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Sample records for philippines portugal romania

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN TOURIST ARRIVALS IN PORTUGAL AND ROMANIA 2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese PANYIK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Free movement of persons within the EU and the modernization of infrastructure in most states are factors that favor the development of tourism. Different trajectories taken up in 1989 by the former communist countries, the policies applied to them, both during the Cold War and after 1990 influenced the development of tourism in these countries. Based on these considerations, this paper offers a comparative view on an old and the new EU member states regarding foreign tourist arrivals: Portugal (joined the EU in 1986 and Romania (joined the EU in 2007. Are analyzed the evolutions of the main indicators of tourist traffic in the two countries during 2004 - 2012

  2. Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  3. Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This economic analysis provides data and information on the organizations and the energy policy of Romania. The enterprises, the energy supply for each energy sources, the prices policy, the consumption and the stakes and forecasts are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    study sample consisted of 360 children and their mothers (120 in each of the three countries - Romania (RO), Portugal (PT) and Poland (PL). Smoking was assessed using a detailed questionnaire for the participants, which addresses both active and passive smoking. This assessment uses exposure......-relevant questionnaire data, in particular on the home environment and residence, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle such as nutrition, smoking behavior, other exposure-relevant behavior and occupational history, as well as urinary cotinine and creatinine measurements. We performed general statistical analysis...... confirmation of the high and similar smoking prevalence for the three countries. Concerning ETS exposure, Romania presented significantly higher levels, for children as well as for non-smoking mothers, with Portugal showing significantly lower levels. Compared to non-smoking mothers, the children showed...

  5. Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy policy of Portugal. It presents the main energy companies and utilities (EDP, CPPE, REN, Petrogal, GDP, Galp SGPS) of the country, the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (forecasts, contracts). (J.S.)

  6. Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    The Philippines is an archipelago of 7100 islands and islets, 11 of which compose about 95% of the total area and population. The majority of the Filipinos are descendants of Indonesians and Malays. Approximately 90% of the population are Christian with the majority of the remaining 10% being Moslems. In the 1960s, the annual population growth rate was roughly 3%, but it fell to 2.4% in the late 1970s and was still 2.4% in 1985. In 1970, President Marcos implemented an official family planning policy to reduce the high growth rate and thereby stimulate economic development. A population commission coordinates family planning efforts. Both the Spanish (1521-1898) and the United States (1898-1946) have ruled the Philippines with a brief occupation by the Japanese (1942-1945). The US assisted in the reconstruction of the economy following World War II and continues to maintain and operate military bases. Further, from 1946-1986, the Philippines has received $3.7 billion in economic and military assistance from the US. The government operated under a constitutional democracy from 1946-1972, but in 1972 President Marcos declared martial law. In 1981, martial law ended and Marcos called for a presidential election. After winning the election, he called for an amendment of the 1972 constitution making him, rather than the prime minister, the head of government. Even though martial law ended in 1981, the Marcos government retained its wide powers to arrest and detain anyone. In February 1986, popular support backed by a peaceful civilian-military uprising brought Corazon Aquino to the Presidency. In the mid 1980s a severe economic recession hit the Philippines with the real GNP growth rate ranging from -5.3%-0%. The Philippines have diplomatic relations with the south east Asian nations, many East Bloc nations, the US, China, Cuba, and the Soviet Union.

  7. Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, O.N.

    1975-01-01

    A short report is given of the present activities of the Philippines in the field of food irradiation. Irradiation is done with a 60 Co gamma source. Microbial survival after radurization of fish, grain fruits was studied as well as radiation-induced inactivation of toxins e.g. aflatoxin. The response of some insect pests commonly infesting stored products to gamma irradiation was investigated. Furthermore, radiopreservation of potatoes, other vegetables and spices, fruits, poultry and egg products was studied. (MG) [de

  8. ROMANIAPORTUGAL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TWO COUNTRIES’ LABOUR MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMIAN Gina Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our choice was justified by the fact that between the two countries exist some features that make them interesting to study from the employment point of view. Thus, both countries are Latin and this is why we consider they are comparable, because employment means people, more precisely mentalities and attitudes to work. We considered that it is interesting to see how the labour market from the east Latin Europe has evolved, in a comparable, crucial period, with its counterpart from west Latin Europe. First of all, we would like to point out the fact that our intention is to analyse the periods which from the economic history point of view have influenced in a decisive manner the present evolution of the two countries. The Portugal labour market is a subject of real scientific interest (we would like to mention that even Michael Porter was interested by this topic. Our paper tries to emphasize the common and different features of the two labour markets, in order to facilitate an experience sharing process on this topic. To achieve the paper’s objectives statistical and cluster analysis have been used. This is one of the best ways to capture the influence of determinant factors on labour market performance. The degree of originality is given by the assumed objectives, namely studying some very up-to-date problems from an interconnected perspective (historical similarities, structural changes, labour market performance and analyzing the Romanian situation compared to other EU countries, i.e. Portugal. The main impact of the paper will be on the practical level through the model outcomes and conclusions. One of the objectives is to look for solutions to the problems identified and to persuade policy makers to give them a greater importance. Our main contribution is represented by the fact that we have approached this topic from an economic and historical perspective, trying to find explanations for the present situation in the modern past of the

  9. Portugal; Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy policy of Portugal. It presents the main energy companies and utilities (EDP, CPPE, REN, Petrogal, GDP, Galp SGPS) of the country, the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (forecasts, contracts). (J.S.)

  10. Latent constructs of adjustment to aging and subjective age in Portugal and Romania: a comparative multiple correspondence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the determinants of adjustment to aging (AtA and subjective age (SA identified by older adults and to investigate the differences of latent constructs that can work as major determinants in AtA and SA in an older Portuguese and Romanian population. Method: Measures were completed, including demographics and interviews. Complete data were available for 38 older adults aged between 74-90 years (M=80.6; SD = 5.4, from Portugal and Romenia. Data was subjected to content analysis. Representation of the associations and latent constructs were analyzed by a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA. Results: The most prevalent response of the interviewed participants for determinants to AtA was ‘health status, physical and intellectual functioning’ (18.1%. ‘With apprehension’ and ‘good enough’ (both 27.0% were identified as the most frequent SA responses. Findings showed a model for each nationality. AtA and SA for Portuguese elderly were explained by a three-factor model: ‘regardful’, ‘engaged’ and ‘conciliated’. A three-dimension model formed by ‘perseverant’, ‘congruent’ and ‘enjoyers’ was indicated as a best-fit solution for Romanian elderly. Conclusion: AtA and SA are strongly explained by increased likelihood of specific constructs in its definition. AtA is related to SA in older adults in both countries, although in different degree.

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities: Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    (Changes to site evaluation reports); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Amendments to various laws relating to nuclear safety, Revised requirements relating to modifications of nuclear installations, New safety reporting requirements, New requirements relating to releases of radionuclides, New conditions for removal of items from regulatory control, New radiation protection requirements, New inspection procedure requirements, New procedure for compliance enforcement); Nuclear security (Establishment of a design basis threat review process). Moldova: General legislation (Co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency). Poland: General legislation (Amendments to the Atomic Law Act); Liability and compensation (New requirements for civil liability insurance); Organisation and structure (New advisory council established); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New requirements for employees working at nuclear power plants). Portugal: General legislation (Integration of the Nuclear Technological Institute into the Technical University of Lisbon); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Creation of the Regulatory Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). Romania: Environmental protection (Changes to fuel production regulations). Slovenia: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New rules governing worker qualification); Sweden: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New regulation on clearance from regulation). Ukraine: General legislation (New requirements relating to the purchase of fuel elements); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New plans for a comprehensive safety upgrade, New community outreach requirements, New transparency and information availability requirements); Nuclear security (Changes to the state-level physical protection regime); Radioactive waste management (New centralised repository planned) United States: Radioactive waste management (Status of the high-level waste repository programme, Issuance of the Final Report of

  12. Romania; Roumanie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This economic analysis provides data and information on the organizations and the energy policy of Romania. The enterprises, the energy supply for each energy sources, the prices policy, the consumption and the stakes and forecasts are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  14. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  15. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  16. The Philippines: Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Julie; Aquino, Belinda A., Ed.

    This book provides readings and student lessons about the Philippines. Lessons and activities follow a chronological sequence and provide a good resource for those interested in the Philippines. The materials begin with prehistoric times and continue to the presidency of Corazon Aquino. Each chapter provides background information along with a…

  17. Travel Agencies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Marian

    2017-01-01

    If the hotel service provider does not provide quality services then the intermediary is guilty of this and consequently the tourists are dissatisfied. In Romania, this situation has reduced the number of foreign tourists who visited our country.

  18. CANDU in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keillor, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author, a former journalist, and now manager of media relations at AECL CANDU, visited Romania to get a first-hand account of conditions at the Cernavoda site. He refutes allegations of slave labour, or inhuman conditions

  19. SOCIAL ENTREPRISES IN ROMANIA

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    Daniela PIRVU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social economy concept is relatively new in Romania, but the interest of specialists and practitioners is growing because significant funds has been allocated to stimulate the development of social economy organizations and numerous supporting statements was made by the European Commission. The present paper realizes an exploratory approach on the concept of social enterprise in Romania and clarifies some notions, given the practices of social economy in recent years. Also, a typology of the Romania's counties in terms of the presence of social enterprises has been obtained. A series of data were collected by accessing sites of specialized institutions or requesting information under the Law regarding the free access to information of public interest. After their processing a territorial distribution of social enterprises in Romania was shaped.

  20. The Philippine economic mystery

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The poor economic performance of the Philippines over the long term is a puzzle and an apparent anomaly for the region. The decline in the Philippines' global position from the first part of the 20th century is particularly striking when viewed against the backrdrop of rapid income gains in countries of East and Southeast Asia, countries the Philippines used to surpass in terms of physical and human capital. While there have been a number of attempts to explain the puzzle—difficult geography,...

  1. IDRC in the Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Work by the country's strong universities, research institutes, and active civil society has resulted in significant ... since 1972. Research has improved the working conditions and general well-being of rice farmers. ... MALAYSIA. Philippine. Sea.

  2. Medicinal Product Regulation: Portugal׳s Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Bastos, Paulo D; Teixeira-Rodrigues, António; Roque, Fátima

    2016-09-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is one of the most tightly regulated sectors, and it is essential to know each country׳s legal framework to understand the regulation, approval, and marketing of medicinal products for human use. This article describes the main statutes and procedures governing medicinal products for human use in Portugal and the role of the country׳s National Medicines and Health Products Authority (Autoridade Nacional do Medicamento e Produtos de Saúde, I.P.; INFARMED). From the most recently available data, an update of requests and approvals concerning marketing authorizations, variations, pricing, and reimbursements is provided. Data were sourced from the INFARMED website, Infomed (database of medicinal products for human use), and periodic reports issued by national authorities. Organic laws, acts, and law decrees published in the government gazette (Diário da República) are cited and reproduced as required. In 2015 Portugal ranked fifth in the European System of Medicines Evaluation in terms of the number of completed procedures as a reference member state. Approximately 80% of all approved drug applications in Portugal in 2015 were for generic drugs, mostly pertaining to the nervous system. In Portugal, INFARMED monitors drug quality, safety profile, and efficacy in all stages of the drug life cycle, ensuring patients' safety. The Portuguese market for medicinal products for human use has been appreciably changed by the advent of generic drugs. There is an increased trend for new request applications for biological and biotechnological substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

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    Remus Gherman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development policy is a policy of investment for economic development by supporting competitiveness, increasing the standards of living, improving the quality of life, creating new jobs. Regions and regional development policy occupies in recent decades an increasingly important position in the list of the economic and social factors being found on the agendas of governments, both central and local authorities, of political groups and civil society. Regional development and regional development policy in Romania are present both in the economic reform and in social one. Development Regions from Romania are set up in 1998 by Law number 151 and supported by their own institutional framework. The applicability of regional development in Romania must take into account the fundamental elements of the possibilities of Regional Development, meaning the major indicators of reference for measuring the level of disparities, GDP per capita and unemployment.

  4. Honey Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, beekeeping is an important traditional occupation. Honey and other bee products produced in our country are appreciated both in Europe and around the world. Honey is a complex food, one of the healthiest: it contains vitamins, organic acids, minerals and enzymes from bees, thanks to which honey is considered a superfood. The main objectives of the research are to analyze: the evolution of the number of bee families; the evolution of honey production and consumption in Romania; the value of exports and imports of honey from Romania. Estimates will also be made on honey production and consumption. The data used in the research will be taken from national and international databases.

  5. Ecotourism Destinations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Ioana Merce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania has about 800 protected areas, which now covers about 5% of the country. Most ecotourism destinations are located within or adjacent to these protected areas such as Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, northern communities National Park, Yosemite National Park, Apuseni Natural Park. In Romania there are still non-fragmented forest, and over a third of the population of bears, wolves and lynx in Europe, unique paradise of birds in the Danube Delta, more than 12 000 caves and, not least, full of authentic local traditions. Ecotourism allows recovery and conservation of the country's natural capital.

  6. Palliative care in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumitrescu, Luminita

    2006-01-01

    Palliative care concentrates on supporting and helping people with an incurable disease and aims to improve patient’s quality of life by reducing or eliminating pain and other physical symptoms. Palliative care is a new phenomenon in Romania . PhD student Luminita Dumitrescu describes the

  7. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  8. Collection for Philippines

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Following the devastating Typhoon Haiyan that hit the Philippines in autumn 2013, a collection of funds to help the victims was organised at CERN. An amount of 16 950 CHF had been contributed and was forwarded to Caritas Switzerland. Tuesday 14 July, we received a message from Caritas in order to thank all the contributors for their generosity and to share with you their project’s progress and the results obtained so far. You can find the report on our website: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/sites/staff-association.web.cern.ch/files/Docs/Rapport_Philippines.pdf

  9. CERN and Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In its continual tour of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) visited Lisbon, Portugal, on 21-22 April, where it met at the Instituto Superiore Tecnico, a technical university with 9,000 students. Portuguese particle physics is in a particularly healthy situation, having developed considerably following Portugal's admission to CERN in 1985. With support from Brussels, scientific infrastructure has developed rapidly, although the science base has yet to attain the levels seen in larger nations. The 45-strong population of experimentalists in Portugal, including 14 PhDs, represents a 2.5-fold increase since Portugal joined CERN ten years ago and is in line with the goal stated at the time. This successful development of experimental particle physics has benefited much from physicists returning from abroad (mainly France and the UK). The direct result of the efforts of a few individuals (notably J.M. Gago), this splendid achievement provides an excellent role model for new and potential CERN Member States. At present, particle physics represents some 3 0% of all Portuguese physics publications. This very special role (and the financial support it implies) provides a visible target, but one which can be defended as it provides a catalyst for other national scientific developments. The national hub is the Laboratory for experimental high energy physics and related R&D projects (LIP), with centres in Lisbon (Head, J.M. Gago) and Coimbra (Head, A. Policarpo). LIP, with close links to two universities in Lisbon and to the University of Coimbra, has developed into a centre of expertise and training in electronics, computing and software engineering. Present LIP funding is some 2 million Swiss francs/year (70% in Lisbon and 3 0% in Coimbra), covering most of the salaries of the nonuniversity people, the remainder being supported by grants from Portuguese and European programmes. Portugal's contribution to CERN's 1995 budget

  10. Television in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  11. Philippine petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Milagros V.

    1997-01-01

    Of all energy sources, liquid hydrocarbon, a form of fossil fuel, occupies the biggest portion of the Philippine energy mix, largely because of its tremendous varied and efficient utility. It is singularly the most important component of a nation's economic structure, so that the exploration and development of one's indigenous source of crude oil is always a primary undertaking in any country. The Philippine consumption of crude oil is 325,000 bbls per day valued at 172 million pesos. What exactly is crude oil and what is the prospect of the Philippines as a producer. In the Philippines, oil exploration began nearly 100 years ago, but it was only in 1975, under a newly introduced service contract system, when the first significant oil find was made. With full government support, two other oil fields were subsequently put on stream, which, at its peak supplied 20% of the national daily crude requirement. In 1995, however, the country's oil production dwindled to a dismal 800 bbls per day, equivalent only to 0.2% of our daily needs. Several factors contributed to the current poor performance of the oil sector, foremost among which is the drop in financial support from the capital market. Only sustained investment in this capital intensive business can lead to the discovery and development of new oil fields. (author)

  12. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  13. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  14. Assembling Toyota in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Tiago; Moniz, António

    2003-01-01

    A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – ...

  15. Prison Conditions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Dores, António Pedro; Loureiro, Ricardo; Pontes, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM Portugal has 51 prisons of different types: 15 penitentiaries (“central prisons”, normally larger ones) for inmates condemned to serve more than 6 months; 31 penitentiaries (“regional prisons”) for inmates condemned to serve less than 6 months; and five penitentiaries (“special prisons”) for inmates who need special attention, such as women, youths, policeman, and the sick (hospital). The first type of penitentiary has security...

  16. Nuclear Energy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.

    2003-01-01

    The new energy approach towards nuclear, due to the growing political support at the beginning of this century, is the result of a complexity of economical, social, political and technological factors. The history of peaceful use of nuclear energy in Romania goes back 45 years. Considering the strategic importance of the energy sector in developing the national economy on sustainable basis, the sector evolution should be outlined through prognosis and strategies on different horizons of time, so that the development perspectives and the energy supply to be correctly estimated. This necessity is emphasized in the Governmental Program of the present administration, which takes into consideration Romanian Economic Strategy on medium term and also The Government Action Plan on 2000-2004, agreed with the European Commission. In order to implement the Governmental Program, the Ministry of Industries and Resources elaborates the National Energy Strategy. The Government Action Plan draw up the conclusion that Unit 2 from Cernavoda NPP must be finalized. This solution fits the least-cost energy development planning and answers to environment requirements. Romania became a Member State of the Agency in 1957. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s its technical co-operation program with the Agency covered mainly research in nuclear physics and some medical and other applications of radiation and isotopes. Since 1976, when the Romanian nuclear power program was embarking to use CANDU-type reactors, the Agency has supported mainly the activities related to the Cernavoda NPP. In the framework of the Romanian accession process to the European structures, CNCAN co-operates with European Commission for transposition of the communautaire acquis in the field of nuclear activities. Romania has had laws in place governing the regulation of nuclear activities since 1974. They were remained in force throughout and subsequent to the national constitutional changes started in 1989 until 1996

  17. National report from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengulescu, D.

    1995-01-01

    Review of objectives and activities in the area of creation operator support systems(OSS) in nuclear power plants in Romania is presented. Task 4.4.3. ''Develop requirements for techniques and tools for developing OSS and document existing ones'' is described. The following subjects are also discussed: development of computerised OSS for CANDU NPP; Cernavoda probabilistic safety evaluation project; rule-based and neural network-based expert systems in the Romanian safety research; an OSS for PHWR spent fuel bay; studies on an OSS in CANDU-6 NPP; Cernavoda probabilistic safety evaluation and utilization of results to improve nuclear power plant safety. 51 refs

  18. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  19. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically study the concept of financial stability in Romania, from both a monetary policy perspective and a financial perspective. In this paper, I also compute an aggregate index of financial stability, for the period 2008-2013, explaining the correlations between several extremely important macroeconomic and sectorial variables and financial stability. The article also debates the aspect of policy instruments that aim to promote, highlighting the undertaken measures and also giving some measures recommendations, pointing out the main pillars: crises management; cross-sectoral challenges; banking sector; securities markets and capital markets; insurance sector; pensions sector; access to financial services.

  20. Palliative Care in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoiu, Daniela; Mitrea, Nicoleta; Dumitrescu, Malina

    2018-02-01

    HOSPICE Casa Sperantei has been pioneering palliative care development in Romania since 1992. The have developed specialist palliative care services in home-based settings, inpatient units, day care centers, and as hospital support teams. They have provided national and international education programs for professionals in the palliative care field, as well as promoting palliative care integration in the health care system. Legislative improvements were adopted, including funding mechanisms for the reimbursement of palliative care services through the health insurance funds, review of opioid policy, and quality standards of care. By the end of 2015, Romania had 115 specialist palliative care services (78 palliative care inpatient units, 24 home-based palliative care services, five outpatient palliative care clinics, four day care centers, and four hospital support teams). A palliative care subspecialty for doctors was recognized as early as 2000, and a multidisciplinary master's degree program has been available at Transilvania University since 2010, when the first palliative care academic position was established. Nursing education includes mandatory palliative care modules in nursing schools. For coordinated development of palliative care at the national level, a national strategy was proposed defining three levels of palliative care provision, local, district, and national. The implementation of the palliative care strategy is partially funded through a World Bank loan. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Portugal 1780-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Sá e Melo Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are highlighted some of the main paths covered by the term “people”, in Portugal in the last decades of the XVIIIth century and in the first half of the XIXth century. The most significant semantic variations that the word suffered in the backdrop of the political conflicts caused by the establishment of Liberalism are investigated, taking in consideration that the modern political uses of this word arose with the French Invasions (1807-1811 and with the resistance to those invasions by a part of the Portuguese population.

  2. Romania country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiopol, Mihaela [Nuclearelectrica SA, 65 Polona Street, 010494 Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear 2007 highlights: - Commissioning of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 (700 MWh), on September 28; - Starting the process of negotiation for completion and commissioning of Units 3 and 4; - National Energy Strategy upgrade - Cernavoda NPP represents a key position as the promoter of sustainable economical development; - Nuclear Fuel Plant in Pitesti has completed the process of doubling its production capacity to feed both nuclear units from Cernavoda NP; - Unit 1 produced in 2007 an amount of 6.005.175 MWh; capacity factor of about 97%; - Unit 2 produced an amount of 961,986 MWh; capacity factor of 93,23%; - Units 1 and 2 covered 13% of the electricity demand in Romania for 2007. Energy policy: Nuclear share in the Romanian National Grid will be increased in 2008, and further, to about 18%. Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4 will be completed and commissioned by 2014-2015. A site for building a new nuclear power plant will be selected in Romania. Nuclearelectrica plans to enlist shares on the stock exchange market in 2008. Public acceptance: Positive public and local authorities perception of the nuclear energy: - 56% citizens in favour of nuclear power at the national level and 65% at the local level; - More men support nuclear power than women; - Older people tend to support nuclear more than young people. Nuclear waste management policy - 3 components on site storage facilities: - The Spent Fuel Bay, - The Spent Fuel Dry Storage Facility, - Solid radioactive waste facility. The National Agency for Radioactive Waste - 2004 with the task of disposal of radioactive waste. Final waste surface repository was analyzed by IAEA and received the partial authorization in February 2008. IFIN HH in charge with collecting, treating and conditioning all non-fuel cycle radioactive waste and depositing it in Baita Bihor repository. Research developed by: - Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH specialized in areas of research including Astrophysics

  3. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  4. Corruption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  5. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  6. Social Contributions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gyorgy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social contributions have an important impact on payroll policy. Also, social contributions represent a significant budgetary revenue item which can be viewed at the edge between taxation and insurance. Social contributions in Romania experienced many changes which ended in 2008. Nowadays, they are within a long transaction period towards partial externalization of the insurance activity to privately managed funds. The aim of this paper is to analyse the homogeneity of Romanian social security public scheme using annual data extracted from 2002-2009.The main findings reveal that social contributions reached the pinnacle of diversification, being too many, some of them with a small contribution rates; fiscal reforms which reduced contribution rates advantaged employers, and state will be interested to externalize this activity as far private sector will be able to assume this responsibility and the budgetary effects are acceptable for the public finance.

  7. Desecularisation in Postcommunist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISS, Dénes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of the process as a result of which postcommunist Romania has moved from being an officially atheist country to being one of the most religious countries in Europe. Th e process of desecularisation is analysed in three dimensions. On the macro-level, I outline the religious headway in the most important institutions of the Romanian society, on the meso-level I analyse the changes in the organizational structure of churches and in the denominational structure of the country, while on the individual level the changes occurring in individual religiosity. In the fi nal part of the study I argue that within these dimensions desecularisation was realized to diff erent extents, while “desecularisation from above” is not likely to achieve its goals in the long run.

  8. Detritiation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, Liviu; Stefanescu, Ioan

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Isotope separation in nuclear field started in Romania as a basic issue in the Romanian Nuclear Program, when the use of CANDU type nuclear power plant was adopted. Therefore, an objective was imposed namely to develop the Romanian technology for heavy water production at an industrial scale. In 1970 the heavy water program started by constructing the industrial plant - Uzina G - at Rm. Valcea. The activities at this plant resulted in obtaining the Romanian license for heavy water technology which was transposed later to industrial plant at ROMAG Drobeta Tr. Severin. Based on experience achieved in isotope separation for heavy water, since 1992 it was started a tritium program at ICSI Rm. Valcea (former Uzina G) with the objective of developing a Romanian technology for Tritium Removal Facility (TRF). (authors)

  9. Nuclear energy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography was prepared by the Scientific Library, Nuclear Training Department of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission for scientists and researchers interested in nuclear energy in the Philippines. This sixth supplement consists of eighty-six (86) entries, mostly research reports of the scientists of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The entries are arranged alphabetically by titles under their respective subject headings together with their bibliographic data consisting of author, title of publication, volume, data and pages. A brief annotation or a summary of the article follows. An author index is provided to facilitate prompt retrieval of the particular research information

  10. Deforestation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Branco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is not a new problem although world-wide population awareness is increasing. This issue has terrible environmental, social and economic consequences due to the over-exploitation of the natural resources and to alternative land uses which are more profitable in the short term. The combat and mitigation of deforestation is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st Century in order to achieve the Millennium Goals and a global sustainable development at all levels of human activities. Therefore, this paper will address this concerns focusing on the causes and consequences of deforestation as well as on the actions carried out by the decision makers in order to provide solutions for this increasingly and alarming problem. This paper will also approach the concepts of sustainability as well as the economy and management of the natural resources aiming an insight of the past deforestation in Portugal, the present situation and a sustainable perspective regarding the future.

  11. The Philippines. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  12. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  13. The Philippines. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, E B [Agro-industrial Consultancy, Burgess Hill, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  14. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  15. Philippines: Population: USAID loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Philippines and the United States Agency for International Development signed an agreement on Christmas Day for a US $5.7 million loan and a US $6 million grant for the country's population program. The loan, which matures in 40 years, carries a 2% interest per year for the first 10 years, and 3% thereafter. A 10-year grace period is provided. The US $11.7 million loan and grant package is the first part of USAID's pledge of US $26.9 million in loan and US $29.8 million in grants for the population project. The agreement was signed by Finance Minister Cesar Virata and USAID director Anthony Schwarzwalder. The total loan package of US $57.7 million will be given in the next 5 years.

  16. June 1991 Pinatubo, Philippines Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mount Pinatubo is an andesitic island arc volcano, located on the southwestern part of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Prior to 1991, it had been dormant for...

  17. ClinicalTrials.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Réunion Saint Kitts and Nevis Saudi ... you may be able to participate in or learn about new treatments that are being considered. Learn ...

  18. Assessing Competition in Philippine Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current empirical literature on competition and market structure of Philippine industries. It shows that weak competition is one of the fundamental factors that explain limited growth, productivity, and employment in the economy. Philippine experience has shown that reforms such as trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization, while necessary, are not sufficient to foster effective competition. The success of these reforms depends on the creation of a competiti...

  19. Radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrescu, M.; Milu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in Romania is based on National Regulations for Radiation Protection enforced in 1976, on other environment protection laws enforced in the last years and on the recommendations of IAEA. Accordingly two systems of radioactive monitoring are to date operational in this field: the first one is the self-control of the radioactive emissions in the environment generated by the own nuclear activities (of nuclear units like the Cernavoda NPP, the Institute of Atomic Physics at Magurele-Bucharest, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, the R Plant at Feldioara, Uranium mining units, etc.), while the other is based on two national agencies (the National Network of Environment Radiation Monitoring of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection and the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Health Ministry). The authors review and discuss the radiation protection legislation, the structure and the organizational operations of the national monitoring systems and the co-operation of the national monitoring systems with international authorities or programmes. 3 Figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  20. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  1. The underground economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica LITRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at covering issues related to the underground economy, activities that compound this phenomenon, its magnitude in Romania and reported to the European average. Underground economy in Romania consists of undeclared work (2/3 from the total and unreported income; it decreased from 33.6% of GDP in 2003 to 28% in 2014, but remained over EU-28 average with about 10 p.p. Among EU-28 countries, only Bulgaria exceeds the size of the underground economy of Romania. The underground economy is a challenge for the leadership of the state which must act simultaneously to stop illegal activities, and to discourage non-declaration of the legal activities. Corruption favours maintaining the underground economy, delays economic development, obstructs democratic processes and affects justice and the law state.

  2. Diabetes Care in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gerry H

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in Asian countries including the Philippines. Both the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) continue to increase with a commensurate upward trend in the prevalence of prediabetes. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of diabetes in the Philippines and to describe extensively the characteristics of diabetes care in the Philippines from availability of diagnostics tests to the procurement of medications. A literature search was performed using the search words diabetes care and Philippines. Articles that were retrieved were reviewed for relevance and then synthesized to highlight key features. The prevalence of diabetes in the Philippines is increasing. Rapid urbanization with increasing dependence on electronic gadgets and sedentary lifestyle contribute significantly to this epidemic. Diabetes care in the Philippines is disadvantaged and challenged with respect to resources, government support, and economics. The national insurance system does not cover comprehensive diabetes care in a preventive model and private insurance companies only offer limited diabetes coverage. Thus, most patients rely on "out-of-pocket" expenses, namely, laboratory procedures and daily medications. Consequently, poor pharmacotherapy adherence impairs prevention of complications. Moreover, behavioral modifications are difficult due to cultural preferences for a traditional diet of refined sugar, including white rice and bread. Translating clinical data into practice in the Philippines will require fundamental and transformative changes that increase diabetes awareness, emphasize lifestyle change while respecting cultural preferences, and promote public policy especially regarding the health insurance system to improve overall diabetes care and outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Romania non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Lucian; Grama, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO 2 , in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector

  4. Nuclear power in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The first United Nations project of its kind, where the prospects of using nuclear power in a developing country are being analysed, is being carried out in the Philippines. It is entitled, 'Pre-Investment Study on Power, including Nuclear Power, in Luzon'; it is a United Nations Special Fund project, for which the International Atomic Energy Agency is acting as the executing body. Although directed specifically at the situation of the Luzon grid, the approach and the methods evolved should be useful in other countries also. The project was initiated in early 1964 and is expected to be completed by the end of 1965. The Philippines have substantial reserves of hydro capacity, but very little of fossil fuels. The country has been interested for quite some time in the possibility of using nuclear power. In 1956 a study was made of a small nuclear power plant for the Manila area, but such a plant would not have been able to compete with the fossil fuel-fired station. The Philippine Government had in mind the development of Luzon Island, which is the largest and most industrialized part of the Philippines, accounting for 50 per cent of the population and 80 per cent of the power demand. In 1960, the Government invited an Agency mission, whose report entitled, 'The Prospects of Nuclear Power for the Philippines', indicated that the possibilities of using a reasonably large nuclear plant in the Luzon grid deserved serious consideration

  5. Philippine Tourism: Evolution towards Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilapil-Añasco Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry in the Philippines has been identified as one of the powerful engines for a strong and sustained economic growth. To determine whether the Philippine tourism industry is moving towards sustainable development, this paper explores the evolution of the tourism industry in the Philippines by tracing its historical transformations and determining its typology. Four major periods has been recognized, namely: 1] pre-martial law era (years before 1972; 2] martial law era (1972-1986; 3] post-martial law era (1986-2000; and 4] 21st century era (2001-present. The eras are based on the country’s major political regimes. Corresponding events and numerous initiatives undertaken by the government agencies, non-government organizations and private sectors that significantly affect the tourism industry are described and analyzed. It is concluded that tourism is a well established industry in the Philippines that contributes to an inclusive economic growth of the country. The continued concerted efforts of all the stakeholders of the industry in the implementation of all these initiatives will surely lead to a sustainable Philippine tourism.

  6. Developing Islamic Finance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mylenko, Nataliya; Iqbal, Zamir

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the World Bank engagement in the Philippines to support Islamic Finance and Financial Inclusion. It provides an overview on the context for the development of Islamic finance in the Philippines and is accompanied by two focused reports providing further detail and suggestions on enhancing financial inclusion in the Philippines through Islamic microfinanc...

  7. Origins of the 1986 Philippine Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    1902 and the Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 (Jones Law) - did not expressly provide for the separation of powers . However, in various decisions, the...judiciary as part of the separation of powers was repeatedly declared by the Supreme Court of the Philippines to have been extended to the 11 Philippines

  8. Earthquake data base for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizescu, M.; Ghica, D.; Grecu, B.; Popa, M.; Borcia, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    A new earthquake database for Romania is being constructed, comprising complete earthquake information and being up-to-date, user-friendly and rapidly accessible. One main component of the database consists from the catalog of earthquakes occurred in Romania since 984 up to present. The catalog contains information related to locations and other source parameters, when available, and links to waveforms of important earthquakes. The other very important component is the 'strong motion database', developed for strong intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes where instrumental data were recorded. Different parameters to characterize strong motion properties as: effective peak acceleration, effective peak velocity, corner periods T c and T d , global response spectrum based intensities were computed and recorded into this database. Also, information on the recording seismic stations as: maps giving their positioning, photographs of the instruments and site conditions ('free-field or on buildings) are included. By the huge volume and quality of gathered data, also by its friendly user interface, the Romania earthquake data base provides a very useful tool for geosciences and civil engineering in their effort towards reducing seismic risk in Romania. (authors)

  9. How Crowdfunding Works in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Bălău

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crowdfunding is increasingly becoming a good solution for entrepreneurial ventures to obtain funds, being facilitated by internet and social networks, and it is also spreading in Romania as well. The current paper aims to explore this alternative for financing in Romania in order to understand better its evolution until now, whether if it is viewed as suitable for business as well, and to compare the advices offered for entrepreneurs in Romania versus those on famous crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo. In order to achieve this we explored websites offering crowdfunding in Romania and the information they offer entrepreneurs, we identified the types of most successful campaigns and we compared advices offered to those existing on international websites, renowned for their success. The marketing strategy and the planning of the campaign seem to be essential for its success and this paper highlights in its conclusion some lessons Romanian entrepreneurs could learn from international crowdfunding campaigns and the growing scientific literature available on this subject.

  10. ENERGY CRISIS IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pãrean Mihai - Olimpiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If during the interwar period Romania has managed to move from an agrarian economy to an industrial-agrarian one, after the 2nd world war in Romania, as in other communist countries, has monitored the further development of the industry. It wanted to be a true industrial revolution.Over time one can identify several types of industrial revolutions, each giving impetus to a given development cycle, which had its beneficiaries and the losers. At first it was steam power, and then use the internal combustion engine, which used oil instead of steam. While other countries developed would increase of production capacity of nuclear power, a higher stage of economic development, in Romania continued the industrial development on the same grounds as in the inter-war period. This has had very serious tracks for the Romanian economy and society, since before and during World War II, the German war machine operated within the national resources of energy. The time and manner in which each country is part of this race are defining the social welfare. Unfortunately, Romania has failed to take advantage, each time losing the start. Creation of some production capacity and the development of industries (metallurgy, chemical industry, iron and steel industry, which consumed significant energy amounts was the wrong decision for the future well-being of the country. Oil impacts which have affected the world economy, hit also Romania. The first oil shock (impact was more easily broken because of the continued use of internal resources (oil, coal, natural gas, but the second shock was catastrophic. It was too much for Romania after being forced to use those resources in the last decades (including the interwar period. Romanian leaders probably had in mind that Western countries were developed by enhancing industry of this type, but they did it in a different historical period when also the prices of such resources were much smaller and the lack of them was not a

  11. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  12. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  13. Radiation technology in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report was presented during the Second National Coordinators Meeting for radiation technology, held in Vietnam, 21-25 November 1994. The report was about the research and development work in the field of radiation technology at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Transfer of technology in the Philippines can be very difficult without the technical assistance of the IAEA. A multipurpose irradiation facility was set up that encouraged the interest of local industry in radiation sterilization and food irradiation. Also research and development on radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has been initiated and the interest in wood plastic combinations has been revived. 1 tab

  14. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  15. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  16. The main achievements of the 'Systematic approach for nuclear knowledge transfer and preservation in Romania' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.; Apostol, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the main results of the Contract No. 13971/RO which was performed in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation'. The title of the Romanian project was 'Systematic approach for Nuclear Knowledge Transfer and Preservation in Romania'. The partners which were involved in this Program: Bulgaria (Kozloduy NPP and Technical University of Sofia), Canada (Chalk River Laboratories, AECL), Jordan (Water Authority of Jordan), the Philippines (Philippines Nuclear Research Institute), Romania (Institute for Nuclear Research), the Russian Federation (Inter DCM. Corp., a subsidiary of RRC Kurchatov Institute) and the European Commission (Institute of Energy, DG Joint Research). Among the main results obtained in this work we must specify the development of an INR short/medium strategy concerning the professional knowledge management, based on an assessment of the status of the knowledge transfer and preservation. This documentation was made using some adequate tools like a specific questionnaire for highlighting the experts' motivation for transferring their knowledge and an appropriate method for the knowledge loss risk assessment. Therewith, we mention our participation in the developing of an IAEA TEC-DOC concerning the problem of nuclear knowledge transfer and preservation. (authors)

  17. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  18. A Philippines gasifier case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, F.P.; Kilayko, G.U.

    1991-01-01

    The gasifier programme failed to achieve its objective of significantly reducing farmers' dependence on diesel fuel and in improving their financial positions both on Panay Island and elsewhere in the Philippines. The causes appear to be institutional and managerial rather than any inherent weakness in the technology itself. 2 tabs

  19. Uranium content of Philippine coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.S.; Bulos, A.M.; Bucoy, B.M.; De la Cruz, M.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium content of coal samples from seven areas in the Philippines, i.e. Cebu, Semirara, Bislig, Albay, Samar, Malangas and Polilio Is. was found to contain trace quantities of uranium. The mean value of 0.401 ppm U is lower than reported mean uranium contents for coal from other countries. (ELC)

  20. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  1. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  2. Alternatives to Nuclear Power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, L.; Manea, Gh.

    1996-01-01

    The paper proposes alternatives to nuclear power generation in Romania. The priorities are: improvement of efficiency in producing, transmission, and energy use; promoting the renewable resources of energy, especially of hydroelectric power; restructuring industry under criteria of power consumption efficiency; commercial purposes from horizontal nuclear sector activity in Romania. There are described the causes behind the energy crisis in Romania and present energy policy solutions to it. (author). 2 tabs., 10 refs

  3. Philippine president announces population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-02-01

    President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines has announced a national policy for family planning, following his recent reelection for a second term of office. Under the policy adopted by the President, the Philippine Government is committed to undertake and encourage programs to provide information and advice for couples wishing to space or limit their child-bearing activities. The Presidential Commission on Population, in a report based on recommendations drawn up after more than 20 meetings by the 22 members, and states that the unfettered population growth will gravely hamper efforts to improve living standards for Filipinos and will block the attainment of national development goals. However, the Commission emphasized that the program will be educational and persuasive, not coercive. Family planning services have been growing rapidly in the Philippines over the past few years as a result of the initiative of several pioneer organizations assisted by the IPPF. President Marcos' government signed the United Nations Declaration on Population in 1967 and in January 1969 he established The Commission on Population. The Philippine press has consistently backed the campaign for widespread availability of family planning services. The Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization, under it's Director, Dr. Francisco Dy, which has its headquarters in Manila, has its headquarters in Manila, has fostered a regional interest through its technical discussions and the training of field personnel. Depthnews recently reported that the latest Philippine demographic survey asserts that Filipina women are bearing children so fast that the country will hold on to the undisputed title of possessing the highest birth rate in Asia. The growth rate is 3.5%, and the average completed size of a Filipino family is 6.8 children. This swift rate of growth will boost the 1969 population of 37.1 million to 38.4 at the end of this decade. It is noted that unless curbed, it will

  4. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  5. DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDREEA UREAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania is one of the poorest countries in Europe. The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors influence the magnitude of this socio-economic phenomenon. Current availability of data from National Institute of Statistics ensures our sample. We apply a panel data analysis of regional development: North-East, SouthEast, South, South-West, West, North-West, Centre and Bucharest-Ilfov to understand how Romania can reduce poverty. The authors found a direct link between relative poverty rate and education. In addition, the negative relationship between poverty and pensioners shows the importance of a good government policies. In this context, we propose to focus our attention on the needs of people. Education can be an important determinat of national development, on the other slide, educated people are more willing to understand the role of pension system.

  6. Radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Radu, Maria; Dobos, Ion; Glodeanu, Florin; Popescu, V. Ion; Rotarescu, Gheorghe; Turcanu, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the main aspects of management of radwastes generated within the frame of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) and out of Nuclear Fuel Cycle in Romania. There are mentioned the Romanian legislative and regulatory framework concerning nuclear activities which include provisions for radwaste management generated in Romania. The paper lists the radwaste producers, mentions waste inventory and gives future estimates for radwaste generation, all determining development of the radwaste management strategy. Choosing selected strategy for radwaste management, the main responsible organizations have been established as well as the planned facilities for treatment conditioning, storage and disposal of radwastes generated within the frame of both NFC and out of NFC fields of peaceful nuclear activity. (authors)

  7. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  8. Development program business in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ilie

    2014-01-01

    In the early 2000, in Romania, there were fewer programs to stimulating business environment and in this case the SMEs. After a transition period, various attempts to implement a financial and logistical support from the state were beginning to bear fruit with the year 2009 and take hold in 2011. Amid all legislative changes occurred, the novel proves its effectiveness against Romanian entrepreneurs and especially to young people, university graduates determined to make his way into the busin...

  9. ROMANIA: THE WAY TO EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Gabriela DULGHERIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the Romanian process to join the euro, under the terms of the current economic-financial crisis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of achieving real and nominal convergence criteria, along with offering perspectives regarding European monetary integration. The adoption of the unique currency represents an important challenge and opportunity for Romania during the post-adherence period, which forces the political and administrative environment to conceive and implement coherent and responsible politics meant to ensure a simultaneous fulfillment of nominal and real convergence criteria of the Romanian economy. The results of this analysis illustrate that, despite the fact that the Romanian economy recorded significant progresses on the fulfillment of the Maastricht criteria, the current economic context has introduced an additional uncertainty factor and significantly made the adoption of a single currency harder, and the enforcement of real convergence criteria has become much more difficult. Under these circumstances, the National Bank of Romania gave up the target that 2015 represented, and also the one of establishing a new target-date to enter the eurozone, the perspective of joining a single currency exceeding the horizon of this decade. In order to achieve a real, profound and sustainable reorganization of the Romanian economy and to successfully recover the discrepancies between Romania and the EU standards, the road to the euro must be paved with much caution and wisdom.

  10. Radiochemical education in Iasi, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The teaching and research in radiochemistry is disregarded by most universities (mainly due to the cost and legal requirements for maintaining a nuclear unit of first or second class), although the interest in new generation nuclear reactors is increasing worldwide. The historical background and the educational and the research activities conducted in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry of the Al.I. Cuza University of Iasi as of one of the last bastions of radiochemistry in Romania are presented here. This unit remains one of the last Romanian educational structures which allow the next generation of radio chemists to gain hands on experience as a part of their training: an impressive number of former students are currently employed by nuclear research centres and nuclear energy production facilities not only in Romania but all around Europe. Unfortunately, without a stronger involvement of the authorities, the laboratory risks to be closed by 2011, despite of the effort of a few people (as most of other similar structures in Romania. (author)

  11. [Demography and employment in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, O S

    1981-01-01

    The population of Portugal showed a period of slow growth between 1950-60; however, in the 1970s, the return of large numbers of former residents in African territories along with a reduction in emigration changed the trend so that the 1981 census showed a significant increase. The Portuguese economy, on the other hand, is in a state of crisis which has resulted in large numbers of unemployed. The growth of the population along with these hard times has made it more difficult to reduce the rate of unemployment. It is also more difficult for those leaving school to find jobs. The better educated generations are seeking jobs in industry and in other services that Portugal will find difficult to offer in sufficient numbers in the immediate future. At present, the Portuguese economy has a large component of agricultural labor. In any case, the means of economic and social intervention to fight unemployment have limited potential. Therefore, many of those unable to find jobs in Portugal will attempt to emigrate. Many Portuguese are already working in Germany, France, and in other Western European countries but migration today is much more difficult. In addition, these countries cannot be expected to recive many more migrant workers in the future. In fact, those better educated workers from Portugal will not be very interested in the low paying jobs which can be found more easily by foreign workers in Western Euorpe. Many will therefore attempt to find jobs in non-European countries. There has been a recent increase of migration to Canada and the US. A renewal of interest in jobs in Brazil and other South Amerian countries is also to be expected. There may also be a future increase in the number of experts, technicians, and other qualified personnel emigrating to Portuguese speaking African countries if there is adequate security and if these countries find the way to expand economic growth. (author's modified)

  12. Poverty and precarity in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Izaura

    2016-01-01

    This research assesses poverty levels in Portugal within a multidimensional approach, over a period from 2008 to 2014. Further, it aims at inferring a causal relationship between precarious jobs and the estimated multidimensional poverty level. This research adds to the existing literature by applying a discrete choice experiment in the construction of the poverty index, as well as by nding causality between poverty and precarity. Empirical results suggest that, while multidim...

  13. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  14. Comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, R.C.S.; Lende, van der T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Mamuad, F.V.; Garillo, E.P.; Cruz, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected between 1981 and 1991 at the Philippine Carabao Center at Central Luzon State University (PCC-CLSU) were used for the comparison of growth, milk yield and draughtability of Murrah-Philippine crossbred and Philippine native buffaloes. Body weights and body measurements were available

  15. PHILIPPINE COCONUT INDUSTRY AND THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Oniki, Shunji

    1992-01-01

    This study explores effects of Philippines' coconut policies on the performance in the international market. Analysis of the coconut sector found that the Philippine government successfully changed the structure of the coconut industry during the 1970's using a fund collected as coconut levies. Since the Philippines dominated the international trade market of coconut products, it could exercise dominant market power in the world trade, by integrating the domestic sector. However, the industri...

  16. Rescuing the Philippines' first BOOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet

    1999-01-01

    As part of the drive to privatisation, private companies in the Philippines have been urged to build power plants and sell electricity to the government-owned Philippines National Power Corporation (Napocor). Casecnan, the first planned irrigation and power project was built on a 'build, own, operate and transfer' basis, but when the original contractor (the Korean companies Hanbo and Hanbo Engineering Construction) went into insolvency, the project was handed over to CalEnergy whose enterprising approach has succeeded in getting the project back on track. At the time of the take-over, the project was 6 months behind schedule. The article gives details of what had been completed and what remained to be completed. The Casecnan project is cited as an example of what can be achieved in hydro construction when the right consortia are assembled. (UK)

  17. The Orphaned and Institutionalized Children of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alice K.; Groze, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Notes that professionals from all over the world have been assisting Romania since the fall of the Ceausescu dictatorship in December 1989. Describes some of the difficulties faced by children and families in Romania. Contends that problems faced by Romanian families are massive, and professionals planning to help these families must learn about…

  18. Le CRDI dans les Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI appuie la recherche dans les. Philippines depuis 1972. Le travail qu'y ont accompli des universités et des instituts de recherche vigoureux et la participation active de la société civile ont entraîné d'importantes améliorations dans les domaines de l'agriculture, du suivi de la pauvreté et de la gestion des forêts.

  19. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector

  20. Nuclear medicine in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadolid, Leland.

    1978-01-01

    This article traces the history of nuclear medicine in the country from the time the first radioisotope laboratory was set up by the Philippine General Hospital about 1955, to the not too satisfactory present facilities acquired by hospitals for diagnosis, treatment and investigation of diseases. It is in research, the investigation of disease that is nuclear medicine's most important area. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has pioneered in the conducting of courses in the medical uses of radioisotopes. The local training of nuclear manpower has been continued and updated and foreign fellowships are availed of through the cooperation of IAEA. Quite a number are already trained also in the allied fields that support the practice of nuclear medicine. However the brain drain has seriously affected the number of trained staff of medical units. Discussed and presented is the growth of the medical use of radioisotopes which are locally produced by PAEC. In order to benefit from the full advantage that nuclear medicine can do to a majority of Filipinos, the government should extend its financial support in acquiring such facilities to equip strategic hospitals in the country and support training programs. The Philippine has the expertise to start the expansion but only with adequate provision of funds will our capacity turn into reality. (RTD)

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanica Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the main opportunities and limitations of corporate social responsibility (CSR. The survey was defined with the aim to involve the highest possible number of relevant CSR topics and give the issue a more wholesome perspective. It provides a basis for further comprehension and deeper analyses of specific CSR areas. The conditions determining the success of CSR in Romania have been defined in the paper on the basis of the previously cumulative knowledge as well as the results of various researches. This paper provides knowledge which may be useful in the programs promoting CSR.

  2. Treasury Operations Mechanism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Laurentiu ANDREI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a payment system on paper support to an electronic one in Romania was determined, on the one hand, by the development of the financial markets and the significant increase of the activity performed by means of payment systems, and on the other hand, by the need to move to a predominantly cashless society and to streamline cashless payments, as well as by the requests of the final customers for payment services that are safe, effective and low cost.

  3. Portugal to Accede to ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Republic of Portugal will become the ninth member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago and the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , in the presence of other high officials from Portugal and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 05/00 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Portuguese Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Portugal will formally join this organisation on January 1, 2001. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 16/00 ESO PR Photo 16/00 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 405 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 809 pix - 408k] Caption : Signing of the Portugal-ESO Agreement on June 27, 2000, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Catherine Cesarsky , and the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago . In his speech, the Portuguese Minister of Science and Technology, José Mariano Gago , stated that "the accession of Portugal to ESO is the result of a joint effort by ESO and Portugal during the last ten years. It was made possible by the rapid Portuguese scientific development and by the growth and internationalisation of its scientific community." He continued: "Portugal is fully committed to European scientific and technological development. We will devote our best efforts to the success of ESO". Catherine Cesarsky , ESO Director General since 1999, warmly welcomed the Portuguese intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Portuguese astronomers will have great opportunities for working on research programmes at the frontiers of modern astrophysics." "This is indeed a good time to join ESO", she added. "The four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes with their many first-class instruments are nearly ready, and the VLT

  4. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  5. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  6. Geology and religion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  7. Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alan M.

    This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

  8. Lexicography in the Philippines (1600-1800)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Rodriguez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spanish missionary lexicography in America and the Philippines is extensive and deserving of detailed research. In the Philippines, from 1600 up to 1898, more than fifty vocabularies were published in thirteen different languages. Alongside these are numerous vocabularies preserved only as

  9. CDM Country Guide for The Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on The Philippines

  10. The Philippine "Hip Hop Stick Dance"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…

  11. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  12. The Economics of Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    accomplishments by activity include: A . Counterinsurgency and Well Being 1. Econometric modeling complete: Philippine Peace and Development Team...Insurgency, counterinsurgency , Philippines , economics , violence , military , rebels. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b...Investigator Eli Berman, Professor of Economics, University of California at San Diego, and Research Director for International Security Studies at the UC

  13. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  14. Portugal's Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Portugal's recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal's energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal's partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal's energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal's downstream petroleum sector and in the country's continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal's participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry

  15. IMPOZITELE DIN ROMANIA: O COMPARATIE REGIONALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Lazea

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author provides a comparative analysis of taxation in the six Central European candidate countries to EU integration: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary and Romania. As the focus is primarily on Romania, this complex topic raises many questions, most of which relate to the way in which the government should improve the taxation system. To which extent the level of taxation differs in Romania from those of other applicants in Central Europe? Which are the main causes influencing the pattern of collecting the budgetary benefits? How the Romanian taxation system can be restored to good health?

  16. Environmental Hazards and Mud Volcanoes in Romania

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Romania, an eastern European country, is severely affected by a variety of natural hazards. These include frequent earthquakes, floods, landslides, soil erosion, and...

  17. Social Economy in Romania - Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina CACE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the term of social economy is rather new and almost unknown for the public at large, and the legal framework contains only regulations specific for different types of entities which perform activities or which generate effects that may be considered as partial forms of social economy. This paper reviews the recent literature which approached mostly the problems of conceptualization and definition of the social economy, both at the national and European level. The paper also proposes an evaluation of the social economy sector in Romania in terms of its development capacity on medium-term. The paper reviews scientific contributions from Romania and abroad, reports of public or private institutions, and development policies. All these documents are used to develop a theoretical framework of the social economy and to describe the social economy as a sector of activity within the European Union and Romania, taking into consideration several criteria.

  18. The Philippine historical earthquakecatalog: its development, current stateand future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, M. L. P.; Bautista, B. C.

    2004-01-01

    This report will trace the development of the historical earthquake catalog of the Philippines, assess its present state and recommend future research directions. The current Philippine historical earthquake catalog is culled from various catalogs, both global and local, that were developed since the first Philippine catalog by Perrey was published in 1860. While early global catalogs gave simple mention of earthquakes in the Philippines, more focused earthquake catalogs about the Philippines...

  19. The cognitive enterprise in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Neagu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on some cognitive linguistic topics (e.g. categorization, polysemy, motivation of idioms, etc. approached by Romanian linguists in the last two decades. The selection of contributions that this paper presents is intended to offer an overview of the main attempts to introduce and develop cognitive linguistics in Romania. The claims put forward for English (especially American English have been contrasted and checked against data from Romanian. Generally, Romanian studies from a cognitive linguistic perspective shed light on various linguistic phenomena at both a theoretical and a practical level. Theoretically, they are relevant through their comparative and contrastive analyses, while practically they contribute insights to language acquisition and translation studies.

  20. Religiosity and Values in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the state supports religion. The main reason is claimed to be the fact that religion will improve the shared values (moral, social, economic or political of our society. Based on the data from the Public Opinion Barometer November 2005 (which included the questions from The World Values Survey 2005 this study explores the relationship between religiosity and work ethic, moral values and tolerance; as well as the ways in which religiosity affects political and gender-based attitudes. Regarding most of the values included a weak but significant relationship was found. A poorer work and general ethic, attitudes towards women and homosexuals or the preference for a more authoritarian regime are the most disquieting findings.

  1. An Energy Overview of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Romania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  2. THE BUDGETING PROCESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURCIN MARIUS CATALIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the stages of the budgeting process in Romania and the institutions involved in its carry out, having regard to the recent legislative amendments in the field. The study describes the importance of some state institutions in achieving the economic and social policy objectives. According to practice, the institution specializing in drafting the budget bill is the Government, who submits the budget bill annually to the Parliament for adopting the national budget, accompanied by the explanatory statement, annexes and interpretative calculations. The preparatory works are fulfilled by the Ministry of Public Finance and in parallel, by the ministries, authorities, local administrations or other public institutions to prepare their own drafts budget.

  3. Philippines (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    According to this statement presented to the Committee on Population of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the 1980 Philippine census enumerated 48.1 million persons, a more than 6-fold increase over the 7.6 million of 1903. The 1913-39 average intercensal growth rate of 2.22% declined during World War II but soared to 3.06% from 1948-60. The growth rate was 2.71% between 1975-80. The median age was 20.2 in 1903, 16.9 in 1970 and 18.6 in 1980. The crude birth rate declined from 46.0/1000 in 1960 to 34.8 in 1975, while the crude death rate declined from 13.7/1000 in 1960 to 9.3 in 1975. The average age of Filipino women at marriage increased from 23.2 in 1975 to 24 in 1978, causing a decline of the total fertility rate from 5.89 to 4.70. The infant mortality rate was expected to decline from 59.3 in 1983 to 54.2 in 1987. The Philippines was still 63% rural in 1980 despite the concentration of urban growth in Manila. As of 1983, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration had processed 434,207 employment contracts, of which 65.5% were for production process workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers, 15.3% were for service workers, and 13.9% were for professional and technical workers. The Philippine Family Planning program aims to reduce population growth from an estimated 2.54% in 1983 to 1.92% by 1993 and to achieve replacement level fertility by 2010. As a result of the 1978 review of the Philippine Population Programme, the focus is now on longterm planning to ensure more significant and perceptible demographic impact of development programs and policies. The Population Education Program aims to inculcate values supporting family planning in the areas of family size and welfare, responsible parenthood, and delayed marriage, while the Adolescent Fertility Program seeks to reduce the incidence of early marriage and pregnancy. 3496 clinics, hospitals, and sterilization centers provide family planning and related services

  4. Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This feature article on the Romanian economy provides some background to the sale of five CANDU-600 reactors for the nuclear power station at Cernavoda. Counter trade, financing, and the importance of nuclear power for the Romanian economy are among the topics discussed

  5. Romania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Geography, Geomorphology-Pedology Department, Bucharest University, 010041, .... river network, which consist of erosion, transport ..... law. This explains the vertical distribution of the morphogenetic processes, as well as of the ...

  6. FACTORING- CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Capital is the main factor of production, business development becomes virtually impossible without taking into account the financial market and the resources it provides to businesses. Any business, regardless of its degree of development, is involving direct contact with financial markets, namely the institutions that mediate mobilization of capital and the services they provide. Understanding the functioning of the financial system, the specific financial mechanisms through which savings are allocated to support capital investments and the costs and risks involved is essential for the development of a solid base for business. In this context, factoring operations can support economic agents, allowing a transfer of commercial receivables from their holder to a factor who commits to their recovery and guarantee such operations even if temporary or permanent insolvency of the debtor . Thus, factoring is a complex technique in at least two aspects, of the debt and the transfer of credit. . Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romania. Maybe because of poor business environment popularize the term is as little known as it was a few years ago the leasing. Present in Romanian legislation since 2002, factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent, providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor, which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part we defined the concept of factoring and international factoring, then I presented the advantages and development of factoring in Romania, and the last part conclusions.

  7. Perspectives for Romania on adopting agricultural innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlight the efforts Romania needs to do on the path of agricultural development through innovation. A smart, modern agriculture could contribute to a wide variety of economic, societal and environmental goals. Considering its potential in this sector, Romania should learn from the experience of other European countries how to manage its rich resources. Innovative technologies, products and practices can help make the most efficient and sustainable use of natural resources, and thereby improve farming process.

  8. Transnational citizenship: Latin Americans in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection upon the exercising of transnational citizenship as a consequence of international migration, applied to Latin Americans resident in Portugal. In order to do this we have adopted the concept of transnational citizenship, as its malleability allows us to consider the whole concept of countries of origin and destination and the influence of bilateral and international relations. We ask how transnational citizenship is exercised in the European Union, Ibero-American and, particularly, Portuguese spaces, and whether it is affected by the economic crisis in Europe and, in particular, Portugal, by analysing the cases of Argentines, Brazilians and Uruguayans living in Portugal.

  9. La contabilidad pública en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Pedrosa, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    LA CONTABILIDAD PÚBLICA EN PORTUGAL - Que se entiende por Sector Público - Arquitectura del Sector Público en Portugal. - Evolución de la Contabilidad del Sector Público en Portugal. - El Plan Oficial de Contabilidad Pública (POCP) y Planes de Contabilidad sectoriales. - Las normas de consolidación de cuentas en el Sector Público. - Y hoy, ¿cuál es el punto de la situación? Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  10. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation on the waste management, have determined the diversification and increasing the number and the capacity of recovery and disposal of waste in Romania. We found the most textile waste in Romania was deposited in deposits onto or into land, in the proportion of 18.51%. This proportion is under the EU average of 34.03%, but is much higher than in other European country. Also, has been an increase in the number of incinerators, in the last years. With all of this, the interest in textile waste management in Romania is far from being to the level of European, where are associations who dealing with the collection and recycling of textiles and is achieved a selective collection of textile waste in the points especially designed for this thing. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the EUROSTAT database and INSSE database analysis and by Internet.

  11. Dental radiographic exposures in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.F.; Oliveira, A.D.; Amaral, E.M.; Carreiro, J.V.; Galvao, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of dental intra-oral radiography was carried out in Portugal in 1989 and 1990 in hospitals, clinics and private offices. About 25% of the operational X ray units were checked. A total of 847 x 10 3 films were estimated as having been performed in 1989 corresponding to a frequency of 86 films per 10 3 inhabitants, which amounts to about 12% of all radiological examinations. The median entrance absorbed dose for a molar tooth was calculated to be 6.3 mGy but 85% of measured doses were out of acceptable dose range for good practice. Improvement of image quality and reduction of patient dose can be mainly achieved by improving the quality of film processing

  12. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  13. The negotiation of The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution of Romania of 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona-Arina Raef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the author is trying to find if there was a negotiation between main parties regarding The Constitution of Romania of 1923 and The Constitution Of Romania of 1991 or if there was a project imposed by one party to the others.

  14. Romania en bankgarantie: een herlezing van de arresten Romania, Aukema en TEP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In het Romania-arrest geeft de Hoge Raad in een obiter dictum aan dat in het daar voorliggende geval de garant geen regresvordering jegens de boedel geldend kan maken. Die garant was in Romania de aandeelhouder van de failliet. In deze bijdrage wordt betoogd dat de garantie van een bank - met

  15. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  16. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Portugal. The author’s goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Portuguese’s pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Portuguese approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of using in Portugal definite part of VAT income for pension system financing.

  17. Hydropower strategy for the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCandless, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC's non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)

  18. Mitigating climate change: The Philippine case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Government of the Philippines signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate change on June 12, 1992 and the Philippine Congress ratified it in 1994. The Philippine Government has also subsequently created the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). The GOP is currently preparing the Philippine Country Study to address climate change. The first phase of the work was financed by a grant from the US Country Studies Program which is led by the US Department of Energy. The Study includes the following elements: a) development of a National Inventory of GHG emission and Sinks; b) vulnerability assessment and evaluation of adaptations of coastal resources; c) identification of alternative programs and measures to promote mitigation and/or adaptation to climate change; d) public information and education campaign; and e) development of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. (au)

  19. Philippine population policy: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carino, L V

    1994-06-01

    In the Philippines, debate engendered in 1994 by the introduction of a antiabortifacient bill written in such broad language that it would outlaw most contraceptives recalls earlier debates on population policy and shows that not much has changed on the surface: the US is still providing funds, the Catholic Church is still opposing program advocates, and the population is still growing. The history of family planning (FP) in the Philippines developed during five periods: 1) prior to 1969 FP was offered only by private organizations; 2) from 1969 to 1974, the government began to incorporate FP as a policy; 3) from 1974 to 1986, FP and population issues were considered part of total development; 4) from 1986-1992, FP was subsumed under maternal and child health; and 5) from 1992 to the present, policy was enacted to balance population concerns with resources and development. This newsletter considers the first two stages. The written code of one of the precolonization self-governing indigenous peoples linked the number of permitted wives to population size and limited (through infanticide) the number of children a poor couple could have. During the 1960s, the Ford Foundation created a Population Institute, a protestant group established a countrywide Planned Parenthood Movement, and a Catholic Family Planning Association was formed. The public sector became involved when the Health Department of Manila sponsored a training seminar on FP. During the second stage, President Marcos began increasingly to support a government policy facilitating FP. By 1970, FP was an announced policy of his government. The Population Commission was to suffer many administrative changes during the period, but the emphasis on fertility reduction remained within a basic framework of a policy which gave every couple the right to choose their method of FP. By the end of 1974, more than 20 organizations had become involved in FP and more than 2000 clinics provided services. (This survey is

  20. East European energy. Romania's energy needs persist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Elliott C.; Denman, Sara B.; Kutnick, Bruce; Schultz, John R.; Foley Hinnen, Patricia; Bylsma, Peter J.

    1992-08-01

    Romania's economic growth and development have been hampered by declining domestic energy production and disrupted fuel imports, creating an energy shortage. Consequently, homes and businesses lack sufficient light and heat, and industrial output has fallen. In order to ensure sufficient energy supplies in the future, Romania is taking steps to decentralize its state-owned energy industries, modernize its outdated facilities and equipment, diversify its fuel sources, and eliminate its inefficient production practices. To accomplish these objectives, Romania needs substantial foreign trade and investment, according to Romanian officials. However, despite government efforts to reform the energy sector and improve the business climate, impediments to U.S. trade with and investment in Romania persist. These barriers include lack of a comprehensive energy strategy, underdeveloped legal and business infrastructures, uncertain economic and political conditions, and the absence of U.S. most-favored-nation trade status. Recent efforts by the Romanian and U.S. governments to overcome the barriers to most-favored-nation status have led to progress in this area. U.S. government and international agencies have initiated a variety of efforts to assist Romania's energy sector. For example, the Agency for International Development (AID) funded an Emergency Energy Program; the U.S. Trade and Development Program is evaluating requests to fund several feasibility studies in the power generation sector; and the Department of Commerce offers energy-related information exchanges and trade missions to Romania. International organizations such as the World Bank and the European Investment Bank have also granted loans for energy sector development projects in Romania

  1. Japanese Management as Applied in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Teruhiko Tomita

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how the Japanese management system is applied in a different social and cultural framework such as that of the Philippines. The outstanding characteristics of the Japanese management system are described, and its economic rationality for Japanese employers and employees, explained. On the basis of survey results which covered top Japanese managers stationed in the Philippines and Filipino managers, the paper examines the basic Japanese management policy and the ...

  2. A Tale of Two (Philippine) Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Peter U

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the histories of the Philippine automotive and electronics industries. The two industries present a very interestingcontrast. The automotive industry has been around longer than the electronics sector in the Philippines. Moreover, it was the target ofmuch government industrial policy in the form of various motor vehicle programs. In contrast, the electronics sector does not seem to have”enjoyed” the same level of government attention at the start. Yet the electronics indust...

  3. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  4. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  5. MODALITIES OF LOCAL DEBT ANALYSIS IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public debt is a topic of great interest, problem tracked over the years and has worsened with the outbreak of the second wave of financial crisis around the world, namely the sovereign debt crisis . Among the countries affected by this phenomenon are, along with countries like Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal, our country whose public debt has doubled in the past four years and will affect future regional development in Romania. In late 2010, the Romanian government debt (according to ESA 95 methodology reached 31.02 % of GDP. Although this indicator falls comfortably within the 60 % of GDP Maastricht Treaty, its growth rate remains worrying. In 2012 there was a level of government debt ( EU methodology - ESC 95 37.8 % of GDP, and for 2013 the estimated level of government debt is below 36.4 % of GDP ( 51 billion euro ranging is below the Maastricht Treaty provided for 60% of GDP, an advantage for Romania , given the new rules on public debt and budget deficit introduced by the new rules of economic governance at the European level , the concept of prudent fiscal policy becomes central . This is a reason for adopting a pro- active stance by continuing fiscal consolidation measures. That is why in this paper the authors present an analysis of public debt based on a correlated system of indicators.

  6. The CANDU experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The CANDU program in Romania is now well established. The Cernavoda Nuclear Station presently under construction will consist of 5-CANDU 600 MWE Units and another similar size station is planned to be in operation in the next decade. Progress on the multi-unit station at Cernavoda was stalled for 18 months in 1982/83 as the Canadian Export Development Corporation had suspended their loan disbursements while the Romanian National debt was being rescheduled. Since resumption of the financing in August 1983 contracts worth almost 200M dollars have been placed with Canadian Companies for the supply of major equipment for the first two units. The Canadian design is that which was used in the latest 600 MWE CANDU station at Wolsong, Korea. The vast construction site is now well developed with the cooling water systems/channels and service buildings at an advanced stage of completion. The perimeter walls of the first two reactor buildings are already complete and slip-forming for the 3rd Unit is imminent. Many Romanian organizations are involved in the infrastructure which has been established to handle the design, manufacture, construction and operation of the CANDU stations. The Romanian manufacturing industry has made extensive preparations for the supply of CANDU equipment and components, and although a major portion of the first two units will come from Canada their intentions are to become largely self-supporting for the ensuing CANDU program. Quality assurance programs have been prepared already for many of the facilities

  7. INVESTMENT FUNDS INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Capital market offers those who study it and those who use it as traders or as investors, a feature similar to a paradox. Her specific routine operations are regulated to the level of detail bylaws, instructions, procedures or measures layouts while decisions on investments in securities and portfolio restructuring are taken under perpetual uncertainty. This has a twofold explanation, an objective one and a subjective one.Future prices, as well as successive conditions of stock exchange not necessarily flow from the past, thus one cannot predict their level and over them is hanging the conviction that any selected alternative action is probably the best without having any certainty that that is really correct and rational in an absolute mode.Even if the evaluation of factors influencing prices is a questionable one, there is the likelihood of good choices when doing a basic operation-selling or buying. Factors identified, evaluated and ranked may change in the next period their force of action or even the market structure so that exchange activity is at least difficult to determine.In this category is included the mutual fund industry, whose evolution in Romania was not without risk and has had a tortuous circuit thanks to immature capital markets and market actors but especially due to the permissive legislation during the start phase. A certain progress was recorded in the last 10 years,although the financial crisis made its mark on the capital market and revealed the negative impact of systemic risks.

  8. ECONOMIC COMPETTION ENVIRONMENT IN ROMANIA

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    EMILIA UNGUREANU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For realizing the paper “Economic Competition Environment in Romania”, I considered the analysis of antitrust norms appliance, the economic concentration control and the control of state aids in Romania. In 2010, the Council activity was impacted by a series of important changes from a legislative point of view, but also by the internal organization. In his modified form, the Competition Law and the new adopted secondary legislation offers to the Competition Council the necessary instruments for efficiently acting in ensuring the market functionality on competition bases. In 2011, the competition authority efforts will be focused on improving the appliance of completion legislation, mainly, by concentrating the analysis on very big violation of law and by finalizing the investigations older than 3 years, on the intensifying the cooperation with implied institutions from the state aid domain, but also on implementing some internal measures, designed to develop the administrative capacity of the institution. The legislative modifications of the Council expected since 2010 for 2011, have like final output the adoption of a new variant of Competition Law 211/1996, some of the adjustments being made since last year, by O.U.G. no. 75/2010, and in 2011 this was approved.

  9. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

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    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  10. RISK AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN ROMANIA

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    Catalin Drob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the main categories (types of risks that affect the inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI in Romania, such as: country risk, political risk, economic risks, sovereign risks and so on. FDI is an important factor contributing to the economic development and to the economic growth of a country. In order to recuperate its economic handicap as compared to the other countries in the EU, Romania needs a massive inflow of foreign capital, especially in the form of direct investment. The paper also presents the evolution of FDI inflows in Romania and how they were influenced by the main factors affecting the FDI. In principle, between risk and the level of FDI inflows there is a direct dependency relationship: the higher the risk is in a country, the lower the level of FDI inflows is in that country. This is demonstrated by the empirical studies regarding FDI. These studies show that countries with high risk have major difficulties in attracting foreign investment. Therefore, it is important to identify very precisely the main risks that may affect the level of FDI inflows in Romania, in order to propose and implement strategies to mitigate these risks and to attract more foreign direct investment in Romania.

  11. Detection of Cercopithifilaria bainae in western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-11-01

    Cercopithifilaria species are tick-transmitted filarial parasites of mammals. In Europe, three Cercopithifilaria spp. are known to parasitize dogs, all occurring mainly in the Mediterranean countries. In Romania, Cercopithifilaria bainae has been reported in a single dog in eastern Romania but the occurrence in other parts of the country is not known. To further elucidate the geographic distribution of Cercopithifilaria spp. infection, 544 ticks were collected from dogs in several locations across Romania. The presence of Cercopithifilaria spp. was investigated with real-time PCR. A single Dermacentor reticulatus female tick was found to be infected with Cercopithifilaria bainae. The finding in the present study is geographically separated from the previous finding in Romania by 800 km, as well as by the Carpathian mountain range. Hence, C. bainae is more geographically widespread in Romania than previously recognized. However, the single detection does suggest that infection is rather uncommon in Romanian dogs. Nevertheless, further studies on Cercopithifilaria spp. distribution and prevalence are needed.

  12. RESEARCHES ON OILSEEDS MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Elena SOARE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the evolution of oilseeds market in Romania, during the period 2008-2013. In order to show as concise as possible the reality of the oilseeds sector, the research pictures, on the one hand, an evolution of oilseeds specific indicators and on the other hand, an evolution of external trade. Romania disposes of tradition and favourable pedo-climatic conditions for cultivating the oilseeds plants. This is demonstrated by the favourable results obtained in the last years, especially concerning the sunflower crop. In 2013, Romania registered a record for sunflower, occupying the first position in the European Union for cultivated area and production. A negative aspect is represented by the fact that our country has the best conditions in Europe for soybean crop, but it is still dependent on import. Romania imports a huge quantity of soybean oilcakes for animal feeding. Nowadays, Romania is an important actor in the sunflower world market, covering almost 19% of the global demand. In perspective, one could expect significant oilseeds productions with a positive influence on the agro-food trade balance in our country.

  13. Phones in Philippine Languages. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Marc R.

    Phonological data of 30 Philippine languages are presented. The languages were selected as representative of 12 minor families within the Philippine group. The data is charted for easy comparison between language families and between individual languages. The research method consists of gathering data from journal articles and unpublished…

  14. Climate index for Portugal - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Portugal. (J.S.)

  15. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  16. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  17. Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2015-11-30

    Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), also known as the marsh tick or ornate dog tick is the second most significant vector (next to Ixodes ricinus) of protozoan, rickettsial and viral pathogens in Europe. Until now, only limited information on the distribution of D. reticulatus in Romania is available. A study was conducted on the distribution of D. reticulatus in Romania during 2012-2014. In this study, D. reticulatus was detected in 17 counties, in 14 of which the species was recorded for the first time. Tick activity was evident throughout the year, except during July and August. Additionally, D. reticulatus was recorded for the first time in Romania from wild boar, foxes and humans. These data suggest that this tick species has a broader geographic range and may have more veterinary and medical importance than previously known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

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    Roxana M. SÎRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current state of Romanian integration into the European Union through the analysis of statistical data related to the absorption way of structural and cohesion funds available in 2007-2013 (absorption indicators and economic competitiveness indicators: Gross Domestic Product, employment rate, unemployment, population. In addition there are analyzed the structural and cohesion funds available for Romania in 2014-2020, for each category of available operational program and also the measures that must be implemented for Romania to adapt in a performance way to Europe 2020. The analysis results are considered as prerequisites for the development of an underlying model of investment decisions in the integrated sustainable development of Romania.

  19. POST-CRISIS FISCAL DILEMMAS IN ROMANIA

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    IFRIM MIHAELA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a synthetic exposure in critical note of some aspects of fiscal policy after the economic crisis in Romania. The paper aimed to analyze several topics related to taxation that are found in current debates in Romania, in the context of the need to establish a coherent legal framework compatible with sustainable economic growth. I considered pointing the moral aspects related to taxation, analysis of the tax-expenditure tandem and criticize the prevalence of the Keynesian approach to fiscal policy in Romania. From the research method point of view, the approach is a qualitative one, in a praxeological note based on economic argumentation. This paper is not intended to provide advice on fiscal policy, but to expose the necessary ideas for understanding its implications.

  20. Promotion of renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Romania's climate and geographical conditions offer the following types of renewable energy sources: solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, biomass and geothermal energy. These are here considered within the country's energy balance on medium and long term. Romania has a significant renewable energy potential. Unfortunately at present this potential is not used but to a small extent, except for hydraulic energy and biomass (especially as firewood), the latter being used in the great majority of cases in low performance installations. Government Decision No. 443/2003 on the promotion of electric energy generation from RES and Government Decision No. 1535/2003 regarding the Strategy of RES, establish the legal framework necessary for the promotion of RES in Romania. Consequently, an Action Plan defining actions, measures, responsibilities and financial sources has been settled. (author)

  1. Country policy profile - Romania. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Romania is 24%, whereas in 2012 it reached 21,3%. The Romanian renewable electricity promotion relies primarily on a quota system. Grid operators are obliged to develop their grids on the request of a plant operator, if the connection of a plant to the grid requires so. Romania has certain policies pertaining to renewable energy like training programmes for RES installers and on enhancing the development of RES-H infrastructure. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Romania and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  2. EURO CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR ROMANIA

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    Sandu Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of preparation and adoption of the European single currency is one of the most important challenges that Romania has to face in the first decade as a full time member of the European Union. This process will test both the political and the administrative capacity, requiring very clear programs for the adaptation of European regulations and directives that will ensure real and nominal convergence. This process will surely prove to be a difficult one and it will bring a high degree of pressure upon the economic system in general. The worldwide financial crisis is making the process of single European currency adoption even more difficult for Romania. Although its effects are not directly felt in Romania, the disorder created within international markets can easily transform the management of economic and currency politics into an insecure and extremely difficult task.

  3. Country policy profile - Romania. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Romania is 24%, whereas in 2012 it reached 21,3%. The Romanian renewable electricity promotion relies primarily on a quota system. Grid operators are obliged to develop their grids on the request of a plant operator, if the connection of a plant to the grid requires so. Romania has certain policies pertaining to renewable energy like training programmes for RES installers and on enhancing the development of RES-H infrastructure. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Romania and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  4. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  5. PUBLIC FINANCE SUSTAINABILITY IN ROMANIA. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

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    Mura Petru-Ovidiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the sustainability of public finance in Romania and to explore the fiscal threats Romania might face in the future. A sound fiscal policy implies avoiding excessive liabilities of the government, but at the same time delivering the proper public goods and services, including the necessary safety net in times of crisis. An unsustainable fiscal position negatively impacts on macroeconomic stability; moreover, if public finances are perceived to be unsustainable in the long run, the reaction of the international financial markets could generate a fiscal crisis, which might surprise the fiscal planners. The main findings of the paper are the following: i according to the multidimensional approach of the European Commission, in the short run, it seems that Romania is free from fiscal stress, there is a low risk in the medium term, and in the long run the risk becomes medium; ii a potential medium-term fiscal sustainability risk derives from the accumulation of losses and arrears in the business and companies sectors in which the state is a majority shareholder; iii Romania records one of the lowest budget revenues to GDP ratios in EU, while the Romanian tax system is characterized by a poor tax collection, inefficient administration and excessive bureaucracy; iv the structure of public spending in Romania is characterized by the predominance of wage spending and social assistance, while the poor state of the public pension system is an important vulnerability of the public finance position; v overall, the degree of tax compliance in Romania was only 55.8% in 2013, and according to the calculations made by the Fiscal Council, tax evasion represented 16.2% of GDP in 2013. All these aspects make up a grim picture of sustainability of public finances, which has to be considered by the public decision makers regarding future fiscal policy actions.

  6. All projects related to Philippines | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand ... of regional economic integration and an integral component of development ... mainly due to the Philippines Community e-Centres Network (PhilCeCNet) ...

  7. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30...

  8. All projects related to Philippines | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results. Displaying 1 - 10 of 38 ... In the Philippines, an estimated 14 percent of school children experience severe malnutrition. ... in decreasing the incidence of diabetes in rural communities in the Zamboanga Peninsula of the Philippines.

  9. Improving Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving food and nutrition security in the Philippines through school ... Implementation of the Community Health Assessment Program in the Philippines ... This project will address the effects of fast-paced economic growth in the Greater ...

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those Romania.

  11. Renewable Energy in Romania after 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Enachescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires obtaining energy from alternative sources which are clean and sustainable. In Romania, there are categories of renewable energy that basically were not used, such as solar PV and wind energy by 2007. Even today, their share is minor compared to energy from conventional sources, but they were made important steps, including in legislation domain. The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in Romania after 2007, as a result of EU integration. The analysis is done separately for installed capacity in the following chapters: Hydropower, Wind Onshore, Solid biomass, Solar Photovoltaic and Biogas.

  12. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

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    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF REGIONAL POLICIES IN ROMANIA

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    Oțil (Beţa Maria - Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available If we were to consider that Romania was formed by the unification of provinces that experienced a strong unity through culture, language, religion, as well as through the intense trade relations existing between them over time, we may say that our country has an important historical experience regarding regionalisation. After 1989, Romania underwent a radical change of economic and political organisation (from a centralised economy to a free, market economy and the approximation to the Western economic structures, the European Union (EU. Under these conditions the national authorities had to take into account the principles and the organisation and functioning of the European capitalist economies. During the communist period, Romania had an administrative-territorial and economic organisation that favoured centralised decision making. In the case of market economies, organisation allows and encourages the decentralisation of decision making. In the mid '90s, the economic and social realities of Romania lead to the achieving of the regionalisation of the national territory in accordance with the subsidiarity principle of the EU. Regionalisation sought to identify the most appropriate spatial and territorial framework for guiding the economic development processes, by facilitating the use of tools and resources provided by the European Union. The regional development policy is a continuation of the policies of national economic growth and development, both aiming at improving the economic and social life of the national communities. The final aim of this paper is to identify the economic and social situation of the development regions in Romania. The study provides insight into Romania's relations with the European Union, with regard to the access and use of the pre-accession European funds. Furthermore, the paper achieves a qualitative analysis, through a positive approach, but also a quantitative one of the economic and social situation of each

  14. THE TRANSITION AND PRIVATIZATION PROCESSES IN ROMANIA

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    Razvan HAGIMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to an economy that operates on market principles represents a period of profound changes based on redefining the paradigms of development. After more than 20 years from the 1989 events, Romania has already completed some important steps towards an open market economy. The path to this main objective was sinuous, with frequent acceleration and stumbling. This paper offers a view of the complex process of privatization in Romania after the fall of the communist regime, with a detailed approach on the transition process as well. The accent falls on the economic development of the country during the mentioned period.

  15. Nuclear power: benefits for the future in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vultur, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explains how nuclear power was implemented in Romania, why Romania chose nuclear energy and what the impact of building a power plant is on the industry and environment of Romania. In the 1960's, Romania started discussions with different partners to cooperate in the development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purpose. In 1977 Romanian Government decided that the Candu-600 to be the basic unit for its nuclear program. The contract between Romania and Canada was for 5 units. In 1979, the construction of the first Candu - 600 unit started in Cernavoda, on the right side of Danube River, about 160 km east of Bucharest. (author)

  16. The mediation procedure in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mediation activity as an alternative way of solving conflicts occupies an important place in modernsociety. Currently, the mediation reached its maturity worldwide being adopted without reservations.The future of solving conflicts is undoubtedly closely related to mediation. XXth century is the century of solvingconflicts amiably outside the court room. In Romania and the mediation profession were regulated by the Law no.192/2006, on the basis of the idea that mediation is one of the major themes of the reform strategy of the judicialsystem 2005-2007. By adopting the mentioned law it was followed the idea of reducing the volume of activitycourts, and therefore, relieve them of as many cases, with the direct effect on the quality of justice. Mediation is avoluntary process in which the parties with a neutral and impartial third party, without power of decision - themediator - who is qualified to assist the parties to negotiate, facilitating the communication between them andhelping them to reach a unanimous effective and sustainable agreement. The parties may resort to mediation beforeor after triggering a trial. Mediation can be applied, in principle, on any type of conflict. However, theRomanian legislator has established special stipulations on conflict mediation in criminal, civil and familylaw. Although not expressly provided, the stipulations regarding the civil conflicts and also apply to commercialconflicts. Therefore, the mediation is applicable to most types of lawsuits, except those relating to personalrights. As a "win- win" principle, the mediation does not convert any of the parties defeated or victorious; allthose involved have gained by applying this procedure.

  17. ASPECTS OF ECOFEMINISM IN ROMANIA

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    Perticas Diana Claudia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecofeminism can be understood as the relationship between the manner in which women are treated in society and on how the environment is treated and protected. Ecofeminism starts from the idea according to which "nature is a feminist issue". The explanation for this is based on the feminist philosophy according to which the connection between woman and nature is a strong one, due to the fact that she is the one who gives birth, thus helping nature to regenerate itself. Without women, female plants and animals, the planet could not develop, perpetuate and the end would be death. Furthermore, another explanation related to the first is that animals and people in their capacity as mothers are able to provide a greater amount of love, care, protection, both to their offspring and to nature. This paper aims to analyze the manner in which women are harmed by the environmental degradation in Romania and also the principles that have governed and still govern the current economy. Nowadays society is lead largely by male gender persons. The main accusations against current policies is that they seek concrete and immediate results, such as those related to economic growth, inflation rate etc. in terms of strictly economic indicators such as: gross domestic product, net national product, gross national product etc.. On the contrary, ecofeminist policies suggest that the emphasis should be placed on quality of life issues, which within itself analyzes both economic and also social and environmental aspects. Is not this the reproach for decades now that is brought to current economic policies? The fact that they do not take into account issues related to environmental degradation, in time led to negative consequences in the world whose costs are unimaginable.

  18. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  19. Religious Tourism in Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonna Marrien U. Asi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.

  20. Mainstreaming in the Philippines programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S

    1998-07-01

    In the Philippines, where the Oxfam team has worked on gender issues since 1990, the group recently conducted an in-house workshop to identify achievements and areas for improvement in gender mainstreaming. Gender activities began with a needs assessment of the fisheries in 1990 and have included gender-sensitivity training for Oxfam partner groups, support of women's issues, and gender research into such areas as disaster management. Successes include the appointment of women to key positions in the community, which was a direct result of advocacy work. Major challenges include 1) determining the best models to develop sectoral networking and advocacy on gender and 2) overcoming gender-resistance in some partners. The team concluded that it is still learning how to mainstream gender issues and is still searching for a framework to integrate gender into other approaches to planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In the future, Oxfam will 1) undertake small-scale and simple gender reviews with selected partners and then pilot gender-mainstreaming contracts with them, 2) build gender-learning teams within sectoral programs, 3) continue supporting networking and capability-building in feminist organizations, and 4) focus on gender at the next partners' meeting.

  1. Framing the ‘War on Drugs’ in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Geçer, Ekmel; Mahinay, Krizza Janica

    2018-01-01

    The Philippine president Rodrigo Duterte has gained quite a reputation in both national and international sphere due to his controversial war against drugs. Accordingly, this article aims to determine the media frames used in reporting the issue. By employing mainly content analysis, three Philippine national newspapers (namely, Manila Bulletin, Philippine Daily Inquirer, and The Philippine Star) are analyzed to observe the repeating media frames and the depictions of actors involved in the d...

  2. Leachable 226Ra in Philippine phosphogypsum and its implication in groundwater contamination in Isabel, Leyte Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canete, Socrates Jose P.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Enriquez, Eliza B.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Yulo-Nazarea, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), the major waste material in phosphate fertilizer processing, has been known to contain enhanced levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides especially 226 Ra. The lack of radioactivity data regarding Philippine phosphogypsum and its environmental behavior in the Philippine setting has brought concern on possible contamination of groundwater beneath the phosphogypsum ponds in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines. The radioactivity of Philippine phosphogypsum was determined and the leaching of 226 Ra from phosphogypsum and through local soil was quantified. Level of 226 Ra in groundwater samples in Isabel, Leyte, Philippines was also quantified to address the primary concern. It was found that the 226 Ra activity in Philippine phosphogypsum is distributed in a wide range from 91.5 to 935 Bq/kg. As much as 5% of 226 Ra can be leached from Philippine PG with deionized water. In vitro soil leach experiments suggest that the soil in the phosphate fertilizer plant area would be able to deter the intrusion of 226 Ra into the water table. Compared to reported values of natural groundwater levels of 226 Ra, the concentration of this radionuclide in Isabel, Leyte groundwater suggest that there is no 226 Ra intrusion brought about by the presence of phosphogypsum ponds in the area. (Authors)

  3. The University of San Carlos Herbarium, Cebu City, The Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidenschwarz, F.

    1990-01-01

    The University of San Carlos, Cebu City, (‘USC’) holds a botanical collection which is the fourth largest in size within the Philippines. The three leading herbaria of the Philippines are situated in or close to Manila. The 36 year old USC Herbarium is the only major collection in the Philippines

  4. Enoturismo em Portugal: as Rotas de Vinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Orlando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1993, as supported by the Dyonisios program of the European Union, the wine routes have been the most visible face of the wine tourism practice in Portugal. Since these thematic routes have no specific rules, they usually depend on the initiative of the promoters, namely through the creation of adherent/promoters associations or other institutions, like the Regional Viticulture Commissions, and Tourism Regions. This article aims at analysing the basis for the development of wine tourism in Portugal and its structure around wine routes. The socioeconomics traits of both the vineyards and wine, are analysed. The existing routes in Portugal are presented and their strengths and limitations are identi-fied.

  5. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Celia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2011-01-01

    Fires in Portugal, as in the Mediterranean ecosystems, have a complex effect on vegetation regeneration due to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In 2005, Portugal suffered a strong damage from forest fires that damaged an area of 300 000 ha of forest and shrub. This year are particularly interesting because it is associated the severe drought of 2005. The aim of the present study is to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2005 fire seasons and monitoring vegetation behaviour throughout the pre and the post fire periods. The mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2009, was used.

  6. [Profile of tropical diseases in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, F A

    1996-01-01

    The increased incidence of Imported Tropical Diseases in Portugal is correlated to a recent higher standard of living, influence of media and a consequent expansion of tourism, and above all to the close relationship existing between Portugal and Africa. The number and pathology (parasitic diarrhoeas, protozoal and helminthic infections) of in-patients with Tropical Diseases at the Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Parasitárias e de Medicina Tropical (UDIP-MT) were described, with special emphasis on Malaria (155 in-patients during the period from 1989 to 1993) and on Sleeping Sickness, where Eflornitin (DFMO) was for the first time used in Portugal. Finally, the impact of HIV epidemic on incidence and different clinical presentations of parasitic and other tropical pathology was also evaluated.

  7. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  8. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-02-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  9. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  10. Fronteira Portugal-Espanha e individualidade territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda Cavaco

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available PORTUGAL-SPAIN BORDER AREA AND ITS CREATIVE TENSION - The text evokes several nuances of the concept of the Portugal-Spain border: its shades of solidarity, complicity, opposition, agitation, confrontation and abandonment. At times, the border has been the zone of tension and separation, whereas at other periods in history, the border has been very permeable and there has been free exchange and mutual cooperation. The borders will be subjected to yet another interpretation as a new area emerges with the active participation of both Iberian countries in the European Union and the cooperative efforts initiated in the programs of INTERREG I and II

  11. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  12. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  13. Parental Migration and Children's Outcomes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robila, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Although Eastern European migration has increased greatly, the research on its impact on children and families has been limited. In this study I examined the impact of parental economic migration on children psychosocial and academic outcomes in Romania, one of largest Eastern European migrant sending country. Surveys were conducted with 382…

  14. Professional Counseling in Romania: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andreea; Paredes, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    The formalization and professionalization processes in Romania resemble the early history of counseling in the United States, where development initially took place in the educational and career/vocational sectors. Brief accounts of the relationship between select periods in Romanian history and access to education and career/vocational support…

  15. SUSTAINABILITY OF TAX SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia HOMORODEAN (CSATLOS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, sustainable development is the key to the development of contemporary society and future generations. Sustainability has become a key point for the debates in the political, economic, and academic environment. Therefore, today wehave reached the point when we speak of a country or company sustainability, of environmentalor agricultural sustainability, while speaking,at the same time, of fiscal policy sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Romanian fiscal policy sustainability in terms of tax revenues. The methodology used in this research is bibliographical analysis of specialist literature and statistical analysis of data. Bibliographical analysis was used to define operating concepts: fiscal sustainability and tax revenues. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between2005and2013, as well as the share of tax revenues in the general consolidated budget of Romania. Statistical data were processed using Microsoft Excel and presented as evolution diagrams. The novelty and originality of the present work consist in the bibliographical study on Romanian fiscal policy sustainability, the statistical study on the evolution of tax revenues in Romania between 2005and2013, and the analysisof fiscal policy sustainability in Romania in terms of tax revenues.

  16. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  17. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater

  18. Philippine country report on radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report was presented during the First National Coordinators Meeting for Radiation Technology, held in Takasaki, Japan, 6-9 September 1993. The report was about the active involvement of Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in research and development on the application of radiation technology. Activities were on mutation breeding, food irradiation, radiation sterilization, wood-plastic combinations and radiation chemistry. The transfer of technology in the Philippines was supported and assisted by the UNDP/IAEA Industrial Project. With these technologies, many industries were interested in radiation processing

  19. Nuclear techniques in agriculture in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S. III; Medina, V.F.O.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear techniques, both isotopic tracers and radiation have been utilized in the Philippine agricultural research and development to improve food production, reduce food losses and protect the environment. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), a government agency has been mandated to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy to accelerate national development. It takes the lead role in nuclear assisted agricultural research and development and has adopted a two-pronged approach for food and agricultural R and D by increasing productivity through crop improvement by mutation breeding, soil management and fertilizer uptake studies, livestock improvement; and reducing losses by pest control and food irradiation

  20. Treatment gaps in Parkinson's disease care in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Miyasaki, Janis M

    2017-08-01

    Neurological services and resources are scarce in low-income and developing countries, such as the Philippines. We looked into the treatment gaps in Parkinson's disease (PD) care in the Philippines in the following areas: epidemiology, healthcare, financial coverage, pharmacotherapy, surgical treatment and manpower. We collected relevant data on the above-mentioned areas. There is no available Philippine data on PD prevalence. Philippine healthcare is paid through user fees at the point of service. The average consultation fee in Manila ranges from US$10.57-31.74. The average minimum daily wage is US$9.39-10.17. Philippine healthcare is devolved to the local government units. Deep brain stimulation surgery is only available in Manila. Most PD medications are available in the Philippines. There are only nine movement disorder specialists for a population of 100.98 million. Gaps and challenges in PD care in the Philippines still exist.

  1. Neo-Lamarckism in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaça, Carlos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Darwinism was championed in Portugal by the University and progressionist political parties from the 1860's on. Neo-Darwinism was neglected in its proper time and so the acceptance of the inheritance of acquired characters continued over the first decades of the 20th century. Men of medical education who were professors of Biology at the University of Oporto supported neo-Lamarckian theories in early 20th century. The first one has been Américo Pires de Lima (1886-1966, professor of Botany, whose doctoral dissertation sustaining early Darwinism and neo-Lamarckism was presented in 1912. This thesis, as well as a few neo-Lamarckian publications with antropological significance, are commented and discussed in the present paper.



    El Darwinismo fue defendido en Portugal en la Universidad y por los partidos políticos progresistas durante la década de los años 60 del siglo XIX. El neo-darwinismo fue ignorado en su tiempo y así continuó la aceptación de la herencia de los caracteres adquiridos a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Los profesores de biolog

  2. Considerations on Radiation Protection in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    The author summarizes the main conclusions of a work group nominated by the Portuguese government in 2004 to propose measures to improve radiological protection in Portugal. The final report of this working group was presented to the Portuguese Government in 2005

  3. Lessons from wind policy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Ivonne; Azevedo, Inês L.; Marcelino Ferreira, Luís António Fialho

    2017-01-01

    Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal’s strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries’ policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions. - Highlights: • Portugal relies on feed-in tariffs as the key mechanism for wind diffusion. • Wind generation accounts for a quarter of total electricity generation. • The current feed-in tariffs system is not economically efficiency. • A feed-in tariff reform should be considered.

  4. Social housing in Portugal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    The social housing sector has become increasingly residualized and segregated in Portugal and Denmark. Whilst there is a considerable difference between the systems in these two countries, as regards issues of management and governance, dominant rent regimes (cost rent, social rent) or eligibility...

  5. Portugal's experience with public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the

  6. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts...

  7. Lessons from wind policy in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Ivonne; L. Azevedo, Inês; Marcelino Ferreira, Luís António Fialho

    2017-04-01

    Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal's strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries' policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions.

  8. Philippine migration policy: dilemmas of a crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G

    1999-04-01

    Philippine migration policy is traced from the early 1970s to the present. The main migration trends in the 1990s are described. An assessment is made of the efficacy and appropriateness of present migration policy in light of the economic crisis. A regional approach to migration policy is necessary in order to encourage placing migration as a greater priority on national agendas and in bilateral agreements. In the Philippines, migrants are considered better paid workers, which diminishes their importance as a legislative or program priority. Santo Tomas (1998) conducted an empirical assessment of migration policies in the Philippines, but refinement is needed. Although migration is a transnational experience, there is little dialogue and cooperation among countries. Philippine migration policy defines its role as an information resource for migrants. Policy shifted from labor export to migrant management in the public and private sectors. Predeparture information program studies are recommending a multi-stage process that would involve all appropriate parties. There is talk of including migration information in the education curriculum. There are a variety of agendas, competing interests, and information resources between migration networks and officiating agencies. The Asian financial crisis may have a mild impact, but there are still issues of reintegration, protection, and employment conditions

  9. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication gives the highlights of the research and development projects of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in agriculture and food, nuclear fuels and power system technology, medicine, public health and nutrition, environmental surveillance, supportive basic research, social response to nuclear technology, nuclear licensing and safeguards, supportive technology and international and local linkages including manpower development. (ELC)

  10. Bikol Dictionary. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Malcolm W.

    The Bikol language of the Philippines, spoken in the southernmost peninsula of Luzon Island and extending into the island provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate, is presented in this bilingual dictionary. An introduction explains the Bikol alphabet, orthographic representation (including policies adopted in writing Spanish and English loan words),…

  11. Nucleonic guages in Philippine industry: current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedregosa, R.V.; Cayabo, L.B.; Leopando, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleonic gauges have been used in Philippine industries for more than thirty years. There are now close to 500 units being used to determine and/or control level, density, concentration, weight and other parameters. Gauges are found in the food, cement, mineral processing, steel, paper, cigarette, plastic and construction industries. (author)

  12. The Philippine Epics and Ballads Multimedia Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Revel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers an introduction to the Philippine Epics and Ballads Archive. This collection is a joint endeavor between singers, scholars, knowledgeable local persons, and technical assistants. This archive exemplifies a part of the cultural heritage among 15 national cultural communities and their respective languages. A multi-media eCompanion offers an interactive version of a Palawan epic song.

  13. Researching English in the Philippines: Bibliographical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Ma. Lourdes S.

    2004-01-01

    The academic literature on issues related to the Philippine English language and literature is substantial. This bibliography surveys relevant work on such related fields as the sociology of language and language planning, Bilingualism, bilingual education, and languages in education, language attitudes, code-switching and code-mixing, Philippine…

  14. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Sherri, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures contains the following articles: "Functions of Locatives in Northern Subanen Expository and Hortatory Discourse" (Josephine Sanicas-Daguman); "Functions of Demonstratives in Sama Bangingi' Expository Discourse" (John Blakely); "A Brief Look at Sinama Basic Verbs…

  15. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  16. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  17. Planning for nuclear power in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    This article traces the events that led to nuclear power introduction in the Philippines starting from: the creation of National Science and Development Board and Philippine Atomic Energy Commission in 1958 under R.A. 2067; recruitment of young engineers, chemists and other scientists and their training here and abroad for the different specialized fields of nuclear energy; the creation of an inter-organizational Ad-Hoc Committee on Nuclear Power Study; initiation of a UNDP-IAEA supported Pre-Investment Study on Power Including Nuclear Power in Luzon in early 1964; enactment of R.A. 5207, the Philippine Nuclear Liability Act in 1968; second feasibility study in 1971; siting study by PAEC, NPC and MERALCO engineers; technical and economic study; organizational and financial study; and investment report. Upon receipt of the results of the feasibility studies on 31 July 1973, the President of the Philippines decided on the immediate implementation of the first nuclear plant project by the National Power Corporation (NPC). Licensing and regulation as well as manpower training with the aid of regional or international training agencies will be undertaken by PAEC

  18. Mobility and Sedentarization among the Philippine Agta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minter, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an ethnography of Agta mobility, based on fieldwork in the northern Philippines conducted over the past decade. The Agta are a population of about 10,000 people, living in small settlements distributed along the coasts and in the mountainous interior of northeastern Luzon. They

  19. Counterinsurgency in the Philippines. Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    funds and the farmer-producers in the rural areas are practically begging for start-up funds with which to finance a backyard poultry farm, a cottage...257-70. Burton, Sandra. "Aquino’s Philippines: The Center Holds." Foreign Affairs 65:3 (America and the World 1986): 524-37. Butcher , Scott. U.S

  20. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. 137Cs concentration in some Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dela Cruz, B.; Marzan, A.M.; Lagmay, N.; Anden, A.

    1977-01-01

    The current investigation being made by the Philippine Atomic Research Center on the 137 Cs content of the different foods commonly used by the Filipinos is described and preliminary results are reported. The 137 Cs content is determined radiochemically only for the edible portion of the food

  2. The Philippines in a Changing Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Philippines, Atenco de Manila University ing fathers borrowed from American constitutional or De La Salle University, to study law, medicine, law in...respectively, in the Atenco de Manila University lation that would extend by an additional two years Opinion Poll. This bodes well not only for the NAFP the

  3. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  4. Public higher education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozier, V. R.

    1984-06-01

    Clearly, the national government of the Philippines has decided to increase the number and comprehensiveness of its public colleges and universities. While private colleges and universities are likely to dominate higher education in the Philippines for the remainer of this century, it appears that public, tax-supported higher education will become increasingly available there. The Philippines is not a wealthy country but it is devoting a substantial portion of its national resources to public higher education. In 1983, higher education received 2.85 percent of the national budget, a figure that has been rising for years. Compared with some highly developed countries, this is not a large percentage, but for a country that has traditionally relied on private higher education, it is a major and growing investment in the public sector. While many of the better universities in the Philippines are private, many other private educational institutions are small and struggling. As their financial resources become more limited, and as less expensive, tax-supported higher education becomes increasingly available, a lot of the struggling private colleges will probably close. This process is also being hastened by actions of the government to upgrade quality, for example in the case of the many private colleges that developed after World War II. In an attempt to improve the academic quality of these marginal institutions, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports has been given extensive authority, and while its intrusion into private institutions has been modest by some measures, its requirements are affecting them all and will speed the demise of some. This is bound to lead to a stronger role for public higher education in the Philippines, a country that is striving diligently to improve the education and hence the quality of life of its people.

  5. Hydroelectric power in Romania. Past - present - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogan, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the past and present situation in hydroelectric power (achievements, rates of commissioning and so on) and the future strategies for the hydroelectric power resource development in the conditions of a free market economy. At present the contribution of hydroelectric power in the Romania's total power balance is about 16,500 GW h/year which represents nearly 28 %. The theoretical hydroelectric power potential of Romania is 75,000 GW h/year while the technical potential, which could actually be developed, is only 40,000 GW h/year. Finally, there are presented the main directions in the hydroelectric power development up to the year 2020. (author) 3 tabs

  6. Internet Banking in Romania at a Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ghita-Mitrescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the information and communication technologies and the changes brought to the business models by introducing the use of internet services in the recent decades could not be ignored by the banking industry. The emergence and the development of the internet banking have raised many questions to both academia and industry representatives, both in terms of the benefits of the new organizational models based on providing financial services online and the degree of penetration of these services at the national economy level. This paper aims to make an analysis of the extent to which the internet banking services are used in Romania. The analysis took into account various criteria for the classification of internet banking users (age, residence, occupational status. The study showed that the use of the internet banking services in Romania is still below the European average but has an upward trend.

  7. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  8. THE CONDITION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana ZAGAN ZELTER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article approaches a very important and actual theme andthat is the problem of generating waste in Romania which, on one hand,affects the environment and human health, and on the other hand itreflects the inefficient way of using the natural resources in society.Probably the majority of us have thought or hoped that the naturalresources are inexhaustible, but we can see today that the unwiseexploitation of these resources is threatening our future.Waste management is a difficult and complex problem in Romania whichis far from being solved according to the environment rules of theEuropean Union. The worsening of the waste problem, especially of thedomestic waste is generated by the significant increase of its quantity, aswell as by the inappropriate way of solving different stages of wasteprocessing.

  9. Important bioindicators for health management in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barliba I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement is a coherent, robust, integrated, purposeful, comprehensive, efficient and transparent system. The evaluation of healthcare performance in Romania is based on four categories of bioindicators: human resources, use of services, economic and financial aspects, as well as quality. In this work, we were mainly interested in analyzing and describing these parameters. In order to illustrate the applicability of the hospital performance indicators, we considered the results obtained for these indices from the managers of three hospitals of the same level from Romania, the “Filişanilor” Hospital from Filiaşi, the Rovinari City Hospital and the Şegarcea City Hospital, and herein present them.

  10. THE CHART ROMANIA-NATO-UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available viewed in the context of geopolitical and geostrategic current and through the elements of distinction in terms of identity and cultural institutions, chart Romania - NATO / Israel - EU stands under the sign of the common interest channel, firstly, on common values and hence the collective interests of the partners involved in the two organizational structures. Noteworthy in this context is the extent of bilateral involvement of Romania in the bodies and the politico-military, represented by NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which is primarily military values and the construction superstate permanent expansion and development - European Union , both generating as much for our country as obligations of a politico-military security, and economic, social, institutional, cultural.

  11. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  12. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  13. THE ALLOCATION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monica POP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the extent to which economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to develop a harmonious, balanced and sustainable community has been achieved with the Funds, the European Investment Bank (EIB and other financial instruments and how Romania attracts or not such funds. We analyzed using the statistical data, the absorption and implementation of funds in Romania. Consequently, we present only the results. Conclusions outlined the reducing of the economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in regions with developmental delays and in relation to economic and social reorganization. The most important benefits of funding (in general are the growth, the competitive advantage, the employment and improvement of the environment.

  14. The Equestrian Tourism Valorisation in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Andreea ANDREIANA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our argument for this achievement took into account medical recommendations for this tourism product, giving tourists the possibility of treating major medical conditions (e.g. autism, depression, poliomyelitis squeals, encephalitis, neurological disorders, behavioral disorders, stress, etc. and the fact that the first herds of horses in Romania are attested in documents since 1870. Romania holds a recognized potential to develop this tourism product, due to its natural setting that offers multiple equestrian tourism practice opportunities for Romanian and foreign tourists with multiple benefits for them. Admitting the fact that �the touristic space managing cannot be exclusively determined by its natural properties�, our paper aims a tourism marketing strategy portfolio within positive results for the Romanian equestrian tourism promotion and also may increase the local attractiveness of the regions/areas/localities of our country within potential to equestrian tourism development.

  15. Issues regarding environmental protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Draghicescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental protection” activity in our country should be approached by taking into consideration its entire complexity, and the most reliable solutions may be provided only by direct and permanent reference to the vast issue of social development in its entirety. The present work aims to draw attention towards pollution, the main cause of environmental deterioration in Romania, as well as towards the management of waste materials, while taking into account the national strategy. In Romania, environmental protection is a distinct domain of the national policy, establishing the priority objectives by “The National Strategy for Environmental Protection”, according to the communitarian strategy, as well as to the tendencies and initiatives existing at global level. Our country’s efforts over the past years with respect to environmental protection are very important in the framework of contemporary economy and are reflected in the expenses incurred for environmental protection.

  16. HAS ROMANIA BECOME A SECULAR SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA STAHL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the question of secularization of Europe, and in particular of Romania, by using multiple international data sets. Secularization has been defined separation of the state government and religious authority resulting in a decrease in church attendance, a diminished trust in religious institutions, a lessening of religions’ importance in society, an increase in religious diversity with a concomitant decrease in group cohesiveness, and the rise of situational ethics and moral relativism. Several theories of secularization are explored in an effort to determine the presence of a secular continuum. Although there may be an increase of secular behaviours in member states of the European Union, a claim of growing secularism in Romania is not supported by an examination of the multiple data sets

  17. BANKING ETHICS IN THE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEDAR LUCIAN-ION

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Capital account liberalization created premises and allow Romania for final exit from the financial crisis. Promoting direct investment in Romania can lead to sustainable economic growth, create new jobs and thus, by selling labor set up new forms of saving, which will support investments. Banking ethics elements behind the development of direct investments in Romania are legislation, regulation and behavior of participants. Amid an emerging economy rocked by the global financial crisis, capital account liberalization has allowed entry direct investment, but allowed and the capital flight. Respect for ethics in the business financial banking groups provide, at least, economic development and upgrading the infrastructure of Romania

  18. The Migrant Smuggling Crime in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2018-01-01

    The study below is meant to focus on the migrant smuggling crime in Romania, especially analysis of the migrant smuggling infraction provided in the Romanian Criminal Code. Being a component of the human trafficking activity, the illegal migration is a phenomenon that is continuously extending and harder to stop due to the involvement of the organized crime networks and also due the ingenuousness and maliciousness of the people and the criminals. Therewith, the migrant smuggling is highly con...

  19. Development of uranium industry in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberiu

    2000-01-01

    The management of the uranium resources is performed in Romania by the National Uranium Company. The tasks to be done are: 1. management and protection of rare and radioactive metal ores in the exploitation areas; 2. mining, preparation, refining and trading the radioactive ores, as well as reprocessing the uranium stock from the uranium concentrate in the national reserve; 3. performing geologic and technologic studies in the exploitation areas; 4. performing studies and projects concerning the maintenance of the present facilities and unearthing new ores; 5. building industrial facilities; 6. carrying out technological transport; 7. importation-exportation operations; 8. performing micro-production activity in experimental research units; 9. personnel training; 10. medical assistance for the personnel; 11. environment protection. The company is organized as follows: 1.three branches for uranium ore mining, located at Suceava, Bihor and Banat; 2. one branch for geologic survey, located at Magurele; 3. one branch for uranium ore preparation and concentration and for refining uranium concentrates, located at Feldioara; 4. One group for mine conservation, closure and ecology, located at Bucuresti. The final product, sintered powder of UO 2 produced at Feldioara plant, was tested in 1994 by the Canadian partner and met successfully the required standards. The Feldioara plant was certified as supplier of raw material for CANDU nuclear fuel production and as such, Romania is the only authorized producer of CANDU nuclear fuel in Europe and the second in the world, after Canada. Maintaining the uranium production in Romania is justified by the existence of uranium ore resources, the declining of natural gas resources, lower costs per kWh for electric nuclear power as compared to fossil-fuel power production, the possibility for Romania to become an important supplier of CANDU nuclear fuel, the low environmental impact and high costs for total shutdown of activity, high

  20. Evolution of tax revenue in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the dynamics of tax revenues in Romania in the period 2008 - 2013, following the installation of austerity caused by the global economic crisis. There are highlighted the earned revenues at the general consolidated budget by revenue category, according to the annual budget execution. The article deals mainly with the evolution of profit tax, income and salaries tax, value added tax and excise. .

  1. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, wh...

  2. Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl limitation, moderate use of agricultural fields and ensuring the social mix are objectives of public policy of all European Community documents refering to urban and territorial planning, housing policies and territorial cohesion. In post-communist Romania the most obvious spatial effect of the liberalization of political and economical life is the multiplication of constructions from the periurban areas. The urban sprawl characteristics have an important role in the localities’ sustainable development and consequently in ensuring territorial cohesion.

  3. Does Migration Influence Regional Growth in Romania?

    OpenAIRE

    Bunea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In the European framework, regional convergence is crucial in ensuring European integration. “Sigma-convergence” deals with how the distribution of national output across economies evolves over time whereas “beta-convergence” deals with the mobility of this output within the same distribution. Migration is one important mechanism in generating convergence. In Romania, during the last few years, the main results point out at an income divergence trend with no migration influence. This irreleva...

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  5. Study on electricity markets in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra FLOREA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we detail about the components of the wholesale electricity market in Romania: Market for Bilateral Contracts (Central Market with continuous double negotiation of bilateral electric energy contracts (CM - OTC, Centralized Market for bilateral electric energy contracts, Day-Ahead Market (DAM, Inter-Daily Market (IM, Balancing Market (BM, Centralized Market for universal service (CMUS. In addition, for each type of market we generated diagrams with the main business processes.

  6. HISTORY OF NAVAL ARMOUR CALCULATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUMBETLIAN Garabet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article below describes the history of thick plate calculation in Romania and its impact and recognition by the Department of Defense-“DoD” (Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. The DoD has three subordinated departments: Army, Navy and Air Force. In addition, there are many Defense Agencies, such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and schools, including the National Defense University [1].

  7. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  8. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-05-30

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  9. Strategies for developing knowledge economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper delves into the specifics of knowledge economy with a particular focus on Romania. In the first part, it identifies knowledge economy characteristics and pillars and it analyses them as compared to levels exhibited by countries in the European Union. In the second part it argues for the strategies that could be used for enhancing knowledge economy in Romania. In order to do so we used the Delphi method and we identified 25 experts in the knowledge economy/management field coming from internationally renowned companies, universities and ministries located in Romania, to whom we sent invitations for participating in our Delphi survey that lasted one month. Out of the 25 experts, 10 answered positively and during the research we had an attrition rate of 90%. The experts delivered their opinions on the measures to be adopted in order to increase education and learning, ICT and innovation as building blocks of knowledge economy. Findings reveals that knowledge economy can be developed by adopting measures such as: devising a governmental program that will sustain the development of knowledge repositories at the level of technological clusters, industry associations and other professional organizations by providing financial assistance for hardware acquisition and software development in order to facilitate knowledge transfer; Governmental program for the financial support of schools’ investments in hardware and educational software and the training of staff for the use of ITC in teaching and learning, etc.

  10. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Anca Gabriela; Oncioiu, Ionica; Petrescu, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption. PMID:28556795

  11. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VERSUS MIGRATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA ANGHEL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the employment situation in Romania in terms of sustainable development and takes into account both employment issues and employment policies. The notion of occupation is described including indicators in the field of employment: objective -employment rate, unemployment, areas of economic activity and subjective - estimate working conditions, possibilities of obtaining a job, satisfaction with work and profession. Modern employment policies have the flexibility and safety as coordinating criteria and the new steering institutional / labor legislation of our country consider them. Are presented the main problems of our country related to the migration and the measures / strategies to solve them and the existing legislation taking into account Romania's development strategy in view of the next two decades. A realistic vision of economic and social development in the coming decades is a necessity for Romania, given the diminishing working population. Studies made in recent years by social actors implicated draw attention to the fact that reducing the economically active population will make its mark on the general rate of activity. For defining and structuring a national strategy population is the main element, and the developing of national strategy must include clear measures for improving the demographic situation. Policy analysis in the field of employment is based on the direction the European Union, more and better jobs, wage policy, anti-unemployment policies, policies to increase the quality of employment.

  13. Nanoscale Science and Engineering in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, Dan; Topa, Vladimir; Kleps, Irina

    2001-01-01

    In spite of difficult working conditions and with very low financial support, many groups from Romania are involved in emerging fields, such as the nanoscale science and technology. Until the last years, this activity was developed without a central coordination and without many interactions between these research groups. In the year 2000, some of the institutes and universities active in the nanotechnology field in Romania founded the MICRONANOTECH network. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the main activities and results of the Romanian groups working in this novel domain. Most of the groups are deal with the nanomaterial technology and only few of them have activities in nanostructure science and engineering, in new concepts and device modeling and technology. This paper describes the nanotechnology research development in two of the most significant institutes from Romania: Centre for Nanotechnologies from National Institute for Research and Development in Microtehnologies (IMT-Bucharest) and from National Institute for Research and Development in Materials Physics (INCD-FM), Magurele. The Romanian research results in nanotechnology field were presented in numerous papers presented in international conferences or published in national and international journals. They are also presented in patents, international awards and fellowships. The research effort and financial support are outlined. Some future trends of the Romanian nanoscale science and technology research are also described

  14. CONSIDERATION REGARDING BUDGETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Curea-Pitorac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the dynamics of the government expenditures, revenues and budgetary balance and to determine the type of budgetary policy adopted in Romania, in the period 1999-2015. The research starts with a theoretical review of the budgetary policy which includes the actions of the governmental authorities, regarding revenue collection and budget expenditures, channels and means of attracting resources. This policy is considered to be a tool in influencing the economy to attenuate the cyclical fluctuation in economy, by accepting the budgetary deficit as a viable solution for the revival and simulation of economic growth. The real value of budget balance represents the actual balance recorded during a certain period and the cyclic balance indicates the difference between the actual balance and the structural balance. This research is focused on the study of budgetary policy implemented in Romania by making a quantitative analysis of the following macroeconomic indicators: governmental expenditures and revenues, budgetary deficit and real GDP. Moreover, a correlation between the dynamics of the structural budgetary deficit and the sign of the output gap has been done, and the results have indicated that, in the analyzed period, a restrictive budgetary policy was adopted in 2000-2004 and in 2011-2014, and an expansionist budgetary policy was implemented from 2005 to 2010. The results of this research highlight the main particularities of the budgetary balance in Romania and the actions taken through this channel in different phase of the business cycle.

  15. Guidance levels for diagnostic radiology in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Over two decades surveys of radiological practice in Romania have demonstrated wide variations in patient dose levels between different hospitals. Local and national investigations revealed poor performances as well as of radiological equipment, darkroom procedure or technology of investigation. Hitherto, the annual collective effective dose to the population of Romania from diagnostic medical exposures attained a value of 13,820 manSv. Since the annual frequencies of radiological examinations remain unchanged over last ten years, this value is mostly attributed to the individual dose levels in different X-ray procedures. Notwithstanding the huge benefits to patients, the reduction of unnecessary exposures and individual doses are our principal concern and the establishment of national reference dose levels should solve this problem. British experience demonstrated that reference doses are a practical tool in this purpose and the adoption of national reference dose values indicated an overall improvement in patient exposure. Even the local of reference dose values proved a useful way to achieve patient dose reduction. In meantime the optimization of patient protection, each X-ray examination should be conducted with lowest necessary dose to achieve the clinical aim. This paper presents the first approach to establish local reference dose levels for some diagnostic examinations based on the measurements made in six (from the eighth of Eastern territory of Romania) districts, invited to cooperate in this end

  16. Aging in Romania: research and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodogai, Simona I; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Romania has entered a period of rapid and dramatic population aging. Older Romanians are expected to make up more than 30% of the total population by 2050. Yet, gerontological research is sparse and the few studies of older Romanians that exist are not well used by policy makers. Much of the research is descriptive and focused on needs assessments. Most databases created from studies of older adults are not available for secondary analysis, nor is Romania among the countries included in the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe. The pension and health insurance systems and the system of social welfare services address the specific needs of older Romanians, but comparing the social protection systems in the European Union with those in Romania suggests the existence of a development lag. The relevant legislation exists but there are still issues regarding the implementation of specially developed social services for older persons. As a result, there are major inadequacies in the organization of the social service system: too few public services, insufficient budget funds, insufficient collaboration between public and private services, and frequently overlapping services.

  17. Risk-targeted maps for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacareanu, Radu; Pavel, Florin; Craciun, Ionut; Coliba, Veronica; Arion, Cristian; Aldea, Alexandru; Neagu, Cristian

    2018-03-01

    Romania has one of the highest seismic hazard levels in Europe. The seismic hazard is due to a combination of local crustal seismic sources, situated mainly in the western part of the country and the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source, which can be found at the bend of the Carpathian Mountains. Recent seismic hazard studies have shown that there are consistent differences between the slopes of the seismic hazard curves for sites situated in the fore-arc and back-arc of the Carpathian Mountains. Consequently, in this study we extend this finding to the evaluation of the probability of collapse of buildings and finally to the development of uniform risk-targeted maps. The main advantage of uniform risk approach is that the target probability of collapse will be uniform throughout the country. Finally, the results obtained are discussed in the light of a recent study with the same focus performed at European level using the hazard data from SHARE project. The analyses performed in this study have pointed out to a dominant influence of the quantile of peak ground acceleration used for anchoring the fragility function. This parameter basically alters the shape of the risk-targeted maps shifting the areas which have higher collapse probabilities from eastern Romania to western Romania, as its exceedance probability increases. Consequently, a uniform procedure for deriving risk-targeted maps appears as more than necessary.

  18. Tourist Flows in Romania. Evolution and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian SORCARU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on a detailed analysis of the tourist flows in Romania, both inbound and outbound, trying also to identify the major internal and external factors that have determined the specificity of their evolution over the last decade. The study uses the latest data provided by National Institute of Statistics in Romania regarding the number of Romanian and foreign tourists arriving in the main tourist regions of the country, the nationality of foreign tourists, as well as the number of Romanian tourists participating in foreign tourist activities organized by travel agencies, and their destination. The most important conclusion regards the favorable evolution of the arrivals of foreign tourists, which was generated by the unfavorable economic and political conjunctions of the states near Romania (Turkey, Greece in recent years and also by foreign tourism promotion, which have conducted the tourist flows to our country. In the near future the main actors in Romanian tourism will have to capitalize on this favorable evolution, which at present does not rely on an improvement in the Romanian tourist services

  19. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  20. Perception of Organic Food Consumption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Petrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides insight into the attitude of Romanian consumers towards organic food. Furthermore, it examines the sustainable food production system in Romania from the perspective of consumer behavior. This study used a mathematical model of linear regression with the main purpose being to determine the best prediction for the dependent variable when given a number of new values for the independent variable. This empirical research is based on a survey with a sample of 672 consumers, which uses a questionnaire to analyze their intentions towards sustainable food products. The results indicate that a more positive attitude of consumers towards organic food products will further strengthen their purchasing intentions, while the status of the consumption of organic consumers will not affect their willingness to purchase organic food products. Statistics have shown that sustainable food consumption is beneficial for health, so it can also become a profitable business in Romania. Furthermore, food sustainability in Romania depends on the ability of an organic food business to adapt to the new requirements of green consumption.

  1. In Portugal, the energy revolution is underway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As at the beginning of 2013, 70 per cent of the electricity consumed in Portugal had a renewable origin, this article outlines that this result is based on a strong-willed policy. In fact, Portugal entered the energy transition in 2001 with its '4E program' (energy efficiency and endogenous energies) which aimed at reaching 60 per cent of renewable energies in electricity consumption by 2020. This program was based on a strong development of wind and hydraulic energy. Moreover, the country developed its own capacities for the manufacturing of wind turbines. On another hand, other renewable energies (notably solar energy) seem a bit late although several projects are underway. As far as hydraulic energy, a dam project is a matter of controversy

  2. Ordens militares de cavalaria de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro da Veiga Coimbra

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Falar nas Ordens Militares de Cavalaria de Portugal, é ter presente a própria história da fundação da monarquia e de re-cuperação territorial e também dos descobrimentos de novos mundos para a civilização. Aos seus cavaleiros couberam no cenário das lutas sangrentas e constantes da dinastia afonsina, os grandes postos da vanguarda.

  3. Contractual medical liability in Portugal and Macao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.

  4. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class.

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  6. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Didelet, Filipe; Semiao, Viriato

    2006-01-01

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day

  7. Feminismo(s e psicologia em Portugal

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    Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da longa história em comum entre Brasil e Portugal, também existem muitas diferenças e, principalmente, muito desconhecimento. A proposta deste artigo é apresentar uma contextualização do modo como as questões de gênero têm sido tartadas Portugal e, a partir disto, estimular maiores laços de cooperação entre os dois países. Iniciamos com uma retomada da história do país e das reformas instauradas após o fim do regime fascista (1974, especialmente o surgimento da psicologia como campo científico e profissional marcado pelo paradigma positivista e, por muito tempo, alheio às transformações e questionamentos presentes em outros contextos. Da mesma forma, o percurso do movimento feminista e sua inserção no contexto acadêmico da psicologia foi marcado por avanços e entraves, os quais apresentamos a seguir. Por fim, tratamos das políticas públicas para a igualdade de oportunidades para as mulheres em Portugal

  8. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  10. Nuclear medicine: the Philippine Heart Center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    The following is a report of a three (3) months on-the-job training in Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Philippine Heart Center. The hospital has current generation nuclear medicine instruments with data processor and is capable of a full range of in vivo and in vitro procedures. Gamma camera is the principal instrument for imaging in nuclear medicine used in the Philippine Heart Center. Thyroid scanning procedure is being performed with these instruments. Also the cardiovascular procedures, the pulmonary, skeletal, renal and hepatobiliary procedures were being performed with the use of gamma camera. Special emphasis is on nuclear cardiology since the PHC attends primarily to cardiovascular patients. (auth.)

  11. Status of radioimmunoassay services in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, I.G.; Bonoan, L.S.; Medina, V.F.O.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the participation of the Philippines as a member state of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) project on radioimmunoassay of thyroid related hormones in Asia and the Pacific. Seven of the twenty-three radioassay laboratories engaged in RIA work have signified their agreement to participate in the program. The proposed organization and function structure of the project, the projected RIA use and strategy to popularize use of RIA are given. (ELC)

  12. Strengthening social enterprises for inclusive growth: Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Magno-Ballesteros, Marife; Llanto, Gilberto M.

    2017-01-01

    Social enterprises are gaining popularity in many parts of the world due to their great potential to advance the agenda of inclusive and sustainable growth. The uniqueness of social enterprises lies on their core advocacies, i.e., the attainment of community well-being and human development. Their main difference to traditional micro, small, and medium enterprises is that they have a hybrid nature wherein they adopt business solutions to social problems. The Philippines, in particular, has a ...

  13. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  14. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  15. Philippines' experience in marketing irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustre, A. O.; Ang, L.; Dianco, A.

    1985-01-01

    The Food Terminal Inc. in Manila, in cooperation with the Philippine Atomic Energy Agency and with funding support from the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna has been conducting storage and marketing studies on onions, garlic and mangoes. The objective is to gather loss reduction data and consumer reaction information that can serve as a basis for evaluating the risks and benefits involved in the establishment of a commercial food irradiator in the country. These studies show that irradiation reduces low-temperature storage losses in onions and garlic by 10-40% and post-storage marketing losses at ambient conditions by 16-50% in onions. Post-storage marketing trials not only indicate a significant reduction in losses during shipping and retail sale but a large increase in the marketability of irradiated commodities as measured by the rate of sale of the commodity and the price which it commands during the selling period. No adverse consumer reaction occurred during the sale of irradiated foods labelled as such except for a few comments indicating fear, ignorance and/or curiosity. The importance of irradiation as a substitute quarantine treatment for mangoes and for eliminating Salmonella in frozen foods for export is discussed in relation to the growing importance of these commodities to the Philippines' non-traditional export markets. Other applications of irradiation that could result in a perceptible improvement in the marketability of food commodities in the Philippines are discussed. Marketing studies are invaluable in evaluating the potential benefits of a new technology as food irradiation. In view of this, there is great interest in the completion of a pilot plant for food irradiation by the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The design and capacity of this plant are discussed

  16. Philippine Atomic Energy Commission: Annual report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This publication enumerates the research and development activities of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission with priorities geared towards achieving the economic and social upliftment of the Filipinos in the field of agriculture, energy, industry, health and environment. Highlights are summaries of investigations and studies of great importance in crop improvement, animal production, nuclear fuels, nutrition research, not to mention its supportive technology, technical services, nuclear information and public acceptance, and nuclear manpower development. (RTD)

  17. Philippines : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: UNFAIR COMPETITION, COMPETITION POLICY, COMPETITION LAW, ... Sujet: WOMEN WORKERS, MIGRANT WORKERS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, ... Philippines, Middle East, Qatar, Singapore, Central Asia, South Asia, Jordan, ...

  18. Post-disaster resettlement in the Philippines: a risky strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice R Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience in the Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan suggests that resettlement as a strategy for mitigating disaster-induced displacement can create significant protection risks.

  19. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  20. CURRENT CONCERNS REGARDING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    IONELA CARMEN PIRNEA; NICOLETA BELU; EMILIA IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to identify current concerns regarding the corporate social responsibility in Romania. First the paper present a short introduction about the concept of corporate social responsibility. Next the paper highlights the importance of corporate social responsibility in Romania and some results about the involvement of small and medium enterprises in social responsibility activities.

  1. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  2. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  4. Is the Philippine geothermal resource sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalo, J.; Raymundo, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the scenario in the Geothermal Energy Development Projects in the Philippines, to make the Filipino population aware that there is an existing cleaner technology available that is being utilized in Europe; for the Philippine geothermal energy project operators to adapt a cleaner production technology that has no harmful emission, hence, no pollution technology; to help end the conflict between stake holders and geothermal players through the introduction of cleaner production technology intervention. While it is a fact that the Philippines' Geothermal resource is second to U.S. or around the globe, the unwise utilization of geothermal energy may lead to depletion, hence, becomes non-renewable. It should be understood that the geothermal energy is a renewable resource only if the development process is sustainable. There is a need to educate the Filipino populace regarding a cleaner production technology as well as our government and political leaders. This cleaner production technology is a solution to the stake holders. It is of great importance to inform the Filipino people that there is an existing cleaner new technology from Europe and U.S. that is not pollutive in nature and is essentially sustainable development scheme since underground reservoirs are not depleted in the process. (author)

  5. Inclusive Education in Romania: Policies and Practices in Post-Communist Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses current inclusive education policies and practices in Romania. There are few accounts of and no systematic study published on this topic. The Romanian special educational policies began to evolve towards integration and inclusion. Today, Romanian special education functions according to democratic principles and Romanian…

  6. Some theoretical and practical lessons to be learnt from Romania economic crisis challengesin Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2011-12-01

    This paper herein will analyze, in short, a few of the theoretical, methodological, practical and implementation challenges brought about by the crisis in Romania, as well as the likely ways to prevent, mitigate impacts and resist to its shocks or to go back to the path of a sustainable economic growth.

  7. The Mousterian complex in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís CARDOSO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Considering the available data, the Mousterian period is the only techno-complex from the Middle Paleolithic identified and characterized in Portugal. However, some of the sites referred in this work should be simply attributed to the Middle Paleolithic due to the lack of detailed elements. The site of Vale do Forno 8 probably represents the transition between the final Upper Paleolithic and the early Middle Paleolithic.The open-air sites such as the ones in the outskirts of Lisbon and on the left margin of the Tagus estuary, where vestiges are extremely abundant and the permanence for long periods correspond to sites of residential character.None of these sites were subject to extensive excavations in order to confirm this type of settlement and further knowledge of the social organization of the inhabited spaces. Other open-air sites located in fluvial terraces present smaller areas of occupation and were probably related to game activities, maybe seasonal in nature. This was the case of Santo Antão do Tojal, were elephants and horses were eventually captured, of Foz do Enxarrique were red deer was almost exclusive and of Vilas Ruivas, were faunal remains were not preserved but remains of wind-breaks or hunting blind structures were found associated with fireplaces and post-holes. Fireplaces were also found in Gruta da Buraca Escura and on the open-air site of Santa Cita.Caves such as Gruta da Oliveira and the Gruta Nova da Columbeira show long stratigraphic sequences and prolonged settlements, of residential type, though a few other caves also show temporary settlements related to game activities or the exploitation of geological resources. In most cases, there is an alternance of the cave occupation by humans and large carnivores. Food subsistence of humans was non-specialized, capturing large, mid and also small preys such as the rabbit, an abundant endemic species. The terrestrial turtle was also captured, especially in Gruta

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

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    Pitorac Ruxandra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to study the Romania’s monetary policy, in the period 1996-2013. The research starts with a theoretical review of the monetary policy, whose main purpose is influencing the broad money supply and the lending requirements and the institution in charge of achieving this objective is the Central Bank, highlighting its impact upon the economic activity, through the Keynesian analysis model IS-LM and a correlation between the monetary policy measures and the phases of the economic cycle whose results indicate that during the recession periods it is recommended to reduce interest rates in order to stimulate investments, by raising the money supply, and during the expansion period it is recommended to increase the interest rate in order to cut back the money supply. Starting from this premises, the research takes into account the study of the monetary policy measures adopted by the governmental authority of Romania, making a quantitative analysis of the main macroeconomic indicators: the real interest rate, the lending interest rate, the deposit interest rate and the broad money supply and through a multifactorial regression, highlighting the impact of the interest rates upon the monetary aggregate M2. Moreover, a comparison between the monetary policy measures adopted in Romania and the monetary policies recommended by specialized literature has been done, and the results have indicated that during recession periods the attention of the governmental authorities is focused upon adopting the right measures, but during the expansion periods this doesn’t happen. The results of this research highlight the economic situation in Romania and the way in which the governmental authority intervened, through the monetary policy measures, in order to mitigate the negative effects of the cyclical fluctuations.

  9. THE FAILURE OF INDUSTRIALISM IN COMMUNIST ROMANIA

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    Pãrean Mihai - Olimpiu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to present the exact thinking and action of the Romanian Communist leaders that had as declared purpose the Romanian society’s propseprity company. This falls into the line drawn by the Communists, but in the case of Romania the ambitions were far above the country's potential. In order to understand the situation of the national economy in the past two decades we must take into account the manner in which they have carried out economic policies in the Communist leadership. This marched on exacerbated development of manufacturing industry by capital goods to the detriment of the goods consumer industry, which generated a series of social tensions. The economic objectives of Communist Romania were limited for the exacerbated development of the industrial sector. Its presence of economic policy measures implemented in our country shows that the authorities had in mind a self-sufficient industrialization by providing greater care than conventional industries, with high energy consumption. This unprecedented enhancement for national economy was made possible by the contracting of foreign credits And this began to give increasing and more frequent misfires when the world was hit by the resouces of the crisis. The falling of the national economy has been Romania unable to repay loans on time. The obsessive decision of the authorities was to fully pay off foreign debt in oder to allow new investment in construction of some megalomaniac industrial sights, that could hardly be effective. Thus, there was no link between the overall targets of national economic policies and the needs of the company. In this work are chronologically and factually shown all the decisions adopted in the industrial policy in Romania.Certainly that at the beginning of massive industrialization results seemed to be at least some optimistic, but after the population had passed through various serious situations (floods, earthquake to what degree very hard

  10. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  11. Healthcare Policy in Romania. Frameworks and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buţiu Călina Ana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to review some of the healthcare policy issues of Romania and identify those challenges which may be addressed through social intervention. Based on statistical data, documents, reports and applicable laws one will review the health condition of Romanian population and the state of the national health system, and will examine the broad strategies and policies currently under the scrutiny of appropriate ministries. The findings of the study suggest looking at health policies also through the lens of social inclusion.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON SOCIAL MARKETING IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Filimon Stremţan Ph.D; Assist. Silvia-Ştefania Mihalache Author-Workplace-Name:“1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba Iulia Faculty of Science Alba Iulia, Romania

    2010-01-01

    Social marketing, a concept that has only recently reached its maturity, it’s starting to win ground in Romania as well, although it is many times used clumsily or confused with other concepts that are similar either from a phonetically point of view, either from the point of view of the ways of implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present briefly, from a theoretical point of view, this concept, to present the elements that distinguish it from the other branches of mar...

  13. REPRESENTING GENDER IN COMMUNIST AND POSTCOMMUNIST ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Elisabeta MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines various representations of gender in communist and postcommunist Romania, with a focus on how women and men were both led towards and sometimes forced into gender roles better suited to the state policies of the respective contexts rather than to their own interests. Over the years, the state and/or party(ies public agenda, from women’s liberation through gender equality to equal opportunities, has met real Romanian women’s and men’s needs to different extents and with variable success.

  14. Structural Modifications Of The Employment In Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Radu COJOCARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concentrated on an observing and analyzing process of grown mutations on the labor market as a result of economic and social transformations from Romania, of the problems in this area, which tend to become one of the main obstacles for development, also the configuration of some social and more reasonable solutions. The purpose of this study is represented by a conservative and objective analysis of the working force dynamics and population activity in correlation with the economic evolution on a medium and extended period.

  15. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA. EVOLUTION AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to slow way to political, legal, social and economic reform, the corporate governance appears in Romania, from concept and filing, until the early 2000`s. This paper analyzes the evolution of corporate governance in the period 2000-2015, it is presented the OECD principles of corporate governance of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange and it analyse the situation of the public entities who had the obligation to apply the provisions of O.U.G 109/2011 on corporate governance of public entities and to publish on its Web site the Annual Report

  16. DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenuta CARP (CEKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments have known an increased importance in the worldwide economy. Theoretical approaches highlight the positive externalities foreign direct investments generate in the beneficiary economy though different channels. The aim of this paper is to emphasize, based on an econometric analysis using data for Romania, the fundamental determinants of foreign direct investments attractiveness. The analysis will be followed by the recommendations for increasing the inflows in our country and measures to enhance their effect in the national economy. Further analysis will be developed focusing on the emerging countries from Europe using a panel technique.

  17. EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL TRENDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin CIUTACU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with demographic trends in Romania and their influence on the labour market. In this context, unemployment and emigration are factors that play a significant role in the economy. The decline in employment weakens the social security system as employers and employees have to pay greater contributions. Also, the diminution in workforce and in the number of people in paid employment and the shortage of professionals working in specialized fields of health and education are issues requiring urgent clarification.

  18. IRASM - A multipurpose irradiation facility in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.; Bratu, E.

    1998-01-01

    A multipurpose irradiation facility is under construction at IPNE, Bucharest, under the IAEA T.C. Project: ROM/8/011. It will be the first industrial facility in Romania. This paper presents the philosophy standing behind the design, the short and long term managing plans. Some dose calculations are added in the view of using the empty spaces in the irradiation room for cultural heritage conservation. An economic study is presented aiming to provide basic estimations for further management strategy. At the start the facility will be a state enterprise. The implications, advantages and disadvantages of this situation are discussed

  19. Electoral Engineerings in Post‑communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Radu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the dynamics of voting systems practiced in Romania, as resulting from changes to the legal framework during the 25 years of post-communism, trying to answer the question whether the legislative effervescence in the electoral area materialized in structural changes of the electoral mechanism, changes congruent to the the idea of reform in the field. Following their approach, the authors conclude that the main driver of change in election legislation was represented by the (subjective interests of the mainstream political parties.

  20. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  1. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Information improves lives in the Philippines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-14

    Apr 14, 2011 ... Information improves lives in the Philippines ... “Without a reliable source of data, local planners opted to shoot an arrow and hit few or none of all eligible targets. ... in the Philippines · PEP CBMS Website · IDRC Digital Library ...

  3. Scientific and academic journals in the Philippines: status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As of July 2015, 28 Philippine scientific journals out of 777 Philippine scholarly journals are listed in the master journal lists of Thomson Reuters (TR, Scopus, or both. Of these scientific journals, thirteen are published by universities, two by government institutions, ten by professional organizations and three by private for-profit or non-profit organizations. Nineteen of these journals are over 25 years old, with the Philippine Journal of Science and the Philippine Agricultural Scientist being the oldest at 108 and 103 years in publication, respectively. Scientific journals in the Philippines, like other countries in Asia, face various increasing challenges. Among these challenges are getting listed in the master journal lists and citation databases of TR, Scopus, or both; obtaining funding; reaching a wider readership; attaining higher impact factors; competing for papers; and increased submission of manuscripts from outside the country. To promote the improvement of local journals, the National Academy of Science and Technology Philippines has given outstanding publication awards for scientific papers published in local journals for the past two decades. The Philippine Commission on Higher Education has accredited local journals that are included in either TR and Scopus journal master lists, and provides monetary incentives to accredited journals. Training workshops on scientific article writing and editorial management are conducted for researchers and editors by universities and professional and government organizations. A network of Philippine science editors has been formed to work together to upgrade and modernize selected journals to international standards.

  4. Regulatory and Skills Requirements for Higher Education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The provision of public resources to manage the expansion of the higher education system in the Philippines has been inadequate, and this has given rise to many private providers entering the HE domain. The proper regulation of higher education in the country is important if the Philippines is to respond to the challenge of producing the skills it…

  5. Editorializing in L2: The Case of Philippine English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayag, Danilo T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the discourse structure of newspaper editorials in Philippine English in terms of their macrostructure and their lexico-grammatical features. Data were taken from three leading English-language newspapers in the Philippines. Toulmin's framework is used in analyzing the macrostructure of the editorials. The study posits that the…

  6. English Language Instruction in the Philippine Basic Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizconde, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The study discusses the dynamics English language instruction in the Philippine basic education curriculum. Although English enjoyed immense popularity as early as 1900s during the American entry to the country, its role in Philippine education has transformed gradually as the country undergoes political, social and economic reconstruction in the…

  7. A Report on Language Materials Development for Seven Philippine Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKaughan, Howard; Mirikitani, Leatrice

    This report, a follow up to H. McKaughan's article "Language Materials Development" (Philippine Journal for Language Teaching; v2 n1-2 1969), reports on a project at the Pacific and Asian Linguistic Institute (PALI) of the University of Hawaii to develop a set of materials for seven Philippine languages: Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon,…

  8. News Reporting in the Philippines: English in Print Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayag, Danilo T.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine how a hostage drama in Iraq involving an overseas Filipino worker was framed in English-language newspapers in the Philippines. Data came from the July 9-25, 2004 issues of five leading English-language broadsheets in the Philippines. The study found that the event was given maximum salience and prominence by the…

  9. E-Learning in the Philippines: Trends, Directions, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Pena-Bandalaria, Melinda M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Philippines, the term "e-learning" is used synonymously with online learning and concerns the online delivery of instructional content as well as associated support services to students. This article is primarily based on experiences at the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). It showcases the development of…

  10. Izu-Bonin arc and Philippine sea. Izuter dot Ogasawara ko to Philippine kai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, K. (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)); Nishimura, A. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)); Koyama, M. (Shizuoka Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education)

    1991-08-25

    The geoscience on the ocean floor has been remarkably developed for last 20 years, and the study of the Philippine sea floor also has extensively advanced especially by the deep sea drilling. In order to review the geoscientific studies on the Philippine sea and its surrounding regions under these circumstances, a simposium was held at the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo on May 29/30 in 1990. The purposes of this symposium were to introduce the deep sea drilling results done in the Izu-Bonin arc during about 60 days from April to June in 1989, and to collect the geoscientific data and problems of surrounding regions which have an important significance to interprete the drilling results. In this report, the content of the collected papers was outlined with frontispieces dividing into 5 issues, namely issues regarding to the Izu-Bonin arc, issues regarding to the influenced regions by the subducting Philippine sea and the collision-accretion of the Izu-Bonin arc, the geophysical issues of regions surrounding the Japanese Islands, issues of the Philippine sea, and issues of the tectonic development history. 13 refs.

  11. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  12. Implementation of the NEAMTWS in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, L. M.; Annunziato, A.; Carrilho, F.; Baptista, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present the ongoing implementation of a national tsunami warning system in Portugal. After the Sumatra event in December 2004, the UNESCO, through its International Oceanographic Commission, recognized the need for an end to end global tsunami warning system and International Coordination Groups have been established for different areas around the globe: Indian, Caribbean, Atlantic and Mediterranean ocean basins. This system is the natural response to the historical and recent instrumental events generated along the western segment of the Eurasia and Nubian plates, which eastern end corresponds to the Gulf of Cadiz. The TWS includes three main components: the seismic detection, the tsunami detection and the issue of warnings/alerts. In Portugal the automatic earthquake processing is installed at IM (Instituto de Meteorologia) which is the only national institution operating on a 24x7 basis. This makes IM the natural candidate to host the Portuguese tsunami warning system. The TWS under implementation has several key points: definition of the tsunami scenarios, tsunami detection, and tsunami protocol messages. The system will also be able to predict tsunami potential impact along the coast, wave-heights and arrival times at pre-defined locations along the coast. In this study we present the recent results on definition of tsunami scenarios, establishment of the scenario database and the tsunami analysis tool. This work is a joint effort between Instituto de Meteorologia (Portugal), the Joint Research Center, JRC- ISPRA, Italy and the coordination of the Portuguese Group for the implementation of NEAMTWS in the area. This work has been financed by different European projects as NEAREST and TRANSFER, and also by the JRC, the IM and CGUL/IDL institutions.

  13. MIGRATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA ANGHEL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic implications of demographic decline and the changing age structure will be more visible in Romania after 2020, when the working population will decrease gradually and "mature" groups will come in the elderly population. Diminishing populations will cause a change in the economic dependency ratio and total economic burden of the working population will increase. The changes known in activity rates in the future are hard to predict, especially in the current context of labor migration in Europe. In this context, a realistic vision of economic and social development in the coming decades is a necessity for Romania. Where the countries of origin of migrants fail to implement clear and efficient social and economic general reforms, migration and remittances get involved whose fundamental purpose is although they do not contribute to the sustainable development at the national level. Population migration has now become a global issue important to the development and welfare societies. Remittances are the main concern in studies of migration and development, migration transnational model several years as part of concerns about the economic future of many countries. Focus as well can be seen throughout this paper falls on cash remittances and consumer goods, on issues related to sustainable development, social development, human development. Many experts consider impossible the debate on economic development without taking into account human and social development, even sustainable development.

  14. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of structural changes in Romanian trade is somewhat interesting if you look at it from the perspective of mutations that occurred in the categories of goods and services subject to international trade. After the Revolution of 1989, the Romanian economy has gone through dramatic changes that had determinate a total reconfiguration of foreign trade. At the same time, the economic instability has had further repercussions on the Romanian economy manifested through higher prices, reduced wages or earnings, reduced employment and rising unemployment, increasing interest rates on loans due to the devaluation of the national currency, increase value-added tax, consumption reduction etc. We proposed in this paper an analyze for a significant period of time evolution of international trade in goods and services of Romania in order to establish the main categories of goods traded but Romania's main trading partners, too. In order to achieve the central goal of this paper we will use statistical data found in the databases provided by the WTO, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes and statistical methods to support our initiative.

  15. CONTRACTING OUT THE PENSIONS SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia DOGARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, austerity measures and the new challenges of the 21st century have determined governments to adopt new tools of public actions in order to strengthen the policy capacity. A new paradigm was born, and its main feature is collaboration among government’s level (ministries and between government and private sector. It brings new tools of public policy among others, and contracting out used by policymakers at various stages of public policy cycle and for different sets of reasons. This paper explores theoretically how this new approach strengthens the public policy capacity and provides evidence occurring in Romanian government practice. While, Romania has a legalistic, a normative approach of policy processes and street-level bureaucracies are guided by managerial targets and law, it starts to contract out some tasks that traditionally belong to government. The main scientific objective of this paper is to contribute an overall understanding of contracting out in public policy-making in Romania, particular in pensions system, focused on the rationality of introducing that.From a methodological standpoint, the paper relies on comprehensive and systematic search of the literature and document analysis (among others Annual Reports, authorities’ data, resume, obtained by using free accession to information and statistics data processing (quantitative and qualitative interpretation of data from National Institute of Statistics.

  16. NCSRR digital seismic network in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, A.; Albota, E.; Demetriu, S.; Poiata, N.; Kashima, T.

    2007-01-01

    Digital seismic instrumentation donated by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to the National Center for Seismic Risk Reduction (NCSRR, Romania) allowed the installation in 2003 of a new Romanian seismic network. In 2005-2006 the network was developed by investments from NCSRR within the budget ensured by Ministry of Transports, Construction and Tourism (MTCT). The NCSRR seismic network contains three types of instrumentation: (i) free-field stations - outside the capital city Bucharest (8 accelerometers), (ii) instrumented buildings - in Bucharest (5 buildings), and (iii) stations with free-field and borehole sensors - in Bucharest (8 sites with ground surface sensor and sensors in 15 boreholes with depths up to 153 m). Since its installation, the NCSRR network recorded more than 170 seismic motions from 26 earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from 3.2 to 6.0. The seismic instrumentation was accompanied by investigations of ground conditions and site response: PS logging tests, single-station and array microtremor measurements. The development of seismic monitoring in Romania is a major contribution of JICA Project, creating the premises for a better understanding and modelling of earthquake ground motion, site effects and building response. (authors)

  17. Food irradiation in Romania - Achievements and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation or ionization of foodstuffs and agricultural products is an efficient but controversial method which can lead to the post-harvest spoilages reduction, the extension of shelf-life and to provide the food safety. This paper presents the status of food irradiation research and technologies in our country, and throughout the world, too. In Romania the food processing by irradiation (ionization) is not used for commercial purposes and there are not food irradiation plants, yet. There have been performed only research and pilot-experiments, only by the Institute of Food Research in co-operation and using the 6 0C o gamma-ray sources of the Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research and the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, both from Bucharest. These experiments have referred both to the basic aspects of the ionizing radiation interactions with the food essential constituents and to the technological aspects of irradiation from different items like: potatoes, onions, garlic, grain, cereals, wheat flour, fresh and dehydrated fruits and vegetables, mushrooms, meat, eggs, spices, ingredients, and biotechnological products. There are also presented the advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation, the world trends in this field and the future in Romania of this technology which was named, in 1989, by the Institute of Food Technologies (US), t he most versatile technology of the 20 -th Century, for tomorrow . (Author)

  18. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  19. Romania needs a strategy for thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leca Aureliu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector in Romania consists of three sub-sectors: electricity, natural gas and heat. Among these, the sub-sector of thermal energy is in the most precarious situation because it has been neglected for a long time. This sub-sector is particularly important both due to the amount of final heat consumption (of over 50% of final energy consumption, and to the fact that it has a direct negative effect on the population, industry and services. This paper presents the main directions for developing a modern strategy of the thermal energy sub-sector, which would fit into Romania’s Energy Strategy that is still in preparation This is based on the author’s 50 years of experience in this field that includes knowledge about the processes and the equipment of thermal energy, expertise in the management and restructuring of energy companies and also knowledge of the specific legislation. It is therefore recommended, following the European regulations and practices, the promotion and upgrading of district heating systems using efficient cogeneration, using trigeneration in Romania, modernizing buildings in terms of energy use, using of renewable energy sources for heating, especially biomass, and modernizing the energy consumption of rural settlements.

  20. CERN School of Physics travels to Romania

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    From 7-20 September, students at the European School of High-Energy Physics brought their enthusiasm for physics to Cheile Gradistei, Romania. This was the school’s first time in Romania, which is set to become a CERN Member State in 2015.   Students from the 2011 CERN School of High-Energy Physics. Every year, the School of High-Energy Physics hosts students from around the world to learn from the best in the HEP field. The Schools began in the 1960s as a CERN initiative and, since 1971, schools have been jointly organised by CERN and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Russia. “This year, we hosted almost 100 participants from 31 countries,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of Physics. “The Schools have always been a fantastic opportunity for the next generation of particle physicists to learn and to network with their future colleagues.” Students attended a comprehensive programme of lectures and discussion ses...

  1. Dynamics of Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluka Grosu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Immigrant entrepreneurship may represent a means for diminishing the negative effects specific to the migration phenomenon and for emphasising the positive ones, contributing to the development of strong regions. The present paper outlines a series of information gathered through an ongoing complex and comprehensive research on immigrant entrepreneurship in Romania, approached from economic, social, institutional, and cultural perspectives. The major aim of the research is to provide a wide image on the investigated phenomenon in order to raise awareness among policymakers of its importance and complexity. The paper puts forward a series of empirical results obtained through the development of an econometrical analysis of statistical data and interview-based research. Results highlight a strong positive correlation between the number of enterprises (total and newly registered and the number of immigrants in Romania. In this context, the hypothesis of the existence of another variable — especially related to the socio-economic and legislative environments — with an impact on both the number of enterprises and the one of immigrants may arise. Furthermore, in-depth explanations are provided by the carried out interviews. Debated issues refer to motivations, incentives, and obstacles in business development, cultural and social norms, commercial infrastructure, regulatory aspects, etc.

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE LAW IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cîrstea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We live in an environment in which e-commerce continues to grow and evolve while state legislators attempt to catch up to the ever-changing technology. Today electronic transactions are more and more frequently supplementing or even entirely replacing traditional channels and business models. Even though, in theory, is easy to apply laws to Internet, in practice is harder. This article synthesizes a number of issues on the application of Romanian legislation on ecommerce and offers practical solutions both to managers and to authorities. The article use quantitative and qualitative methods in order to identify the information provided by catering web sites to their consumers in Romania, compared to United Kingdom. The research results raise question marks about how is written and applied Internet law in Romania and also about the limitations of Romanian electronic commerce legislation. Also it shows how companies fail to comply with applicable legislation and to attract their consumers. Managerial implications related to these findings are provided and future studies are encouraged to be investigated.

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources from existing plants is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new RES plants can currently only be remunerated through the open energy market. For RES-H there is currently no direct support mechanism or fiscal benefit in place (as of January 2017); only indirect support. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers of bio-fuels

  4. Transnational citizenship : Latin Americans in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Beatriz; Scaglione, Alejandra Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre el ejercicio de la ciudadanía como consecuencia de la migración internacional, aplicado al caso de los latinoamericanos residentes en Portugal. Para ello adoptamos el concepto de ciudadanía transnacional por su maleabilidad, ya que permite considerar la perspectiva conjunta de los países de origen y de destino, así como también la influencia de las relaciones binacionales e internacionales. Nos preguntamos cómo se ejerce la ciudadanía transnacional en los espaci...

  5. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Psicologia feminista em Portugal : dificuldades e conquistas

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Luísa

    2010-01-01

    Pretende-se, com este artigo, fazer um balanço do que tem sido a Psicologia Feminista em Portugal. Tendo em conta que cada ciência comporta evoluções e posições epistemológicas e metodológicas distintas, começar-se-á por traçar em linhas gerais alguns marcos da psicologia no que diz respeito à forma de abordar as questões das mulheres e homens e definindo o que se entende por psicologia feminista. Seguidamente, serão evidenciados alguns aspectos políticos e sociais que condicionaram o desenvo...

  7. Deterministic tsunami hazard assessment of Sines - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Ciências Geográficas, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem determinística de perigo de tsunamis considerando múltiplas fontes para a cidade costeira de Sines, Portugal. Tsunamis ou maremotos são eventos extremos, energeticamente elevados mas pouco frequentes. Normalmente são geradas por um deslocamento duma grande quantidade de água seja por erupções vulcânicas, colapso de caldeiras, desli...

  8. Current status of nucleonic gauges in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G.; Manteigas, J.; Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Neves, J.; Cruz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleonic gauges are largely used in Portugal industry, despite the fact that design and manufacturing of prototypes of nucleonic gauges is rather limited. The modernization of some industrial sectors (cement, paper and civil engineering) has enhanced applications of nucleonic gauges and has created local capability but new legislation tends to restrict further spread of them. The Institute of Nuclear Technology is the only applied research institution developing nucleonic gauges for moisture, thickness and density, and elemental analysis, as well as providing assistance in calibration, safe operation and maintenance of them. (author)

  9. Country policy profile - Portugal. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff (FiT). The support regime for electricity generated from renewable energy sources (except large hydropower plants) is still in place for existing installations and for micro and mini generation units. Support to new installations can be provided through specific power granting tenders. There is currently no direct support mechanism for RES-H. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers (PPDs). The Portuguese progress report was released by the EC in June 2014 and no further policy changes have been documented since then

  10. Country policy profile - Portugal. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff (FiT). The support regime for electricity generated from renewable energy sources (except large hydropower plants) is still in place for existing installations and for micro and mini generation units. Support to new installations can be provided through specific power granting tenders. There is currently no direct support mechanism for RES-H. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers (PPDs). The Portuguese progress report was released by the EC in June 2014

  11. People first in the Philippines: Gelia Castillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabes, C

    1995-01-01

    Gelia Castillo, a specialist in rural sociology whose ideas have influenced policymakers in government, international development circles, and academe, pioneered the concept of participatory development. Born into a poor family, her father convinced her that academic achievement was the key to her future; her academic training includes a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of the Philippines, a Master's in rural sociology from Pennsylvania State University, and a Doctorate from Cornell University. She served as professor of rural sociology at the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, and published extensively on women's roles, the sex roles of Filipino adolescents, agricultural school administration, the team approach in community development, rice and potato farming, the changing social images in a developing society, and the protein gap. "Beyond Manila," her most famous book, was the first comprehensive research work on income distribution, employment, labor, education, and migration in the rural Philippines. She underscored the definition of "household" and observed that the role of women and children contributes greatly to the dynamics of society. Her husband, Leopoldo Castillo, an animal nutritionist who is now professor emeritus at the Institute of Animal Science, has long supported his wife's career. The mother of two daughters and one son was the only female member of the board of the International Potato Center for 6 years and served on the boards of the IDRC, the International Service for National Agriculture Research, and the International Council for Research in Agroforestry. At 66, and retired, she believes affirmative action is necessary and that the feminist movement has only helped professional women.

  12. Does Emigration Affects Wages? A Case Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin-Alexandru Ciupureanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The migration phenomenon in Romania is characterized by emigration; the number of Romanian migrants skyrocketed after the Romanian accession to the European Union in 2007. With the economic and financial crisis outlook and with the labour market liberalization across the whole European Union for the Romanian workers starting this year the number of Romanian migrants is expected to increase further. Against this background this paper analyses the effects of emigration on wages in Romania. It is found that emigration has a positive impact on wages in Romania.

  13. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shadow economy affected for a long time Romania, even since the old regime. During the period 1995-1996, the expansion of this phenomenon has become more serious. Along with Bulgaria, Romania is the second most affected country in the Eastern part of Europe, the shadow economy reaching around 28% of national GDP. This process is boosted by a high level of tax evasion, black labor and overregulation. With the ascension into EU, Romania made considerable efforts to combat the underground economy through a increase of electronic payments, credit card and deposit use.

  14. The economic and communication implications of tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena PAICU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tourism in Romania is based on diversity of relief forms, on the natural landscape, on the specific customs and on history and rich tradition, having also an important contribution to the economy. Tourism is considered one of Romania's economic sectors characterized by dynamism. So it is that the statistical data records data upon which we can support that tourism in Romania is, despite weaknesses, developing and with a high potential for expansion. In the present paper we propose a comprehensive analysis of tourism, based on statistical data obtained from specialized institutions, at the same time aiming to capture its impact on the economic level.

  15. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  16. Industrial radiography in the Philippines: safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L.; Artificio, Thelma P.; Cerbolles, Justina S.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Agron, Inocencio A.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial radiography utilizes the highest activity (5.55 tera becquerel (TBq) to 7.4 TBq) among the various mobile application of radioisotopes. It is highly possible that radiographers exceed the annual dose limits for workers occupationally exposed to radiation (as prescribed in the Code of PNRI Regulations part 3) if they do not give cautious consideration to the factors that determine the radiation dose, namely: the gamma source dose rates, time distance and shielding. To enhance the safety culture among radiographers, various strategies are recommended to be undertaken by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as well as the licensed companies undertaking activities in industrial radiography. (Authors)

  17. Philippine linguistic policy in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Jiménez, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines suffers an enduring linguistic problem that is not identified as such. Through the 20th century the goal has been to study a foreign language hoping for economical competitiveness in an Asian context. At present, this very context has revealed the fallacy of abandoning the education of the citizens in its own setting, if not pointed out the problem—Diglossia. By using an alien means of communication in the schools, the whole education has been alienated, and the result is a so...

  18. Toxic metal residues in Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumera, F.; Verceluz, F.; Kapauan, P.A.; Sembrite, E.

    1976-03-01

    Mercury introduced into the environment will cause death or irreparable damage to man. Surveillance of mercury in foods especially fish has become important in the Philippines since rivers, oceans, and lakes have become dumping sites for industrial and mining wastes. Mercury analysis on a total of 52 fish and shellfish samples were undertaken using the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All of the samples have mercury contents of less than the maximum permissible level of 0.5 ppm. Comparison was made with analysis of shark samples which are predators and consequently contain much higher levels of mercury than the non-predators

  19. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  20. Pagbilao power plant, Pagbilao, Quezon, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flake, P.M. [Mirant Philippines Corp. (Philippines)

    2004-08-01

    This 700 MW coal-fired station isn't new, but POWER is honoring it as a top plant of 2004. Why? 12 years ago, Pagbilao pioneered the build-own-transfer (BOT) approach to power project development in the Philippines. Since the plant was commissioned in 1996, it has run more reliably and cleanly every year and thus played a major role in raising the standard of living for Filipino citizens. The article highlights notable plant features with which the plant has been equipped or retrofitted. 2 figs.

  1. International Disability Educational Alliance (IDEAnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Andorra Haiti Peru Argentina Honduras Philippines Armenia Hong Kong Poland Australia Hungary Portugal Austria Iceland Qatar Azerbaijan India Romania...Menopause and climax Lecture 5:Osteoporosis Lecture 6:Heart and blood vessels in elderly people, prevention and treatment Lecture 7: Diabetes

  2. African Journals Online: Singapore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pakistan, Palau, Palestine, State of, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Bartelemey, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia ...

  3. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brunei Darussalam, 1. Burkina Faso, 2. Cameroon, 1. Canada, 3. Chile, 3. China, 25. Colombia, 3. Côte d'Ivoire, 3. Denmark, 2. Ecuador, 1. Egypt, Arab Rep. 13 ... Peru, 1. Philippines, 11. Poland, 6. Portugal, 5. Puerto Rico, 1. Romania, 9. Russian Federation, 5. Saudi Arabia, 3. Senegal, 2. South Africa, 11. Spain, 4.

  4. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivoire, 3. Croatia, 2. Curaçao, 1. Cyprus, 5. Czech Republic, 15. Denmark, 7. Ecuador, 3 ... Peru, 2. Philippines, 37. Poland, 11. Portugal, 22. Puerto Rico, 1. Qatar, 6. Romania, 7. Russian Federation, 17. Rwanda, 6. Saudi Arabia, 17. Senegal, 1.

  5. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korea, Republic of, 10. Latvia, 5. Libya, 45. Malaysia, 4. Malta, 3. Mexico, 18. Namibia, 1. Nepal, 1. Netherlands, 2. New Zealand, 5. Nigeria, 44. Pakistan, 8. Peru, 3. Philippines, 3. Poland, 1. Portugal, 4. Romania, 1. Russian Federation, 2. Saudi Arabia, 2. South Africa, 3. Spain, 6. Sudan, 1. Taiwan, 3. Thailand, 3. Turkey, 7.

  6. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippines, 6. Poland, 1. Portugal, 5. Romania, 1. Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2. Saudi Arabia, 4. Senegal, 4. Slovenia, 1. South Africa, 6. Spain, 4. Sri Lanka, 1. St. Kitts and Nevis, 2. Sudan, 2. Sweden, 5. Switzerland, 1. Taiwan, 27. Thailand, 2. Tunisia, 2. Turkey, 17. Ukraine, 2. United Kingdom, 35. United States, 112. Uruguay, 1.

  7. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 1. Netherlands, 9. Nigeria, 2. Pakistan, 2. Palestine, 1. Peru, 1. Philippines, 1. Poland, 1. Portugal, 4. Romania, 7. South Africa, 5. Sweden, 1. Switzerland, 1. Taiwan, 3. Thailand, 1. Turkey, 4. United Kingdom, 13. United States, 40. Unknown, 1 ...

  8. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philippines, 5. Poland, 3. Portugal, 3. Qatar, 2. Romania, 3. Russian Federation, 2. Serbia, 1. Singapore, 1. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 2. Slovenia, 1. South Africa, 2. Spain, 14. Syrian Arab Republic, 2. Taiwan, 2. Thailand, 7. Tunisia, 6. Turkey, 16. Ukraine, 1. United Kingdom, 15. United States, 37. Zambia, 2. Zimbabwe, 1 ...

  9. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaysia, 2. Mexico, 14. Nepal, 1. Netherlands, 2. New Zealand, 1. Nigeria, 6. Pakistan, 4. Peru, 1. Philippines, 4. Poland, 2. Portugal, 2. Romania, 2. Russian Federation, 1. South Africa, 1. Spain, 3. Switzerland, 1. Taiwan, 6. Tanzania, 2. Thailand, 4. Turkey, 1. United Arab Emirates, 3. United Kingdom, 21. United States, 72.

  10. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaysia, 3. Mexico, 8. Morocco, 1. Netherlands, 4. Norway, 1. Peru, 5. Philippines, 1. Poland, 2. Portugal, 1. Romania, 1. Russian Federation, 4. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 6. South Africa, 3. Spain, 6. Sweden, 3. Switzerland, 4. Taiwan, 4. Thailand, 4. Turkey, 13. Ukraine, 6. United Arab Emirates, 5. United Kingdom, 20.

  11. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korea, Republic of, 10. Lao People's Democratic Republic, 1. Latvia, 1. Libya, 1. Malaysia, 5. Mexico, 15. Netherlands, 5. New Zealand, 5. Nigeria, 2. Norway, 2. Pakistan, 17. Peru, 3. Philippines, 23. Portugal, 1. Romania, 2. Russian Federation, 1. Singapore, 1. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 2. South Africa, 3. Spain, 14.

  12. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  13. IMPACT OF ROMANIA'S INTEGRATION INTO EUROPEAN UNION ON THE CAPITAL MARKET IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Badea

    2007-01-01

    The present paper intends to study the development of the stock exchange market in Romania stating as marks, two simple things, namely: the progress of the stock exchange market before and after January 1, 2007, and also the progress of the stock exchange markets in the neighboring states after 2004. For this study, the mathematical calculus of the stock exchange index variation and the stock exchange capitalization is followed. The results have a direct link with the macroeconomic situation ...

  14. Nuclear safety. Romania. Terminal report. Report prepared for the Government of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The document contains the terminal report on the implementation of the project IAEA/UNDP-ROM/87/002 'Nuclear Safety' (1987-1994). The goal the project was to provide technical assistance to the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania, to improve the research and technological capability to the level required for its participation in the Romanian nuclear power programme, particularly in relation to the Cernavoda nuclear power plant project

  15. Prospects of nuclear power development in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban Constantin; Popescu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Romania is owner of a CANDU type reactor operated at Cernavoda NPP, a nuclear research TRIGA reactor at Pitesti and a Wwr-S research reactor at Ifi-H H at Mergal, now under conservation in view of decommissioning. In Romania there are also two facilities for radioactive waste processing at INR Pitesti and Ifi-H H Mergal, an intermediary repository for spent fuel at Cernavoda and a radioactive waste disposal facility at Ba ita, Bi hor county. With the management of radioactive wastes is in charge the newly formed authority, the National Agency for the Radioactive Waste Management, Adorn. The Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 (Unit 2 is under construction now and planned to be finished in 2006) was commissioned on December 2, 1996 and it ensures about 10% of the electricity demand in Romania. It is operated with the nuclear fuel produced at the Nuclear Fuel Plant, F CN, at Pitesti and the heavy water produced at Heavy Water Plant, ROMAG at Drobeta Turnu Severin. The construction of Unit 3 at Cernavoda NPP was also initiated in cooperation with AECL Canada, Adeline's, Italy and Khap, Republic of Korea, financial aspects, technical improvements of the design, based on the experience gained with Unit 1 and 2, and economical conditions forecast for the years 2010-2015 being taken into consideration. In case of the Research Reactor TRIGA at Pitesti a total conversion from He to Leu fuel of the reactor core is planned under an IAEA Technical Assistance Project, with domestic and foreign (USA) financing. Studies of feasibility were completed for the conservation and decommissioning of the research reactor Wwr-S at Ifi-H H Mergal. Also a Pare project is underway for refurbishment of the National Repository for Nuclear Waste at Ba ita as well for the construction within the Cernavoda NPP area of the Spent Fuel Intermediate Storage Facility, now under construction within a contract with AECL Canada. The paper also reviews the objectives, contingencies and the issues connected to the

  16. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  17. ROMANIA: MANY ENTREPRENEURS BUT FEW INNOVATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Badulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is considered an essential element for the development and prosperity of contemporary economies. The already known traits: creating jobs, boosting growth, revenues to the state budget, are supplemented by vitality and adaptability, and not least, a capacity for innovation. Thus, innovation became one of the most important factors in the companies’ activity. However, innovation doesn’t only mean new products and services. It is closely related to the capacity of entrepreneurs and managers to apply new business models, embedding an organizational culture capable to identify how new ideas could be converted into value for business and society. Innovation supports the efforts of ambitious entrepreneurs to pursue their objectives and stimulate other potential entrepreneurs to enter into businesses. Innovation generates, directly and indirectly, positive effects not only within a company but also within the national economy, as a whole. Despite this empirical evidence, the link between entrepreneurship and innovation is difficult to describe, to introduce it in strong theoretical models, in order to substantiate viable political programs. First, only a relatively small part of entrepreneurs really innovate. Secondly, researchers reveal deep, but subtle, ties between the entrepreneurs’ profile, availability for innovation and effects on states’ competitiveness and prosperity. Finally, the number (or proportion of entrepreneurs isn’t the most relevant, but their availability to innovate, the type of innovation chosen and, especially, how entrepreneurial organizations stimulate innovative initiatives among their employees (intrapreneurship. From this point of view, Romania's situation is difficult and challenging. The importance and size of the sector, entrepreneurial motivations, or the share of early stage innovative entrepreneurs indicate an average position at a global or European Union (EU level. However, Romania is a

  18. THE SZEKLERS AND HUNGARIANS FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Szeklers and Hungarians from Romania. This study regards, as its main topic, the possibility of establishing at present, a geodemographical entity on Romania’s territory, since certain representatives of the Hungarian ethnical minority in our country, and with a particular insistence of those in the vicinity of the western border, always remember to bring into view the problem of establishing an autonomy, common to a Székely Land, located in the central area of our country, which would include Mureş, Harghita and Covasna counties. Without carrying out a detailed account of this situation, it needs to be mentioned, just as it will emerge of the following presentation, that such an approach has neither the most reduced geodemographical support, since the Szeklers, after being assimilated by the Hungarian ethnic group, are no longer present at the census of 20 October 2011. By taking into account the above mentioned aspects, in order to be able to respond to the insistent requests for autonomy in Transylvania, we proceeded to highlight, through a fairly detailed approach of the Hungarian ethnical minority, obviously in point of the number of inhabitants and of their distribution on Romania’s territory, resulting of this the fact that the number of Hungarians is of 1,227,623 people, value which related to those 20,121,641 inhabitants of Romania, means 6.10%. The total number of mentioned Hungarians is characterized by a pronounced concentration on Romania’s territory, standing out by creating a corridor with a diagonal aspect, on the northwestsoutheast direction, consisting of seven counties, the first four (Satu Mare, Bihor, Sălaj and Cluj being registered with 2.01% (404,561 inhabitants of those 6.10% Hungarians, the following three (Mureş, Harghita and Covasna accounting for 3.03% (609,033 inhabitants, and hence in the corridor are present 5.04% (1,013,594 Hungarians of 6.10% at the level of the entire country. The above mentioned

  19. Regional disposal, a feasible solution for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Almost every country that exploits or builds nuclear power plants is engaged in its own research or international cooperation programs aiming at identification of optimal solutions of closing the fuel cycle and finding feasible technologies for final disposal of spent fuel and high-level wastes resulting from reprocessing. The general trend that manifests in these countries is to manage on their own territories the final disposal while considering the possibility of regional arrangements for common disposal. But this latter alternative has not been definitively analyzed and decided upon. Hence, European Union and IAEA look for solutions of long term (of the order of hundreds years) for the final disposal, particularly within regional facilities. Multinational repositories where disposal of high-level wastes or spent fuel should appear as a paid specialized servicing, where the operation technical conditions would be well established, as secure from nuclear safety and physical point of view, under the provisions of safeguards agreements, are still under consideration. No matter of the option which will be chosen, closing the nuclear cycle and ensuring a final disposal facility for radioactive wastes are compulsory tasks and issues with many aspects in common (establishing a site hosted by stable deep geological formations, protection by engineered barriers to prevent dispersion of radioactive products into the environment, long term analyses, etc). In this circumstances, having in mind that no other variant appears to be achievable before 2020-2050, intermediate term storage appears as compulsory a solution in developing the fuel cycle both world wide and in Romania, As early as in the first half of 2003 at Cernavoda, the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel (DICA) was commissioned. This is a facility founded for the first time in Romania aiming at closing the fuel cycle. The paper presents the current issues and the results obtained so far within the frame of

  20. CHINESE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN PORTUGAL: TRADITIONAL ETHNIC STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Reis Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal in recent decades, just like in other welcoming countries, immigrants have reached levels of entrepreneurial activity that are higher than those of autochthonous citizens. However, a deeper analysis of the official data shows that not all immigrant groups have the same tendency to become entrepreneurs. In this respect, the Chinese stand out as being the group with the highest ratio of entrepreneurial activity in Portugal, despite the fact that their migration is a relatively recent phenomenon. What factors can explain the Chinese community’s disproportionate rate of entrepreneurial initiative? Do they possess any particular resources that make them more enterprising than the autochthonous population, or than other groups of immigrants? Does the context of Portugal hamper certain opportunities or in some way limit their economic integration into the job market? Do we find similar business strategies among other Chinese entrepreneurs residing in welcoming societies apart from that of Portugal? Why did Chinese business initiative grow at such an exceptional rate in Portugal in the late 1990s? By seeking answers to these questions, this article attempts to examine Chinese business strategies in Portugal, as well as their exceptional success rate in comparison with other entrepreneurial immigrants. To that end, the author has analysed the data gathered in a survey carried out on 309 Chinese entrepreneurs resident in Portugal (see Oliveira, 2005.

  1. Aspects of Romania's Economic Efforts in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.

  2. FORCED INDUSTRIALIZATION IN ROMANIA AND FOREIGN TRADE CHANGES DURING SOCIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ghiorghita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 40 years (1949-1989 of centralized management of the economy, Romania was transformed from an agrarian-industrial country into an industrial-agrarian country, but not beyond the stage of a developing country. Planning the formation of the accumulation fund and the fixed funds allocation made possible to faster diversify and increase the industrial production. In a first stage, during the 8th decade (1971-1980, the increase in imports of capital goods needed in industries’ technology revamping engendered the growth of Romania's foreign debt. In the 9th decade, the policy of forced payment of previously accumulated foreign debt was achieved by aggressive compression of imports and boost of exports. At the end, in 1989, Romania's foreign trade structure corresponded almost completely to the structure of the supply from the countries producing industrial processed goods. From this point of view, Romania became, after four decades of accelerated development, an acceptable client to Western exporters.

  3. Trends In Funding Higher Education In Romania And EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Mariana Dragoescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the determinants of the economic growth in any state, education funding representing thus a very important aspect in public policies. In this article we present the general principles of funding higher education in Romania and how it evolved over the last decade, stressing that the public higher education has been consistently underfunded. We also present an overview of the evolution of the main statistical indicators that characterize higher education in Romania, the number of universities and faculties, the number of students, number of teachers, revealing discrepancies between their evolution and the evolution of funding. We compared the funding of higher education in Romania and EU countries highlighting the fact that Romania should pay a special attention to higher education to achieve the performancen of other EU member countries.

  4. Fiscal Deficits, Monetary Reform and Inflation Stabilization in Romania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Budina, N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the consistency between inflation, monetary reform and fiscal policy in Romania. Offers a framework for the assessment of the fiscal and monetary interactions of Romanian economy; Shows impact of inflation on fiscal inconsistency measure; Considers importance of consolidating public

  5. Romania's Entrance into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelesteanu, George M

    2006-01-01

    ... member of the alliance. With Romania as case in point, this thesis uses a comparative method for analysis of the extent at which candidate states from the 2004 wave of enlargement were prepared for NATO integration...

  6. Economic crisis and the automotive industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosip, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has affected many areas but the auto industry is perhaps one of the most affected. Renault, Ford, General Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, BMW are just some of the big players caught unprepared. Through this paper we propose an analysis of the automotive market in Romania in order to understand the sales decrease of the last two years. At the same time we aimed at understanding the reasons that led to a decrease in car sales, what were the measures taken by the government to stop this phenomenon and how the economic crisis influenced the automotive field in Romania. An objective image of the situation in the automobile market in Romania at this moment also requires an analysis of the marketing environment and the changes it has undergone over time. Last but not least we will try to find a series of measures to re-launch the car market in Romania.

  7. REGULATION AND SUPERVISION OF BANKING ACTIVITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Niculina APETRI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges currently faced by most central banks are generated by the effects of the economic and financial crisis. Thus, at the national, European and international level there is a trend of changing the economic governance structures and improving the regulatory and supervisory policies, focusing on macro-prudential oversight. In the context of changes at the European Union level, the central banks of the Member States become also subject to changes in their carried out actions. The objectives of this research aim mainly at: highlighting the role of the National Bank of Romania in regulating and supervising the banking system in Romania and analyzing the measures implemented by the National Bank of Romania after the crisis so far; identifying the challenges of the National Bank of Romania on the basis of changes operated by European Union at the supervisory framework level.

  8. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  9. The Philippine historical earthquakecatalog: its development, current stateand future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bautista

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This report will trace the development of the historical earthquake catalog of the Philippines, assess its present state and recommend future research directions. The current Philippine historical earthquake catalog is culled from various catalogs, both global and local, that were developed since the first Philippine catalog by Perrey was published in 1860. While early global catalogs gave simple mention of earthquakes in the Philippines, more focused earthquake catalogs about the Philippines gave more explicit descriptions of earthquake accounts and adopted descriptions by local historians. Over the years, various historians and seismologists continued to compile their catalogs whose contents depended on the author?s perspectives and purposes. These works varied from simple listings to others including detailed descriptions. It was only recently that an attempt made to parameterize the magnitudes and epicenters of Philippine historical earthquakes using magnitude-felt area relations was done. A more detailed catalog, however, is now underway that will show details of intensity distribution for each significant historical earthquake. By comparing the historical catalog with the recent catalog and assuming that the recent catalog is complete, we find that there are still a substantial amount of historical earthquakes that needs to be reviewed and located. Possible sources of new information are local libraries, museums and archives in the Philippines, Spain and other Southeast Asian countries to which the country was in contact with during historical times.

  10. FOOD CONSUMPTION AND SAFETY INCIDENTS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes an analysis of the Avian and Swine Flu’s effects on meat consumption in Romania. The intense media coverage of the two epidemics, the considerable funds allocated to population vaccination and disease eradication, the duration of the outbreak make the two diseases comparable in point of duration and spreading. The research highlighted a major effect of the Avian Flu on poultry meat consumption on the Romanian market, although the shock was a temporary one, as poultry meat consumption came back to its initial values in a short period of time. The Swine Flu didn’t have a significant impact on the number of animals or on pork consumption. Both epidemics led to important financial losses. The sums allocated for disease eradication came from government contributions or from financial aids provided by the World Bank or the EU.

  11. Online marketing strategies – UK and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tălpău, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents successful online marketing strategies, more specific “Pay Per Click” publicity and social marketing strategies. Both practices target a well-defined market segment and can be used to increase exposure, generate traffic and in the end generate conversions. While “Pay Per Click” means buying every action (visit/Like etc., social marketing is looking to establish one to one interactions and to provide value to customers. These two online marketing practices were analyzed both in regards with their theoretical aspects and in regards with the way in which they are applied by companies. The examples used in this analysis are from Romania and from the United Kingdom.

  12. Knowledge Economy and its Effects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph. D. Laura Cismas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy implies that the rationality of individuals is limited because they make and adapt their choices in an environment affected by risk and uncertainty. The first part of this paper proposes an analysis of the knowledge economy, based on its interdisciplinary nature. Thus, classical theories adapt to visions that pertain to the dynamics of human interactions, the restructuring of the social network theory, the general equilibrium theory and the game theory.The research part of this paper identifies and explains the link between innovation and knowledge, as well as its effects on the Romanian economy’s competitiveness and innovation. The conclusions illustrate that the consolidation of knowledge-based economy in Romania implies setting certain priorities, such as: investing in education, developing entrepreneurship, creating an innovative and efficient system made up of companies, research centers and universities, which enables new technologies to be absorbed, adapted and created for the society.

  13. State of decommissioning process in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciuculescu, C.

    2002-01-01

    In Romania, there are several installations that arrived at the decommissioning stage. These installations are: VVR-S research reactor, Sub critical Assembly HELEN, and Zero Power Reactor (RP-0). In this paper, the methods the Romanian Regulatory Body is developing the legal framework for decommissioning process of nuclear installations are described. There is a draft of decommissioning norms for research reactors. This regulation provides each stage of decommissioning and requirements for decommissioning plan. Also, CNCAN has evaluated and made requirements for completion of a VVR-S research reactor decommissioning plan submitted by IFIN-HH. Further, the reasons for which the decommissioning plan was rejected and requirements that the owner of VVR-S research reactor must fulfil in order to receive decommissioning licence are presented. (author)

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela ISTRATE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of communism, Romania, just like other Central and East European countries, has experienced profound social and economic mutations, reflected in all activity sectors (from the transition to a market economy and democratic freedom-based society to the decreasing number of active and working population, increasing unemployment, workforce’s growing risk of poverty, rising vulnerability of certain socio-professional groups. Starting from these findings and using an appropriate methodology to identify regional convergences and disparities, the present paper is meant to perform a statistical and territorial analysis of the economic gaps recorded at the level of the Romanian counties (NUTS 3 level during the last two decades and a half. The conclusions converge towards the existence of an adjustment of the economic structures, both from the territorial and temporal perspective, while the issue of reducing regional gaps remains one of the main challenges of the future.

  15. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - EVOLUTIONS AND DISCONTINUITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of rural tourism since the early '70s, the time of onset, and indicates the discontinuity recorded especially after 1989 until the brink of the preparation for Romania's joining the European Union and the present state, one far behind the countries with extremely high degree of urbanization and industrialization, probably as a result of a lack of strategy for this form of tourism in which the beneficiary is the Ministry of Tourism, as the health tourism and ecotourism have recently had. The location of many villages in areas of outstanding natural landscapes, the richness and variety of cultural heritage that endows them, are issues related to an increased tourism potential that can be capitalized and those unique tourism products that can not be seen, admired and offered by other countries.

  16. Prospects of nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispas, G.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2004-01-01

    The road map in the field of power in Romania represents the strategic document of Romanian power sector development in the period 2004-2015. The road map evidences clearly the problems which the power sector will confront in the adherence to EU process. The projections concerning the demand and supply of electric energy take into consideration: a step like increase of Gross National Product and energy efficiency, the implementation of environmental protection strategy, and optimal use of natural resources. These projections show that unless new capacities will be built and the old capacities refurbished, the electric energy demand will surpass the supply beginning with the year 2005 and the power deficit will reach about 5500 MW in year 2015. In order to avoid such a situation the government launched a series of projects for the years 2004-2015, including refurbishment of several electric energy production capacities and commissioning of new capacities among which Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and 3. The electricity market in Romania undergoes at present a liberalization process in agreement with the EU Directive 96/92/EC. To date this market has two segments, the competitive one and the regulated one. In agreement with the liberalization process skedule the electricity market will be fully liberalized from July 1, 2007. By taking into account the potential advantages of promoting the international electric energy transactions along with global trend of advanced regional and inter regional integration, the governments of Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Romania, Turkey and Serbia-Montenegro, signed the Athens Memorandum in 2002 and agreed upon creation of a regional electric energy market in the south-eastern Europe. By finalization and commissioning of Cernavoda NPP Units 2 and 3, each of them having a rating power of 707 MW, the fraction of nuclear power in the electricity power production will raise from 10 %, the level in 2003

  17. Taxation in Romania - News and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The constant motion in which the economic environment is found, the financial implications of the economic crisis on it, the need to correlate the existing legislative provisions in functional structures, the increasing need of the state for financial resources are just a few factors that require a permanent adaptation of the tax system in our country. The reform started in the transition to a market economy and continued in the various steps taken in the long and difficult road to economic development. In this paper are presented the fundamental aspects of the tax system in Romania as well as the measures necessary to ensure a correlation between the fiscal and economic objectives.

  18. Investment Process in Romania and Institutional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marius VOICILAŞ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts set out and the macroeconomic policies implemented during the past twenty years have been different and controversial. They have aimed at creating an economic environment conducive to the infusion of foreign capital and development of sectors considered as a priority at that time, which can ensure a sound macro-economic stability, taking into account the fact that there is not enough domestic capital to participate in achieving these objectives. In this paper we will focus on foreign direct investment (FDI policies designed to promote them, their effects on national economy in general terms and features of investment in rural and agricultural sector, which we consider key elements of success in economic growth. Also, the institutional framework in which the investment process took place is thoroughly addressed given that most times the general investment climate of a certain market is influenced both by legislation and the institutions involved in economic life. The experience of transition and the experiences of other countries have shown how important are institutions created to coordinate, support and control of investment activity. We included in this analysis institutions and organizations in Romania with responsibilities in the investment field. Based on this analysis, and on the contributions of institutions to create the proper economic development, but also by investors' direct contribution to the creation of this framework by policy makers recommendations, it is obtained a profile of the business environment in Romania, including what is best but what is missing and it needs to be implemented. We consider that this approach is an important step in addressing the institutional investment process and it creates prerequisites of disseminating essential information and remedial implications to stakeholders.

  19. Implementation of Safeguards for Romania National LOFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovici, I.

    2015-01-01

    The safe deployment of nuclear activities in Romania is provided by Law no. 111/1996. The Law was republished based on the provisions of Article II of Law no. 63/2006 for the amendment and addition and was modified and completed by the Law no. 378/2013. The competent national authority in the nuclear field, which has responsibilities of regulation, authorization and control as stipulated in this Law, is the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). According to art. 2c), provisions of the Nuclear Law shall apply to production, sitting and construction, supply, leasing, transfer, handling, possession, processing, treatment, use, temporary storage or final disposal, transport, transit, import and export of radiological installations, nuclear and radioactive materials, including nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and ionizing radiation generating devices. With regards to the small holders of nuclear materials, the Romanian legislation takes into account the following safeguards objectives: · Establishing provisions governing the possession, use, transfer, import and export of nuclear materials; · Ensuring the implementation of the safeguards system for accountancy and control of nuclear materials: · Ensuring that all nuclear materials are reported under the provisions of the Safeguards Agreement; · Ensuring that all nuclear activities are declared under the provisions of the Additional Protocol; · Developing and implementing nuclear material accounting and control procedures at all small holders of nuclear materials; · Ensuring training for safeguards staff at all small holders. Based on the provision of Law no. 111/1996 CNCAN has issued a Guidelines for applying of the safeguards by the small holders of nuclear materials from Romania. The guidelines provide specific regulations regarding the movement of the nuclear materials, the accountancy and control of nuclear materials, the containment and surveillance systems for small holders of nuclear

  20. HOW IMPORTANT ARE REMITTANCES FLOWS FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan\tFlorin\tHREBAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By all analyses, the remittances flows describe a trend of significant growth worldwide, over the past two decades, currently representing an extremely important component of capital for the poor and developing countries. Compared to other capital flows (foreign direct investment, development aid or other types of private capital, the remittances size is positioned, generally, only behind FDI, causing direct and indirect socio-economic effects, far more profound than other types of capital. Moreover, studies show that remittances flows tend to a much greater stability over time as compared to other balance of payments flows, especially the exports and the private capital. Romania is an important recipient economy. If in 2000, the value of the entries was 96 million USD, in 2008, the amounts remitted from abroad reached a peak of over 9.2 billion USD, after which, during the global economic crisis, they declined, reaching a value of 3.5 billion USD, in 2013. Over the years, along with FDI, the capital flows from remittances have significantly contributed to the economic growth and to the increase of the welfare of an important part of the population by improving economic and social status. However, how important have the remittances flows proved to be for the economy as a whole? Is there any influence of these amounts on the inflation, labour market, education, or entrepreneurship? How much is Romania losing by dispatching such an important part of its population to work abroad, and how much does it earn from the money remitted home?

  1. Culture And Leadership: The Case Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Elena Hurduzeu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and internationalization lead to the development of a general image of good and effective leadership which influence the local leadership styles and the behavior of leaders. The latter must overcome the conflict between the desire to implement corporate standards which are internationally valid and the need to act locally in terms of organizational culture, business environment and leadership style. The knowledge of the national peculiarities and traditions, the understanding of their heritage and background, coming to grips with them are key-success factors for international co-operations and/or joint-ventures in today’s competitive world. The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between the organizational culture and the leadership style and aims to develop a better understanding of the Romanian leadership. It also provides important information and ideas on the leadership styles practiced in the companies within Romania. The study presents the research findings on the Romanian leadership style and connects it to the political, economic and cultural influences. As far as Romania is concerned, although the variations in the cultural configurations are of a great diversity and complexity, we may, however, identify two distinct types of organizational culture, supporting the hypothesis that these two categories are the extremes of a continuum with a wide variety of expression: a culture of ‘bureaucratic’ type, typical for: state-owned companies, former state firms in the post-privatisation period and the culture of ‘entrepreneurial’ type, in the process of formation, typical for the private companies formed after 1989. The most important problems that appear in the case of the multinational companies refer to the compensation values, sacred and taboo, the management of the gradual conflicts, etnocentrism, affiliation, faulty conciliation and naive realism. The leaders must learn to analyze the cultural

  2. TOURISM INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA AND JAPAN – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bulin; Nela Miru; Ingrid Roșca

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has evolved in the last decades from “leisure activity” to “travel and tourism industry”, this semantic transformation showing the importance of this sector in the global economy. Although there are multiple socio-economic aspects that separate them, both Romania and Japan have a remarkable touristic potential and they are included in international touristic circuits as destinations to be considered. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dimensions of the tourism in Romania and...

  3. Regulatory framework for radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Full text: To fulfill the obligations assumed by Romania by joining to the international convention and treaty as well as for implementing the European Commission legislative framework a lot of regulations was already issued or are under the development. The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control as regulatory authority in nuclear field in Romania considered the process of developing regulations in order to detail the requirements for safe management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. Regulatory framework for radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the obligations assumed by Romania by joining to the international convention and treaty as well as for implementing the European Commission legislative framework a lot of regulations was already issued or are under the development. The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control as regulatory authority in nuclear field in Romania considered the process of developing regulations in order to detail the requirements for safe management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. FISCAL SOVEREIGNTY IN ROMANIA – EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Daniela I. Roman

    2008-01-01

    The Romania`s adhesion to the European Union involves multiple transformations with a direct impact upon many fields, such as law`s field, especially economic, fiscal laws. Taxation system should be both efficient and equitableone of the important problem is sovereignty of state became member of one regional organization, his fiscal sovereignty, state’s atributes in this field. Who can decide fiscal policy, direct taxes or taxes upon consumption? Is it attended by this adhesion to the soverei...

  6. ROMANIA AND THE EURASIAN UNION. PLANS, PREDICTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea-Cristian GHENGHEA

    2016-01-01

    Following the events in Ukraine, Romania might represent one of the key points for the Eurasian perspectives that have circulated in the last years in Moscow. Through our text we intend to present and to highlight the main ideas and plans of Eurasian inspiration regarding Romania, as well as the interesting predictions made, in certain moments, by some representative characters for the Eurasian paradigm, like Aleksandr Dugin, for instance, who is its main ideologist and promoter. At the same ...

  7. National Culture Influence over the Organizational Culture in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Carataº Maria Alina; Spãtariu Elena Cerasela

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims highlighting the characteristics of the organisational culture concept in Romania. In the first part of the paper, we have presented the importance of organizational culture theory through a literature review; we described the factors that have an impact on it. In the second part, we developed ideas about the national culture of Romania, the national frame and how this affects the organizational culture, and we presented its peculiarities.

  8. New Chorological Data for Rare Vascular Plants from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiu Paulina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New chorological data about seven rare vascular plant taxa are reported in the present paper: Conringia austriaca, Jurinea multiflora, Linaria arvensis, Nonea pallens, Ophrys apifera, Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta, Saponaria officinalis. For Linaria arvensis, previously considered doubtful in the absence of the herbarium material, we confirm its presence in Romania. The report of Nonea pallens is the first for Dobrogea, while the report of Jurinea multiflora is the first for Muntenia region of Romania.

  9. Romania becomes a candidate for accession to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Romanian Minister Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. On Thursday 11 February Romanian Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sport, Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, signed an agreement that formally recognises Romania as a Candidate for Accession to membership of CERN. Romania’s pre-membership will cover a five-year period during which the country’s contributions will ramp up to normal Member State levels, in parallel with Romania's participation in CERN projects. At the end of this five-year period the Council will decide on Romania's application for full membership, as the Organization's 21st Member State. Romania entered into direct collaboration with CERN in the early 1990s. In recent years Romania has been constantly increasing its expenditure on R&D and this has been intensified since the country's accession to the EU in January 2007. Romania is involved in three LHC experiments, namely ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb . It al...

  10. Status of radiation education and training in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, C.C. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    1999-09-01

    There are three major sources and levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in the Philippines: the secondary schools or high schools; colleges and universities; and training courses in nuclear science and radiation protection offered by government agencies such as the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology and the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and some of the problems of radiation education in the Philippines. (author)

  11. Status of radiation education and training in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    There are three major sources and levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in the Philippines: the secondary schools or high schools; colleges and universities; and training courses in nuclear science and radiation protection offered by government agencies such as the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology and the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and some of the problems of radiation education in the Philippines. (author)

  12. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  13. Southern Philippines Public Perception Survey Exploration and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    tourism , security, etc. It is home to Western Mindanao Command and some of the Philippine Air Forces. It also enjoys reliable power most of the time...Philippines as part of a widespread Islamic state which would span Indonesia, Malaysia , southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, and the southern Philippines...Services w2data$Q17.B <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.B)) # Health/ Medical Services w2data$Q17.C <- as.numeric(recodeFivePos(w2data$Q17.C

  14. Spain and Portugal facing Euratom. Some considerations in the access of Spain and Portugal to Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corretjer, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1985-01-01

    The access of Spain and Portugal to the European Community of Atomic Energy (EURATOM) will give rise to significative consequences and it is a subject which must be thoroughly considered as to its implications regarding the present state of nuclear development in both countries and with regard to their reciprocal relations in nuclear energy matters. To determine such consequences and implications it is necessary, first of all, to analyze what EURATOM is and how it acts, in addition to consider the situation of each of its Member States as to the utilization of nuclear energy. As well, it is necessary to explain the evolution and the present situation of nuclear development in Spain and in Portugal and their mutual relations in this field. In pursuit of such analysis we may determine the possible consequences of their access; this is made bearing in mind each of the aspects in which EURATOM acts, according to the Treaty and the ''acquis communitaire'', and dividing them into common consequences and individual ones for both countries. The whole exposition, which was studied and carried out from an exclusively technical point of view, has a result the deduction of the joint possibilities offered to Spain and Portugal to make use of EURATOM's availabilities and of the joint actions which both countries may achieve to benefit as much as possible from their access to EURATOM. (author)

  15. REDD+ in the Philippines: Legal status and conservation of mangrove forests in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Estenzo Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves perform a crucial role in maintaining the ecological integrity of the coastal ecosystem. They  act as filters in the coastal zone, preventing the damaging effects of upland sediments on seagrass beds and coral reefs, minimise the effects of storm surges and act as carbon sinks that mitigate climate change. These essential services, however, are degraded through indiscriminate cutting, conversion of mangrove swamps to fishponds, reclamation projects and other coastal developments and pollution. Experts reveal that the Indo-Malay Philippine Archipelago has one of the highest rates of mangroves loss. From an estimated 500,000 hectares of mangrove cover in 1918, only 120,000 hectares of mangroves remain in the Philippines today. The country has had the legal and policy framework to protect and conserve mangroves. But weak implementation of laws, overlapping functions among agencies and, in general, poor management by the people and local governments have hindered the sustainable management of mangrove forests. Positive developments, however, are taking place with the promulgation of laws on climate change and executive orders which specifically include mangrove and protected areas under the National Greening Program (NGP and addresses equity, food security and poverty issues by giving preference to NGP beneficiary communities as a priority in the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT Program.  Moreover, participatory Planning and Multi-stakeholder Approaches are among the strategies contemplated by the Philippine National REDD + Strategy. The article examines the implementation and effects of the Philippine National REDD+ Strategy, the National Climate Change Action Plan which specifically integrates REDD+ and ecosystem valuation into decision-making, and the executive orders which support the mainstreaming of the National Greening Program.

  16. Safety of radioactive sources in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro de Carvalho, A.

    2001-01-01

    The safety of radioactive sealed sources is assured in Portugal through a control system with a main goal of prevention of lost of control and inappropriate waste. The legal tools of the regulatory system are: authorization to use, keep, transfer or transport; a deposit of money as a guarantee; civil liability insurance; periodical information. The competent authority shall keep a national inventory of sealed sources. About 50% of the new sources authorized in 1999 were to be used in medical brachytherapy and industrial radiography. The radionuclide Ir-192 contributed with 99.6 % to the total amount of activity. The control system implemented in the country appears to be effective for activities over some GBq but quite ineffective for lower activities. It is supposed that the law will be revised in the near future to increase the effectiveness of the sealed source control system. (author)

  17. Population dose assessment from radiodiagnosis in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serro, R.; Carreiro, J.V.; Galvao, J.P.; Reis, R.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of radiodiagnostic installations was carried out in Portugal covering 75 premises including public hospitals, local and regional public health centres. A total of 175 X ray tubes was surveyed using the new NEXT methodology covering data on premises, tube and operator, and projection. Average value of voltage, current-time product, HVL, ratio of beam area to film area and source to film distance for the eleven most frequent projections are reported as well as the skin entrance exposure and the doses to some organs. The weighted average dose values per projection and for the different organs allowed an estimate of the whole-body dose per caput. From the gonadal doses the genetic significant dose was also estimated

  18. Financial Report on the Internet in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Raquel Pinto Alves

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the advances in communication and information technologies dramaticallychanged the information flow and our notions of time and space. The Internet has been changingthe information policy of companies world-wide. Basically in all developed countries,companies are increasingly using the Internet to provide their financial information. Thisresearch presents an empirical study aiming to analyze the organization and informationprovided on the financial report of the 250 most profitable companies in Portugal, particularlytheir financial statements published on the Internet. After the observation and in-depth analysisof the websites of the above-mentioned companies, for the year 2002, it was concluded that 119companies (48% had a webpage on the internet. In what concerns the disclosure of financialinformation, only 51 (43% out of the 119 companies had some kind of financial informationstated on their websites.

  19. Reconstruindo memórias: jovens refugiados em Portugal Rebuilding memories: young refugees in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Santinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi apresentado em setembro de 2007, no contexto do Seminário Internacional "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promovido pela LIESP - Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Estudos e Pesquisas Sociais em Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. Resulta de um work in progress conducente a uma tese de doutoramento em antropologia médica. Pretende apresentar a condição dos jovens refugiados e requerentes de asilo em Portugal, em particular na vertente da saúde mental. O trabalho de campo levado a cabo com estes jovens envolveu a escuta de muitas narrativas de sofrimento provocado pela sua experiência de vida nos contextos originais de guerra, com testemunhos de violência e tortura, e também as dificuldades sentidas no longo percurso de viagem de fuga e posterior inserção em Portugal. O isolamento, as barreiras linguísticas, a ausência de redes sociais e familiares de apoio e a dificuldade de encontrar, em Portugal, referentes socioculturais e simbólicos, comprometem o seu desenvolvimento enquanto jovens, levando-nos a equacionar o valor dos referentes identitários na construção do eu e até o próprio conceito de juventude.This essay was first presented in September 2007, within the seminar "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promoted by LIESP - Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. It is a work in progress, leading to a PhD thesis on medical anthropology. It aims to present refugee's youth and asylum seeker's condition in Portugal, particularly in regard to mental health. The fieldwork conducted with these youth comprised active listening of their suffer narratives, provoked not only by life experiences in their original war contexts, with testimonies of violence and torture, but also the difficulties felt during the long flee journey and subsequent insertion in Portugal. Isolation, pain

  20. España, Portugal y los falsos amigos | Spain, Portugal and the false friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel RIVERO RODRÍGUEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available España y Portugal son dos países que comparten mucho en el terreno de la historia, la cultura y la geografía. Sin embargo, esa misma proximidad se ha convertido muchas veces en el principal obstáculo para que cooperen entre sí.Desde la perspectiva portuguesa, la proximidad española se ha visto permanentemente como una amenaza a la independencia de Portugal. Desde el punto de vista de España, la cercanía de Portugal ha debilitado su consideración como país extranjero y ha acentuado un sentido de comunidad no siempre bien recibido por los portugueses. De modo que Portugal siempre ha querido diferenciarse y España ha respondido siempre aproximándose. Esta es la raíz del malentendido.Este cruce de percepciones distintas sobre el valor de proximidad, da lugar a todo tipo de equívocos, pues el deseo de diferenciación de uno puede entenderse como enemistad por el otro y, a la inversa, el de aproximación del segundo como invasión por el primero. Ejemplo de esto es lo que ocurre con la palabra iberismo, una palabra que se escribe igual en ambas lenguas pero que puede significar cosas opuestas, esto es, que puede ser un falso amigo. Así en las dos lenguas iberismo señala el ideal de una integración de ambos países, pero en portugués esto implica la subordinación de la soberanía portuguesa a la española y puede vincularse a la idea de traición; mientras que en español tiene una carga política mucho menor y puede apuntar a la simple simpatía por Portugal.En este artículo quiero mostrar cómo la proximidad de España y Portugal ha sido un obstáculo en las relaciones exteriores entre los dos países peninsulares, cuya comunicación ha sido distorsionada por los falsos amigos hasta el punto de convertirse, ellos mismos, en falsos amigos. Esto es, en países a los que se presupone una cercanía de propósitos que casi nunca se ve realizada en los hechos. Portugal and Spain are two countries that share history, culture and

  1. Computer Tomography Scanners in Portugal (1990-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Crispim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Computed Tomography (CT has increased every year since its introduction into medicine in 1972. Technological developments have made CT one of the most important imaging modalities in modern medicine. This importance is evidenced in the increasing demand and number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and worldwide. This review compiles the most recent national statistics from official publications on the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal and compares them with data available in international publications. We conclude that the number of CT scanners installed in Portugal exceeded the EU27 average by 61.5 % and the OECD average by 78.2 %, and that in 2011 there were 203 CT scanners installed in hospitals in Portugal, which equated to 19.23 CT scanners per million inhabitants.

  2. Philippines: ICPD has had major programme impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Philippines population management program has shaped its policy directions and implementation based on the 1994 ICPD. The program now includes reproductive health and gender equity goals within its management framework. Nongovernmental organizations are active in providing services in hard-to-reach areas and inaccessible sectors. Health is slowly improving. The infant mortality rate declined to 49/1000 live births. The child mortality rate declined to 67/1000 during 1990-95. Life expectancy rose to 68 years for females and 65 years for males. Population was an estimated 72 million or more persons in 1998. The growth rate was about 2% annually. Over 38% of the population is under 15 years old. Over 54% of the population lives in 5 of the country's 15 regions. Rural-to-urban migration has contributed to over 50% of the population's living in urban areas. About 12.7% of total population live in Metro Manila. Most are young and female.

  3. Life and death in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, P

    2013-01-01

    In a country in which contraception is controversial, abortion illegal and in which reproductive rights are limited, IVF is an unaffordable dream for most couples. But things are slowly changing in the only Christian democracy in Asia: the Philippines. In December 2012 the Senate passed the Reproductive Health bill and president Benigno Aquino III signed the measure into a law which is still not implemented due to the opposition of the ultra-orthodox Roman Catholic Church. However, the more liberal perspective of pope Francis on sexuality and human reproduction may have an positive impact on this issue. While government funding for contraceptives is still being opposed, the IVF market is estimated to grow considerable. This creates promising opportunities.

  4. 69: Computers in radiotherapy - The Philippine perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Sy Ortin, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Malignant neoplasm ranks third among the killer diseases in the Philippines today. For the past five years, around 26,000 cases per year have been reported. In 1986, 27% of the total number of cases reported received radiation therapy. Individual treatment plans were made for 17% of these patients. A survey was conducted among the twelve radiation treatment centers in the country. Six of these centers are hoping to have treatment planning computers in the future. Financial constraints inhibit the acquisition of computers for radiotherapy use. At present, the authors have designed simple programs for use at the Cancer Control Center. Further development of treatment planning software that would meet the present needs of the local condition is being explored. 2 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Status of radiation processing in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dela Rosa, A M [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing, one of the well established applications of radiation and radioisotopes, has been successfully integrated into the industrial development of many countries worldwide. Environmental considerations embodied in the Montreal Protocol, the need for energy conservation brought about by escalating costs of fossil fuels, and the bright prospect of utilizing indigenous materials for value-added products have catalyzed the rapid development of radiation processing in the Asia region. This paper presents an overview of current developments in research activities and commercial applications of radiation processing in the Philippines. The areas of application include radiation sterilization of medical products, food irradiation, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, radiation modification of the marine polysaccharide, carrageenan, and upgrading of cellulosic agriwaste by irradiation. (author)

  6. Integrated studies on irradiated Philippine mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, J.A.; Legaspi, E.; Quarteros, R.; Grimares, L.; Escano, L.; Marzan, A.; Lanuza, A.; Singson, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of the fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, has restricted export of Philippine mangoes to Japan and other countries with strict quarantine requirements. The anticipated banning of the ethylene dibromide (EDB) as fumigant necessitated studies to find a suitable replacement. Based on the encouraging results of previous disinfestation experiments further studies utilizing irradiation and its combination with a hot water dip were undertaken. The objective of the studies was to interrelate the effects of the disinfestation method to fruit maturity, storage temperature, and some related processes, including shipping, on the shelf-life, chemical, and sensory attributes of the carabao mango. Results show that the combination treatment of 0.65 kGy and a hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes can be a good alternative for ethylene dibromide with the added benefit of shelf life extension. The chemical, nutritive and sensory characteristics of the fruit also are retained. 32 refs, 19 tabs

  7. Status of radiation processing in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation processing, one of the well established applications of radiation and radioisotopes, has been successfully integrated into the industrial development of many countries worldwide. Environmental considerations embodied in the Montreal Protocol, the need for energy conservation brought about by escalating costs of fossil fuels, and the bright prospect of utilizing indigenous materials for value-added products have catalyzed the rapid development of radiation processing in the Asia region. This paper presents an overview of current developments in research activities and commercial applications of radiation processing in the Philippines. The areas of application include radiation sterilization of medical products, food irradiation, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, radiation modification of the marine polysaccharide, carrageenan, and upgrading of cellulosic agriwaste by irradiation. (author)

  8. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  9. All projects related to Philippines | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Startup : Philippine Community eCentres Network. Project ... Topic: REGIONAL INTEGRATION, Economic and social development ... During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for ...

  10. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  11. Aftershocks to Philippine quake found within nearby megathrust fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    On 31 August 2012 a magnitude 7.6 earthquake ruptured deep beneath the sea floor of the Philippine Trench, a powerful intraplate earthquake centered seaward of the plate boundary. In the wake of the main shock, sensors detected a flurry of aftershocks, counting 110 in total. Drawing on seismic wave observations and rupture mechanisms calculated for the aftershocks, Ye et al. found that many were located near the epicenter of the main intraplate quake but at shallower depth; all involved normal faulting. Some shallow thrusting aftershocks were located farther to the west, centered within the potentially dangerous megathrust fault formed by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Philippine microplate, the piece of crust housing the Philippine Islands.

  12. The Armed Force of the Philippines and Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    149 Abueva, J. (1971). Ramon Magsaysay: A Political Biography. Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House. (p. 180). 150...Biography. Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House. Armed Force of the Philippines Field Circular 3-7-1. (2001). Knowing the Terrorists: The Abu

  13. Philippine Public Relations: An Industry and Practitioner Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panol, Zenaida Sarabia

    2000-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive look at public relations in the Philippines; traces how public relations evolved in this Southeast Asian country; and discusses the current status of the industry and its practitioners. (NH)

  14. Impacts of restructuring tabacco excise tax in the Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A recently approved law restructuring tobacco taxes in the. Philippines includes a steep increase in the excise tax (the tax paid by producers which ... part of Canada's International Development Research Centre. (IDRC), a Canadian Crown ...

  15. Toward an Innovation-led Development Path in the Philippines ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and multidisciplinary workforce competent in producing value-added knowledge-based services; ... Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South Asia ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  16. A comparative analysis of tourism destination demand in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jaime; Correia, Antónia; Rodrigues, Paulo M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Tourism has experienced different levels of development in the different regions of Portugal.To frame this development, in this paper dynamic panel data models were estimated with the objective of explaining the evolution of international overnight stays in each region.Secondary data from 2000 to 2011 was used.The analysis includes the main tourism source markets for Portugal, such as the United Kingdom, Germany,the Netherlands, Ireland, France and Spain. The tourism literature suggests that,...

  17. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Abad, L.V.; Sta.Ana-Relleve, L.P.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, C.O.; Pascual, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to irradiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated latices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI 60 Co irradiation facility at a dose rate of 2.57 kGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strengths which varied from 2-11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 o -377 o C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose was increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubbe latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 1000 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% , and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the INRL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL films were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry, TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex produced and processed in the Philippines is suited for radiation vulcanization

  18. Food Irradiation Technology in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M.

    2015-01-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food and agricultural products by delaying ripening, destruction of insect pests and pathogenic microorganisms have shown great promise in the country. For more than 30 years, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in collaboration with other government and private sectors, has undertaken research and development studies and pilot and semi-commercial scale irradiation of foods. Some of the foods found to be benefit from the use of irradiation technology are mangoes and papayas for disinfestations and delay ripening; onions and garlic for inhibition of sprouting; spices and dehydrated products for reduction of microbial growth and rice and corn for insect and shelf-life extension. Two regulations approved by the Department of Health and the Bureau of Plant Industry are in place creating an enabling environment for food safety and trade of irradiated food. The conduct of awareness program in various parts of the country provided knowledge and information about the food irradiation technology. The Institute has been part of the international projects (IAEA and USDA) on the use of irradiation for sanity and phytosanitary treatment of food. The projects not only established the potential benefits of food irradiation for socio-economic development of the country but also built considerable capacity to properly treat foods. Some of the recent developments in the area of food irradiation include publication of Philippine National Standard (PNS) on Food Irradiation: Code of Good Irradiation Practices which will serve as a guide for stakeholders to irradiate food, a newly-established Electron Beam Facility to demonstrate the potential use of EB and a feasibility study of putting-up a commercial irradiation facility in the country. (author)

  19. Enzyme inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasotona, Joseph S.; Hernandez, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)

  20. American-English on Philippine Radio and Television

    OpenAIRE

    江中, 八郎; Hachiro, Enaka

    1998-01-01

    Both English and Filipino are official languages in the Philippines. However, if we take a walk in downtown Manila, we notice that Radio and Television broadcasting, newspapers and journals are in English, their expression and the accents of trained Filipino announcers are indeed very American. At present, radio signals are received in 95% of the whole archipelago, with more than 70% of the total Philippine households owning radios. On the other hand, only about 35% of all households own TV s...

  1. Philippines : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore. Financement total : CA$ 29,200.00. Mise sur pied d'un réseau philippin de télécentres communautaires. Projet. Plus de 300 télécentres communautaires mènent actuellement leurs activités au sein d'administrations locales partout ...

  2. Population Isolation in the Philippine War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Cuba. On January 1902 Bell caught negative press. Written reports were furnished to the senate committee hearings from MAJ Cornelius Gardener , who...25 Robert Ramsey, Savage Wars of Peace: Case Studies of Pacification in the Philippines,1900-1902. OP 24 (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies...Institute Press, 2007. 44 ___. Savage Wars of Peace: Case Studies of Pacification in the Philippines,1900-1902. (OP 24) Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat

  3. Vulnerability of housing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The author participates to the World Housing Encyclopedia project (www.world-housing.net), an internet based database of housing buildings in earthquake prone areas of the world. This is a voluntary project run by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland, California and the International Association of Earthquake Engineering, financial means being available only for the website where the information is shared. For broader dissemination in 2004 a summary publication of the reports to date was published. The database can be querried for various parameters and browsed after geographic distribution. Participation is open to any housing experts. Between 2003 and 2006 the author was also member of the editorial board. The author contributed numerous reports about building types in Romania, and each one about building types in Germany and Switzerland. This presentation will be about the contributed reports on building types in Romania. To the Encyclopedia eight reports on building types from Bucharest were contributed, while in further research of the author one more was similarly described regarding the vulnerability and the seismic retrofit. The selection of these types was done considering the historic development of the built substance in Bucharest from 1850 on, time from which a representative amount of housing buildings which can be classified in typologies can be found in Bucharest. While the structural types are not necessarily characteristic for the style, since the style has other time limits, often appearing before the type became common and then remaining being practiced also after another style gained ground, a historic succession can be seen also in this case. The nine types considered can be grouped in seven time categories: - the time 1850-1880, for a vernacular housing type with masonry load bearing walls and timber floors, - the time 1880-1920, for the type of two storey or multi-storey house with masonry walls and timber floors (in which

  4. National Bank of Romania and the Ministry of Finance during the Holocaust in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion Antonescu inspired, coordinated and organized the tragedy of Jews in Romania, Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania in the 1940s. However, he was not alone. He had an entire team and an institutional system that worked for making anti-Semitism a state policy and practice. The beginning of WW II from the East meant for the Jews the acceleration of the destructive phase of their destiny. During the meeting of the Council of Ministers of September 6, 1941, Ion Antonescu stated the purpose of the war against the USSR and the drastic measures against the Jewish population.

  5. Ethnoveterinary practices of Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, Sámuel Gergely; Quave, Cassandra L; Balogh, Lajos; Papp, Nóra

    2015-05-06

    Ethnoveterinary medicine is a topic of growing interest among ethnobiologists, and is integral to the agricultural practices of many ethnic groups across the globe. The ethnoveterinary pharmacopoeia is often composed of ingredients available in the local environment, and may include plants, animals and minerals, or combinations thereof, for use in treating various ailments in reared animals. The aim of this study was to survey the current day ethnoveterinary practices of ethnic Hungarian (Székely) settlements situated in the Erdővidék commune (Covasna County, Transylvania, Romania) and to compare them with earlier works on this topic in Romania and other European countries. Data concerning ethnoveterinary practices were collected through semi-structured interviews and direct observation in 12 villages from 2010 to 2014. The cited plant species were collected, identified, dried and deposited in a herbarium. The use of other materials (e.g. animals, minerals and other substances) were also documented. Data were compared to earlier reports of ethnoveterinary knowledge in Transylvania and other European countries using various databases. In total, 26 wild and cultivated plants, 2 animals, and 17 other substances were documented to treat 11 ailments of cattle, horses, pigs, and sheep. The majority of applications were for the treatment of mastitis and skin ailments, while only a few data were reported for the treatment of cataracts, post-partum ailments and parasites. The traditional uses of Armoracia rusticana, Rumex spp., powdered sugar and glass were reported in each village. The use of some plant taxa, such as Allium sativum, Aristolochia clematitis, and Euphorbia amygdaloides was similar to earlier reports from other Transylvanian regions. Although permanent veterinary and medical services are available in some of the villages, elderly people preferred the use of wild and cultivated plants, animals and other materials in ethnoveterinary medicine. Some

  6. E-health progresses in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisil, Ioana; Jitaru, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is presenting the recent evolution of e-health aspects in Romania. Data presented are based on governmental reports. Surveys organized by the "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu and studies carried on by the national Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (I.C.I.) have shown that Romania has important health problems, from cardio vascular diseases (CVD) to cancer and infectious diseases, a high score on mortality and morbidity and a low one on natality. Poor management of the health sector did not help to solve all these problems. In the last 14 years there were several attempts to reform healthcare but none succeeded until now. The health insurance system is operational but needs still to be improved. Acknowledging the deep crisis of the health system the Prime Minister nominated a new minister of health and important changes in the health management approach are to be envisaged. One of this is the introduction of the e-procurement system for all health related goods. In spite of the crisis of the health system, e-health applications are flourishing. We can distinguish applications at national and local level and also punctual applications. The main applications refer to hospital information systems (HIS), electronic health records (EHR), e-procurement, image processing, diagnosis and treatment aids, telediagnosis, teleconsultation, education, research and domain oriented web support services. Most academic clinical hospital is now members of a web community "mednet". Unfortunately a lot of medical web sites have disappeared for lack of funds. As the health sector is in general funded from the public budget and the health crisis is deepened in the last years, the driving force in implementing e-health concepts and technologies is not the Ministry of Health but the Information Technology (IT) community, with a strong support from the Ministry of Information Technology and Communications and also from the Ministry of Education and Research

  7. Emergency Air Rescue System in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranca Sebastian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter, as a means of transport, has facilitated a significant decrease in intervention time at the site of request, increasing the chances of survival of the critical patient. Since 2003, SMURD has managed to form a fleet composed of nine helicopters and two airplanes. From an operational and strategic point of view, the SMURD intervention unit, set up seven Aeromedical Operational Bases (A.O.B. equipped with helicopters and materials necessary for their operation. There is a dynamic increase in the number of air rescue missions in Romania, with most missions being carried out by the air rescue bases in Târgu Mureş and Bucharest. Specialty literature has clearly demonstrated the positive impact on the survival of critical patients assisted by airborne crews, so it is necessary for the Romanian air rescue system to grow up. It is necessary to increase the number of air bases, purchase new helicopters and to continue the training programs of both pilots and medical personnel.

  8. Good prospects for green energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has to attain the strategic objectives for 2020: 20% of energy from renewable sources, cutting the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20% and diminishing the dependence on imported fuels, that is why in the last years European Commission has decided that MS should increase the flexibility of programs to promote green energy and cut subsidies. Although wind and solar energy have become more competitive in terms of cost in the last two decades, many production technologies need to be improved, also storage and transport capacities. Romania has an important potential of renewable energy resources and has introduced a functional mechanism for supporting their development based on a system of mandatory quotas for electricity, combined with trading a number of green certificates, but all the costs are transferred to the consumers.This system may carry an overcompensation for the investors and also an excessive burden on the consumers. Most investments were made in wind and hydro, the fewest in solar and biomass. Market liberalization may create more competition and stimulate the investments in different renewable resources.

  9. Romania: Childbearing metamorphosis within a changing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Schröder

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the socialist regime in Romania collapsed and the state's coercive pro-natalist policy ended. Since then, fertility has gone through major changes, namely, a massive reduction in fertility and important structural changes: birth postponement, an end to universal childbearing, and the emergence of non-marital births. Family formation has been postponed, but a pattern of early marriage still persists compared to other European countries. Although unmarried cohabitation is rising, it is rarely seen as an alternative to marriage. Modern contraceptive methods are being used increasingly, but traditional contraceptive methods continue to be widespread. Abortion, which was re-legalized in 1989 and made available after two decades of prohibition, has been practiced extensively ever since, especially after first birth. Romanians in 2004 continue to have a universal preference for parenting. However, the preference for the two-child family has declined and the desire for a larger family has become the exception. The transformation of the socialist regime into a democratic society with a market economy generated a socio-economic crisis, and the majority of social benefits have therefore been oriented towards alleviating poverty. Other social policies, including those affecting the family, were redefined. However, fewer funds were made available than for those geared to promote economic development or reduce poverty and, as a consequence, their impact on childbearing has been small.

  10. NON-PERFORMING LOANS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bad loans are essentially loans with arrears of 90 days or more, and the criterion of 90 days is the most common practice in different countries to determine indicators on the bad in lending. Credit risk is one of the most important financial risks facing the banking system is assumed by all credit institutions and may cause serious problems so that bank and the whole system if risk exposure is substantial. From this point of view, the most important function of bank management is to control the quality of the loan portfolio. This is because the poor quality of loans is the leading cause of bankruptcy. In accordance with the central bank, credit institutions are obliged to protect the bank's capital and the deposits of individuals and legal entities and to cover any loans that present uncertainties in recovery, to determine and utilize prudential value adjustments. The central bank aims NPL development using aggregated indicators on credit institutions. Conclusions are presented on developments and trends in non-performing loans in the portfolio of credit institutions in Romania.

  11. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadjivassiliadis, J.

    1996-01-01

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  12. METAMORPHOSES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STAMP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAUS MADALINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania's alignment to European standards is a difficult process with many legislative changes, with direct impact on taxpayers. The necessity of collecting substantial revenues to the State budget, which provide vital economic growth of the Romanian State, loses the substance when we are talking about taxes levied in relation to taxpayer. The environmental stamp, otherwise a controversial tax, represent for the State another way to earn revenue in advance, “as a loan", because in the end it's forced to repay the amounts concerned taxpayers, under the effect of a final and irrevocable court decision. The effects of the legislative changes bring every time complaints both from taxpayers, because they can demand repayment of the environmental stamp only during the period of prescription, as well as on the part of public servants who are grappling with a large volume of work, with the possibility of overcoming the term to handle requests. An equitable solution in solving these distortions would be the inclusion of the environmental stamp within the tax on means of transport, tax that is paid annually by vehicle owners. At the moment the level of the environmental stamp is calculated depending on the CO2 emissions, exhaust emissions and the age of the vehicle. Tax on means of transport is calculated based on engine capacity, an amount determined by CO2 emissions multiplying with each group of 200 cc or fraction on it. Therefore the unification of the two taxes would create a balance for all categories of vehicles.

  13. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  14. STATE BUDGET AND BUDGETARY PROCEDURES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA George Dorel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the budget process is governed by the Constitution and the Law of Public Finance no. 500/2002, act that includes the elaboration of the draft budget, approving the state budget, budget execution and budget control. All these activities are carried out in a legal way and administrative- institutional way, presenting features from country to country. The budget shows many traits in common: it is a decision process, because its essence consists in allocating budgetary resources for public goods such as education, health, national defence and so on. On the other hand is an essentially political process because allocation decisions budgetary resources are determined by the political groups, the mechanism of representation and voting, is a complex process with many participants (schools, hospitals, ministries, etc.. The budgetary process is a cyclic process, as it follows a well-defined calendar as a consequence of yearly and advertising budget. In conclusion, the budget process is a set of consecutive stages of development, approval, execution, control and reporting of the state budget, which ends with the approval of its execution account.

  15. ASSESING TECHNICAL UNIVERSITIES’ WEBSITES. ROMANIA VS. BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuţa IANCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a technology era, institutions have to be present on the World Wide Web (www, not only because of the competitiveness but also for a better presentation of their academic offers. Being a communication channel, universities’ websites must contain a series of information addressed not only to students or future students but also to the foreign students, academic staff, governmental institutions and press. While assessing Romania’s and Bulgaria’s Technical Universities’ websites, in March 2017, we searched and analyzed 104 criterion. We have grouped them into four dimensions: content, interactivity, navigation and appearance. Each criterion and dimension received a certain score (a grade for the presence / absence of a criterion using the ProfNet procedure. Of the two countries that we have analyzed (Romania and Bulgaria we have concluded, that the websites of the Romanian Universities possess a little more functionalities, gathering a score of 14.39 points (the means on all dimensions, compared to the Bulgarian ones which scored 14.25 points.

  16. Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina-Liana MANIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A comparative research regarding the occurrence and evolution patterns of the HIV-AIDS epidemic between Romania and the major areas (Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and the USA, respectively in order to establish the current trends of the diseases and the specific prognosis. Material and Methods: The research represents a systematic study over the entire period, of the HIV-AIDS pandemic from 1981-2008, based on specialty literature published in English or Romanian. In addition to theses, published articles, materials presented at conferences and congresses, reports and information from the main governmental and international organizations such as WHO, CDC, UNAIDS have been consulted. Results: Romania was the first country in Central and Eastern Europe to announce the diagnosis of an AIDS case in 1985. Since then, the prevalence per 100000 population of HIV infection cases, has demonstrated an ascending trend from 0.27 in 1992 to 19.67 in 2007. HIV-AIDS infection in children from Romania is unique worldwide. Therefore, from the cumulative total of 7606 AIDS pediatric cases between 1989-2007, 4885 have had a nosocomial transmission. The mother-to-child transmission is well controlled in Romania, similar to the USA. High-risk groups (injecting drug users or men having sex with men, represent a small percentage among the Romanian HIV-AIDS and SSA cases, compared to the USA. Romania, similar to the rest of Europe and USA, has not experienced in general population.

  17. Main factors influencing the production of biofuels in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Paul OLTEANU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable progress achieved by Romania in regenerative energies, especially for the hydro energy, the energy production from biomass still has a great unused potential compared with other EU countries. The interest for biomass has increased over the last years in the EU also in the context of biofuels for the transport sector and has lead to a series of strategic choices to increase their use in the economy. Biofuel production in Romania is at a low level compared with other more developed countries like Germany or France. Thus, outlining the country profile of Romania from the perspective of a national production of biofuels becomes imperative for the integration in the EU market and the development of a new industrial branch, with high growth rates and a positive impact on other economic branches (e.g. agriculture. The present study aims at laying the foundation for a strategic analysis of the biofuels production in Romania. In this regard different factors with a direct impact on the sustainable biofuels production were identified and analyzed. For the purpose of this study information from various reports, issued by both governmental and non-governmental bodies from Romania and internationally, were used.

  18. UNIDADES GEOMORFOLÓGICAS DE PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL

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    Diamantino Insua Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  19. 76 FR 60083 - Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe From Japan and Romania Determinations On the basis of... pressure pipe from Japan and Romania would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... regarding small- diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe from Romania...

  20. ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA - THE PAST FIVE YEARS

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    AURELIA PĂTRAȘCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of insurance systems in Romania in the past five years. Unlike other European countries, it can be seen that Romania does not have a well-established insurance tradition. Insurance companies are constantly adapting to the realities of the financial situation and the market structure in Romania.

  1. Philippines targeting unconventional sources for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for uranium in the Philippines dates back in the mid–1950s and to date about 70% of the country has been systematically explored, from reconnaissance to some detailed level using the combined radiometric and geochemical survey methods. However, no major uranium deposit has been discovered so far, only some minor mineralization. Also, there is a general view that the geological environment of the Philippines is unfavourable for uranium based on the lack of similarity between the geological features of known uranium–producing districts around the world and that of the country. It is in this light that the search for uranium in the country shifted to unconventional sources. The first unconventional source of uranium (U) that is being looked into is from rare earth elements (REE)–thorium (Th) minerals. Radiometric measurements along the beaches in northern Palawan identified major REE–Th and minor U potential areas. Heavy beach and stream panned concentrate gave high values of REE and Th, including U within the Ombo and Erawan coastal areas. Preliminary evaluation conducted in these two prospective areas indicated; 1) in the Ombo area, an estimated reserve of 750 t of Th, 30,450 t of REE and 80 t of U contained in about 540,000 t of beach sand with a respective average grade of 0.14% Th, 5.64% REE and 0.015% U, and 2) in the Erawan area, an estimated total reserve of 2,200 t of Th, 113,430 t of REE and 150 t U contained in 2,450,00 t of beach sand with an average grade of 0.09% Th, 4.63% REE and 0.006% U, respectively. Major allanite and minor monazite are the minerals identified and the source of these heavy minerals is the Tertiary Kapoas granitic intrusive rocks. Another unconventional source is a base metal zone with numerous occurrences containing complex assemblages of Cu–Mo–U within the Larap–Paracale mineralized district in Camarines Norte province, in which uranium may be produced as a by–product. A private mining company conducted

  2. Measuring risk in a Philippine power plant: the Philippine experience in transfer of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Leon, G.C. de; Azanon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine experience in risk assessment and management is more pronounced in the field of energy systems. This particular study focuses on the evaluation and management of pollutant emission from a geothermal power plant. It embraces two main methodologies 1) the systematic calculation of the risks impacts of the energy systems to human health and to the environment, and 2) the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction schemes. Presented in detail is how the researchers resolve the problems and the approach perceived as necessary for an effective risk management. (ELC). 12 refs.; 5 tabs.; 3 figs

  3. Cultural and Creative tourism in Portugal

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    Rui Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo paradigma en la industria turística está cambiando el significado de la cultura y sus usos de forma a promocionar productos o experiencias y destinos otros. Las cuestiones que ponemos son las siguientes: ¿Cuál es la importancia del turismo creativo en un destino turístico y cuáles serán las consecuencias para su organización? La metodología seguida se basó en una revisión de la literatura relativa al objeto de investigación, estudio de caso, análisis de datos, análisis de contenido, toma de muestras, “bola de nieve”, encuestas y observación participante. Este artículo analiza cómo el evento Festival MED en Loulé, Algarve ha mejorado la economía local, ha resuelto problemas urbanos en el centro histórico (área del evento y ayudó a diferenciar la oferta turística en el destino turístico maduro, en el Algarve, Portugal.

  4. Mercury distribution in Douro estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhosa, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: eduper@dq.ua.pt; Vale, C. [National Institute for Agronomy and Fishery Research, IPIMAR, Avenida Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Valega, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Monterroso, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    Determinations of dissolved reactive and total dissolved mercury, particulate and sedimentary mercury, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) have been made in the estuary of river Douro, in northern Portugal. The estuary was stratified by salinity along most of its length, it had low concentrations of SPM, typically <20 mg dm{sup -3}, and concentrations of DOC in the range <1.0-1.8 mg dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had a maximum dissolved concentration of reactive mercury of about 10 ng dm{sup -3}, whereas for the more saline bottom waters it was about 65 ng dm{sup -3}. The surface waters had maximum concentrations of total suspended particulate mercury of {approx}7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and the bottom waters were always <1 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Concentrations of mercury in sediments was low and in the range from 0.06 to 0.18 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The transport of mercury in surface waters was mainly associated with organic-rich particulate matter, while in bottom waters the dissolved phase transport of mercury is more important. Lower particulate organic matter, formation of chlorocomplexes in more saline waters and eventually the presence of colloids appear to explain the difference of mercury partitioning in Douro estuarine waters.

  5. Identity Reconfiguration of Immigrants in Portugal

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    Ricardo Vieira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The starting point is the principle that there is no immigrant culture, but rather, different ways of living, coexisting and identifying oneself within the cultural worlds that each subject crosses on his or her social path. Here we study Brazilian immigrants in Portugal, working with the first wave (starting at the end of the 1980s and the second wave (at the turn of the 20th to 21st century. We intend, firstly, to show how identity is reconstructed between two banks: the departure culture and the arrival culture. Secondly, we intend to give a voice to the most silent in the understanding of immigrants: the process of identity reconstruction of Brazilian immigrants is presented, resulting from ethno-biographic interviews. We will consider the cultural transfusion theory and observe the heterogeneous ways of living between cultures, whether by rejecting the departure culture (the Oblato‘s case, refusing the arrival one at a given moment (the mono-cultural subject according to the source culture, living in an ambivalent manner between the two (the multicultural self, or, finally, inventing a third bank, as the poets say, which corresponds to an attitude of including the cultural differences through which one crosses during his or her life history in an intercultural self (the Intercultural Transfuga.

  6. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  7. Radiation vulcanization of Philippine natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; Abad, Lucille V.; Sta, Lorna P.; Ana-Relleve; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito O.; Pascual, Cristina L.

    1996-01-01

    The response of Philippine natural rubber latex to radiation vulcanization and the stability of the irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL) upon storage and aging were investigated. Commercially available high ammonia (HA) concentrated lattices obtained from various rubber plantations in Mindanao Island were treated with 5 phr of n-butyl acrylate (nBA), and gamma-irradiated at the PNRI sup 60 Co irradiation facility at dose rate of 2.57 KGy/hr. Unirradiated cast latex films gave different green strength which varied from 2 - 11 MPa. Cast films from INRL exhibited maximum tensile strengths of 25 - 32 MPa at a radiation dose of 15 kGy. Higher tensile strengths were obtained from cast films with low Mg and high nitrogen contents. Thermal analysis using thermogravimetry (TG) revealed one major decomposition product at 374 degree C - 377 degree C. Its rate of decomposition decreased to a minimum at 15 kGy, then increased as radiation dose increased. This trend correlated well with the tensile strength measurements. The stability of the INRL upon storage and aging is an essential parameter to the rubber latex industry. For storage studies, INRL was stored for various periods of time. It was found that the pH and total solids content of the stored INRL did not change significantly after 12 months of storage; the MST values remained at above 100 seconds, and the viscosity decreased with time. The cast films exhibited a decline in tensile strength, modulus 300% and crosslinking density upon storage. While there were observed changes in the physical properties of the IRNL during the storage period, the data indicate that these properties were within values acceptable to the latex industry. Tests on the aging properties of INRL film were undertaken. It was shown that among the chemical antioxidants presently used by the latex industry. TNPP demonstrated the highest antioxidant property, followed by Antage DAHQ and Vulcanox BKF. Our data indicate that the natural rubber latex

  8. ASSESSMENT OF TORNADOS WITH THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE IN ROMANIA

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    C. NUCUŢĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of tornadoes with the Enhanced Fujita Scale in Romania. An analysis of the damage caused by a tornado, in order to determine the maximum wind speed that was reached, is important both in terms of documenting the phenomenon and to make improvements to the evaluation method which is used, especially if this method is not specific for the analyzed territory. An overview of the way the tornado from Silivaşu de Câmpie, on the 26th of May 2010, was termed EF2 is done to summarize the difficulties that arise in the assessment of tornadoes occurring in Romania with the Enhanced Fujita scale. The lack of correlation between damage indicators, different construction styles and building materials between those in the United States and those selected in this case study are the main issues addressed. Solutions for these issues are discussed as a starting point for the adjustment of Enhanced Fujita scale for Romania.

  9. ABOUT DIRECT SALES IN THE WORLD, EUROPE AND ROMANIA

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    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sale represents a modern product distribution system directly to consumers, generally, directly to their homes, to their workplace or other places, beside retail shops. The best known type of direct sale, the Network Marketing or Multilevel Marketing implies the existence of a network of distributors which earn income from selling on commission, to which they add the trade markup. This paper is based upon the analysis of these types of sales starting with the study of specialized literature especially by foreign authors, mainly Americans, with the analysis of statistical data presented by several organizations such as SELDIA (The European Direct Selling Association, MLM International Romania, ACVD (Association of Direct Selling Companies in Romania, as well as the legal regulations within this field. In conclusion, the paper presents an interesting comparison of the sales and structure volume between the Europe and Romania.

  10. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

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    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  11. COMPETITION ON THE WHOLESALE MEDICATION DISTRIBUTION MARKET IN ROMANIA

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    Alina HAGIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholesale distribution of medicines in Romania was in the constant attention of the competition authority. In order to analyze the operation of the distribution system practiced in Romania, but also changes that may occur in this system on short and medium term, the Competition Council conducted a sector inquiry after which they found some malfunctioning mainly chained to distributors access to certain medications. Conducted on a sample of 23 pharmaceutical groups operating on the Romanian market and holding approximately 80% of the pharmaceutical market in Romania in 2009, the sector inquiry aimed at two objectives, namely: Legislation analysis with impact on the wholesale distribution of drugs; Market analysis of drug distribution.Following the findings of the high concentration of markets analyzed, due to significant market shares held by innovative drugs under investigation were analyzed also the penetration of generics in the market and the factors that led to this situation.

  12. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

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    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF ROMANIA

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    CIOCÂRLAN VASILE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are present and discussed the fact that the legitimate name is Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill and the synonime name is Cirsium helenioides auct., non (L. Hill.In the flora of Romania, as well as in Europe, is growing Cirsium heterophyllum (L. Hill; Cirsium helenioides (L. Hill is growing in Central Asia and in Siberie.Follow, it is showed that the taxa Juncus trifidus L. ssp. monanthos (Jacq. Asch. & Graebn. is not growing in the flora of Romania. There is presented an infraspecific taxa, new for the science, namely: Juncus trifidus L. ssp. trifidus var. brevifolia Ciocârlan var. nova., discovered in the Mountains of Cozia (Vâlcea county.Also, in this paper is presented two rare plants in the flora of Romania: Dianthus kladovanus Degen and Thymus longicaulis C. Presl, species listed in the “Red Lists”, discovered by the author in new localities.

  14. Perspectives On Accounting and Fiscal Law of Crowdfunding in Romania

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    Delia David

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the accounting and fiscal regime of crowdfunding and the legal framework for such operations in Romania. Crowdfunding provides support to project developers by enabling them to access finance in a simple and inexpensive manner. Thus we refer to the following: current state of crowdfunding operations and existing legal background for conducting such operations in Romania as well as possible directions for its improvement. We will also highlight the accounting and fiscal issues encountered by both companies that hold online crowdfunding platforms and those benefiting from the sums collected through this financing method. This paper is based on case study research method. Considering the fact that in Romania the functioning of the crowdfunding platforms is not yet regulated, the information and views set out in this article are those of the authors.

  15. Romania's Agriculture and its Role in the Convergence Process

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    CONSTANTIN POSTOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of agriculture in Romania is linked to the fact that 45% of its population is in the rural area, mostly dependent on agricultural activities. This paper aims to determine in what extent agriculture influences the convergence process of Romania with the euro area. The structural convergence index is computed in order to assess the degree in which the structure of the Romanian economy resembles the one of the euro area in terms of both gross value added and employment. Research indicates that Romania has the lowest score in terms of structural convergence with the euro area. The main reason is the oversized agricultural sector which employs almost a third of the active population. The productivity of the Romanian agriculture is then assessed in order to identify its possible effect on the country’s overall competitiveness and on the whole convergence process.

  16. 'Nuclearelectrica' and restructuring the electric power sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the first steps of the energy market development in Romania and the impact of this process on 'Nuclearelectrica' company which operates the Cernavoda NPP. The main directions of the power sector liberalization in the European Union are being implemented in Romania. 'Nuclearelectrica' attempts to comply with both economic and safety requirements for nuclear plant operation. So far, the evolution of power market proved the competitiveness of Cernavoda Unit 1 with the existing power producers in Romania. It is stressed that although the 'Hydroelectrica' company sells the MWh at a lower price it cannot cope with top demands higher than 2400 MW. Economical aspects are analyzed and the conclusion is drawn that the situation of 'Nuclearelectrica' company will be significantly changed after the commissioning of Cernavoda Unit 2. (author)

  17. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  18. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

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    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  19. STUDY ON EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA FOR MEASURE 313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina D. MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.

  20. EXPENDITURES AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF THE TOURISM SPORTS IN ROMANIA

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    Răbonţu Cecilia Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, scale sports tourism gets well deserved lately. Tourism and sport has a close relationship since the beginning of their existence, and today we are witnessing a strengthening of it, because we talk about quality of life and greatly enhanced awareness of the beneficial effects of tourism and sport, both contributing to the restoration of working capacity, to increase the health of the population and spending free time pleasant and useful. We have proposed in this paper to analyze consumer behavior of sports tourism in Romania but also places where the cost of sports activities in total expenditures grouped according to several criteria. We conducted a preliminary conceptualization of the notion of tourism and tourist sports, controversial and difficult concept to define. We used for this purpose an extensive bibliographic material and statistical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  1. ROMANIA AND THE EURASIAN UNION. PLANS, PREDICTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Cristian GHENGHEA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the events in Ukraine, Romania might represent one of the key points for the Eurasian perspectives that have circulated in the last years in Moscow. Through our text we intend to present and to highlight the main ideas and plans of Eurasian inspiration regarding Romania, as well as the interesting predictions made, in certain moments, by some representative characters for the Eurasian paradigm, like Aleksandr Dugin, for instance, who is its main ideologist and promoter. At the same time, one must not neglect the signals of discontent from Moscow about the need of dissipating the so-called sanitary cordon of the Western powers, in which the Baltic States, Poland, and Romania are included – another aspect bearing a particular importance for understanding certain gestures, attitudes and statements related to the role and the place of the Eurasian Union.

  2. Role of nuclear power in Romania's sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Anca; Lavrov, George; Costea, Diana; Vasile, Camelia

    2002-01-01

    The role of nuclear power in Romania can be assessed by taking into account the present situation of Romania electro-power systems, the socio-economic and technological evolution, of Romania as well as world wide evolution of the unique power market according the 'Green Card - Towards an European strategy for power securement' endorsed by the European Commission in November 2000. The Romanian electro-power systems is currently undergoing a restructuring process aiming at efficiency improvement, cost reduction, private investment encouraging, efficient use of available national resources. The energy demand in Romania decreased in the period 1989-2000 by an annual rate of 3.8% due to the new trends in the Romanian economy. A thorough analysis for the 2002-2020 showed the necessity for installing a capacity of about 9,000 MW what implies: - achievement of about 1935 MW in hydroelectric plants and 2,100 MW from the Cernavoda NPP; - construction of new condensation groups operating with domestic lignite and pitcoal from import; - new groups with combined cycle based on natural gas; - new nuclear units with 700 MW CANDU type reactors. Achievement of the nuclear program will reduce the Romania's dependences on fossil fuel import enhance will secure the fulfilment of the provisions of European Union's Green Card. It will require important investments what will entailed a rice in cost of the electric energy for end consumers. Although a moderate nuclear power realization is a viable solution for Romania ensuring both the levelling of prices and taxes for fuel and energy to those of European countries and the fulfilment of the Kyoto protocol requirements. Decision for the proper sizing of nuclear program will be made according to many factors implied in the Romanian electro-power system development, as well as by using the experience acquired from the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 operation

  3. Foreign Direct Investments – Challenges and Perspectives for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Batusaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization of markets, foreign direct investments have an important role in terms of supporting endogenous growth factors, on the one hand and the circuit of financial flows between countries, on the other hand. If we refer to the effects of the economic crisis on economies, ISD may represent capital infusion instruments for affected economic sectors, contributing to faster recovery of economic gaps that occurred. By studying this topic of FDI we consider the great impact and benefits that they can bring, being essential element in the development of a country, as in the case of Romania. This paper presents the main trends of international financial flows for the period 2008-2012, whereas in the context of economic globalization requires an overall analysis of country-specific FDI performance as it helps in improving and optimizing strategies adopted by foreign transnational companies. In order to underline their importance and necessity, we study the situation of Romania in this field by analyzing the performance of countries in attracting direct foreign investments. Following the study conducted it has been made a number of conclusions and recommendations on how to improve this process in Romania. Academics, researchers, administrators of the university all have a great responsibility on how they support to attract FDI in Romania, even if we refer to work force that they form, the ideas they can provide in supporting and developing this process or by sharing the “know-how” related to the many fields that FDI can have an impact on. This paper aims to bring on the loop the main strengths and weaknesses that Romania has in the field of FDS and invites the readers interested on the topic to involve by providing feedback in order to improve this process in Romania.

  4. Making contract farming work? : society and technology in Philippine transnational agribusiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: contract farming, agribusiness, Philippines, Southeast Asia, asparagus, hybrid maize

    Contract farming is a widespread and important tool for organising agricultural production in line with corporate strategies and market demands. This book analyses how Philippine farmers

  5. VIEW ON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT LITERATURE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacanu Bogdan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on analyzing the Romanian works on strategic management n#8211; a specific field of management theory. The literature to be analyzed is referred to the Romanian environment due to the national authors writing in Romanian on the one hand, and to the source of diffusion involving the products which were developed on the other. This study evaluates the strategic management theory representation and reflection in the works issued in Romania by Romanian authors during the last two decades. Such an assessment is valuable for the evaluation of the development level related to a rather novel field of to the socio-economic area..The evaluation is also useful in order to devise curricula for the faculties providing training programs related to business and institution management. The study schema taken into account is discussed by reviewing similar examples selected from the foreign literature. The works to be analyzed were selected taking into account the interest triggered by the prestige of the quoted authors and by the analysis schemes they used. The approaches related to a specific segment of management are compared to the ones dealing with the field as a whole. n#8220;The form oriented referencesn#8221; of the study are compared with the practice developed in the countries considered as sources for the management theory. The research has mostly a descriptive character with a longitudinal approach focused on the last two decades. The qualitative aspects prevail, even if an amount of quantitative references are also taken into account. The quantitative approach attempts to provide a wider image where certain approximations are used in order to build a basis of reference. With no intention to develop case studies, the examples were preferred to doubtful quantitative determinations related to the relevance of representation, which could have concealed the essential state of facts. The secondary sources used were selected according to

  6. ORTHOPTERA FAUNA OF SĂLAJ COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellért Puskás

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available : Orthoptera fauna of Sălaj County, NW Romania is reviewed based on new and literature data. 63 species were collected during field investigations in 2014-2015, thus the known Orthoptera species in the region are 74 (30 Acridoidea, 3 Tetrigoidea, 1 Tridactyloidea, 7 Grylloidea, 33 Tettigonioidea. 9 species are recorded in the county for the first time (Chorthippus mollis, Ch. montanus, Ch. vagans, Euchorthippus pulvinatus, Stenobothrus stigmaticus, Tetrix tuerki, Isophya kraussii, Metrioptera brachyptera, Pholidoptera frivaldszkyi. Isophya kraussii kraussii is a new subspecies for the fauna of Romania. Correct original spelling of the name of Ph. frivaldszkyi (Herman, 1871 is fixed.

  7. Economic and Banking Environment in Romania and E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the overall picture of Europe's economic prospects, strained relations within the European area. Also presents the evolution of the banking system in Romania in the context of situations in Europe, which returned to profit and record high levels of solvency and liquidity, while the NPL ratio continued to decline. Due to the difficulty of forecasting medium business, and to the macroeconomic context, banks avoid risk taking associated finance investment projects in the long term, preferring financing in the medium term, so that more than half of home loans granted in Romania are for term funding short and medium.

  8. Waste Management in the Circular Economy. The Case of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuga, Anca N.

    2016-11-01

    Applying the principles of sustainable development in Romania involves a new approach to ecological waste using basic concepts of circular economy to weigh accurately the proposed projects in this area taking into account existing environmental resources and zero waste objectives. The paper is focused on: quantitative and qualitative measures of waste prevention in Romania, the changing status of the waste by selling it as product, the mechanisms for paying for treatment and / or disposal which discourage waste generation and the use of financial resources obtained from secondary raw materials for the efficiency of waste management.

  9. Institutions fighting Trafficking in Human Beings in the Contemporary Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last approximately 15 years, mainly in the last decade, Romania made substantial efforts to establish the institutions fighting THB according with the EU’s Directive 38 /2011’s requirements and the recommendation assumed by the International Treaties signed and ratified in this area. The plethora of institutions were founded, but they are not functioning yet as a system because of the absence of the independent assessing institution. That is why, it must be, immediately, created. Beside, the institutional system needs, as a unavoidable complement the launching of Cultural Strategy in tabooing for good, the THB in Romania.

  10. The State-Church Relationship in Post-Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA GORGAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Romanian edition of Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu’swork Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Romania, we argue in favour of thenecessity to study the relationship between the State and the Romanian OrthodoxChurch using an approach which takes into account the details and the possibleexistent perspectives, bringing a plus of objectivity, which is so needed in a fieldperceived as a sensible one. The arguments put forward will be justified by thehistorical tradition of the State-Church relationship in the Byzantine Empire, but alsoin Romania, as well as by the predominantly Orthodox structure of our country.

  11. Urban and rural educational system disparities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Roberta STANEF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex multidimensional and multidisciplinary issue of the educational system in more details and to deal with conceptions, methodological approaches and the acquired knowledge, focused particularly on Romanian educational system.The mean of the paper is to present the complex issue of regional and territorial disparities in Romania. The educational system in Romania is at a crossroad. Initiated important reforms in the sector after the last 21 years – including changing the curriculum, student assessment, teacher training, funding and management module – will be continued to improve outcomes in education.

  12. CONSIDERATION REGARDING THE TAXATION IN FINLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LUCIA CROITORU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows through comparison, in the first phase, the main features of the tax system focusing on direct and indirect taxes, in Finland and Romania, and then presents an analysis of the evolution of the structure and level of taxes in both countries. Last but not least, is presented an analysis of the level of tax burden and also the factors that influenced the pressure in these two countries. The diversity of the fiscality in Finland and Romania reflecting the political choice of a given moment and is the result of the economic and social structure of each country.

  13. PPPs IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. GUIDELINES FOR ROMANIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian GORIŢĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several starting points could be used in an analysis on the possible routes for developing Public-Private Partnership1 (henceforth PPP projects in Romania, regarded as an alternative financing mechanism for public infrastructure. This paper follows a “classical” approach, with a focus on the pros and cons of the Public-Private Partnership concept, legal forms met in the European acquis, the Eurostat view on such projects in terms of the statistical classification of assets, financing and policy directions in the European Union and lessons learnt for practitioners in Romania, while taking into account the recent developments of the PPP market in the European Union

  14. Characteristics of LEADER program for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára - Dalma POLGÁR (DESZKE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The LEADER program is the fourth axis of European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD. The paper presents its time scheduling, the importance for development of the rural areas in European Union and in Romania, the measures of financing and its double role as a component fund of EAFRD, and also as a delivery mechanism for measures of the other three axes of EAFRD. The paper shows the way of implementing LEADER program in Romania, during 2007-2013. The state of implementing of the Romanian contribution from EAFRD is presented for the entire period and until the end of 2014.

  15. IMPACT FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Vladut NUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of developed economies is the vital role of entrepreneurship as a central pillar of economic growth. In the context of growing number of new businesses, this article aims to highlight the key factors that affect the entrepreneurship in Romania. The authors reviewed several scientific articles and business reports and also primary data collected via direct interaction with young entrepreneurs and students that aspire to become entrepreneurs in Romania. Issues like access to financing, taxes and other administrative barriers and also entrepreneurial skills and education are discussed. Moreover, entrepreneurs’ opinions on measures to improve the entrepreneurial education are listed.

  16. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  17. Guidelines and policies on collection of biological specimens in the Philippines. Philippine Congress, International Convention on Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulid, D A

    1996-04-01

    In October, 1993, 16 months after the United Nations approved the International Convention on Biodiversity held in Rio de Janeiro, June, 1992, the Philippine Congress ratified and adopted the Convention. This is a manifestation of the full support of the Philippines for the principles and policies adopted by the UN body on the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable development of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits between users and owners of biodiversity resources. The Philippine scientific community has long recognized the need for and importance of a national guideline and policy with regard to the collection of plants and animals in the Philippines for scientific or commercial purposes. A series of consultative meetings were held by representatives of government agencies, non-government organizations, private organizations, academic and private persons concerned with biodiversity conservation to formulate national guidelines that regulate the collection of plant and animal specimens in the country. Guidelines were unanimously adopted by various government agencies and academia and a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) was signed on September 28, 1990. Very recently a new document was drafted, specifically to serve as a guideline for those who desire to undertake sample collecting in the Philippines for biodiversity prospecting. The document is now being reviewed by government departments and agencies and will be presented to the President of the Philippines for signing as an Executive Order (EO). Once signed, this EO will serve as a national policy for bioprospecting in the country. The Philippines is one of the countries in Southeast Asia that has endorsed the adoption of regional guidelines on the collection of plant and animal organisms for drug development. The ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). The Manila Declaration (1992) and lately, the Melaka Accord (1994), all of which were signed by various

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, Teofilo V. Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Regulating the use of radioactive materials in the Philippines involves the adherence to legislation, regulations, standards and regulatory guides. It is based on a detailed review and assessment of the radiation safety program of owners and users of these materials and associated equipment against safety requirements and on additional verification of the operating practices and procedures. Republic Acts 5207 and 2067, both as amended, are implemented through the regulations which are titled Code of PNRI Regulations or CPRs are developed and issued together with supporting regulatory guides, Bulletins and other documents detailing the safety requirements. These issuance adhere to internationally accepted requirements on radiation protection, and nuclear safety and security, as well as safeguards. Design documents and technical Specifications of important radioactive materials, equipment and components are required to be submitted and reviewed by the PNRI before the issuance of an authorization in the form of a license Verification of adherence to regulations and safety requirements are periodically checked through the implementation of an inspection and enforcement program. The ISO certified regulatory management system of PNRI is documented in a QMS manual that provides guidance on all work processes. It involves systematic planning and evaluation of activities, multiple means of getting feedback on the work processes, and continuous efforts to improve its effectiveness. Efforts are implemented in order to strengthen the transparency openness, independence, technical competence and effectiveness of the regulatory body. (author)

  19. Parasitological detection and molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis from canines in Manila, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Baticados, Waren; Baticados,Waren; Carlos,; Villarba,; Subiaga,; Carlos Sr.,Enrique; Baticados,Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Abigail M Baticados1, Waren N Baticados1, Enrique T Carlos2, Sixto MEAS Carlos2, Lorelie A Villarba1, Sherlyn G Subiaga1, Jomarte M Magcalas11Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2Makati Dog and Cat Hospital (MDCH), Makati City, PhilippinesAbstract: Hepatozoon canis infection in canines is allegedly an underreported disease in the Philippines. In over the past four decades, ther...

  20. Prospects and Problems of Expanding Trade with Japan: A Survey of Philippine Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Rosalina P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper looks at firm-level factors that affect Philippine exports to Japan with the main objective of recommending provisions for the proposed Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA) that will enable existing and prospective Philippine exporters to fully exploit the potential of the Japanese market. To this end, the study identifies Philippine products with export prospects in Japan and conducts a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) Analysis of these produ...

  1. The Philippines in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Upgrading Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaelita M. ALDABA

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent and depth of participation of the Philippines in the electronics global value chains (GVC) using Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and extensive margin indicators. While the Philippines remains strong in semiconductors, it is lagging behind other ASEAN countries. According to the TiVA database, the level of participation of the Philippines in the electronics GVC increased substantially between 1995 and 2009. The extensive margins show that the Philippines has been reg...

  2. Philippine Corporate Governance : Environment and Policy and their Impact on Performance and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar G. Saldaña

    2000-01-01

    The Asian Development Bank initiated a study of Corporate Governance and Finance in Selected developing Member Countries in November 1998. The objectives of the study for the Philippines are to evaluate the history and current state of corporate governance in the Philippines; establish a sound analytic basis for policy and regulatory reform measures to strengthen corporate governance of Philippine companies and recommend reform measures for the Philippine government and the Bank. It analyzes ...

  3. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  4. Divorce and separation in the Philippines: Trends and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeofrey Abalos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Philippines is the only country in the world, aside from the Vatican, where divorce is not legal. Despite the lack of divorce law in the country and the high costs of obtaining an annulment, recent data shows that a growing number of Filipinos dissolve their marital unions, either legally or informally. Objective: I document the rise of union dissolution cases in the Philippines, and investigate the different factors associated with Filipino women's experience of union dissolution. Methods: Data is drawn from the two most recent rounds of the Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, conducted in 2008 and 2013. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models are used in the analysis. Results: Results reveal that education, type of first union, and childhood place of residence are significantly associated with being divorced or separated among women in the Philippines. Filipino women with higher levels of education, those who were cohabiting without ever marrying in their first union, and those who were raised in urban settings have higher risks of experiencing union dissolution than their counterparts. Religion and ethnicity are also associated with union breakdown among Filipino women. Contribution: This paper demonstrates that the rise in union dissolution in the Philippines has not happened in isolation. It has to some extent been influenced by the changing character of union formation in the country, the prevailing legal system, a growing acceptance of divorce, increasing education for women, and increasing urbanization.

  5. How can Portugal attract more China´S young generation tourists?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yujing

    2017-01-01

    Portugal as a tourism destination has great potential to be further developed, however it is still not well known by the Chinese outbound tourists, especially the young generation who would stay longer and spend more in Portugal. This paper describe the current situation of Portugal tourism in Chinese outbound market, after analyzing explained why Portugal should aim at the young generation, and finally gave some recommendations of how to attract them, mainly through social media platforms.

  6. Swallowed by a cayman : integrating cultural values in Philippine crocodile conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, Johan van der (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    The Philippine crocodile is a critically endangered species, endemic to the Philippine Islands. Indiscriminate hunting, the use of destructive fishing practices and the conversion of wetland habitat into rice fields continue to threaten the few remaining Philippine crocodile populations in the wild.

  7. Philippine and North Bornean Languages: Issues in Description, Subgrouping, and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jason William

    2013-01-01

    The Philippines, northern Sulawesi, and northern Borneo are home to two or three hundred languages that can be described as Philippine-type. In spite of nearly five hundred years of language documentation in the Philippines, and at least a century of work in Borneo and Sulawesi, the majority of these languages remain grossly underdocumented, and…

  8. A Bibliography of Philippine Language Dictionaries and Vocabularies. Special Monograph Issue, Number 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gail R., Comp.; Newell, Leonard E., Comp.

    This bibliography is a comprehensive listing of dictionaries and vocabularies, published and unpublished, of the Philippine languages. Introductory sections chronicle briefly the histories of Philippine lexicography and Philippine bibliographies, describe the scope of the present work, and outline the organization of the bibliography itself and…

  9. CONFLITOS E TRAUMAS NO RENASCIMENTO EM PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Castro Soares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Num século em que a abertura à modernidade trouxe um ardor renovado pelos ideais da Antiguidade Clássica, assimilados aos valores do Cristianismo – raízes da Civilização do Ocidental –,consuma-se a perda de Constantinopla e assiste-se ao crescente domínio turco e à defesa concertada contra o seu avanço; à grande gesta dos Descobrimentos, com as inevitáveis guerras de conquista; à Reforma protestante e às guerras de religião, qual Hidra de Lerna, no dizer de Erasmo; aos conflitos armados entre príncipes cristãos, que Camões interpela no Canto VII de Os Lusíadas.A Reforma de Lutero, Calvino, Henrique VIII fragmentaram a inconsútil túnica de Cristo e puseram fim à unidade da Respublica Christiana, que se tornou em Ocidente dos Estados. Marcantes nesta época foram o pragmatismo político de Maquiavel; o papel da ciência juridica, na definição do direito internacional e do direito dos povos.Em Portugal, muitos foram os conflitos decorrentes da política de expansão e da acção dos sucessivos monarcas, desde os inícios da Segunda Dinastia ao reinado de D. Sebastião: exílios, perseguições, sobretudo a partir da introdução da Inquisição (1536, desastres naturais e, enfim, a perda da independência, a marcar o ocaso do Século de Ouro. 

  10. Census Model Transition: Contributions to its Implementation in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Carlos A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the high cost and complexity of traditional censuses, some countries have started to change the census process. Following this trend, Portugal is also evaluating a new census model as an alternative to an exhaustive collection of all statistical units. The main motivations for the implementation of this census model transition in Portugal are related to the decrease in statistical burden on citizens, improvements in the frequency of outputs, and the reduction of collection costs associated with census operations. This article seeks to systematise and critically review all alternatives to the traditional census methodologies, presenting their advantages and disadvantages and the countries that use them. As a result of the comparison, we conclude that the methods that best meet these objectives are those that use administrative data, either in whole or in part. We also present and discuss the results of an inventory and evaluation of administrative registers in Portugal with the potential to produce statistical census information.

  11. Occupational health and safety issues among nurses in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Cabrera, Suzanne L; Gee, Gilbert C; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A

    2009-04-01

    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety.

  12. Regulatory control and management of radioactive materials in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.; Parami, V.K.; Domondon, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to promote, advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, established in 1958. This report aims to share the information and experience of PNRI as a regulatory authority on the administrative, technical and managerial aspects to ensure the safety and security of radioactive material in the country. It describes the country's regulatory framework, operational experiences, international co-operation including reporting system and database, and radiological safety assessment and compliance monitoring. It also briefly discusses the current development of the country's radiological emergency response plan and the radiation protection services offered by the PNRI. In the discussion and recommendations, some of the results of the regulatory information conferences conducted with the end-users are enumerated. (author)

  13. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroy, Rosita R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI's regulatory functions are presented. (author)

  14. Philippine Plecopteran with four new records in Compostela Valley Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Norman Dejadena Medina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the updated list of Philippine Plecoptera starting from the 1940’s Philippine Zoological Expedition up to the recent discoveries of Sivec and Stark on 2011. A poorly known group, there is scanty literature and several part of the Philippine archipelago is poorly explored. In order to address this information gap particularly in Compostela Valley Province, a provincial survey was conducted from January to November 2012. Opportunistic sampling using hand netting and standard light trapping methods were used to collect species from nine municipalities. There were 181 individuals collected representing two genera and four species comprising about 11.76% of the recorded species to occur in the archipelago. This paper reports the first record of Plecoptera in the province.

  15. Safety regulations of radiation sources in industry in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, A M [Licensing and Evaluation Section, Nuclear Regulations Licensing and Safeguards Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1992-12-31

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission established in 1958. This report aims to share the experiences of the PNRI on licensing and regulating the safe use of radioactive materials in industry, particularly in industrial gamma radiography, nuclear gauges and radioactive tracers. It enumerates the licensing and enforcement procedures. Some common problems encountered in the licensing and enforcement activities and comments of future plans to resolve the problems were also discussed. (Author).

  16. Occupational Health and Safety Issues Among Nurses in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A. B.; Cabrera, Suzanne L.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Fujishiro, Kaori; Tagalog, Eularito A.

    2009-01-01

    Nursing is a hazardous occupation in the United States, but little is known about workplace health and safety issues facing the nursing work force in the Philippines. In this article, work-related problems among a sample of nurses in the Philippines are described. Cross-sectional data were collected through a self-administered survey during the Philippine Nurses Association 2007 convention. Measures included four categories: work-related demographics, occupational injury/illness, reporting behavior, and safety concerns. Approximately 40% of nurses had experienced at least one injury or illness in the past year, and 80% had experienced back pain. Most who had an injury did not report it. The top ranking concerns were stress and overwork. Filipino nurses encounter considerable health and safety concerns that are similar to those encountered by nurses in other countries. Future research should examine the work organization factors that contribute to these concerns and strengthen policies to promote health and safety. PMID:19438081

  17. Safety regulations of radiation sources in industry in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission established in 1958. This report aims to share the experiences of the PNRI on licensing and regulating the safe use of radioactive materials in industry, particularly in industrial gamma radiography, nuclear gauges and radioactive tracers. It enumerates the licensing and enforcement procedures. Some common problems encountered in the licensing and enforcement activities and comments of future plans to resolve the problems were also discussed. (Author)

  18. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  19. Preparation of School/Educational Psychologists in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negovan, Valeria; Dinca, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the academic and professional training of educational/school psychologists in Romania. Their training mirrors the country's history, legal provisions, social qualities, and current professional status of psychologists and their specialization. Efforts to increase the quality of training for educational/school psychologists…

  20. A Brief History of Family Life Education in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momanu, Mariana; Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Samoila, Magda-Elena

    2018-01-01

    Starting from the state of conceptual diversity, semantic ambiguity, and poor connection of family life education practices to current policies and theoretical models in Romania, our study aims at understanding the underlying meanings of these issues by recourse to the history of approaches in the field. To this purpose, we carried out a…