating the particles with caseins to obtain the calcium phosphate-PEG-insulin-casein (CAPIC) oral insulin delivery system. Single doses of CAPIC formulation were tested in NOD mice under fasting or fed conditions to evaluate the glycemic activity. The blood glucose levels were monitored every 1-2h for 12h following the treatments using an ACCU CHECK blood glucose monitoring system. Orally administered and subcutaneously injected free insulin solution served as controls in the study. Based on the results obtained we propose that: (1). the biological activity of insulin is preserved in CAPIC formulation; (2). insulin in CAPIC formulations, but not the free insulin, displays a prolonged hypoglycemic effect after oral administration to diabetic mice; (3). CAPIC formulation protects insulin from degradation while passing through the acidic environment of the GI track until it is released in the less acidic environment of the intestines where it can be absorbed in its biologically active form; (4). CAPIC formulation represents a new and unique oral delivery system for insulin and other macromolecules.

  19. A new method to produce macroporous Mg-phosphate bone growth substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaie, Elham, E-mail: Elham.Babaie@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lin, Boren [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Surgery (Dentistry), University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This paper is a sequel to our previous effort in developing Mg-phosphate orthopedic cements using amorphous Mg-phosphate (AMP) as the precursor. In this paper, we report a new real-time in situ technique to create macroporous bone growth substitute (BGS). The method uses biodegradable Mg-particles as the porogen. As opposed to the conventional wisdom of providing corrosion protection layers to biodegradable Mg-alloys, the present method uses the fast corrosion kinetics of Mg to create macropores in real time during the setting of the cement. An aqueous solution of PVA was used as the setting solution. Using this technique, a macroporous cement containing up to 91% porosity is obtained, as determined by pycnometry. Due to formation of H{sub 2} gas bubbles from corrosion of Mg, the cement becomes macroporous. The pore sizes as big as 760 μm were observed. The results of SBF soaking indicated change in crystallinity as confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our in vitro cytocompatibility evaluation also revealed that the macroporous bone growth substitute composed of bobierrite is cytocompatible and can improve gene expression. - Highlights: • We report a new real time, in situ technique to fabricate macroporous bone grafts. • Self-corroding Mg granules act as porogens. • Compositions containing AMP and PVA self-set within a reasonable time. • The final bone graft substitute showed promising biocompatibility. • The results provide important information on the porosity content and bioactivity.

  20. Time-resolved luminescence studies in hydrogen uranyl phosphate intercalated with amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novo, Joao Batista Marques [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: jbmnovo@quimica.ufpr.br; Batista, Fabio Roberto [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Dias, Lauro Camargo Jr. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Teixeira Pessine, Francisco Benedito [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13084-971 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    Time-resolved luminescence decays of intercalated compounds of hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) with p-toluidinium (HUPPT), benzylaminium (HUPBZ), {alpha}-methylbenzylaminium (HUPMBZ) and hydroxylaminium (HUPHAM) were studied. The prepared compounds belong to the tetragonal P4/ncc space group and showed 00 l reflections shifted to lower angles relative to HUP, indicating that the intercalation increases the c parameter of the unit cell. The luminescence decays of the compounds with 100% of intercalation ratio (HUPHAM and HUPBZ) were analyzed by Global Analysis, assuming Lianos' stretched exponential as the model function, which can be applied to compounds with restricted geometry and mobile donor and quencher molecules. It was remarkable that the luminescence decays showed that the quenching of the emission of the uranyl ions by the intercalated protonated amines is not restricted by low dimensionality of the host uranyl phosphate, and that a diffusion mechanism occurs. Benzylaminium cation efficiently quenches the excited energy of the uranyl ions at close distance, but the long-range and long-lifetime quenching is hindered. A different situation is found in the case of the small hydroxylaminium cation, where the long distance diffusion of the species is fast, playing an important role in the quenching of the excited uranyl ions at longer times.

  1. Time-resolved luminescence studies in hydrogen uranyl phosphate intercalated with amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, Joao Batista Marques; Batista, Fabio Roberto; Cunha, Carlos Jorge da; Dias, Lauro Camargo Jr.; Teixeira Pessine, Francisco Benedito

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved luminescence decays of intercalated compounds of hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) with p-toluidinium (HUPPT), benzylaminium (HUPBZ), α-methylbenzylaminium (HUPMBZ) and hydroxylaminium (HUPHAM) were studied. The prepared compounds belong to the tetragonal P4/ncc space group and showed 00 l reflections shifted to lower angles relative to HUP, indicating that the intercalation increases the c parameter of the unit cell. The luminescence decays of the compounds with 100% of intercalation ratio (HUPHAM and HUPBZ) were analyzed by Global Analysis, assuming Lianos' stretched exponential as the model function, which can be applied to compounds with restricted geometry and mobile donor and quencher molecules. It was remarkable that the luminescence decays showed that the quenching of the emission of the uranyl ions by the intercalated protonated amines is not restricted by low dimensionality of the host uranyl phosphate, and that a diffusion mechanism occurs. Benzylaminium cation efficiently quenches the excited energy of the uranyl ions at close distance, but the long-range and long-lifetime quenching is hindered. A different situation is found in the case of the small hydroxylaminium cation, where the long distance diffusion of the species is fast, playing an important role in the quenching of the excited uranyl ions at longer times

  2. Physico-chemical and thermochemical studies of the hydrolytic conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate into apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somrani, Saida; Banu, Mihai; Jemal, Mohamed; Rey, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The conversion of amorphous tricalcium phosphate with different hydration ratio into apatite in water at 25 deg. C has been studied by microcalorimetry and several physical-chemical methods. The hydrolytic transformation was dominated by two strong exothermic events. A fast, relatively weak, wetting process and a very slow but strong heat release assigned to a slow internal rehydration and the crystallization of the amorphous phase into an apatite. The exothermic phenomenon related to the rehydration exceeded the crystalline transformation enthalpy. Rehydration occurred before the conversion of the amorphous phase into apatite and determined the advancement of the hydrolytic reaction. The apatitic phases formed evolved slightly with time after their formation. The crystallinity increased whereas the amount of HPO 4 2- ion decreased. These data allow a better understanding of the behavior of biomaterials involving amorphous phases such as hydroxyapatite plasma-sprayed coatings

  3. FastChem: An ultra-fast equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Daniel; Stock, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    FastChem is an equilibrium chemistry code that calculates the chemical composition of the gas phase for given temperatures and pressures. Written in C++, it is based on a semi-analytic approach, and is optimized for extremely fast and accurate calculations.

  4. Flotation separation of strontium via phosphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Luong H V; Liu, J C

    2017-06-01

    Flotation separation of strontium (Sr) from wastewater via phosphate precipitation was investigated. While 37.33% of Sr precipitated at highly alkaline pH in the absence of PO 4 3- , it completely precipitated as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 at a molar ratio ([PO 4 3- ]:[Sr 2+ ]) of 0.62 at a lower pH value. The presence of Ca 2+ hindered Sr precipitation, yet it could be overcome by increasing the PO 4 3- dose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was a better collector for dispersed air flotation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 than cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, or mixed collector systems of SDS and saponin. The highest separation efficiency of 97.5% was achieved at an SDS dose of 40 mg/L. The main mechanism in the precipitate flotation is adsorption of anionic SDS on the positively charged surface of colloidal Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 via electrostatic interaction. SDS enhanced the aggregation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 precipitates as the size increased from 1.65 to 28.0 μm, which was beneficial to separation as well.

  5. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB?s, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorus amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  6. Phosphate Barriers for Immobilization of Uranium Plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Burns, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Uranium contamination of the subsurface remains a persistent problem plaguing remedial design at sites across the U.S. that were involved with production, handling, storage, milling, and reprocessing of uranium for both civilian and defense related purposes. Remediation efforts to date have relied upon excavation, pump-and-treat, or passive remediation barriers (PRB?s) to remove or attenuate uranium mobility. Documented cases convincingly demonstrate that excavation and pump-and-treat methods are ineffective for a number of highly contaminated sites. There is growing concern that use of conventional PRB's, such as zero-valent iron, may be a temporary solution to a problem that will persist for thousands of years. Alternatives to the standard treatment methods are therefore warranted. The core objective of our research is to demonstrate that a phosphorous amendment strategy will result in a reduction of dissolved uranium to below the proposed drinking water standard. Our hypothesis is that long-chain sodium polyphosphate compounds forestall precipitation of sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate compounds, which is paramount to preventing fouling of wells at the point of injection

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  8. Separation of tributyl phosphate from degraded solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkatesan, M.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Kazi, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is described for the recovery of tributyl phosphate (TBP) from degraded process solvents. The method involves the separation of TBP and shell solT(SST) from 30% TBP/SSP mixture by thorium nitrate extraction leading to the formation of a heavy phase (third phase) which contains essentially TBP. The equilibrium experiments revealed that by utilizing thorium feeds of concentrations above 525 g/L in water at 1:1 ratio, a 30% TBP/SST mixture can be effectively separated into TBP and SST fractions with light SST phase having about 3% TBP. Using single stage mixer settler experiments, the feasibility of continuous separation of the three phases was assessed. Since there is a tendency for the degraded products of the diluent to seek the TBP phase, additional treatment steps would be necessary for their removal if the TBP is to be reused. Activated charcoal was investigated for this purpose. If purification of the TBP is not envisaged the volume of the organic waste generated in processing plants could be reduced by separating the diluent and TBP and only the TBP could be sent as concentrated waste. (author)

  9. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in adults presented with anemia. Subjects and Methods: Eighteen months admission data was reviewed for G6PD deficiency as a cause of anemia. Anemia was defined by world health organization (WHO) criteria as haemoglobin less than 11.3 gm%. G6PD activity was measured by Sigma dye decolorisation method. All patients were screened for complications of hemolysis and its possible cause. Patients with more than 13 years of age were included in the study. Results: Out of 3600 patients admitted, 1440 were found anaemic and 49 as G6PD deficient. So the frequency of G6PD deficiency in anaemic patients was 3.4% and the overall frequency is 1.36%. G6PD deficiency among males and females was three and six percent respectively. Antimalarials and antibiotics containing sulphonamide group were the most common precipitating factors for hemolysis. Anemia and jaundice were the most common presentations while malaria was the most common associated disease. Acute renal failure was the most severe complication occurring in five patients with two deaths. Conclusion: G6PD deficiency is a fairly common cause of anemia with medicine as common precipitating factor for hemolysis. Such complications can be avoided with early recognition of the disease and avoiding indiscriminate use of medicine. (author)

  10. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  11. Cesium immobilization into potassium magnesium phosphate matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayenko, S.Y.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Bereznyak, O.P.; Hodyreva, Y.S.; Tarasov, R.V.; Virych, V.D.; Ulybkina, E.A.; Pylypenko, O.V.; Kholomeev, G.O.; Zykova, A.V.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of isomorphous substitution of potassium ions by cesium ions in the structure of potassium magnesium phosphate KMgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O (PMP) was shown. It was established, that the Cs included into the PMP matrix does not transfer to the environment during high temperatures heating process (1176 deg C, 3 hours). Analysis of the IR absorption spectrum of the PMP sample has demonstrated that an increase in the amount of additive of the cesium chloride resulted in the shift of the main bands in the spectrum to the low-frequency region with average shift value 10 cm -1 , which indicates the strengthening of bonds in the crystal lattice of matter. The calculated degree of substitution of potassium by cesium during energy release process in the PMP matrix at the level of vitrified high level wastes is about 4%, i. e. the PMP matrix should correspond to the formula K 0.96 Cs 0.04 MgPO 4 centred dot 6H 2 O.

  12. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Maruta, Michito, E-mail: maruta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Matsuya, Shigeki

    2017-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) is an excellent bone substitute with controllable bioresorbability. Fabrication of biphasic calcium phosphate with self-setting ability is expected to enhance its potential application as bone substitute. In this study, mixtures of α-TCP and β-TCP with various compositions were prepared through α-β phase transition of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C for various periods. These powders were mixed with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} at a P/L ratio of 2, and then hardened at 37 °C at 100% RH for up to 24 h. Material properties of biphasic HA/β-TCP cement with different α-TCP/β-TCP composition were characterized. These cements were also evaluated with respect to cell response in vitro using MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In conclusion, mechanical and biological properties of HA/β-TCP cement could be controlled by changing the heat treatment time of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C. In vitro results indicated that cell proliferation and ALP activity increased with increase β-TCP content. - Highlights: • We could fabricate biphasic HA/β-TCP cements using heat treated α-TCP powder. • It is easy to control the ratio of α-TCP to β-TCP changing the heat treatment time up to 48 h. • Both cell number and ALP activity increased with increase in β-TCP content. • In vitro results showed that β-TCP has superior cell affinity to HA.

  13. Iron-phosphate-based chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.; Singh, D.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for mixed waste stabilization, a collaborative project to develop iron-phosphate based ceramics has been initiated between Argonne National Laboratory and the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. The starter powders are oxides of iron that are generated as inexpensive byproduct materials in the iron and steel industry. They contain iron oxides as a mixture of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and haematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). In this initial phase of this project, both of these compounds were investigated independently. Each was reacted with phosphoric acid solution to form iron phosphate ceramics. In the case of magnetite, the reaction was rapid. Adding ash as the waste component containing hazardous contaminants resulted in a dense and hard ceramic rich in glassy phase. On the other hand, the reaction of phosphoric acid solution with a mixture of haematite and ash waste contaminated with cesium and americium was too slow. Samples had to be molded under pressure. They were cured for 2-3 weeks and then hardened by heating at 350 degrees C for 3 h. The resulting ceramics in both cases were subjected to physical tests for measurement of density, open porosity, compression strength, phase analyses using X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis, and leaching tests using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and ANS 16.1 with 7 days of leaching. Using the preliminary information obtained from these tests, we evaluated these materials for stabilization of Department of Energy's mixed waste streams

  14. A phosphate-starvation-inducible outermembrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1 as an immunological phosphate-starvation marker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Kristine; Jacobsen, Susanne; Nybroe, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A phosphate-starvation-inducible outer-membrane protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens Ag1, expressed at phosphate concentrations below0.08-0.13 mM, was purified and characterized. The purification method involved separation of outer-membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE andextraction of the protein from...... nitrocellulose or PVDF membranes after electrotransfer of proteins to the membranes. The N-terminal amino acidsequence of the purified protein, called Psi1, did not show homology to any known proteins, and in contrast to the phosphate-specific porin OprP ofP. aeruginosa its mobility in SDS-PAGE was not affected...

  15. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  16. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...... conductivity was observed under either a constant low water partial pressure or under a humidity cycling test within a period of more than 80 hours....

  17. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-01-27

    Jan 27, 2003 ... excellent alloplastic material for osseous augmentation because of the ... and basic calcium phosphate compounds on wetting with an aqueous ... ment of acute fracture of the radius through percutaneous administration of ...

  18. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG; Zhang, Jianqin; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xian; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property

  19. Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Clément, Mathilde; Nussaume, Laurent; Desnos, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial component of major organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and membrane phospholipids. It is present in soils in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has low availability and poor mobility. To cope with Pi limitations, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. This review describes how the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana adapts its root system architecture to phosphate deficiency through inhibition of primary root growth, increase in lateral root formation and growth and production of root hairs, which all promote topsoil foraging. A better understanding of plant adaptation to low phosphate will open the way to increased phosphorus use efficiency by crops. Such an improvement is needed in order to adjust how we manage limited phosphorus stocks and to reduce the disastrous environmental effects of phosphate fertilizers overuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: the positions of sevelamer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V V; Shilov, E M; Svistunov, A A; Milovanov, Iu S

    2013-01-01

    The paper shows the role of phosphate binders in the correction of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in chronic kidney disease. The results of clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and safety of sevelamer are discussed.

  1. Phosphate Rock Dissolution and Availability in Some Soils of Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    crop production with less expensive indigenous phosphate rocks (PRs) merits the attention of ... spectrophoto-meter at 712 nm following the procedure of Murphy & Riley (1962). Laboratory analyses ..... L. M. and Goh K. M. (1989). Effects of ...

  2. physico-chemical characterization of ogun and sokoto phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indicating their liming potential in the soil. ORP was more soluble in ... industry as a source of uranium and rare earth metals, ... limestones; and primary phosphatic shales, limestones ..... may help to reduce P leaching and run off losses after.

  3. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  4. Adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole on copper surface from phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, L.P.; Selyaninov, I.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.I.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electrochemical and XPS results has shown that adsorption of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) on copper electrodes in neutral phosphate solutions proceeds through the formation of the chemical bonds by copper (I) cations with exo-sulfur and nitrogen atoms. A protection layer formed of Cu(I)MBT complex prevents precipitation of copper (II) phosphate on a copper surface. The thickness of the surface film consisting of a complex [Cu(I)MBT] n (having probably polymeric nature), where MBT acts as at least three-dentate ligand, increases depending on the exposure time, reaching 8-9 nm after immersing for 12 h in test solution. Even in a case of the preliminary formation of copper (II) phosphate on the copper electrode at the anodic potential addition of small amounts of MBT results in complete removal of copper (II) phosphate from the surface.

  5. Radioactivity in the phosphate field: actions undertaken by IMPHOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabet, T.; Kotti, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to prevent a potentially negative impact on the phosphate industry of the European Council Directive 96/29/Euratom, IMPHOS participated in several events where discussions were held on the issue of NORM and the consequences of the application of the Directive for the non-nuclear industries, including all the NORM symposia from September 1997 to May 2004. In addition, IMPHOS has undertaken actions to establish an ad hoc committee with members designated by member companies and to initiate a desktop study conducted by CEPN to review the implications of applying the Directive for the phosphate industry. This study is an important collection of data on radiological protection, including doses expected to be received by exposed individuals and monitoring considerations. The main conclusions of these actions are that the radioactivity in the phosphate industry is relatively insignificant, with the total annual exposure of a phosphate worker being less than three thousandths of the limit recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  6. Characterization of cement calcium phosphate for use dental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, C.M.B.; Oliveira, S.V.; Silva, M.C.; Marques, J.B.; Fook, M.V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphates are interesting biological and medical attention due to its occurrence in different animal species and humans. Ceramics based on calcium phosphate in the form of implants or porous particulate materials, have proven to be suitable replacements for bone tissue when they are only subjected to small mechanical stresses. Was obtained research laboratory DEMA/UFCG a calcium phosphate phase. The goal is to characterize the material by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to analyze what the phases and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify the absorption bands of the bonding characteristic. Was identified by XRD phase present in the sample is hydroxyapatite Ca/P 1.67. In infrared spectroscopy has absorption bands characteristic of the phosphate group at 1032 cm1 region. (author)

  7. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by the application of statistical factor analysis technique ... Keywords. Phosphate and uranium prospecting; aerial spectrometry survey; stratigraphic–structural traps; Syrian desert;. Syria. ... level, this linearity was not as good (Jubeli 1997).

  8. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin ... elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. .... nal level below 1 V, interfaced to a minicomputer for data.

  9. Investigation of Wear Coefficient of Manganese Phosphate Coated Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ilaiyavel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the properties of the coating in terms of wear resistance is of paramount importance in order to prevent the formation of severe damages. In this study, Wear coefficient of uncoated, Manganese Phosphate coated, Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant, Heat treated Manganese Phosphate coated with oil lubricant on AISI D2 steels was investigated using Archard’s equation. The wear tests were performed in a pin on disk apparatus as per ASTM G-99 Standard. The volumetric wear loss and wear coefficient were evaluated through pin on disc test using a sliding velocity of 3.0 m/s under normal load of 40 N and controlled condition of temperature and humidity. Based on the results of the wear test, the Heat treated Manganese Phosphate with oil lubricant exhibited the lowest average wear coefficient and the lowest wear loss under 40 N load.

  10. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-04-01

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  11. application of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate as a new voltammetric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    acid 2-phosphate (AAP) as a new voltammetric substrate has been described in this paper. In the alkaline buffer .... ALP labeled goat anti-rabbit ..... Classical Michaelis-Menten kinetic experiments were carried out to measure the maximum.

  12. Intercomparison of radon emanation in Moroccan and Tunisian phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Membrey, F.; Klein, D.; Chambaudet, A.; Iraqui, R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest a method for measuring the emanation of radon gas of phosphates mineral from different origins using solid state track nuclear detectors (CR39 and LR115) with the aim to determinate radioactivity effects on the human. (author)

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Apatitic Biphasic Calcium Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin Thin Nwe; Kyaw Naing; Khin Mar Tun; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    The apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate (ABcp) consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and -tricalcium phosphate ( -Tcp) has been prepared by precipitation technique using slaked lime and orthophosphoric acid. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the product I (hydroxyapatite) revealed that ABcp was partially crystalline state. However, on heating at 800 C for 8 hrs, XRD pattern indicated a perfectly crystalline form of ABcp. This observation was supported by FT-IR measurement. The change in morphology regarding in the functional nature was infered by the shift in the FT-IR frequency. The optimization of the apatitic biphasic calcium phosphate was done by the variation of disodium hydrogen phosphate concentration, setting time, hardening time as well as compressive strength. The perpared cement may be used as an artificial substitution bone

  14. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  15. Reagentless phosphate ion sensor system for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Kurata, H.; Inoue, Y.; Shin, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of computer Science and Systems; Kubo, I. [Soka University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, H.; Ikebukuro, K.; Karube, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1998-06-05

    Phosphate ion sensor system using an electrochemical detector was developed by the use of recombinant pyruvate oxidase (PyOD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, which needs no addition of thiamine pyrophosphate and flavin adenine dinucleotide for reaction. This system could detect 2 nM hydrogen peroxide. Response time for phosphate ion was 80 s and total measurement time for one sample was 3 min. Citrate buffer solution (pH 6.3) was most suitable for the measurement and optimum flow rate was 0.6 ml/min. Under these optimum conditions minimum detection limit of phosphate ion was 15 nM, which was enough for the determination of phosphate ion in dam-lake. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Evaluation of the influence of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three biofertilizers nitrobein, phosphorein, and potash, containing nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, and potash mobilizing microorganisms, respectively were studied in peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Amendment with each of these biofertilizers enhanced different growth ...

  17. Hydrogen-bonding patterns involving a cyclic phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Phosphates, which always have electronegative oxygen atoms, bear no exception in their involvement in ... water makes the study of structural patterns due to H-bonding much too complicated. We ... H-bonding features found in all the above.

  18. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang; Hedhammar, My; Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus; Johansson, Jan; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently,

  19. Oxidation of caffeine by phosphate radical anion in aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    reactions in our body generate reactive oxygen species mainly comprising free radicals .... caffeine might be acting as a sensitizer to transfer energy to PDP to produce phosphate ... The lifetime of the excited singlet 21 state of caffeine is of the.

  20. Crude oil degradation by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria were isolated from tropical areas around the Indian peninsula. Two of the isolates showed high phosphatase activity. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus pumilus, and they showed high...

  1. Structural Isosteres of Phosphate Groups in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuezhou; Borrel, Alexandre; Ghemtio, Leo; Regad, Leslie; Boije Af Gennäs, Gustav; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Xhaard, Henri

    2017-03-27

    We developed a computational workflow to mine the Protein Data Bank for isosteric replacements that exist in different binding site environments but have not necessarily been identified and exploited in compound design. Taking phosphate groups as examples, the workflow was used to construct 157 data sets, each composed of a reference protein complexed with AMP, ADP, ATP, or pyrophosphate as well other ligands. Phosphate binding sites appear to have a high hydration content and large size, resulting in U-shaped bioactive conformations recurrently found across unrelated protein families. A total of 16 413 replacements were extracted, filtered for a significant structural overlap on phosphate groups, and sorted according to their SMILES codes. In addition to the classical isosteres of phosphate, such as carboxylate, sulfone, or sulfonamide, unexpected replacements that do not conserve charge or polarity, such as aryl, aliphatic, or positively charged groups, were found.

  2. Phosphate adsorption using modified iron oxide-based sorbents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Phosphate Removal. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lalley , J., C. Han , G. RamMohan , T. Speth , J. Garland , M. Nadagouda , and D....

  3. A review paper on biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, X.; de Groot, K.; Wang, D.; Hu, Q.; Wismeijer, D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings have been developed for bone regeneration and repair because of their biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and easy preparation. They can be rendered osteoinductive by incorporating an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), into the

  4. Phosphate homeostasis in Bartter syndrome: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinelli, Alberto; Viganò, Cristina; Provero, Maria Cristina; Barretta, Francesco; Albisetti, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Silvana; Scicchitano, Barbara; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2014-11-01

    Bartter patients may be hypercalciuric. Additional abnormalities in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones have occasionally been reported. The metabolism of calcium, phosphate, and calciotropic hormones was investigated in 15 patients with Bartter syndrome and 15 healthy subjects. Compared to the controls, Bartter patients had significantly reduced plasma phosphate {mean [interquartile range]:1.29 [1.16-1.46] vs. 1.61 [1.54-1.67] mmol/L} and maximal tubular phosphate reabsorption (1.16 [1.00-1.35] vs. 1.41 [1.37-1.47] mmol/L) and significantly increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (6.1 [4.5-7.7] vs. 2.8 [2.2-4.4] pmol/L). However, patients and controls did not differ in blood calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels. In patients, an inverse correlation (P Bartter patients.

  5. How to assess the efficacy of phosphate binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caravaca

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The proposed parameter Pu/PCR may reflect the rate of intestinal phosphate absorption, and therefore, its variations after PB prescription may be a useful tool for estimating the pharmacological efficacy of these drugs.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phosphate oxidase. This enzyme is involved in the conversion (metabolism) of vitamin B6 derived from food (in ... Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What are ...

  7. Reaction of Thymidine with Hypobromous Acid in Phosphate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshinori; Kitabatake, Akihiko; Koide, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    When thymidine was treated with hypobromous acid (HOBr) in 100 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2, two major product peaks appeared in the HPLC chromatogram. The products in each peak were identified by NMR and MS as two isomers of 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate (a novel compound) and two isomers of 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine (thymidine glycol) with comparable yields. 5-Hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate was relatively stable, and decomposed with a half-life of 32 h at pH 7.2 and 37°C generating thymidine glycol. The results suggest that 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate in addition to thymidine glycol may have importance for mutagenesis by the reaction of HOBr with thymine residues in nucleotides and DNA.

  8. Investigation of the benzotriazole as addictive for carbon steel phosphating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annies, V.; Cunha, M.T.; Rodrigues, P.R.P.; Banczek, E.P.; Terada, M.

    2010-01-01

    This work studied the viability of substitution of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) for benzotriazole (BTAH) in the zinc phosphate bath (PZn+NaNO 2 ) for phosphating of carbon steel (SAE 1010). The characterization of the samples was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optical Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was evaluated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the samples was investigated by Open Circuit Potential, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Anodic Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves in a 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl electrolyte. The experimental results showed that the phosphate layer obtained in the solution with benzotriazole (PZn+BTAH) presented better corrosion resistance properties than that obtained in sodium nitrite. The results demonstrated that the sodium nitrite NaNO 2 can be replaced by benzotriazole (BTAH) in zinc phosphate baths. (author)

  9. The polarization of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is the review of polarization of fast neutrons and methods of polarization analysis. This also includes information about polarization of fast neutrons from first papers, which described polarization in the D(d,n) 3 He, 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be, and T(p,n) 3 He reactions. (authors)

  10. FastStats: Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... table 6 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Related FastStats Adolescent Health ADHD Asthma Infant Health More data: reports ...

  11. Fast feedback in classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmett, K.M.; Klaassen, K.; Eijkelhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 Aust. Sci. Teach. J. 28–34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to

  12. Uranium and the fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of uranium availability upon the future of the fast reactor is reviewed. The important issues considered are uranium reserves and resources, uranium market prices, fast reactor economics and the political availability of uranium to customers in other countries. (U.K.)

  13. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  14. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  15. The safety of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1976-01-01

    A response is made to the main questions that a man in the street may arise concerning fast breeder reactors, in particular: the advantages of this line, dangerous materials contained in fast breeder reactors, containment shells protecting the environment from radiations, main studies now in progress [fr

  16. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Increased Extracellular Phosphate Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Anemia in renal insufficiency results in part from impaired erythrocyte formation due to erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Beyond that, renal insufficiency enhances eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be stimulated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Several uremic toxins have previously been shown to stimulate eryptosis. Renal insufficiency is further paralleled by increase of plasma phosphate concentration. The present study thus explored the effect of phosphate on erythrocyte death. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: Following a 48 hours incubation, the percentage of phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes markedly increased as a function of extracellular phosphate concentration (from 0-5 mM. The exposure to 2 mM or 5 mM phosphate was followed by slight but significant hemolysis. [Ca2+]i did not change significantly up to 2 mM phosphate but significantly decreased at 5 mM phosphate. The effect of 2 mM phosphate on phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly augmented by increase of extracellular Ca2+ to 1.7 mM, and significantly blunted by nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, by additional presence of pyrophosphate as well as by presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Conclusion: Increasing phosphate concentration stimulates erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect depending on extracellular but not intracellular Ca2+ concentration. It is hypothesized that suicidal erythrocyte death is triggered by complexed CaHPO4.

  17. Dental Composites with Calcium / Strontium Phosphates and Polylysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaphong Panpisut

    Full Text Available This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM, tristrontium phosphate (TSrP and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS. The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine.Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2.5 wt% and/or reactive phosphate fillers (15 wt% TSrP and 10 wt% MCPM. The commercial composite, Z250, was used as a control. Monomer conversion and calculated polymerization shrinkage were assessed using FTIR. Subsequent mass or volume changes in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF were quantified using gravimetric studies. These were used, along with Raman and SEM, to assess apatite precipitation on the composite surface. PLS release was determined using UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, biaxial flexural strengths after 24 hours of SBF immersion were obtained.Monomer conversion of the composites decreased upon the addition of phosphate fillers (from 76 to 64% but was always higher than that of Z250 (54%. Phosphate addition increased water sorption induced expansion from 2 to 4% helping to balance the calculated polymerization shrinkage of ~ 3.4%. Phosphate addition promoted apatite precipitation from SBF. Polylysine increased the apatite layer thickness from ~ 10 to 20 μm after 4 weeks. The novel composites showed a burst release of PLS (3.7% followed by diffusion-controlled release irrespective of phosphate addition. PLS and phosphates decreased strength from 154 MPa on average by 17% and 18%, respectively. All formulations, however, had greater strength than the ISO 4049 requirement of > 80 MPa.The addition of MCPM with TSrP promoted hygroscopic expansion, and apatite formation. These properties are expected to help compensate polymerization shrinkage and

  18. Serum phosphate and cognitive function in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinin, Yelena; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Murray, Anne M; Schousboe, John; Langsetmo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    Determine whether serum phosphate is associated with concurrent cognitive impairment and subsequent cognitive decline in older men independent of demographic covariates and atherosclerotic risk factors. In a prospective study of 5529 men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we measured baseline serum phosphate, baseline cognitive function, and change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up exams an average of 4.6 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination and Trails B. There was no association between serum phosphate and odds of cognitive impairment as assessed by baseline 3MS score or risk of cognitive decline as assessed by longitudinal change in 3MS score. Higher baseline serum phosphate was associated with higher odds of poor executive function as assessed by Trails B with fully adjusted odds ratios 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.52), 1.31 (0.97-1.77), and 1.45 (1.08-1.94) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.007). However, higher phosphate level was not associated with risk of decline in executive function as assessed by longitudinal change in Trails B score with fully adjusted odds ratios 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.28), 0.96 (0.70-1.32), and 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.22). Higher serum phosphate in older men was associated with a higher likelihood of poor executive function, but not with impaired global cognitive function or decline in executive or global cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  20. Study of electrochemical phosphate conversion coating of metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougelin, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    After an overview on phosphate conversion coating processes, on models of iron electrochemical dissolution, on the passivation phenomenon, and on the phosphate conversion coating treatment, this research thesis reports a detailed study of this last process. The author presents the experimental method, reports the study of this process and of passivation under constant polarization. He reports the use of various techniques and conditions: chrono-amperometry, chrono-potentiometry, cyclic volt-amperometry

  1. Intercalation compounds of vanadium(5) phosphates with glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, T.N.; Vykhodtseva, K.I.; Tarasova, D.V.; Soderzhinova, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction products of glycerol aqueous solutions with vanadium(5) phosphates were investigated by the methods of ESR, X-ray phase and thermal analyses. It is shown that glycerol molecules enter the interlayer space of VOPO 4 · 2H 2 O lattice with formation of disordered intercalated compounds with glycerol on the basis of partially reduced vanadium phosphate form when using α-VOPO 4 . 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The accuracy requirements and the status of the evaluated fission-product cross sections for fast reactors are reviewed; the work on calculating the sensitivity of the sodium void effect to fission-product cross sections is described; some results of the intercomparison of adjusted data sets for capture cross sections of fission-products (RCN-2A and CARNAVAL-IV) are discussed; the applicability of the maximum-likelihood method for the analysis of resolved resonance parameters for a large class of fission-product nuclides is demonstrated; the neutron cross sections for corrosion product 64 Ni are evaluated. Some results of post-irradiation examination of a loss-of-cooling experiment are given; the progress in testing the equipment and instrumentation for transient-overpower experiments is reported. The proceedings in the thermochemical investigations on uranium compounds with some fission-products are described. The creep behaviour of a heat of DIN 1.4948 parent metal is investigated with respect to the changes in strain with different test temperatures. Sodium smoke aerosols have been produced and analysed with respect to their aerodynamic behaviour and morphology. The two-phase local boiling experiments have been analysed to find criteria for the occurrence of different boiling regimes with the objection to deduce general dryout correlations

  3. Fast ignition breakeven scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E T = 7.5(ρ/100) -1.87 kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E UT = 15.3(ρ/100) -1.5 kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even

  4. Fast liner proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10 6 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  5. Fast reactor recharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Kurilkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosure is made of a device for recharging a fast-neutron reactor, intended for the transfer of fuel assemblies and rods of the control and safety system, having profiled heads to be gripped on the outside. The device comprises storage drums whose compartments for rods of the control and safety system are identical to compartments for fuel assemblies. In order to store and transport rods of the control and safety system from the storage drums to the recharging mechanism provision is made for sleeve-type holders. When placed in such a holder, the dimensions of a rod of the control and safety system are equal to those of a fuel assembly. To join a holder to a rod of the control and safety system, on the open end of each holder there is mounted a collet, whereas on the surface of each rod of the control and safety system, close to its head, there is provided an encircling groove to interact with the collet. The grip of the recharging mechanism is provided with a stop interacting with the collet in order to open the latter and withdraw the safety and control system rod from its holder

  6. The ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The use of tracking information at the trigger level in the LHC Run II period is crucial for the trigger an data acquisition (TDAQ) system. The tracking precision is in fact important to identify specific decay products of the Higgs boson or new phenomena, a well as to distinguish the contributions coming from many contemporary collisions that occur at every bunch crossing. However, the track reconstruction is among the most demanding tasks performed by the TDAQ computing farm; in fact, full reconstruction at full Level-1 trigger accept rate (100 KHz) is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, the ATLAS experiment is planning the installation of a specific processor: the Fast Tracker (FTK), which is aimed at achieving this goal. The FTK is a pipeline of high performance electronic, based on custom and commercial devices, which is expected to reconstruct, with high resolution, the trajectories of charged tracks with a transverse momentum above 1 GeV, using the ATLAS inner tracker information. Patte...

  7. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  8. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  9. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  10. 40 CFR 422.40 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphate rock subcategory. 422.40 Section 422.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.40 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphate rock... phosphate rock by application of high temperature treatment along with wet process phosphoric acid, silica...

  11. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webler, Geovana D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano [Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil); Fonseca, Eduardo J.S., E-mail: eduardo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió-AL 57072970 (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity.

  12. Mg-doped biphasic calcium phosphate by a solid state reaction route: Characterization and evaluation of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webler, Geovana D.; Correia, Ana C.C.; Barreto, Emiliano; Fonseca, Eduardo J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used in tissue engineering because of their chemical similarity to the inorganic bone phase. In this work, we prepare biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, a mixture of HAP and β-TCP) doped with different concentrations of magnesium to investigate the influence of magnesium on the BCP crystal structure. Magnesium is known to be an important element in the composition of bones and teeth. Recent research has shown that the doping of magnesium into BCP improves its bone metabolism and mechanical properties without affecting its biocompatibility. The samples were prepared by solid-state reaction from calcium carbonate, monobasic ammonium phosphate, and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Varying concentrations of magnesium were used and its modifications were examined by different characterization techniques. The phase composition and morphology of the ceramic powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The functional groups were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Cell viability experiments, using macrophage-like cell lines J774, showed that the synthesized Mg-doped BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of the doses assayed or the different concentrations of magnesium used, suggesting it as a good material for potential biological applications. - Highlights: • Simple and fast method for the preparation of the Mg-BCP. • Study of the influence of the incorporation of Mg in the BCP. • Cell viability showed that the synthesized Mg-BCP did not exhibit cytotoxicity

  13. Phosphate solubilization as a microbial strategy for promoting plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eleonora Beltrán Pineda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the constant application of chemical inputs in Agroecosystem, the cost of crop production and environmental quality of soil and water have been affected. Microorganisms carry out most biogeochemical cycles; therefore, their role is essential for agro ecosystem balance. One such functional group is the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, which are recognized plant growth promoters. These microbial populations perform an important activity, since in many soils there are large reserves of insoluble phosphorus, as a result of fixing much of the phosphorus fertilizer applied, which cannot be assimilated by the plant. The phosphate solubilizing microorganisms use different solubilization mechanisms such as the production of organic acids, which solubilize theses insoluble phosphates in the rhizosphere region. Soluble phosphates are absorbed by the plant, which enhances their growth and productivity. By using these phosphate reserves in soils, application of chemical fertilizers is decreased, on the one hand, can again be fixed by ions Ca, Al or Fe making them insoluble and, by the other hand, increase the costs of crop production. Microbial populations have been widely studied in different types of ecosystems, both natural and Agroecosystem. Thanks to its effectiveness, in laboratory and field studies, the phosphate solubilizing phenotype is of great interest to microbial ecologists who have begun to establish the molecular basis of the traitr.

  14. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  15. PHOSPHATES REMOVAL FROM REJECT WATER FROM DIGESTION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sperczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research work was to evaluate if coagulants used on technical scale are useful in phosphates removal from reject water. Effectiveness of phosphorus compounds removal from reject water from digestion of sewage sludge was examined. Selected prehydrolysed alkaline aluminium polychlorides were used. The results were compared to the ones obtained with aluminium sulphate. Reject water from digestion of sewage sludge form WWTP of 100 000 PE were examined. Commercial agents – prehydrolysed PAX 18, PAX XL10, PAX-XL1905 as well as aluminium sulphate were used. Various doses of coagulants: 0.7; 1.0; 1.5 – time higher than stoichiometric dose were applied. Stoichiometric dose was calculated based on chemical reaction of insoluble aluminium phosphate formation. Concentrations of Kiejdahl nitrogen (891 mgNKj/dm3, phosphates (125 mgPO43-/dm3 and organic compounds - COD (592 mgO2/dm3 in reject water were very high. The effectiveness of coagulation process increased as the doses of chemical agents increased. The most effective doses were the highest ones used during the experiment. The most effective agent was PAX 18 (96% removal efficiency. As the phosphates concentration decreased COD content declined simultaneously. Maximum COD removal (47% was obtained when highly alkaline PAX XL 1905 was used. Use of the lowest dose of Al2(SO43 allowed for 50% phosphates removal, whereas the lowest dose of PAX 18 decreased phosphates concentration by 83%.

  16. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) have several advantages that make them ideal candidates for containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. In general, phosphates have high solid-solution capacities for incorporating radionuclides, as evidenced by several phosphates (e.g., monazites and apatites) that are natural analogs of radioactive and rare-earth elements. The phosphates have high radiation stability, are refractory, and will not degrade in the presence of internal heating by fission products. Dense and hard CBPCs can be fabricated inexpensively and at low temperature by acid-base reactions between an inorganic oxide/hydroxide powder and either phosphoric acid or an acid-phosphate solution. The resulting phosphates are extremely insoluble in aqueous media and have excellent long-term durability. CBPCs offer the dual stabilization mechanisms of chemical fixation and physical encapsulation, resulting in superior waste forms. The goal of this task is develop and demonstrate the feasibility of CBPCs for S/S of wastes containing fission products. The focus of this work is to develop a low-temperature CBPC immobilization system for eluted {sup 99}Tc wastes from sorption processes.

  17. Phosphate Framework Electrode Materials for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjin; Zhang, Jiexin; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi

    2017-05-01

    Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a promising alternative for the next generation of electric storage systems due to their similar electrochemistry to Li-ion batteries and the low cost of sodium resources. Exploring appropriate electrode materials with decent electrochemical performance is the key issue for development of sodium ion batteries. Due to the high structural stability, facile reaction mechanism and rich structural diversity, phosphate framework materials have attracted increasing attention as promising electrode materials for sodium ion batteries. Herein, we review the latest advances and progresses in the exploration of phosphate framework materials especially related to single-phosphates, pyrophosphates and mixed-phosphates. We provide the detailed and comprehensive understanding of structure-composition-performance relationship of materials and try to show the advantages and disadvantages of the materials for use in SIBs. In addition, some new perspectives about phosphate framework materials for SIBs are also discussed. Phosphate framework materials will be a competitive and attractive choice for use as electrodes in the next-generation of energy storage devices.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Phosphates for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant efficient and important source of renewable energy. The objective of this study is to develop highly efficient visible light responsive photocatalysts for overall water splitting. This is done by using silver or copper containing materials. Phosphate compounds have caught much attention due to their rigid structure, thermal stability and resistance to chemical attacks. Solid phosphates can be prepared by direct solid-state reaction between metal cations and phosphate anions at high temperatures. Double metal phosphates of the Nasion-type structure had shown further technological importance. It has been reported that well-crystallized double metal phosphate particles have excellent ordering and cationic conduction channels in the Nasicon framework. In this study, several Nasion-type structured materials have been synthesized by solid-state method (e.g. CuTi2(PO4)3 and AgTi2(PO4)3) heated up under different temperatures (400–1100C) in N2 or air atmosphere. These materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy and tested for photocatalytic applications. A new method for direct synthesis of photoelectrode on Ti Plate had been demonstrated. Further investigations on controlling the size and morphology for better performance of single and double metal phosphates will be done.

  19. Adherence to phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients: prevalence and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Yoleen P M; Vrijens, Bernard; Abraham, Ivo; Van Rompaey, Bart; Elseviers, Monique M

    2014-12-01

    Phosphate control is a crucial treatment goal in end-stage renal disease, but poor patient adherence to phosphate binder therapy remains a challenge. This study aimed to estimate the extent of phosphate binder adherence in hemodialysis patients and to identify potential determinants. Phosphate binder adherence was measured blindly in 135 hemodialysis patients for 2 months using the medication event monitoring system. Patient data, gathered at inclusion through medical records, ad hoc questionnaires and the short form (SF)-36 health survey, included: (1) demographics, (2) perceived side-effects, belief in benefit, self-reported adherence to the therapy, (3) knowledge about phosphate binder therapy, (4) social support, and (5) quality of life (SF-36). Phosphatemia data was collected from charts. 'Being adherent' was defined as missing adherent' as missing adherent. Over the entire 8-week period, 22 % of patients were totally adherent. Mean phosphatemia levels were 0.55 mg/dl lower in adherent than nonadherent patients (4.76 vs. 5.31 mg/dl). Determinants for being totally adherent were living with a partner, higher social support (both were interrelated) and higher physical quality of life. Experiencing intake-related inconvenience negatively affected adherence. The social support and quality of life physical score explained 26 % of the variance in adherence. Phosphate binder nonadherence remains a major problem. Interventions should aim, at least, to improve social support. With few associated factors found and yet low adherence, an individualized approach seems indicated.

  20. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.