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Sample records for pharmacology hematopoietins stem

  1. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  2. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  3. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease: the demise of alchemy and rise of pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadczyk, T; Faulkner, A; Madeddu, P

    2013-05-01

    Regenerative medicine holds great promise as a way of addressing the limitations of current treatments of ischaemic disease. In preclinical models, transplantation of different types of stem cells or progenitor cells results in improved recovery from ischaemia. Furthermore, experimental studies indicate that cell therapy influences a spectrum of processes, including neovascularization and cardiomyogenesis as well as inflammation, apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus, distinct strategies might be required for specific regenerative needs. Nonetheless, clinical studies have so far investigated a relatively small number of options, focusing mainly on the use of bone marrow-derived cells. Rapid clinical translation resulted in a number of small clinical trials that do not have sufficient power to address the therapeutic potential of the new approach. Moreover, full exploitation has been hindered so far by the absence of a solid theoretical framework and inadequate development plans. This article reviews the current knowledge on cell therapy and proposes a model theory for interpretation of experimental and clinical outcomes from a pharmacological perspective. Eventually, with an increased association between cell therapy and traditional pharmacotherapy, we will soon need to adopt a unified theory for understanding how the two practices additively interact for a patient's benefit. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Aging and stem cell therapy: AMPK as an applicable pharmacological target for rejuvenation of aged stem cells and achieving higher efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorraminejad-Shirazi, Mohammadhossein; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kardeh, Bahareh; Estedlal, Alireza; Kardeh, Sina; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, tissue regeneration has become a promising field for developing stem cell-based transplantation therapies for human patients. Adult stem cells are affected by the same aging mechanisms that involve somatic cells. One of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aging of stem cells results in their impaired regenerative capacity and depletion of stem cell pools in adult tissue, which results in lower efficacy of stem cell therapy. By utilizing an effective therapeutic intervention for aged stem cells, stem cell therapy can become more promising for future application. mTORC1 inhibition is a practical approach to preserve the stem cell pool. In this article, we review the dynamic interaction between sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, AMPK, and mTORC1. We propose that using AMPK activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, A769662, metformin, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are practical ways to be employed for achieving better optimized results in stem cell-based transplantation therapies. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Programming and isolation of highly pure physiologically and pharmacologically functional sinus-nodal bodies from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julia Jeannine; Husse, Britta; Rimmbach, Christian; Krebs, Stefan; Stieber, Juliane; Steinhoff, Gustav; Dendorfer, Andreas; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; David, Robert

    2014-05-06

    Therapeutic approaches for "sick sinus syndrome" rely on electrical pacemakers, which lack hormone responsiveness and bear hazards such as infection and battery failure. These issues may be overcome via "biological pacemakers" derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Here, we show that forward programming of PSCs with the nodal cell inducer TBX3 plus an additional Myh6-promoter-based antibiotic selection leads to cardiomyocyte aggregates consisting of >80% physiologically and pharmacologically functional pacemaker cells. These induced sinoatrial bodies (iSABs) exhibited highly increased beating rates (300-400 bpm), coming close to those found in mouse hearts, and were able to robustly pace myocardium ex vivo. Our study introduces iSABs as highly pure, functional nodal tissue that is derived from PSCs and may be important for future cell therapies and drug testing in vitro.

  6. Functional and Pharmacological Analysis of Cardiomyocytes Differentiated from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Riedel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology have set the stage for routine derivation of patient- and disease-specific human iPSC-cardiomyocyte (CM models for preclinical drug screening and personalized medicine approaches. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs are an advantageous source of somatic cells because they are easily obtained and readily amenable to transduction. Here, we report that the electrophysiological properties and pharmacological responses of PBMC-derived iPSC CM are generally similar to those of iPSC CM derived from other somatic cells, using patch-clamp, calcium transient, and multielectrode array (MEA analyses. Distinct iPSC lines derived from a single patient display similar electrophysiological features and pharmacological responses. Finally, we demonstrate that human iPSC CMs undergo acute changes in calcium-handling properties and gene expression in response to rapid electrical stimulation, laying the foundation for an in-vitro-tachypacing model system for the study of human tachyarrhythmias.

  7. Cardiac regeneration by pharmacologically active microcarriers releasing growth factors and/or transporting adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Savi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that cardiac regeneration through local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, activation of resident cardiac stem cells via growth factors (GFs [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1:GFs] or both, are improved by pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs interacting with cells/molecules conveyed on their surface. Rats with one-month old myocardial infarction were treated with ASCs, ASCs+PAMs, GF-releasing PAMs, ASCs+GF-releasing PAMs or vehicle. Two weeks later, hemodynamic function and inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs were assessed. Eventually, the hearts were subjected to anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses. A significant ASCs engraftment and the largest improvement in cardiac mechanics occurred in ASC+GF-releasing PAM rats which by contrast were more vulnerable to VAs. Thus, PAMs may improve cell/GF-based cardiac regeneration although caution should be paid on the electrophysiological impact of their physical interaction with the myocardium.

  8. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a pharmacological and therapeutic approach to accelerate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckaers, Annelies; Hilkens, Petra; Martens, Wendy; Gervois, Pascal; Ratajczak, Jessica; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo

    2014-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have initially captured attention in the scientific world because of their differentiation potential into osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes and possible transdifferentiation into neurons, glial cells and endothelial cells. This broad plasticity was originally hypothesized as the key mechanism of their demonstrated efficacy in numerous animal models of disease as well as in clinical settings. However, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that the beneficial effects of MSCs are predominantly caused by the multitude of bioactive molecules secreted by these remarkable cells. Numerous angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines have been discovered in the MSC secretome, all have been demonstrated to alter endothelial cell behavior in vitro and induce angiogenesis in vivo. As a consequence, MSCs have been widely explored as a promising treatment strategy in disorders caused by insufficient angiogenesis such as chronic wounds, stroke and myocardial infarction. In this review, we will summarize into detail the angiogenic factors found in the MSC secretome and their therapeutic mode of action in pathologies caused by limited blood vessel formation. Also the application of MSC as a vehicle to deliver drugs and/or genes in (anti-)angiogenesis will be discussed. Furthermore, the literature describing MSC transdifferentiation into endothelial cells will be evaluated critically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nontherapeutic Applications: Toxicology, Pharmacology, and In Vitro Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Shin Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs derived from either blastocyst stage embryos (hESCs or reprogrammed somatic cells (iPSCs can provide an abundant source of human neuronal lineages that were previously sourced from human cadavers, abortuses, and discarded surgical waste. In addition to the well-known potential therapeutic application of these cells in regenerative medicine, these are also various promising nontherapeutic applications in toxicological and pharmacological screening of neuroactive compounds, as well as for in vitro modeling of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Compared to alternative research models based on laboratory animals and immortalized cancer-derived human neural cell lines, neuronal cells differentiated from hPSCs possess the advantages of species specificity together with genetic and physiological normality, which could more closely recapitulate in vivo conditions within the human central nervous system. This review critically examines the various potential nontherapeutic applications of hPSC-derived neuronal lineages and gives a brief overview of differentiation protocols utilized to generate these cells from hESCs and iPSCs.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological variability in Golden Thistle functional parts: comparative study of roots, stems, leaves and flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmouzi, Ilias; El Karbane, Miloud; El Hamdani, Maha; Kharbach, Mourad; Naceiri Mrabti, Hanae; Alami, Rachid; Dahraoui, Souhail; El Jemli, Meryem; Ouzzif, Zhor; Cherrah, Yahia; Derraji, Soufiane; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2017-11-01

    Scolymus hispanicus or the Golden Thistle, locally known as 'Guernina' or 'Taghediwt', is one of the most appreciated wild vegetables in Morocco. This study aims to characterise the functional chemical and pharmacological variability of Scolymus hispanicus parts (roots, stems, leaves and flowers). The chemical analysis revealed higher content of α-tocopherol in the flowers (2.79 ± 0.07 mg/100 g) and lead to the identification of 3 flavonoids and 13 phenolic acids, with high content of gallic acid in leaves (187.01 ± 10.19 mg/kg); chlorogenic (936.18 ± 92.66 mg/kg) and caffeic (4400.14 ± 191.43 mg/kg) acids in flowers, roots were much more higher in sinapic acid (0.25 ± 0.03 mg/kg) compared to the other parts. Moreover, Scolymus hispanicus ethanolic extracts exhibited interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, promising anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities and relevant diuretic effect that confirms its traditional uses.

  12. Efficient generation of megakaryocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells using food and drug administration-approved pharmacological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yongxing; Forbes, Jessica A; Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Lewis; Cheng, Linzhao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-04-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are rare hematopoietic cells in the adult bone marrow and produce platelets that are critical to vascular hemostasis and wound healing. Ex vivo generation of MKs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides a renewable cell source of platelets for treating thrombocytopenic patients and allows a better understanding of MK/platelet biology. The key requirements in this approach include developing a robust and consistent method to produce functional progeny cells, such as MKs from hiPSCs, and minimizing the risk and variation from the animal-derived products in cell cultures. In this study, we developed an efficient system to generate MKs from hiPSCs under a feeder-free and xeno-free condition, in which all animal-derived products were eliminated. Several crucial reagents were evaluated and replaced with Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacological reagents, including romiplostim (Nplate, a thrombopoietin analog), oprelvekin (recombinant interleukin-11), and Plasbumin (human albumin). We used this method to induce MK generation from hiPSCs derived from 23 individuals in two steps: generation of CD34(+)CD45(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) for 14 days; and generation and expansion of CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs from HPCs for an additional 5 days. After 19 days, we observed abundant CD41(+)CD42a(+) MKs that also expressed the MK markers CD42b and CD61 and displayed polyploidy (≥16% of derived cells with DNA contents >4N). Transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed that megakaryocytic-related genes were highly expressed. Additional maturation and investigation of hiPSC-derived MKs should provide insights into MK biology and lead to the generation of large numbers of platelets ex vivo. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. [Yes to research, no to utilization? Medical, pharmacological and toxicological utilization of human embryonic stem cells from an ethical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H

    2008-09-01

    In exceptional cases, the German Stem Cell Act allows research on human embryonic stem cells. However, it does not allow the implementation of the research results if this in turn requires the use of further embryonic stem cell lines. It has, in the meantime, transpired that such research results could be of concrete use. Thus, in the distant future, it could be used in the clinical treatment of patients. Already in the nearer future the use of human embryonic stem cell lines can be envisaged for both the development and testing of medicines as well as in the field of toxicology. To this end, research concerning embryo toxicity and neurotoxicity is ground-breaking. The toxicological and pharmacological use of human embryonic stem cell lines should serve the protection of human health as well as the safe and reliable use of medicines. In addition, animal experiments could be reduced, which is desirable from a point of view of animal protection ethics. Since research on human embryonic stem cell lines is actually permitted in Germany, the use of the respective research results should be allowed all the more. This follows from the basic human right to health protection and health care. Legal ambiguities, which still exist in this respect, should be removed.

  14. Neural Stem Cells (NSCs in 3D Collagen Scaffolds: developing pharmacologically monitored neuroimplants for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kourgiantaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury, a traumatic disease characterised by a massive degeneration of neural tissue, was recently targeted for neuroregenerative interventions. Our approach is the development of pharmacologically pulsed neuroimplants using 3D collagen scaffolds hosting NSCs. We aim to monitor the properties of NSCs ex vivo and in vivo, using synthetic small molecules with neuroprotective and neurogenic properties. Synthetic, highly lipophilic CNS bioavailable small molecules, synthesized by our group (microneurotrophins, bind to neurotrophins receptors (Gravanis et al, Science Signaling, 2012, Calogeropoulou et al., J Med Chem., 2009. BNN27 can specifically interact with TrkA and p75NTR receptors activating specific signalling pathways controlling neuronal cell survival and neurogenesis (Charalampopoulos et al, PNAS, 2004, Lazaridis et al., PLoS Biol., 2011. We are seeding embryonic and adult mouse NSC on collagen 3D scaffolds of different composition (collagen, chondroitin-6-sulphate and gelatin and construction (size of pores and stiffness, testing cell behaviour (survival, proliferation or differentiation in basal conditions or pulsed with neurotrophins and/or microneurotrophins. Using the knock in sox2-egfp mice strain and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis, we obtain NSCs cultures with a sox2-positive population more than 90% pure. We evaluate specific markers of proliferation (ki67 and/or differentiation (GFAP for glial cells, Tuj1 for mature neurons and O4 for oligodendrocytes: we are currently testing the possible effect of BNN27 on proliferation of cortical NSCs in 2D cultures (increased numbers of ki67 positive cells up to 12%. The composition and the structure of 3D scaffolds seem to play a significant functional role: scaffolds with a combined composition such as 50% collagen/50% gelatin and 92% collagen/8% chondroitin-6-sulphate support NSC survival since they sustain sox2 expression and propagate neurosphere formation

  15. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase G1 Enhances Bone Formation by Human Skeletal Stem Cells Through Activation of RhoA-Akt Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Siersbaek, Majken S; Chen, Li

    2015-01-01

    for several malignant and nonmalignant conditions. We screened a library of kinase inhibitors to identify small molecules that enhance bone formation by human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC). We identified H-8 (known to inhibit protein kinases A, C, and G) as a potent enhancer of ex vivo......Development of novel approaches to enhance bone regeneration is needed for efficient treatment of bone defects. Protein kinases play a key role in regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, and pharmacological targeting of protein kinases has led to development of novel treatments...

  16. Survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of human stem cells complexed with neurotrophin-3-releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers in an ex vivo model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviaud, Nicolas; Garbayo, Elisa; Sindji, Laurence; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto; Schiller, Paul C; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2015-06-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported the repair and functional recovery after treatment with human marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells adhered to neurotrophin-3 (NT3) releasing pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) in hemiparkinsonian rats. In order to comprehend this effect, the goal of the present work was to elucidate the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms of MIAMI cells and human neural stem cells (NSCs), both adhering to NT3-releasing PAMs in an ex vivo organotypic model of nigrostriatal degeneration made from brain sagittal slices. It was shown that PAMs led to a marked increase in MIAMI cell survival and neuronal differentiation when releasing NT3. A significant neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells adhering to PAMs was also demonstrated. NSCs barely had a neuroprotective effect and differentiated mostly into dopaminergic neuronal cells when adhering to PAM-NT3. Moreover, those cells were able to release dopamine in a sufficient amount to induce a return to baseline levels. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stanniocalcin-1 as potential mediators of the neuroprotective effect of MIAMI cells and NSCs, respectively. It was also shown that VEGF locally stimulated tissue vascularization, which might improve graft survival, without excluding a direct neuroprotective effect of VEGF on dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate a prospective interest of human NSC/PAM and MIAMI cell/PAM complexes in tissue engineering for PD. Stem cell-based regenerative therapies hold great potential for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The present work elucidates and compares the survival, differentiation, and neuroprotective mechanisms

  17. Characterization of glioma stem cells through multiple stem cell markers and their specific sensitization to double-strand break-inducing agents by pharmacological inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Cappelli, Enrico; Ropolo, Monica; Poggi, Alessandro; Nozza, Paolo; Biassoni, Roberto; Mascelli, Samantha; Capra, Valeria; Kalfas, Fotios; Severi, Paolo; Frosina, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that tumor-driving glioma stem cells (GSC) may promote radio-resistance by constitutive activation of the DNA damage response started by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. We have investigated whether GSC may be specifically sensitized to ionizing radiation by inhibiting the DNA damage response. Two grade IV glioma cell lines (BORRU and DR177) were characterized for a number of immunocytochemical, karyotypic, proliferative and differentiative parameters. In particular, the expression of a panel of nine stem cell markers was quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Overall, BORRU and DR177 displayed pronounced and poor stem phenotypes, respectively. In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiation on GSC, the cells were preincubated with a nontoxic concentration of the ATM inhibitors KU-55933 and KU-60019 and then irradiated. BORRU cells were sensitized to radiation and radio-mimetic chemicals by ATM inhibitors whereas DR177 were protected under the same conditions. No sensitization was observed after cell differentiation or to drugs unable to induce double-strand breaks (DSB), indicating that ATM inhibitors specifically sensitize glioma cells possessing stem phenotype to DSB-inducing agents. In conclusion, pharmacological inhibition of ATM may specifically sensitize GSC to DSB-inducing agents while sparing nonstem cells. © 2012 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2012 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Recessive cardiac phenotypes in induced pluripotent stem cell models of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome: disease mechanisms and pharmacological rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; D'Aniello, Cristina; Verkerk, Arie O; Wrobel, Eva; Frank, Stefan; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Piccini, Ilaria; Freund, Christian; Rao, Jyoti; Seebohm, Guiscard; Atsma, Douwe E; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Mummery, Christine L; Greber, Boris; Bellin, Milena

    2014-12-16

    Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is one of the most severe life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Patients display delayed cardiac repolarization, associated high risk of sudden death due to ventricular tachycardia, and congenital bilateral deafness. In contrast to the autosomal dominant forms of long QT syndrome, JLNS is a recessive trait, resulting from homozygous (or compound heterozygous) mutations in KCNQ1 or KCNE1. These genes encode the α and β subunits, respectively, of the ion channel conducting the slow component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current, IKs. We used complementary approaches, reprogramming patient cells and genetic engineering, to generate human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models of JLNS, covering splice site (c.478-2A>T) and missense (c.1781G>A) mutations, the two major classes of JLNS-causing defects in KCNQ1. Electrophysiological comparison of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) from homozygous JLNS, heterozygous, and wild-type lines recapitulated the typical and severe features of JLNS, including pronounced action and field potential prolongation and severe reduction or absence of IKs. We show that this phenotype had distinct underlying molecular mechanisms in the two sets of cell lines: the previously unidentified c.478-2A>T mutation was amorphic and gave rise to a strictly recessive phenotype in JLNS-CMs, whereas the missense c.1781G>A lesion caused a gene dosage-dependent channel reduction at the cell membrane. Moreover, adrenergic stimulation caused action potential prolongation specifically in JLNS-CMs. Furthermore, sensitivity to proarrhythmic drugs was strongly enhanced in JLNS-CMs but could be pharmacologically corrected. Our data provide mechanistic insight into distinct classes of JLNS-causing mutations and demonstrate the potential of hiPSC-CMs in drug evaluation.

  19. Anesthetic pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Alex S; Maze, M; Kharasch, Evan D

    2011-01-01

    ...: Section 1 introduces the principles of drug action, Section 2 presents the molecular, cellular and integrated physiology of the target organ/functional system and Section 3 reviews the pharmacology...

  20. Interpretation of field potentials measured on a multi electrode array in pharmacological toxicity screening on primary and human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Braam, S. R.; van Meer, B.J.; Passier, R.; Mummery, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    Multi electrode arrays (MEAs) are increasingly used to detect external field potentials in electrically active cells. Recently, in combination with cardiomyocytes derived from human (induced) pluripotent stem cells they have started to become a preferred tool to examine newly developed drugs for

  1. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological modulation of human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated polysaccharide of marine origin: potential application to cartilage regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceron, Christophe; Portron, Sophie; Vignes-Colombeix, Caroline; Rederstorff, Emilie; Masson, Martial; Lesoeur, Julie; Sourice, Sophie; Sinquin, Corinne; Colliec-Jouault, Sylvia; Weiss, Pierre; Vinatier, Claire; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2012-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an attractive source of cells for cartilage engineering due to their availability and capacity for expansion and multipotency. Differentiation of MSC into chondrocytes is crucial to successful cartilage regeneration and can be induced by various biological agents, including polysaccharides that participate in many biological processes through interactions with growth factors. Here, we hypothesize that growth factor-induced differentiation of MSC can be increased by chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharides. To test our hypothesis, human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hATSCs) were cultured in pellets with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-supplemented chondrogenic medium containing either the polysaccharide GY785 DR or its oversulfated isoform GY785 DRS. Chondrogenesis was monitored by the measurement of pellet volume, quantification of DNA, collagens, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and immunohistological staining. Our data revealed an increase in pellet volume, total collagens, and GAG production with GY785 DRS and chondrogenic medium. The enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of hATSC was further demonstrated by the increased expression of several chondrogenic markers by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that TGF-β1 bound GY785 DRS with higher affinity compared to GY785 DR. In association with TGF-β1, GY785 DRS was found to upregulate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, indicating that oversulfated polysaccharide affects the mitogen activated protein kinase signaling activity. These results demonstrate the upregulation of TGF-β1-dependent stem cell chondrogenesis by a chemically oversulfated marine polysaccharide. This polysaccharide of marine origin is easily producible and therefore could be considered a promising additive to drive efficient and reliable MSC chondrogenesis for cartilage tissue

  3. New PLGA-P188-PLGA matrix enhances TGF-β3 release from pharmacologically active microcarriers and promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Van-Thanh, Tran; Garric, Xavier; Cayon, Jérôme; Coudane, Jean; Noël, Danièle; Venier-Julienne, Marie-Claire; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2013-08-28

    The use of injectable scaffolding materials for in vivo tissue regeneration has raised great interest in various clinical applications because it allows cell implantation through minimally invasive surgical procedures. In case of cartilage repair, a tissue engineered construct should provide a support for the cell and allow sustained in situ delivery of bioactive factors capable of inducing cell differentiation into chondrocytes. Pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made of biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA), are a unique system, which combines these properties in an adaptable and simple microdevice. However, a limitation of such scaffold is low and incomplete protein release that occurs using the hydrophobic PLGA based microspheres. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel formulation of polymeric PAMs containing a P188 poloxamer, which protects the protein from denaturation and may positively affect chondrogenesis. This poloxamer was added as a free additive for protein complexation and as a component of the scaffold covalently linked to PLGA. This procedure allows getting a more hydrophilic scaffold but also retaining the protective polymer inside the microcarriers during their degradation. The novel PLGA-P188-PLGA PAMs presenting a fibronectin-covered surface allowed enhanced MSC survival and proliferation. When engineered with TGFβ3, they allowed the sustained release of 70% of the incorporated TGF-β3 over time. Importantly, they exerted superior chondrogenic differentiation potential compared to previous FN-PAM-PLGA-TGF-β3, as shown by an increased expression of specific cartilage markers such as cartilage type II, aggrecan and COMP. Therefore, this microdevice represents an efficient easy-to-handle and injectable tool for cartilage repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenotypic variability in LQT3 human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and their response to antiarrhythmic pharmacologic therapy: An in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Michelangelo; Passini, Elisa; Severi, Stefano; Hyttinen, Jari; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-11-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are in vitro models with the clear advantages of their human origin and suitability for human disease investigations. However, limitations include their incomplete characterization and variability reported in different cell lines and laboratories. The purpose of this study was to investigate in silico ionic mechanisms potentially explaining the phenotypic variability of hiPSC-CMs in long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) and their response to antiarrhythmic drugs. Populations of in silico hiPSC-CM models were constructed and calibrated for control (n = 1,463 models) and LQT3 caused by I NaL channelopathy (n = 1,401 models), using experimental recordings for late sodium current (I NaL ) and action potentials (APs). Antiarrhythmic drug therapy was evaluated by simulating mexiletine and ranolazine multichannel effects. As in experiments, LQT3 hiPSC-CMs yield prolonged action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD 90 ) (+34.3% than controls) and large electrophysiological variability. LQT3 hiPSC-CMs with symptomatic APs showed overexpression of I CaL , I K1 , and I NaL , underexpression of I Kr , and increased sensitivity to both drugs compared to asymptomatic LQT3 models. Simulations showed that both mexiletine and ranolazine corrected APD prolongation in the LQT3 population but also highlighted differences in drug response. Mexiletine stops spontaneous APs in more LQT3 hiPSC-CMs models than ranolazine (784/1,401 vs 53/1,401) due to its stronger action on I Na . In silico simulations demonstrate our ability to recapitulate variability in LQT3 and control hiPSC-CM phenotypes, and the ability of mexiletine and ranolazine to reduce APD prolongation, in agreement with experiments. The in silico models also identify potential ionic mechanisms of phenotypic variability in LQT3 hiPSC-CMs, explaining APD prolongation in symptomatic vs asymptomatic LQT3 hiPSC-CMs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  5. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  6. Pharmacological interventions to treat phlebitis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.

  7. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  8. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  9. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF DIURETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Soldatenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacology of diuretics in the international system of ATC (anatomic-therapeutic-chemical is presented. Classification of this group by the action mechanism and caused effects is provided. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features, indications and principles of diuretics usage in clinics are considered. Contraindications, side effects and interaction with other drugs of this group are discussed in detail.

  10. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  11. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  12. Pharmacological effects of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    In the last few decades, more vitamin-mediated effects have been discovered at the level of gene expression. Increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of these vitamins has opened new perspectives that form a connection between nutritional signals and the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. The vitamin regulates genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism: Biotin has stimulatory effects on genes whose action favors hypoglycemia (insulin, insulin receptor, pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase); on the contrary, biotin decreases the expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme that stimulates glucose production by the liver. The findings that biotin regulates the expression of genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism are in agreement with several observations that indicate that biotin supply is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Biotin deficiency has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased utilization of glucose. On the other hand, the diabetic state appears to be ameliorated by pharmacological doses of biotin. Likewise, pharmacological doses of biotin appear to decrease plasma lipid concentrations and modify lipid metabolism. The effects of biotin on carbohydrate metabolism and the lack of toxic effects of the vitamin at pharmacological doses suggest that biotin could be used in the development of new therapeutics in the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, an area that we are actively investigating.

  13. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  14. Pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders and its relationship with neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves. This chapter discusses the relationship between sleep disorders, pharmacological treatments, and brain plasticity, including the treatment of insomnia, hypersomnias such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias.

  15. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  16. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  18. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  19. Pharmacology of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, L; Schaffner, R; Scherschlicht, R; Polc, P; Sepinwall, J; Davidson, A; Möhler, H; Cumin, R; Da Prada, M; Burkard, W P; Keller, H H; Müller, R K; Gerold, M; Pieri, M; Cook, L; Haefely, W

    1981-01-01

    8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (midazolam, Ro 21-3981, Dormicum) is an imidazobenzodiazepine whose salts are soluble and stable in aqueous solution. It has a quick onset and, due to rapid metabolic inactivation, a rather short duration of action in all species studied. Midazolam has a similar pharmacologic potency and broad therapeutic range as diazepam. It produces all the characteristic effects of the benzodiazepine class, i.e., anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sleep-inducing, muscle relaxant, and "sedative" effects. The magnitude of the anticonflict effect of midazolam is smaller than that of diazepam in rats and squirrel monkeys, probably because a more pronounced sedative component interferes with the increase of punished responses. In rodents, surgical anaesthesia is not attained with midazolam alone even in high i.v. doses, whereas this state is obtained in monkeys. The drug potentiates the effect of various central depressant agents. Midazolam is virtually free of effects on the cardiovascular system in conscious animals and produces only slight decreases in cardiac performance in dogs anaesthetized with barbiturates. No direct effects of the drugs on autonomic functions were found, however, stress-induced autonomic disturbances are prevented, probably by an effect on central regulatory systems. All animal data suggest the usefulness of midazolam as a sleep-inducer and i.v. anaesthetic of rapid onset and short duration.

  20. Pharmacology of pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushay, H M; Notterman, D A

    1997-02-01

    The resuscitation of children from cardiac arrest and shock remains a challenging goal. The pharmacologic principles underlying current recommendations for intervention in pediatric cardiac arrest have been reviewed. Current research efforts, points of controversy, and accepted practices that may not be most efficacious have been described. Epinephrine remains the most effective resuscitation adjunct. High-dose epinephrine is tolerated better in children than in adults, but its efficacy has not received full analysis. The preponderance of data continues to point toward the ineffectiveness and possible deleterious effects of overzealous sodium bicarbonate use. Calcium chloride is useful in the treatment of ionized hypocalcemia but may harm cells that have experienced asphyxial damage. Atropine is an effective agent for alleviating bradycardia induced by increased vagal tone, but because most bradycardia in children is caused by hypoxia, improved oxygenation is the intervention of choice. Adenosine is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Lidocaine is the drug of choice for ventricular dysrhythmias, and bretylium, still relatively unexplored, is in reserve. Many pediatricians use dopamine for shock in the postresuscitative period, but epinephrine is superior. Most animal research on cardiac arrest is based on models with ventricular fibrillation that probably are not reflective of cardiac arrest situations most often seen in pediatrics.

  1. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  2. Pharmacology Portal: An Open Database for Clinical Pharmacologic Laboratory Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen Bjånes, Tormod; Mjåset Hjertø, Espen; Lønne, Lars; Aronsen, Lena; Andsnes Berg, Jon; Bergan, Stein; Otto Berg-Hansen, Grim; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Larsen Burns, Margrete; Toralf Fosen, Jan; Frost, Joachim; Hilberg, Thor; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Kvan, Elena; Narum, Sigrid; Austgulen Westin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    More than 50 Norwegian public and private laboratories provide one or more analyses for therapeutic drug monitoring or testing for drugs of abuse. Practices differ among laboratories, and analytical repertoires can change rapidly as new substances become available for analysis. The Pharmacology Portal was developed to provide an overview of these activities and to standardize the practices and terminology among laboratories. The Pharmacology Portal is a modern dynamic web database comprising all available analyses within therapeutic drug monitoring and testing for drugs of abuse in Norway. Content can be retrieved by using the search engine or by scrolling through substance lists. The core content is a substance registry updated by a national editorial board of experts within the field of clinical pharmacology. This ensures quality and consistency regarding substance terminologies and classification. All laboratories publish their own repertoires in a user-friendly workflow, adding laboratory-specific details to the core information in the substance registry. The user management system ensures that laboratories are restricted from editing content in the database core or in repertoires within other laboratory subpages. The portal is for nonprofit use, and has been fully funded by the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Society of Clinical Pharmacology, and the 8 largest pharmacologic institutions in Norway. The database server runs an open-source content management system that ensures flexibility with respect to further development projects, including the potential expansion of the Pharmacology Portal to other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  4. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  5. The pharmacology of gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, A

    1980-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of the pharmacology of gynecology is on the following: vaginal infections; genital herpes; genital warts; pelvic inflammatory disease; urinary infections; pruritus vulvae; menstrual problems; infertility; oral contraception; and hormone replacement therapy. Doctors in England working in Local Authority Family Planning Clinics are debarred from prescribing, and any patient with a vaginal infection has to be referred either to a special clinic or to her general practitioner which is often preferable as her medical history will be known. Vaginal discharge is a frequent complaint, and it is necessary to obtain full details. 1 of the most common infections is vaginal candidosis. Nystatin pessaries have always been a useful 1st-line treatment and are specific for this type of infection. Trichomonas infection also occurs frequently and responds well to metronidazole in a 200 mg dosage, 3 times daily for 7 days. It is necessary to treat the consort at the same time. Venereal diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea always require vigorous treatment. Patients are now presenting with herpes genitalis far more often. The only treatment which is currently available, and is as good as any, is the application of warm saline to the vaginal area. Genital warts may be discovered on routine gynecological examination or may be reported to the doctor by the patient. 1 application of a 20% solution of podophyllum, applied carefully to each wart, usually effects a cure. Pelvic inflammatory disease seems to be on the increase. Provided any serious disease is ruled out a course of systemic antibiotics is often effective. Urinary infections are often seen in the gynecologic clinic, and many of these will respond well to 2 tablets of co-trimoxazole, 2 times daily for 14 days. In pruritus vulvae it is important to determine whether the cause is general or local. Menstrual problems regularly occur and have been increased by the IUD and the low-dose progesterone pill

  6. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  7. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    to safety pharmacology studies, and, when indicated, to secondary pharmacodynamic studies, does not influence the scientific standards of studies. However, applying formal GLP standards will ensure the quality, reliability and integrity of studies, which reflect sound study management. It is important...... to encourage a positive attitude among researchers and academics towards these lines, whenever possible. GLP principles applied to the management of non-clinical safety studies are appropriate quality standards when studies are used in the context of protecting public health, and these quality standards...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...

  8. Stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke; Both, Sanne; Post, Janine; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Marcel; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter defines stem cells and their properties. It identifies the major differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. Stem cells can be defined by two properties: the ability to make identical copies of themselves and the ability to form other cell types of the body. These properties are

  9. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  10. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  11. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  12. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  13. Pharmacological Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sugi, MD PhD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation has a variety of purposes, such as pharmacological defibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm, heart rate control to prevent congestive heart failure and prevention of both cerebral infarction and atrial remodeling. Sodium channel blockers are superior to potassium channel blockers for atrial defibrillation, while both sodium and potassium channel blockers are effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. In general, digitalis or Ca antagonists are used to control heart rate during atrial fibrillation to prevent congestive heart failure, while amiodarone or bepridil also reduce heart rates during atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is recommended to prevent cerebral infarction and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonists or angiotensin II receptor blockers are also used to prevent atrial remodeling. One should select appropriate drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation according to the patient's condition.

  14. STEM Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-08-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  15. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal ...

  16. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  17. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  18. Pharmacology of dimethanesulfonate alkylating agents: busulfan and treosulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaup, Ariane; Paci, Angelo

    2013-03-01

    Among the dimethanesulfonates, busulfan, in combination with other alkylating agents or nucleoside analogues, is the cornerstone of high-dose chemotherapy. It is used, and followed hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, for the treatment of various hematologic malignancies and immunodeficiencies. Treosulfan, which is a hydrophilic analogue of busulfan, was the first dimethanesufonate registered for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Recently, treosulfan has been investigated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies in combination with the same second agents before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This work reviews the pharmacological data of these two dimethanesulfonates alkylating agents. Specifically, the article looks at their chemistry, metabolism, anticancer activity, and their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Busulfan has been investigated widely for more than three decades leading to a large and precise handling of this agent with numerous studies on activity and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In contrast, the behavior of treosulfan is still under investigation and not fully described. The complexity of treosulfan's metabolism and mechanism of action gives rise to the need of a deeper understanding of its pharmacological activity in a context of high-dose chemotherapy. Specifically, there is a great need to better understand its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics relationship.

  19. Pharmacological chaperoning: a primer on mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenheimer, Nancy J; Ryder, Katelyn G

    2014-05-01

    Approximately forty percent of diseases are attributable to protein misfolding, including those for which genetic mutation produces misfolding mutants. Intriguingly, many of these mutants are not terminally misfolded since native-like folding, and subsequent trafficking to functional locations, can be induced by target-specific, small molecules variably termed pharmacological chaperones, pharmacoperones, or pharmacochaperones (PCs). PC targets include enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, revealing the breadth of proteins that can be engaged by ligand-assisted folding. The purpose of this review is to provide an integrated primer of the diverse mechanisms and pharmacology of PCs. In this regard, we examine the structural mechanisms that underlie PC rescue of misfolding mutants, including the ability of PCs to act as surrogates for defective intramolecular interactions and, at the intermolecular level, overcome oligomerization deficiencies and dominant negative effects, as well as influence the subunit stoichiometry of heteropentameric receptors. Not surprisingly, PC-mediated structural correction of misfolding mutants normalizes interactions with molecular chaperones that participate in protein quality control and forward-trafficking. A variety of small molecules have proven to be efficacious PCs and the advantages and disadvantages of employing orthostatic antagonists, active-site inhibitors, orthostatic agonists, and allosteric modulator PCs are considered. Also examined is the possibility that several therapeutic agents may have unrecognized activity as PCs, and this chaperoning activity may mediate/contribute to therapeutic action and/or account for adverse effects. Lastly, we explore evidence that pharmacological chaperoning exploits intrinsic ligand-assisted folding mechanisms. Given the widespread applicability of PC rescue of mutants associated with protein folding disorders, both in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic potential of PCs is vast

  20. STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  1. Iomazenil: pharmacological and animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.F.; Blaeuenstein, P.A.; Hasler, P.H.; Schubiger, P.A.; Hunkeler, W.; Bibettu, E.P.; Pieri, L.; Grayson Richards, J.

    1990-01-01

    The flumazenil analogue Ro 16-0154 (Iomazenil), a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, has been labelled by halogen exchange to enable SPECT investigations of central benzodiazepine receptors in human brain. The purified 123 I-Ro 16-0154 was found to be stable in rat brain preparations and to be metabolized in rat liver preparations. Its pharmacological properties were comparable to those of flumazenil with the exception of the antagonism of diazepam versus pentylenetetrazol. Biodistribution in rats (1 h p.i.) resulted in a high brain to blood ratio of 16. Clinical studies revealed images of the bezodiazepine receptor density in the brain. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs

  2. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  3. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    -steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results. Antibodies...... pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted....... against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics beta-lactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based...

  4. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Bing Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C6-C3 constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research.

  5. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P students had better skills than pharmacy students in writing prescriptions (68.6% vs. 50.7%; P students had similar knowledge of applied pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrouas, Camille; Taudon, Nicolas; Bun, Sok-Siya; Baghdikian, Beatrice; Bory, Sothavireak; Parzy, Daniel; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2014-07-03

    Stephania rotunda Lour. (Menispermaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant that is grown in Southeast Asia. The stems, leaves, and tubers have been used in the Cambodian, Lao, Indian and Vietnamese folk medicine systems for years to treat a wide range of ailments, including asthma, headache, fever, and diarrhoea. To provide an up-to-date, comprehensive overview and analysis of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda for its potential benefits in human health, as well as to assess the scientific evidence of traditional use and provide a basis for future research directions. Peer-reviewed articles on Stephania rotunda were acquired via an electronic search of the major scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). Data were collected from scientific journals, theses, and books. The traditional uses of Stephania rotunda were recorded in countries throughout Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and India). Different parts of Stephania rotunda were used in traditional medicine to treat about twenty health disorders. Phytochemical analyses identified forty alkaloids. The roots primarily contain l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), whereas the tubers contain cepharanthine and xylopinine. Furthermore, the chemical composition differs from one region to another and according to the harvest period. The alkaloids exhibited approximately ten different pharmacological activities. The main pharmacological activities of Stephania rotunda alkaloids are antiplasmodial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects. Sinomenine, cepharanthine, and l-stepholidine are the most promising components and have been tested in humans. The pharmacokinetic parameters have been studied for seven compounds, including the three most promising compounds. The toxicity has been evaluated for liriodenine, roemerine, cycleanine, l-tetrahydropalmatine, and oxostephanine. Stephania rotunda is traditionally used for the treatment of a wide range of

  7. 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio

    2012-03-01

    The keynote address of 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society examined the known and the still to be known on drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The nominee of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture gave an account of his career achievements particularly on the domain of chronically instrumented animals for assessing cardiovascular safety. The value of Safety Pharmacology resides in the benefits delivered to Pharma organizations, regulators, payers and patients. Meticulous due diligence concerning compliance of Safety Pharmacology studies to best practices is an effective means to ensure that equally stringent safety criteria are applied to both in-licensed and in-house compounds. Innovative technologies of great potential for Safety Pharmacology presented at the meeting are organs on chips (lung, heart, intestine) displaying mechanical and biochemical features of native organs, electrical field potential (MEA) or impedance (xCELLigence Cardio) measurements in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for unveiling cardiac electrophysiological and mechanical liabilities, functional human airway epithelium (MucilAir™) preparations with unique 1-year shelf-life for acute and chronic in vitro evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. Custom-designed in silico and in vitro assay platforms defining the receptorome space occupied by chemical entities facilitate, throughout the drug discovery phase, the selection of candidates with optimized safety profile on organ function. These approaches can now be complemented by advanced computational analysis allowing the identification of compounds with receptorome, or clinically adverse effect profiles, similar to those of the drug candidate under scrutiny for extending the safety assessment to potential liability targets not captured by classical approaches. Nonclinical data supporting safety can be quite reassuring for drugs with a discovered signal of risk. However, for marketing authorization

  8. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  9. Pharmacological management of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Marchesi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlo MarchesiPsychiatric Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a disabling condition which appears in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects more frequently women than men. PD is frequently characterized by recurrences and sometimes by a chronic course and, therefore, most patients require longterm treatments to achieve remission, to prevent relapse and to reduce the risks associated with comorbidity. Pharmacotherapy is one of the most effective treatments of PD. In this paper, the pharmacological management of PD is reviewed. Many questions about this effective treatment need to be answered by the clinician and discussed with the patients to improve her/his collaboration to the treatment plan: which is the drug of choice; when does the drug become active; which is the effective dose; how to manage the side effects; how to manage nonresponse; and how long does the treatment last. Moreover, the clinical use of medication in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding or in children and adolescents was reviewed and its risk-benefit balance discussed.Keywords: panic disorder, pharmacological treatment, treatment guidelines

  10. Pharmacological and non- pharmacological treatment of hypertension: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seyedmazhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic disease. It is more common and more severe in elderly persons. Various studies however have estimated 41.9 million men and 27.8 million women to have prehypertension. Diagnosis and early treatment of prehypertension are of utmost importance. Although hypertension is usually divided into 2 general categories of essential (primary and secondary hypertension, the initial treatment for hypertension often depends on its stage which is determined by systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Lifestyle modification is the first step in treating stage one hypertension. Pharmaceutical treatments including diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, calcium blockers, beta blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails to control blood pressure.    METHODS: The PubMed database was searched by a number of keywords including hypertension, pharmaceutical treatment, and non-pharmaceutical treatment. The results were limited by determining a date range of 2008-11.    RESULTS: High blood pressure causes major health problems for many people around the world. It should be controlled because of its high mortality and morbidity. However, in order to select an appropriate treatment modality, it is initially important to diagnose the kinds and stages of hypertension. Pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatments can then be employed to control this serious disease.    CONCLUSION: Treating hypertension depends on the kinds and stages of this disease. Several tips should be considered when selecting a method of treatment.       Keywords: Hypertension, Pharmacological treatment, Non-pharmacological treatment

  11. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...

  12. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...

  13. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  14. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Alireza; Basirnejad, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells, effector T-cell function and the production of cytokines. Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. It is thought that carotenoids act in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  16. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  17. Pharmacologic treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus W.; Glazenborg, Arjon; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Mostert, Jop; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is a common problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is unclear which pharmacologic treatment is the most effective and the least harmful. Objectives To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologic treatments for depression in patients with MS. Search

  18. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  19. The Dutch vision of clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, J H M; Grouls, R; Guchelaar, H J; Touw, D J; Rongen, G A; de Boer, A; Van Bortel, L M

    Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether

  20. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  1. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  2. Future pharmacological therapy in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Merrill H; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector O

    2018-04-26

    Hypertension (HTN) is a widespread and growing disease, with medication intolerance and side-effect present among many. To address these obstacles novel pharmacotherapy is an active area of drug development. This review seeks to explore future drug therapy for HTN in the preclinical and clinical arenas. The future of pharmacological therapy in HTN consists of revisiting old pathways to find new targets and exploring wholly new approaches to provide additional avenues of treatment. In this review, we discuss the current status of the most recent drug therapy in HTN. New developments in well trod areas include novel mineralocorticoid antagonists, aldosterone synthase inhibitors, aminopeptidase-A inhibitors, natriuretic peptide receptor agonists, or the counter-regulatory angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Neprilysin inhibitors popularized for heart failure may also still hold HTN potential. Finally, we examine unique systems in development never before used in HTN such as Na/H exchange inhibitors, vasoactive intestinal peptide agonists, and dopamine beta hydroxylase inhibitors. A concise review of future directions of HTN pharmacotherapy.

  3. [History and pharmacology of trazodone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, A

    1986-10-01

    Trazodone, a non-tricyclic molecule, represents the first of a new generation of antidepressants. It is currently marketed in a number of European countries, in the United States and in Latin America. The pharmacological and biochemical data, the mechanism of action and the preferential indications of trazodone are presented and compared to those of imipramine and other tricyclics. Unlike imipramine, trazodone inhibits the adrenergic system. The two molecules have anti-nociceptive properties, similar effects on the serotoninergic system and, after repeated administrations, they both reduce the density of beta-receptors. The clinical implications of the alpha-blocking activity of trazodone are reported. Trazodone is preferable to tricyclic anti-depressants in the treatment of depression in elderly subjects in general, and especially when they present closed angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, tremor or cardiovascular problems due to hyperactivity of the adrenergic system, as well as in organic depressions and in depression secondary to schizophrenia, alcoholism and in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  4. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  5. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-11-14

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  6. [Pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis--2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter

    2011-08-14

    Osteoporosis affects approximately 9% of the population in Hungary resulting in about 100 000 osteoporotic fractures annually. Thirty-five percent of patients with hip fractures due to osteoporosis will die within 1 year. Direct costs of osteoporosis exceed 25 billion forints per year. Apparently, cost-effective reduction of bone loss and consequent fracture risk will add up to not only financial savings but improvement in quality of life, as well. A number of pharmacological modalities are available for this purpose. The mainstay of the treatment of osteoporosis is the bisphosphonate group that includes effective anti-resorptive compounds mitigating bone loss and fragility. The recently registered denosumab exhibits similar efficacy by neutralizing RANK ligand, however, marked differences can be observed between the two drug classes. Strontium has a unique mechanism of action by rebalancing bone turnover, and thus, providing an efficient treatment option for the not fast bone losers who are at high fracture risk. The purely anabolic teriparatide is available for the extremely severe osteoporotic patients and for those who do not respond to other types of therapy. Older treatment options such as hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, tibolone or calcitonin may also have a restricted place in the management of osteoporosis.

  7. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.

  8. Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone. ... Methods: The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, ... Keywords: 7-methyljugulone; biosynthesis; in vitro synthesis; pharmacology

  9. [PROFESSOR VLADIMIR V. NIKOLAEV AND RUSSIAN PHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, N G; Fisenko, V P

    2016-01-01

    Various stages of scientific research activity of Prof. Vladimir V. Nikolaev are analyzed. The importance of Prof. Nikolaev's discovery of the two-neuron parasympathetic nervous system and some new methods of pharmacological substances evaluation is shown. Prof. Nikolaev is known as the editor of the first USSR Pharmacopoeia. Peculiarities of pharmacology teaching at the First Moscow Medical institute under conditions of changing social demands are described. Successful research of Prof. Nikolaev with colleagues in studying new mechanisms of drug action and developing original pharmacological substances is summarized.

  10. Problems of pharmacological supply of disaster medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs

  11. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  12. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  13. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee. University ... has been used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of ..... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by.

  14. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar, publishing sites such as Elsevier .... A number of pharmacological activities of C. bulbispermum have been ..... bulbispermum using the direct plate method and minimum inhibitory ...

  15. Bioanalysis, metabolism & clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, R. ter

    2009-01-01

    The aims of all studies described in this thesis were to develop new bioanalytical and more patient friendly methods for studying the clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs and to ultimately improve antiretroviral treatment.

  16. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of Annona Comosus linn. ... Therapeutic plants, and the drugs derived from them, are the most important ... also as treatment to: diarrhea, indigestion, pneumonia, bronchitis, arthritis, ...

  17. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  18. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Etoposide posses high plasma protein binding (97%) and is degraded via ... The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological .... caprolactone and were found efficient as drug delivery vehicles.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topical cocaine 10% in both eyes gave an odds ratio of 1 050:1 that. Horner's syndrome ... nerve endings and therefore do not stimulate the effector cells directly. ... Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome – a new paradigm. Derrick P ...

  20. Precision pharmacology for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Aguilar, Lisi Flores; Benda, Norbert; Broich, Karl; Cuello, A Claudio; Cummings, Jeffrey; Dubois, Bruno; Federoff, Howard J; Fiandaca, Massimo; Genthon, Remy; Haberkamp, Marion; Karran, Eric; Mapstone, Mark; Perry, George; Schneider, Lon S; Welikovitch, Lindsay A; Woodcock, Janet; Baldacci, Filippo; Lista, Simone

    2018-04-01

    The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses. Consequently, the distinct pattern of AD pathophysiology in space and time must be investigated on the basis of the individual biological makeup. This requires the implementation of systems biology and neurophysiology to facilitate Precision Medicine (PM) and Precision Pharmacology (PP). The regulation of several processes at multiple levels of complexity from gene expression to cellular cycle to tissue repair and system-wide network activation has different time delays (temporal scale) according to the affected systems (spatial scale). The initial failure might originate and occur at every level potentially affecting the whole dynamic interrelated systems within an organism. Unraveling the spatial and temporal dynamics of non-linear pathophysiological mechanisms across the continuum of hierarchical self-organized systems levels and from systems homeostasis to systems failure is key to understand AD. Measuring and, possibly, controlling space- and time-scaled adaptive and compensatory responses occurring during AD will represent a crucial step to achieve the capacity to substantially modify the disease course and progression at the best suitable timepoints, thus counteracting disrupting critical pathophysiological inputs. This approach will provide the conceptual basis for effective

  1. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return fo...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  2. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  3. Identification of progenitor cancer stem cell in lentigo maligna melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, M R; Doukaki, S; Malleo, F; Aricò, M

    2008-07-01

    The potential role of stem cells in neoplasia has aroused considerable interest over the past few years. A number of known biologic characteristics of melanomas support the theory that they may originate in a mutated stem cell. Melanocytic stem cell markers have been described recently. Moreover, the CD133 cells that show surface markers for CD34 are stem cells primitive. These stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. The identification of cancer stem/initiating cells with a crucial role in tumor formation may open up new pharmacologic perspectives. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of CD133 and CD34, two putative markers of cancer stem cells in the lentigo maligna melanoma. Thirty cases of lentigo maligna melanoma were analyzed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. The vast majority of the samples analyzed showed the presence of rare cells, which were clearly positive for CD133 and CD34. Strong CD133 and CD34 staining was found in the outer root sheath of the mid-lower hair follicles, intermixed with atypical melanocytes extending along layers of the hair follicles. A number of these staminal cells were adjacent and intermixed with melanoma cells. This study supports the stem cell origin of this tumor and suggests that the precursor of the melanoma in question is a stem-like cell rather than the primitive melanoblast committed to be exclusively involved in melanocytic differentiation.

  4. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; van Meer, Berend; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Passier, Robert; Tertoolen, Leon G. J.; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes

  5. Glucocorticoids and hemopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, O.O.; Berin, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Analyzing the data of home and foreign investigators the problems of the glucocorticoid effect on blood and bone marrow of experimental (including irradiated ones) animals are discussed. Considered are a character and mechanism of the adrenal cortex hormones effect on blood formation, as well as the effect of pharmacological doses of corticosteroids on CFU, their erythropoietic effect in physiological doses on a morphological picture of bone marrow after irradiation and subsequent introduction of hormones and the hormone effect on intensity of erythropoiesis recovery in irradiated mice. Presented are the experimental data on studying the effect of endogenic hypercorticoidism and a reduced level of endogenic corticosteroids on blood-forming stem cells in the irradiated mice and the data on the ACTH injection effect on CFU migration after irradiation. Evaluated are already available data and further investigations to ground advisability and conditions of using corticosteroids as well as determining rational therapeutic effects on secretion of endogenic glucocorticoids when treating blood system diseases

  6. Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling to maintain chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Kazuhito; Jomen, Yoshie; Ishihara, Kaori; Kim, Junil; Ishimoto, Takahiro; Bae, Eun-Jin; Mohney, Robert P.; Stirdivant, Steven M.; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Kato, Yukio; Ooshima, Akira; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the specific survival of the rare chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) stem cell population could provide a target for therapeutics aimed at eradicating these cells. However, little is known about how survival signalling is regulated in CML stem cells. In this study, we survey global metabolic differences between murine normal haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and CML stem cells using metabolomics techniques. Strikingly, we show that CML stem cells accumulate significantly higher levels of certain dipeptide species than normal HSCs. Once internalized, these dipeptide species activate amino-acid signalling via a pathway involving p38MAPK and the stemness transcription factor Smad3, which promotes CML stem cell maintenance. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of dipeptide uptake inhibits CML stem cell activity in vivo. Our results demonstrate that dipeptide species support CML stem cell maintenance by activating p38MAPK–Smad3 signalling in vivo, and thus point towards a potential therapeutic target for CML treatment. PMID:26289811

  7. Pharmacological stress agents in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However there are a group of patients who may not be able to undergo treadmill tests. Patients with underlying conditions like neuromuscular disease, musculoskeletal disorder, heart failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis would find it difficult to perform exercise on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. These conditions prevent them from performing adequate exercise. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. Nuclear medicine departments use various pharmacological agents while performing stress tests on cardiac patients. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilators and catecholamines. In addition to these agents, adjuvant use of nitrates and atropine is also a common practice in nuclear cardiology. This review addresses various physiological and pharmacological properties of the commonly used pharmacological stress agents in MPS and critically analyses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their safety and efficacy. (author)

  8. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied.

  9. Pharmacological screening technologies for venom peptide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Hasaballah, Nojod; Vetter, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Venomous animals occupy one of the most successful evolutionary niches and occur on nearly every continent. They deliver venoms via biting and stinging apparatuses with the aim to rapidly incapacitate prey and deter predators. This has led to the evolution of venom components that act at a number of biological targets - including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and enzymes - with exquisite selectivity and potency, making venom-derived components attractive pharmacological tool compounds and drug leads. In recent years, plate-based pharmacological screening approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom-derived drug discovery. A range of assays are amenable to this purpose, including high-throughput electrophysiology, fluorescence-based functional and binding assays. However, despite these technological advances, the traditional activity-guided fractionation approach is time-consuming and resource-intensive. The combination of screening techniques suitable for miniaturization with sequence-based discovery approaches - supported by advanced proteomics, mass spectrometry, chromatography as well as synthesis and expression techniques - promises to further improve venom peptide discovery. Here, we discuss practical aspects of establishing a pipeline for venom peptide drug discovery with a particular emphasis on pharmacology and pharmacological screening approaches. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Only connect: the merger of BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Elizabeth C; Morrey, Christopher; Appleford-Cook, Joanne M

    2012-08-13

    This editorial celebrates the launch of BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology within the BMC series of journals published by BioMed Central. The scope of the journal is interdisciplinary encompassing toxicology, experimental and clinical pharmacology including clinical trials. In this editorial we discuss the origins of this new journal and the ethos and policies under which it will operate.

  11. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. KIRKIA ACUMINATA OLIV.: A REVIEW OF ITS ETHNOBOTANY AND PHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range. The information documented in this article is derived from books, theses, scientific journals and reports obtained from library collections, Scopus, Pubmed, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct. Kirkia acuminata is the most known and widely distributed Kirkia species in the genus and is one of the most popular and promising plant resources due to its several beneficial uses. Kirkia acuminata is used to treat abdominal pains, backache, cholera, constipation, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, snake bites, toothache and wounds. Other applications include its use as charcoal; hedge, ornamental or shade; stock feed, timber and source of water during drought periods. Preliminary phytochemical assessment of roots and stem bark of K. acuminata showed presence of lignans, neo-lignans, nor-carotinoids and other compounds. The extracts of K. acuminata exhibited antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. These phytochemical compounds may be responsible for the medicinal uses and biological activities demonstrated by K. acuminata . Detailed research is required aimed at exploring mode of action of bioactive compounds of Kirkia acuminata that are responsible for the documented pharmacological effects. Kirkia acuminata is an important plant species that has potential to contribute to the primary health care and livelihood improvement of local communities in the geographical areas where it is indigenous and found in abundance.

  13. Botanical drugs, synergy, and network pharmacology: forth and back to intelligent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jürg

    2011-07-01

    For centuries the science of pharmacognosy has dominated rational drug development until it was gradually substituted by target-based drug discovery in the last fifty years. Pharmacognosy stems from the different systems of traditional herbal medicine and its "reverse pharmacology" approach has led to the discovery of numerous pharmacologically active molecules and drug leads for humankind. But do botanical drugs also provide effective mixtures? Nature has evolved distinct strategies to modulate biological processes, either by selectively targeting biological macromolecules or by creating molecular promiscuity or polypharmacology (one molecule binds to different targets). Widely claimed to be superior over monosubstances, mixtures of bioactive compounds in botanical drugs allegedly exert synergistic therapeutic effects. Despite evolutionary clues to molecular synergism in nature, sound experimental data are still widely lacking to support this assumption. In this short review, the emerging concept of network pharmacology is highlighted, and the importance of studying ligand-target networks for botanical drugs is emphasized. Furthermore, problems associated with studying mixtures of molecules with distinctly different pharmacodynamic properties are addressed. It is concluded that a better understanding of the polypharmacology and potential network pharmacology of botanical drugs is fundamental in the ongoing rationalization of phytotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  15. Traumatic brain injury pharmacological treatment: recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents the recommendations on the pharmacological treatment employed in traumatic brain injury (TBI at the outpatient clinic of the Cognitive Rehabilitation after TBI Service of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. A systematic assessment of the consensus reached in other countries, and of articles on TBI available in the PUBMED and LILACS medical databases, was carried out. We offer recommendations of pharmacological treatments in patients after TBI with different symptoms.

  16. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  17. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum. Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides. Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum.

  18. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  19. Pharmacologic modulation of protein kinase C isozymes: the role of RACKs and subcellular localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukai, M; Mochly-Rosen, D

    1999-04-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly homologous kinases and several different isozymes can be present in a cell. Each isozyme is likely to mediate unique functions, but pharmacological tools to explore their isozyme-specific roles have not been available until recently. In this review, we describe the development and application of isozyme-selective inhibitors of PKC. The identification of these inhibitors stems from the observation that PKC isozymes are each localised to unique subcellular locations following activation. Inhibitors of this isozyme-unique localisation have been shown to act as selective inhibitors of the functions of individual isozymes. The identification of isozyme-specific inhibitors should allow the exploration of individual PKC isozyme function in a wide range of cell systems. Copyright 1999 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  20. Delirium in the elderly: A systematic review of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Carboni Tardelli Cerveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Delirium is a common disorder associated with poor prognosis, especially in the elderly. The impact of different treatment approaches for delirium on morbimortality and long-term welfare is not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in elderly patients with delirium. METHODS: This systematic review compared pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients over 60 years old with delirium. Databases used were: MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS from inception to January 6th, 2016. RESULTS: A total of ten articles were selected. The six non-pharmacological intervention studies showed no impact on duration of delirium, mortality or institutionalization, but a decrease in severity of delirium and improvement in medium-term cognitive function were observed. The most commonly used interventions were temporal-spatial orientation, orientation to self and others, early mobilization and sleep hygiene. The four studies with pharmacological interventions found that rivastigmine reduced the duration of delirium, improved cognitive function and reduced caregiver burden; olanzapine and haloperidol decreased the severity of delirium; droperidol reduced length of hospitalization and improved delirium remission rate. CONCLUSION: Although the pharmacological approach has been used in the treatment of delirium among elderly, there have been few studies assessing its efficacy, involving a small number of patients. However, the improvements in delirium duration and severity suggest these drugs are effective in treating the condition. Once delirium has developed, non-pharmacological treatment seems less effective in controlling symptoms, and there is a lack of studies describing different non-pharmacological interventions.

  1. Pharmacological therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with COPD require pharmacological therapy. ... pulmonary dysfunction. Clearly the patient's tolerance to the various drugs will influence the choice of long-term maintenance treatment. The other important factor in the .... blocking cervical immune responses might leave her less protected against other infections.

  2. Multidimensional Screening as a Pharmacology Laboratory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marvin H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A multidimensional pharmacodynamic screening experiment that addresses drug interaction is included in the pharmacology-toxicology laboratory experience of pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific. The student handout with directions for the procedure is reproduced, drug compounds tested are listed, and laboratory evaluation results are…

  3. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.; Simon, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising [fr

  4. Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To provide an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses and ... calls for detailed phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the species aimed at identifying the ... urban communities throughout its native ... sized, densely leafy tree reaching 15 m tall [17] ..... Williams College, United States; 1998; p 133.

  5. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  6. Jatropha Tanjorensis - Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of this work, future study on the phytochemistry and chemical constituents in relation to certain other biological activities are required to fully understand the phytochemical and complex pharmacological effect of the plant specie. Further work to isolate active compounds from the plant is also necessary.

  7. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Anzenbacher, P.; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2009), s. 342-361 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cytokines * immunotherapy * immunopharmacology Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 5.204, year: 2009

  8. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  9. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Biology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Rossetto, Ornella; Eleopra, Roberto; Montecucco, Cesare

    2017-04-01

    The study of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is rapidly progressing in many aspects. Novel BoNTs are being discovered owing to next generation sequencing, but their biologic and pharmacological properties remain largely unknown. The molecular structure of the large protein complexes that the toxin forms with accessory proteins, which are included in some BoNT type A1 and B1 pharmacological preparations, have been determined. By far the largest effort has been dedicated to the testing and validation of BoNTs as therapeutic agents in an ever increasing number of applications, including pain therapy. BoNT type A1 has been also exploited in a variety of cosmetic treatments, alone or in combination with other agents, and this specific market has reached the size of the one dedicated to the treatment of medical syndromes. The pharmacological properties and mode of action of BoNTs have shed light on general principles of neuronal transport and protein-protein interactions and are stimulating basic science studies. Moreover, the wide array of BoNTs discovered and to be discovered and the production of recombinant BoNTs endowed with specific properties suggest novel uses in therapeutics with increasing disease/symptom specifity. These recent developments are reviewed here to provide an updated picture of the biologic mechanism of action of BoNTs, of their increasing use in pharmacology and in cosmetics, and of their toxicology. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  10. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research: Advanced Search ... either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of ...

  11. Pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of treatment is to relieve daily symptoms, improve quality of life and importantly decrease the risk of future exacerbations. Current guidelines are based on grade A and B evidence. Pneumococcal and annual influenza vaccinations are encouraged. A holistic approach that augments pharmacological ...

  12. Emerging pharmacological therapy for functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Mariko; Nagahara, Akihito; Asaoka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sumio

    2013-10-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a multifactorial disease with complex underlying pathophysiology. To date, there is no established treatment for FD. This review summarizes recent progress in pharmacological therapy for the disease. A newly developed drug, acotiamide, is expected to improve symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome. Herbal medicines are also expected to become options for FD treatment.

  13. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The

  14. Kinship and interaction in neuromuscular pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, Sjouke

    2006-01-01

    The background of this thesis is presented in the introductory chapters and stafts with a brief history of neuromuscular relaxants. It is followed by a short description of the neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology in chapters 2 and 3, respectively. In chapter 4 the aim of the thesis is

  15. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  16. Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A large number of research articles related to “Cynomorium songaricum” “pharmacological effects” .... contents in C. songaricum at different stages of its growth are varied in a .... Oral water-soluble polysaccharides of C. ... tested strains, mouse somatic cells and germ cells. .... change under the influence of heating.

  17. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  18. Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial Drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-15

    Jun 15, 1974 ... Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial. Drugs. D.BOTHA. SUMMARY. A short review is given of antimalarial drugs currently in use. S. Air. Med. l., 48, 1263 (1974). CLASSIFICATION. The chemotherapy of malaria may be conveniently classi- fied as (i) casual prophylaxis; (ii) suppressive treatment;.

  19. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  20. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum bulbispermum so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, phytochemistry ...

  1. Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-12-01

    Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.

  2. Trends in safety pharmacology: posters presented at the annual meetings of the Safety Pharmacology Society 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, William S; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The inaugural meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) was in 2001, soon after ICH S7A had been adopted. The 10th anniversary is an appropriate milestone at which to analyse trends in the science and themes of safety pharmacology, as reflected in posters presented at the annual meetings. The source information was the poster abstract booklets from each of the first ten annual meetings. The number of posters rose steadily from 34 in 2001 to 201 in 2010. The proportion of posters containing in vitro data has remained constant throughout the decade at ~30%. In terms of organ functions, themes relating to the cardiovascular system (CVS) have always generated the majority of posters, remaining above 60% of the total for the last 9years. The dominant theme has been around 'QT liability'. This peaked in 2003 at 68% of all posters presented, around the time of the ICHS7B discussions, and has remained above 30% thereafter. Apart from 2003 (dipping to 4%), CNS-related posters have remained steady at 11-17% throughout the decade. Respiratory-related posters have remained at 5-8% over the last 5years. Gastrointestinal (GI)-related posters have contributed 2-6% throughout the decade, and renal-related posters 1-3%. Posters on combined organ assessments have appeared in recent years. The relative emphasis on the different organ functions is broadly proportional to the causes of candidate drug attrition preclinically, whereas both CNS and GI are under-represented when considering their contribution to significant adverse effects during clinical development. Trends are either regulatory-driven (e.g. increase in posters on abuse-dependence liability since EMEA/CHMP/SWP/94227/2004), technology-driven (e.g. automated hERG assay; left ventricular function; non-invasive CVS measurements; stem cells, etc.), or relate to the predictive ability of safety pharmacology data (e.g. clinical translation initiatives; concordance between in vitro and in vivo preclinical data; integrated

  3. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references

  4. Structural phenotyping of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Sheehy, Sean Paul; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-03-10

    Structural phenotyping based on classical image feature detection has been adopted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind genetically or pharmacologically induced changes in cell morphology. Here, we developed a set of 11 metrics to capture the increasing sarcomere organization that occurs intracellularly during striated muscle cell development. To test our metrics, we analyzed the localization of the contractile protein α-actinin in a variety of primary and stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes. Further, we combined these metrics with data mining algorithms to unbiasedly score the phenotypic maturity of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacists' and general practitioners' pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F

    Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge

  6. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Pharmacology profiling of chemicals and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    between pharmaceuticals and proteins in vivo potential leads to unwanted adverse effects, toxicity and reduced half-life, but can also lead to novel therapeutic effects of already approved pharmaceuticals. Hence identification of in vivo targets is of importance in discovery, development and repurposing....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... to its nonself origin, which potentially alters the pharmacology profile of the substance. The neutralization of biopharmaceuticals by antidrug antibodies (ADAs) is an important element in the immune response cascade, however studies of ADA binding site on biopharmaceuticals, referred to as B...

  8. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  9. Pharmacologic management of chronic neuropathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Alex; Weinberg, Erica; Moulin, Dwight E.; Clarke, Hance

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain. Quality of evidence A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement. Main message Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain. Tramadol and other opioids are recommended as second-line agents, while cannabinoids are newly recommended as third-line agents. Other anticonvulsants, methadone, tapentadol, topical lidocaine, and botulinum toxin are recommended as fourth-line agents. Conclusion Many pharmacologic analgesics exist for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Through evidence-based recommendations, the CPS revised consensus statement helps guide family physicians in the management of patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:29138154

  10. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  11. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  12. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  13. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  14. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  15. Conception of pharmacological knowledge and needs amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students who are taking/have taken the medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices from ... and 31.1% different drugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% use standard textbooks, ...

  16. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  17. Pharmacological Aspects of Neuro-Immune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vadim V; Kudryashov, Nikita V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Barreto, George E; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2018-01-01

    The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organisms is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of adult brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. The changes that occur as a result of the influence of pharmacological agents at one of the systems should inevitably lead to the functional reorganization at another. Integrative mechanisms underlying the neuro-immune interactions may explain the "pleiotropic" pharmacological effects of some antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. Amantadine, which was originally considered as an antiviral agent, was approved as anti-parkinsonic drug after its wide medical use. The prolonged administration of interferon alpha caused depression in 30-45% of patients, thus limiting its clinical use. The antiviral drug "Oseltamivir" may provoke the development of central side effects, including abnormal behavior, delirium, impaired perception and suicides. Anti-herpethetical drug "Panavir" shows pronounced neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experimental and clinical data related to central effects of drugs with antiviral or/and immunotropic activity, and to discover the relationship of these effects with changes in reactivity of immune system and proinflammatory response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Pharmacological Effects of Biotin in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron-Negrete, Leticia; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, it was found that vitamins affect biological functions in ways other than their long-known functions; niacin is the best example of a water-soluble vitamin known to possess multiple actions. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that serves as a covalently-bound coenzyme of carboxylases. It is now well documented that biotin has actions other than participating in classical enzyme catalysis reactions. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, reproduction, development, and immunity. The effect of biotin on these functions is related to its actions at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. The bestsupported mechanism involved in the genetic effects of biotin is the soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. Although there are commercially-available products containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin, the toxic effects of biotin have been poorly studied. This review summarizes the known actions and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological doses of biotin in animals and current information regarding biotin toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Abedon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virions alone. Ecologically, we can consider phage propagation, densities, distribution (within bodies, impact on body-associated microbiota (as ecological communities, and modification of the functioning of body “ecosystems” more generally. These ecological and physiological components in many ways represent different perspectives on otherwise equivalent phenomena. Comparable to drugs, one also can view phages during phage therapy in pharmacological terms. The relatively unique status of phages within the context of phage therapy as essentially replicating antimicrobials can therefore result in a confluence of perspectives, many of which can be useful towards gaining a better mechanistic appreciation of phage therapy, as I consider here. Pharmacology more generally may be viewed as a discipline that lies at an interface between organism-associated phenomena, as considered by physiology, and environmental interactions as considered by ecology.

  20. Future perspective of induced pluripotent stem cells for diagnosis, drug screening and treatment of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qizhou; Chow, Yenyen; Esteban, Miguel Angel; Pei, Duanqing; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in stem cell biology have transformed the understanding of cell physiology and developmental biology such that it can now play a more prominent role in the clinical application of stem cell and regenerative medicine. Success in the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) as well as related emerging technology on the iPS platform provide great promise in the development of regenerative medicine. Human iPS cells show almost identical properties to human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in pluripotency, but avoid many of their limitations of use. In addition, investigations into reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells facilitate a deeper understanding of human stem cell biology. The iPS cell technology has offered a unique platform for studying the pathogenesis of human disease, pharmacological and toxicological testing, and cell-based therapy. Nevertheless, significant challenges remain to be overcome before the promise of human iPS cell technology can be realised.

  1. [Cancer stem cells as the therapeutic target of tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatina, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The concept of hierarchical organization of tumour cell population, with cancer stem cells positioned at the apex of the cell hierarchy, can explain at least some crucial aspects of biological and clinical behaviour of cancer, like its propensity to relapse as well as the development of therapeutic resistance. The underlying biological properties of cancer stem cells are crucially dependent on various signals, inhibition of which provides an attractive opportunity to attack pharmacologically cancer stem cells. Currently, a lot of such stemness-inhibitors undergo various phases of clinical testing. Interestingly, numerous old drugs that are in routine use in human and veterinary medicine for non-oncological indications appear to be able to specifically target cancer stem cells as well. As cancer stem cells, at least for most tumours, represent usually only a minor tumour cell fraction, it is quite probable that the main focus of the clinical use of the stemness inhibitors would consist in their rational combinations with traditional anticancer treatment modalities. A highly important goal for the future research is to identify reliable and clinically applicable predictive markers that would allow to apply these novel anticancer drugs on the individual basis within the context of personalized medicine.

  2. Creative Teaching in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Vikki; Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen

    2018-01-01

    If Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in higher education are to retain students, there needs to be a shift towards teaching in more enriching and interesting ways. Creative teaching needs to become more prominent in STEM. This article presents a study that defines creative teaching in the STEM context and…

  3. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add

  4. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa- levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia. Methods This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks. Results The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51) than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56) at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively). There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51) and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56) at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5%) than in the occlusion group (30%). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3%) than in the occlusion group (22%). Conclusion Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia. PMID:22536029

  5. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    A novel functional-genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in "big data" providing comprehensive information about the drugs' targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In "process pharmacology", drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high-dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  6. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Vucovich, Lee A.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients’ chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research. PMID:27267445

  7. Pharmacology Goes Concept-Based: Course Design, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Amelia; Davis, Rebecca G

    Although concept-based curricula are frequently discussed in the nursing education literature, little information exists to guide the development of a concept-based pharmacology course. Traditionally, nursing pharmacology courses are taught with an emphasis on drug class where a prototype drug serves as an exemplar. When transitioning pharmacology to a concept-based course, special considerations are in order. How can educators successfully integrate essential pharmacological content into a curriculum structured around nursing concepts? This article presents one approach to the design and implementation of a concept-based undergraduate pharmacology course. Planning methods, supportive teaching strategies, and course evaluation procedures are discussed.

  8. Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo: A Review on Its Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hanxiao; Zhao, Tianwen; Sheng, Yunjie; Zheng, Ting; Fu, Lingzhu

    2017-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis, the stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, as a tonic herb in Chinese materia medica and health food in folk, has been utilized for the treatment of yin-deficiency diseases for decades. Methods. Information for analysis of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo was obtained from libraries and Internet scientific databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience, Ingenta, Embase, CNKI, and PubChem. Results. Over the past decades, about 190 compounds have been isolated from Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo. Its wide modern pharmacological actions in hepatoprotective effect, anticancer effect, hypoglycemic effect, antifatigue effect, gastric ulcer protective effect, and so on were reported. This may mainly attribute to the major and bioactive components: polysaccharides. However, other small molecule components require further study. Conclusions. Due to the lack of systematic data of Dendrobium officinale, it is important to explore its ingredient-function relationships with modern pharmacology. Recently, studies on the chemical constituents of Dendrobium officinale concentrated in crude polysaccharides and its structure-activity relationships remain scant. Further research is required to determine the Dendrobium officinale toxicological action and pharmacological mechanisms of other pure ingredients and crude extracts. In addition, investigation is needed for better quality control and novel drug or product development. PMID:28386292

  9. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Droplet Microarray Based on Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prevents Stem Cell Differentiation and Enables High-Throughput Stem Cell Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronser, Tina; Popova, Anna A; Jaggy, Mona; Bastmeyer, Martin; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades, stem cells have attracted growing interest in fundamental biological and biomedical research as well as in regenerative medicine, due to their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Long-term maintenance of the self-renewal ability and inhibition of spontaneous differentiation, however, still remain challenging and are not fully understood. Uncontrolled spontaneous differentiation of stem cells makes high-throughput screening of stem cells also difficult. This further hinders investigation of the underlying mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and the factors that might affect it. In this work, a dual functionality of nanoporous superhydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns is demonstrated in their ability to inhibit differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and at the same time enable formation of arrays of microdroplets (droplet microarray) via the effect of discontinuous dewetting. Such combination makes high-throughput screening of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells possible. The droplet microarray is used to investigate the development, differentiation, and maintenance of stemness of mESC, revealing the dependence of stem cell behavior on droplet volume in nano- and microliter scale. The inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of mESCs cultured on the droplet microarray for up to 72 h is observed. In addition, up to fourfold increased cell growth rate of mESCs cultured on our platform has been observed. The difference in the behavior of mESCs is attributed to the porosity and roughness of the polymer surface. This work demonstrates that the droplet microarray possesses the potential for the screening of mESCs under conditions of prolonged inhibition of stem cells' spontaneous differentiation. Such a platform can be useful for applications in the field of stem cell research, pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, biomedical research as well as in the field of

  11. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  12. Stem Cell Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  13. A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenyi; Du, Yijie; Meng, Hong; Dong, Yinmao; Li, Li

    2017-07-11

    Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae that has been used for generations to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. The fruits and roots of TT have been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in China, India, Sudan, and Pakistan. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, such as saponins and flavonoids, have been isolated and identified from TT that are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of TT and provides evidence for better medicinal usage of TT.

  14. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-06-03

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0%) and aerial stems (50.1%). While, monoterpenes (74.6%) are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3%) and lauraldehyde (3.5%) were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  15. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  16. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  17. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  18. Reappraisal of GIP Pharmacology for Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are considered the best current medicines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity due to their actions in lowering blood glucose and body weight. Despite similarities to GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has not been extensively pursue...... be beneficial for metabolic diseases. However, a growing body of new evidence - including data based on refined genetically modified models and improved pharmacological agents - suggests a paradigm shift on how the GIP system should be manipulated for metabolic benefits....

  19. Immaturity of human stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes in culture: fatal flaw or soluble problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, Christiaan C.; Kosmidis, Georgios; Mummery, Christine L.; Casini, Simona; Verkerk, Arie O.; Bellin, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are increasingly used to model cardiac disease, test drug efficacy and for safety pharmacology. Nevertheless, a major hurdle to more extensive use is their immaturity and similarity to fetal rather than adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we

  20. Postherpetic neuralgia: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pain management pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallick-Searle T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Mallick-Searle,1 Brett Snodgrass,2 Jeannine M Brant,3 1Pain Management Center, Stanford Health Care, Redwood City, CA, 2LifeLinc Pain Centers, Cordova, TN, 3Billings Clinic, Billings, MT, USA Abstract: Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia report decreased quality of life and interference with activities of daily living. Approaches to management of postherpetic neuralgia include preventing herpes zoster through vaccination and/or antiviral treatment, and administering specific medications to treat pain. Current guidelines recommend treatment of postherpetic neuralgia in a hierarchical manner, with calcium channel α2-δ ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine, or topical lidocaine patches as first-line drugs. The safety and tolerability of pharmacologic therapies for pain are important issues to consider as postherpetic neuralgia affects primarily an older population. Patients should be educated on appropriate dosing, titration if applicable, the importance of adherence to treatment for optimal effectiveness, and possible side effects. Health-care professionals play a key role in helping to ameliorate the pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia through early recognition and diligent assessment of the problem; recommending evidence

  1. Stem cell metabolism in tissue development and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyh-Chang, Ng; Daley, George Q.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in metabolomics and computational analysis have deepened our appreciation for the role of specific metabolic pathways in dictating cell fate. Once thought to be a mere consequence of the state of a cell, metabolism is now known to play a pivotal role in dictating whether a cell proliferates, differentiates or remains quiescent. Here, we review recent studies of metabolism in stem cells that have revealed a shift in the balance between glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress during the maturation of adult stem cells, and during the reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. These insights promise to inform strategies for the directed differentiation of stem cells and to offer the potential for novel metabolic or pharmacological therapies to enhance regeneration and the treatment of degenerative disease. PMID:23715547

  2. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  3. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  4. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  5. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  6. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  8. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  9. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  10. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatment of tumorigenesis, asthama, gastric, erectile dysfunction, apoptosis, melanoma and congestive heart failure. Ability to produce nitric oxide offers various applications as in the prevention of age and hair loss. It serves as a precursor of creatine with ergogenic potential. The ability to increase endogenous growth hormone makes arginine a preferred supplement for the improvement of physical performance. In the present study details about the pharmacological applications of arginine based on modern scientific investigations have been discussed. There are immense properties hidden in arginine that need to be explored using the scientific investigations to make it beneficial for the medicine and human health. More research is needed to evaluate the role of arginine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations in healthy and diseased populations before taking any conclusions.

  11. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E

    2011-03-26

    Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.

  12. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  13. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the aetiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention, but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have, however, emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca 2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progress towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  14. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-01-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  15. Harnessing Big Data for Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Draizen, Eli J; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-01-06

    Systems pharmacology aims to holistically understand mechanisms of drug actions to support drug discovery and clinical practice. Systems pharmacology modeling (SPM) is data driven. It integrates an exponentially growing amount of data at multiple scales (genetic, molecular, cellular, organismal, and environmental). The goal of SPM is to develop mechanistic or predictive multiscale models that are interpretable and actionable. The current explosions in genomics and other omics data, as well as the tremendous advances in big data technologies, have already enabled biologists to generate novel hypotheses and gain new knowledge through computational models of genome-wide, heterogeneous, and dynamic data sets. More work is needed to interpret and predict a drug response phenotype, which is dependent on many known and unknown factors. To gain a comprehensive understanding of drug actions, SPM requires close collaborations between domain experts from diverse fields and integration of heterogeneous models from biophysics, mathematics, statistics, machine learning, and semantic webs. This creates challenges in model management, model integration, model translation, and knowledge integration. In this review, we discuss several emergent issues in SPM and potential solutions using big data technology and analytics. The concurrent development of high-throughput techniques, cloud computing, data science, and the semantic web will likely allow SPM to be findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable, reliable, interpretable, and actionable.

  16. Neuropathic pain in people with cancer (part 2): pharmacological and non-pharmacological management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the management of neuropathic pain associated with cancer and to provide helpful clinical advice for nurses working with patients who may have neuropathic pain. While cancer pain is a mixed-mechanism pain, this article will focus only on neuropathic pain management. The impact of neuropathic pain on patients' quality of life is great and while many patients recover from their cancer, a significant number continue to suffer from a neuropathic pain syndrome. Management of neuropathic pain is significantly different from management of nociceptive pain with respect to pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Neuropathic pain is complex, and as such requires complex management using pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological approaches. Specific drugs for neuropathic pain may be effective for some patients, but not all; therefore, ongoing and comprehensive assessment and management are required. Furthermore, these patients may require trials of several drugs before they find one that works for them. It is important for nurses to understand neuropathic pain, its manifestation, impact on quality of life and management when nursing patients with neuropathic pain associated with cancer.

  17. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the

  18. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  19. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  20. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  1. Pharmacology national board examinations: factors that may influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidle, E A; Kahn, N

    1977-12-01

    Data from a survey of pharmacology courses in 60 dental schools were used to determine whether certain teaching variables affect performance in pharmacology National Board examinations. In addition, three-year class-averaged pharmacology scores and, rarely, one-year averaged scores were correlated with several admissions variables. While correlations between some admissions variables and pharmacology scores were quite good, the averaged pharmacology scores were not powerfully affected by course length, placement of the course in the curriculum, length of the curriculum, or the presence of a dentally trained pharmacologist in the department. It is suggested that other factors, related to the student and his capabilities, influence performance on National Boards. Dental pharmacology courses should be designed to given students the best possible exposure to an important basic science, not to make them perform well on National Boards, because student performance on National Boards may be independent of the nature of the didactic courses.

  2. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD.

  3. Integrative STEM Education Defined

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    “My work with integrative STEM education began in 1990 with the NSF-funded Technology, Science, Mathematics Integration Project… By 2008, I was convinced “STEM Education” was (and always would be) a hopelessly ambiguous phrase, and therefore felt we absolutely needed to rename our “STEM Education” graduate program and develop a tight operational definition of the central idea underlying our program, in hopes of preventing the sort of hopeless ambiguity that ruined the term “STEM education” fr...

  4. Stem Cells and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  5. Clozapine-resistant schizophrenia – non pharmacological augmentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaszkiewicz Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the drug of choice for drug-resistant schizophrenia, but despite its use, 30-40% patients fail to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. In such situations, augmentation attempts are made by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. To date, most of the work has been devoted to pharmacological strategies, much less to augemantation of clozapine with electroconvulsive therapy (C+ECT, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.

  6. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaykaran,; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. Materials and Methods: All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals′ (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of...

  7. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  8. Network-based Approaches in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezio, Baptiste; Audouze, Karine; Ducrot, Pierre; Taboureau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    In drug discovery, network-based approaches are expected to spotlight our understanding of drug action across multiple layers of information. On one hand, network pharmacology considers the drug response in the context of a cellular or phenotypic network. On the other hand, a chemical-based network is a promising alternative for characterizing the chemical space. Both can provide complementary support for the development of rational drug design and better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Recent progress in both concepts is discussed here. In addition, a network-based approach using drug-target-therapy data is introduced as an example. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods...... improvement is seen with the previous drugs. Nabiximols has a positive effect when used as add-on therapy in patients with poor response and/or tolerance to first-line oral treatments. Despite limited evidence, intrathecal baclofen and intrathecal phenol show a positive effect in severe spasticity...... and suboptimal response to oral drugs. Conclusion: The available studies on spasticity treatment offer some insight to guide clinical practice but are of variable methodological quality. Large, well-designed trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of antispasticity agents and to produce evidence...

  10. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered

  11. Pharmacological Aspects of Vipera xantina palestinae Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momic, Tatjana; Arlinghaus, Franziska T.; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Katzhendler, Jeoshua; Eble, Johannes A.; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Lazarovici, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In Israel, Vipera xantina palestinae (V.x.p.) is the most common venomous snake, accounting for several hundred cases of envenomation in humans and domestic animals every year, with a mortality rate of 0.5 to 2%. In this review we will briefly address the research developments relevant to our present understanding of the structure and function of V.x.p. venom with emphasis on venom disintegrins. Venom proteomics indicated the presence of four families of pharmacologically active compounds: (i) neurotoxins; (ii) hemorrhagins; (iii) angioneurin growth factors; and (iv) different types of integrin inhibitors. Viperistatin, a α1β1selective KTS disintegrin and VP12, a α2β1 selective C-type lectin were discovered. These snake venom proteins represent promising tools for research and development of novel collagen receptor selective drugs. These discoveries are also relevant for future improvement of antivenom therapy towards V.x.p. envenomation. PMID:22174978

  12. Safety pharmacology--current and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas; Sidaway, James; Sison-Young, Rowena; Smith, Emma; Stebbings, Richard; Tingle, Yulia; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Williams, Awel; Williams, Dominic; Park, Kevin; Goldring, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological Strategies to Retard Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaras, Irene; Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Lakatta, Edward G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the leading cause of death in the United States. Traditionally, the effort to prevent CVD has been focused on addressing the conventional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and high circulating levels of triglycerides. However, recent preclinical studies have identified new approaches to combat CVD. Calorie restriction has been reproducibly shown to prolong lifespan in various experimental model animals. This has led to the development of calorie restriction mimetics and other pharmacological interventions capable to delay age-related diseases. In this review, we will address the mechanistic effects of aging per se on the cardiovascular system and focus on the pro-longevity benefits of various therapeutic strategies that support cardiovascular health. PMID:27174954

  14. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Anthraquinones As Pharmacological Tools and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Enas M; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-01

    Anthraquinones (9,10-dioxoanthracenes) constitute an important class of natural and synthetic compounds with a wide range of applications. Besides their utilization as colorants, anthraquinone derivatives have been used since centuries for medical applications, for example, as laxatives and antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents. Current therapeutic indications include constipation, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Moreover, biologically active anthraquinones derived from Reactive Blue 2 have been utilized as valuable tool compounds for biochemical and pharmacological studies. They may serve as lead structures for the development of future drugs. However, the presence of the quinone moiety in the structure of anthraquinones raises safety concerns, and anthraquinone laxatives have therefore been under critical reassessment. This review article provides an overview of the chemistry, biology, and toxicology of anthraquinones focusing on their application as drugs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Targeting HIV latency: pharmacologic strategies toward eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785

  17. Pharmacological Needs of Nurses: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study was carried out to determine the most commonly used drugs in health centers. By identifying common medications, pharmacological educational needs of nurses gets clear and officials can provide nurses specific relevant training about common drugs. Material and Methods: In this descriptive report, the hospitals’ pharmacies were asked to name ten of the most widely used drugs in the past 6 months. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 13 software using descriptive tests. Results: Gastrointestinal drugs and antibiotics in all centers and oxytocin in obstetrics and gynecological centers were the most commonly used drugs. Conclusion: Due to the important and dangerous side-effects of these common medications, renewing nurses’ information in this field is required. ​

  18. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  19. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  20. Ethnobotany, biochemistry and pharmacology of Minthostachys (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N

    2008-08-13

    The South American mint genus Minthostachys is of great importance in the Andes as a medicinal, aromatic, culinary and commercial essential oil plant. After decades of taxonomic confusion and virtual indeterminability of specimens, new systematic and taxonomic work has been conducted in recent years. The present paper attempts to summarize the state of knowledge about Minthostachys with a focus on ethnobotany, analyses of essential oil content and pharmacology, to identify the currently accepted species names for the plants examined in these previous studies, and to assess where additional research is needed. All available studies on Minthostachys were obtained and evaluated. Herbaria were contacted to identify voucher specimens cited in the respective publications. The great majority of published studies was conducted on a single species, Argentinean Minthostachys verticillata. In contrast, the most widely distributed and well-known species (Minthostachys mollis) as well as several locally important and intensively used species (e.g., Minthostachys acutifolia) have received disproportionately little attention, and virtually nothing is known about the local endemics among the 17 species currently recognized. In many cases, however, it is difficult to relate the results to taxonomic entities due to the lack of voucher specimens. Future research efforts should especially be directed at studying the chemistry and potential for use of several common but so far neglected species of the central and northern Andes, at disentangling environmental and genetic influences on essential oil composition, at prerequisites for cultivation, and at the pharmacological basis of the most important traditional uses. Because of the morphological complexity of the genus, future researchers are urged to deposit voucher specimens of the plants used in their studies to facilitate species identification and to make the results more comparable and reproducible.

  1. Clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerahee, M

    1999-05-01

    Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that is used for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil was reviewed. Atovaquone is a highly lipophilic compound with low aqueous solubility, the absorption of which is limited by the rate and extent of dissolution. Dietary fat increases the rate and extent of atovaquone absorption, increasing AUC two- to threefold and C(max) fivefold over fasting. Proguanil is rapidly and extensively absorbed regardless of food intake. Atovaquone is highly protein bound (> 99%) but does not displace other highly protein bound drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely. Atovaquone is predominantly eliminated unchanged in feces, with negligible excretion in urine. Proguanil is partially metabolized and partially excreted unchanged in urine. Its principal metabolite, cycloguanil, is also excreted in urine. Metabolism of proguanil is mediated in the liver by the cytochrome P450 3A and 2C subfamilies. The elimination half-life of atovaquone is 2 to 3 days in adults and 1 to 2 days in children. The elimination half-lives of proguanil and cycloguanil are 12 to 15 hours in adults and children. Dosage adjustments based on body weight categories in children (1/4 dose for 11-20 kg, 1/2 dose for > 20-30 kg, 3/4 dose for > 30-40 kg, and full dose for > 40 kg) achieve plasma concentrations that are safe and effective during prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. No dose adjustments for race, proguanil metabolizer status, gender, or elderly patients are needed, or for patients with mild to moderately impaired renal or hepatic function. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil provides a rationale for the dosing regimens recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.

  2. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα 1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα 1 -adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  3. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  6. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  7. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  8. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  9. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  10. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  11. The Hidden STEM Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  12. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  13. A network pharmacology approach to investigate the pharmacological effects of Guizhi Fuling Wan on uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liuting; Yang, Kailin; Liu, Huiping; Zhang, Guomin

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) in the treatment of uterine fibroids, a network pharmacology approach was used. Information on GFW compounds was collected from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) databases, and input into PharmMapper to identify the compound targets. Genes associated with uterine fibroids genes were then obtained from the GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The interaction data of the targets and other human proteins was also collected from the STRING and IntAct databases. The target data were input into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery for gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Networks of the above information were constructed and analyzed using Cytoscape. The following networks were compiled: A compound-compound target network of GFW; a herb-compound target-uterine fibroids target network of GWF; and a compound target-uterine fibroids target-other human proteins protein-protein interaction network, which were subjected to GO and pathway enrichment analyses. According to this approach, a number of novel signaling pathways and biological processes underlying the effects of GFW on uterine fibroids were identified, including the negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the Ras, wingless-type, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathways. This network pharmacology approach may aid the systematical study of herbal formulae and make TCM drug discovery more predictable.

  14. Targeting cancer stem cells: emerging role of Nanog transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mong-Lien Wang,1 Shih-Hwa Chiou,2,3 Cheng-Wen Wu1,4–61Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The involvement of stemness factors in cancer initiation and progression has drawn much attention recently, especially after the finding that introducing four stemness factors in somatic cells is able to reprogram the cells back to an embryonic stem cell-like state. Following accumulating data revealing abnormal elevated expression levels of key stemness factors, like Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, in several types of cancer stem cells; the importance and therapeutic potential of targeting these stemness regulators in cancers has turned to research focus. Nanog determines cell fate in both embryonic and cancer stem cells; activating Nanog at an inappropriate time would result in cancer stem cells rather than normal pluripotent stem cells or differentiated somatic cells. Upregulated Nanog is correlated with poor survival outcome of patients with various types of cancer. The discoveries of downstream regulatory pathways directly or indirectly mediated by Nanog indicate that Nanog regulates several aspects of cancer development such as tumor cell proliferation, self-renewal, motility, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, immune evasion, and drug-resistance, which are all defined features for cancer stem cells. The current review paper illustrates the central role of Nanog in the regulatory networks of cancer malignant development and stemness acquirement, as well as in the communication between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma. Though a more defined model is needed to test the

  15. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs. They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.Keywords: oral mesenchymal stem cells, oral

  16. An Integrated Approach to Instruction in Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Robert L.; Walton, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the clinical faculty on the content of the pharmacology course is described in a discussion of trends in pharmacology instruction. Interfaculty communication and development of course objectives are reviewed, and descriptions of two baccalaureate courses at the University of Texas College of Pharmacy are appended. (LBH)

  17. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  18. Human pharmacology of current and new treatments for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis together show different ways of studying human pharmacology, give an impression of the current drug development in schizophrenia, and provide examples how human pharmacology can be applied in an early stage of drug development in healthy volunteers. The investigated

  19. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  20. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal......, tiagabine (49) containing (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as the GABA transport carrier-recognizing structure element, is now marketed as an antiepileptic agent....

  1. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD...

  2. Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosál, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 56-60 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * tharapeutical drugs * natural antioxidants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/intox.2017.10.issue-2/intox-2017-0009/intox-2017-0009.pdf

  3. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  4. Deconstructing transcriptional heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalek, Alex K.; Satija, Rahul; DaleyKeyser, AJay; Li, Hu; Zhang, Jin; Pardee, Keith; Gennert, David; Trombetta, John J.; Ferrante, Thomas C.; Regev, Aviv; Daley, George Q.; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of dynamic interconversion between distinct substates, but the regulatory circuits specifying these states and enabling transitions between them are not well understood. We set out to characterize transcriptional heterogeneity in PSCs by single-cell expression profiling under different chemical and genetic perturbations. Signaling factors and developmental regulators show highly variable expression, with expression states for some variable genes heritable through multiple cell divisions. Expression variability and population heterogeneity can be influenced by perturbation of signaling pathways and chromatin regulators. Strikingly, either removal of mature miRNAs or pharmacologic blockage of signaling pathways drives PSCs into a low-noise ground state characterized by a reconfigured pluripotency network, enhanced self-renewal, and a distinct chromatin state, an effect mediated by opposing miRNA families acting on the c-myc / Lin28 / let-7 axis. These data illuminate the nature of transcriptional heterogeneity in PSCs. PMID:25471879

  5. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-08-04

    Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009) , ASSIA (1987 to September 2009) , BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the data available were generally insufficient to allow any independent statistical analysis. The

  6. What is a stem cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Studies on the pharmacological action of cactus: identification of its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Paek, E A

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica fructus (EEOF) and Opuntia ficus-indica stem (EEOS) were prepared and used to evaluate the pharmacological effects of cactus. Both the extracts inhibited the writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid, indicating that they contains analgesic effect. The oral administrations of EEOF and EEOS suppressed carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and also showed potent inhibition in the leukocyte migration of CMC-pouch model in rats. Moreover, the extracts suppressed the release of beta-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme in rat neutrophils. It was also noted that the extracts showed the protective effect on gastric mucosal layers. From the results it is suggested that the cactus extracts contain anti-inflammatory action having protective effect against gastric lesions.

  8. Pharmacological Treatment Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kevin; Nezgovorova, Vera; Uzunova, Genoveva; Schlussel, Danya; Hollander, Eric

    2018-04-26

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. However, not all patients respond to treatment, and BDD symptoms remain even in those who do respond. This review outlines current pharmacological and neuromodulation treatments for body dysmorphic disorder, and suggests directions for future studies of novel treatments such as augmentation with atypical antipsychotics and the use of intranasal oxytocin in cases of body dysmorphic disorder that show residual symptomatology even with tailored monotherapy. There is emerging evidence suggesting that non-invasive neurostimulatory techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, may be of value in treatment-resistant cases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  10. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  11. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C J; Geiger, J D

    2000-03-01

    Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive drug in the world. As many know, chronic use of caffeine leads to dependence, tolerance, drug craving, and upon abrupt cessation unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Thus, caffeine fulfills pharmacological criteria by which agents are classified as drugs of abuse. Nevertheless, its use is legal and only at high, but readily attainable, levels is it banned from sport. Its use is widespread by athletes as young as 11 years of age who are seeking athletic advantage over fellow competitors. It is likely that its use will not decline any time soon because it is inexpensive, readily available, medically quite safe, socially acceptable, and by most measures legal. However, at levels allowed in sport, caffeine through its wide-ranging physiological and psychological effects increases endurance in well-trained athletes. If the goal of drug-testing and education programs in sport is to protect the health of athletes, prevent unfair advantage (cheating) and encourage ethical behavior then it seems obvious that the allowable levels of caffeine ingestion should be decreased. The alternative is to continue with policies designed largely to punish only those that get caught.

  14. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  16. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  18. Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Treatment for Apathy in Alzheimer Disease : A systematic review across modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theleritis, Christos; Siarkos, Kostas; Katirtzoglou, Everina; Politis, Antonios

    2017-01-01

    Apathy is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms encountered in Alzheimer disease (AD). Early diagnosis and timely treatment of apathy in AD seem to be of great importance, since apathy has been associated with poor disease outcome, reduced daily functioning, and caregiver distress. Within this context, we conducted an extensive electronic search from the databases included in the National Library of Medicine as well as PsychInfo and Google Scholar for studies that have investigated the effect of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments of apathy in AD. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, gingko biloba, methylphenidate, and a variety of nonpharmacological interventions were found to be successful in reducing apathy in patients with AD. Methodological heterogeneity of the studies and the small amount of studies where apathy was a primary outcome measure are limiting factors to evaluate for group effects. Treatment of apathy in AD is a complicated and an underexplored field. Standardized and systematic efforts primarily focused on the study of apathy in AD may establish a benefit from individualized treatment for specific disease groups that would stem from a combination of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions.

  19. Effects of GSK3 inhibitors on in vitro expansion and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraldi Pascal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multipotent stem cells exist within adipose tissue throughout life. An abnormal recruitment of these adipose precursor cells could participate to hyperplasia of adipose tissue observed in severe obesity or to hypoplasia of adipose tissue observed in lipodystrophy. Therefore, pharmacological molecules that control the pool of stem cells in adipose tissue are of great interest. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK 3 has been previously described as involved in differentiation of preadipose cells and might be a potential therapeutic target to modulate proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors. However, the impact of GSK3 inhibition on human adipose-derived stem cells remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate GSK3 as a possible target for pharmacological inhibition of stem cell adipogenesis. To reach this goal, we studied the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of GSK3, i.e. lithium chloride (LiCl and BIO on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of multipotent stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Results Our results showed that GSK3 inhibitors inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity of human stem cells, strongly suggesting that GSK3 inhibitors could be potent regulators of the pool of adipocyte precursors in adipose tissue. The impact of GSK3 inhibition on differentiation of hMADS cells was also investigated. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiations were inhibited upon hMADS treatment with BIO. Whereas a chronic treatment was required to inhibit osteogenesis, a treatment that was strictly restricted to the early step of differentiation was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis. Conclusion These results demonstrated the feasibility of a pharmacological approach to regulate adipose-derived stem cell function and that GSK3 could represent a potential target for controlling adipocyte precursor pool under conditions where fat tissue formation is impaired.

  20. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  1. Innovation and STEM Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  2. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  3. STEM Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  4. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  6. Pharmacological screening of Ageratum conyzoides L. (mentrasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia A. Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities of a water extract (WE of Ageratum conyzoides L, a plant populary known for its analgesic and anti-inflamatory properties, were studied in vivo and in vitro preparations. Oral administration (p.o. of the water extract (WE, 0.1 to 5 g/Kg to rats and mice induced quietness and reduced the spontaneous motility. the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. in mice was not altered by previous treatment with We (2 g/Kg, p.o.. The same treatment did not influence the paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran, nor did it reduce the chronic paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or formaldehyde in rats. The tail flick response in immersion test and writhings induced by 0.8%acetic acid in mice were not altered by WE either. In isolated guinea-pig ilea WE (0.4 to 4 mg/ml did not alter the EC50 values of histamine or acetylcholine, but reduced the maximal response to the agonists by 20 to 50%. We (0.01 to 10 mg/ml produced tonic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle proportional to the doses, reaching a maximum of 75% relatively to the maximum obtained with histamine. Those contractions were blocked by diphenhydramine (10 nM and reduced by 32% in presence of atropine (10 nM. The results indicated that oral treatment of rodents with A. conyzoides L neither reduced the inflammatory edema nor did it decrease the reaction to pain stimuli. In vitro the extract presented an unexpected histamine-like activity characteristic of a partial agonist. The results did not confirm the popular medicinal indications of the plant.

  7. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  8. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Squadrito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects.

  9. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrito, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects. PMID:28491036

  10. Trials of Pharmacological Interventions for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waldon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is a childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic and often complicated by co-morbid behavioural problems. The pharmacological treatment of GTS focuses on the modulation of monoaminergic pathways within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of tics in patients with GTS, in order to provide clinicians with an evidence-based rationale for the pharmacological treatment in GTS.

  11. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  12. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology: A Case for Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, C J; Ramanujan, S; Schmidt, B J; Ghobrial, O G; Lu, J; Heatherington, A C

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) has emerged as an innovative approach in model-informed drug discovery and development, supporting program decisions from exploratory research through late-stage clinical trials. In this commentary, we discuss the unique value of disease-scale "platform" QSP models that are amenable to reuse and repurposing to support diverse clinical decisions in ways distinct from other pharmacometrics strategies. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribba, B; Grimm, H P; Agoram, B; Davies, M R; Gadkar, K; Niederer, S; van Riel, N; Timmis, J; van der Graaf, P H

    2017-08-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early Development to focus discussions on two critical methodological aspects of QSP model development: optimal structural granularity and parameter estimation. We here report in a perspective article a summary of presentations and discussions. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Atherosclerosis is a vascular stem cell disease caused by insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traunmüller, Friederike

    2018-07-01

    The present article proposes the hypothesis that when multipotent vascular stem cells are exposed to excessive insulin in a rhythmic pattern of sharply rising and falling concentrations, their differentiation is misdirected toward adipogenic and osteogenic cell lineages. This results in plaque-like accumulation of adipocytes with fat and cholesterol deposition from adipocyte debris, and osteogenic (progenitor) cells with a calcified matrix in advanced lesions. The ingrowth of capillaries and infiltration with macrophages, which upon uptake of lipids turn into foam cells, are unspecific pro-resolving reactions. Epidemiological, histopathological, pharmacological, and experimental evidence in favour of this hypothesis is summarised. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Stem cells in drug discovery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine: emerging opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalanandhan, Victor Sanjit; Sittampalam, G Sitta

    2009-08-01

    Stem cells, irrespective of their origin, have emerged as valuable reagents or tools in human health in the past 2 decades. Initially, a research tool to study fundamental aspects of developmental biology is now the central focus of generating transgenic animals, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine to address degenerative diseases of multiple organ systems. This is because stem cells are pluripotent or multipotent cells that can recapitulate developmental paths to repair damaged tissues. However, it is becoming clear that stem cell therapy alone may not be adequate to reverse tissue and organ damage in degenerative diseases. Existing small-molecule drugs and biologicals may be needed as "molecular adjuvants" or enhancers of stem cells administered in therapy or adult stem cells in the diseased tissues. Hence, a combination of stem cell-based, high-throughput screening and 3D tissue engineering approaches is necessary to advance the next wave of tools in preclinical drug discovery. In this review, the authors have attempted to provide a basic account of various stem cells types, as well as their biology and signaling, in the context of research in regenerative medicine. An attempt is made to link stem cells as reagents, pharmacology, and tissue engineering as converging fields of research for the next decade.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cell transplantation on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is the major pharmacologically active component of ginseng, and is reported to have various therapeutic actions. To determine whether it induces the differentiation of neural stem cells, and whether neural stem cell transplantation after induction has therapeutic effects on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, we cultured neural stem cells in 10-80 µM ginsenoside Rg1. Immunohistochemistry revealed that of the concentrations tested, 20 mM ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest differentiation-inducing effect and was the concentration used for subsequent experiments. Whole-cell patch clamp showed that neural stem cells induced by 20 µM ginsenoside Rg1 were more mature than non-induced cells. We then established neonatal rat models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy using the suture method, and ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells were transplanted via intracerebroventricular injection. These tests confirmed that neural stem cells induced by ginsenoside had fewer pathological lesions and had a significantly better behavioral capacity than model rats that received saline. Transplanted neural stem cells expressed neuron-specific enolase, and were mainly distributed in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The present data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1-induced neural stem cells can promote the partial recovery of complicated brain functions in models of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  17. Targeting Adenosine Signaling in Parkinson's Disease: From Pharmacological to Non-pharmacological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Nazario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease displaying negative impacts on both the health and social ability of patients and considerable economical costs. The classical anti-parkinsonian drugs based in dopaminergic replacement are the standard treatment, but several motor side effects emerge during long-term use. This mini-review presents the rationale to several efforts from pre-clinical and clinical studies using adenosine receptor antagonists as a non-dopaminergic therapy. As several studies have indicated that the monotherapy with adenosine receptor antagonists reaches limited efficacy, the usage as a co-adjuvant appeared to be a promising strategy. The formulation of multi-targeted drugs, using adenosine receptor antagonists and other neurotransmitter systems than the dopaminergic one as targets, have been receiving attention since Parkinson's disease presents a complex biological impact. While pharmacological approaches to cure or ameliorate the conditions of PD are the leading strategy in this area, emerging positive aspects have arisen from non-pharmacological approaches and adenosine function inhibition appears to improve both strategies.

  18. Holistic Management of Schizophrenia Symptoms Using Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Pronab; Soliman, Abdrabo; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia lead a poor quality of life, due to poor medical attention, homelessness, unemployment, financial constraints, lack of education, and poor social skills. Thus, a review of factors associated with the holistic management of schizophrenia is of paramount importance. The objective of this review is to improve the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia, by addressing the factors related to the needs of the patients and present them in a unified manner. Although medications play a role, other factors that lead to a successful holistic management of schizophrenia include addressing the following: financial management, independent community living, independent living skill, relationship, friendship, entertainment, regular exercise for weight gained due to medication administration, co-morbid health issues, and day-care programmes for independent living. This review discusses the relationship between different symptoms and problems individuals with schizophrenia face (e.g., homelessness and unemployment), and how these can be managed using pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Thus, the target of this review is the carers of individuals with schizophrenia, public health managers, counselors, case workers, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists aiming to enhance the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. Site-Specific Genome Engineering in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkert, Sylvia; Martin, Ulrich

    2016-06-24

    The possibility to generate patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an unprecedented potential of applications in clinical therapy and medical research. Human iPSCs and their differentiated derivatives are tools for diseases modelling, drug discovery, safety pharmacology, and toxicology. Moreover, they allow for the engineering of bioartificial tissue and are promising candidates for cellular therapies. For many of these applications, the ability to genetically modify pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is indispensable, but efficient site-specific and safe technologies for genetic engineering of PSCs were developed only recently. By now, customized engineered nucleases provide excellent tools for targeted genome editing, opening new perspectives for biomedical research and cellular therapies.

  20. Stem cell therapy and its potential role in pituitary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Akinduro, Oluwaseun O; Reimer, Ronald; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-08-01

    The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells. Stem cell therapy has been successfully applied to a plethora of other disorders, and is a promising alternative to hormonal supplementation for resumption of normal hormone homeostasis. In this review, we describe the common causes for pituitary deficiencies and the advances in cellular therapy to restore the physiological pituitary function.

  1. Arformoterol Tartrate: A Review of Pharmacology, Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    suggest the potentially enhanced efficacy of this drug in the treatment of COPD including ... pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, analytical techniques, drug-drug interactions, ..... accordance with the United States Food and. Drug ...

  2. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION ...... Rankin SM, DeWhalley CV, Hoult S, Jessup W, Willins GM, Collard J, .... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull ...

  3. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, J.G.C. van

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this

  4. Pharmacological Properties of Melanin and its Function in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeid, Adila Salih; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Haseeb, Adil M

    2017-06-01

    The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photoprotective and immunological action, are well recognized. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognized and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system. In this MiniReview, we consider the steadily increasing literature on the bioavailability and functional activity of melanin. Published literature shows that melanin may play a number of possible pharmacological effects such as protective, stimulatory, diagnostic and curative roles in human health. In this MiniReview, possible health roles and pharmacological effects are considered. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Breastfeeding information in pharmacology textbooks: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2013-07-01

    Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.

  6. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  7. Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Ahad, Amjid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2014-01-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, are natural compounds found in a number of vegetable oils, wheat germ, barley, and certain types of nuts and grains. Like tocopherols, tocotrienols are also of four types viz. alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Unlike tocopherols, tocotrienols are unsaturated and possess an isoprenoid side chain. Tocopherols are lipophilic in nature and are found in association with lipoproteins, fat deposits and cellular membranes and protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation reactions. The unsaturated chain of tocotrienol allows an efficient penetration into tissues that have saturated fatty layers such as the brain and liver. Recent mechanistic studies indicate that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, and γ-tocotrienol, have unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are superior to those of α-tocopherol against chronic diseases. These forms scavenge reactive nitrogen species, inhibit cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed eicosanoids and suppress proinflammatory signalling, such as NF-κB and STAT. The animal and human studies show tocotrienols may be useful against inflammation-associated diseases. Many of the functions of tocotrienols are related to its antioxidant properties and its varied effects are due to it behaving as a signalling molecule. Tocotrienols exhibit biological activities that are also exhibited by tocopherols, such as neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol lowering properties. Hence, effort has been made to compile the different functions and properties of tocotrienols in experimental model systems and humans. This article constitutes an in-depth review of the pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and biosafety aspects of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are detectable at appreciable levels in the plasma after supplementations. However, there is inadequate data on the plasma concentrations of tocotrienols that are sufficient to

  8. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  9. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Laties, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search ...

  10. Pharmacological characterization of social isolation-induced hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....

  11. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  12. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eJonckers; Disha eShah; Julie eHamaide; Marleen eVerhoye; Annemie eVan Der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimu...

  13. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-09-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.

  14. Strains of Rodents and the Pharmacology of Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Castellano, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Mendelian genetic tools have extensively been used to improve the description of the pharmacological mechanisms involved in learning and memory. The first part of this short review describes experiments involving the bidirectional selection of rats or mice for extreme behavioral characteristics or for sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. The second part focuses specifically on inbreeding. In conclusion, the advantages and the limits of a Mendelian pharmacog...

  15. Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Marcu, Jahan

    2017-01-01

    The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive. Medical and recreational consumers alike have long believed in unique attributes of certain cannabis chemovars despite their similarity in cannabinoid profiles. This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas. Additional parts of the cannabis plant provide a wide and distinct variety of other compounds of pharmacological interest, including the triterpenoid friedelin from the roots, canniprene from the fan leaves, cannabisin from seed coats, and cannflavin A from seed sprouts. This chapter will explore the unique attributes of these agents and demonstrate how cannabis may yet fulfil its potential as Mechoulam's professed "pharmacological treasure trove." © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  17. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  18. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  19. Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Therapies of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elzbieta; Morel, Agnieszka; Redlicka, Justyna; Miller, Igor; Saluk, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms. Therefore, this review focused on the current status of our knowledge about possible methods of treatment cognitive impairment in MS patients including novel strategies. Research and online content was performed using Medline and EMBASE databases. The most recent research suggests that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion volume and brain atrophy. The examination of the cognitive impairment is usually based on particular neuropsychological batteries. However, it can be not enough to make a precise diagnosis. This creates a demand to find markers that might be useful for identifying patients with risk of cognitive impairment at an early stage of the disease. Currently the most promising methods consist of neuroimaging indicators, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl aspartate levels. Diagnosis problems are strictly connected with treatment procedures. There are two main cognitive therapies: pharmacological (disease modifying drugs (DMD), symptomatic treatments) and non-pharmacological interventions that are focused on psychological and physical rehabilitation. Some trials have shown a positive association between physical activity and the cognitive function. This article is an overview of the current state of knowledge related to cognition impairment treatment in MS. Additionally, novel strategies for cognitive impairments such as cryostimulation and other complementary methods are

  20. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells...... for differentiation and/or providing bystander support for resident stromal cells. This chapter discusses the cellular and molecular properties of MSC, the mechanisms by which they can modulate immune responses and the clinical applications of MSC in disorders such as graft-versus-host disease and aplastic anaemia...

  2. Stem Properties of Autobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Berdichevskyy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the stem properties of the autobacteria as part of the activation syndrome and persistence of the endogenous microflora in the adaptation process of the macroorganism to stress, as well as the ability of the bacteria to stimulate the cells of the macroorganism to manifest stem properties. The essence of this syndrome involves testing the tissue with the autobacteria of their "host" body to identify the foci of cellular insolvency with the subsequent inclusion of the autostrains in the implementation phase of the catabolic and anabolic inflammations. Considering the genetic tropism of the microbes to the organ-specific tissue of the area affected, the existence of the stem properties of the autobacteria is assumed to be realized in the process of reparative regeneration. The great clinical significance of further study of this phenomenon is not excluded.

  3. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  4. Palliative pharmacological sedation for terminally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine M; van Driel, Mieke L; McGregor, Leanne; Truong, Shani; Mitchell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-02

    Terminally ill people experience a variety of symptoms in the last hours and days of life, including delirium, agitation, anxiety, terminal restlessness, dyspnoea, pain, vomiting, and psychological and physical distress. In the terminal phase of life, these symptoms may become refractory, and unable to be controlled by supportive and palliative therapies specifically targeted to these symptoms. Palliative sedation therapy is one potential solution to providing relief from these refractory symptoms. Sedation in terminally ill people is intended to provide relief from refractory symptoms that are not controlled by other methods. Sedative drugs such as benzodiazepines are titrated to achieve the desired level of sedation; the level of sedation can be easily maintained and the effect is reversible. To assess the evidence for the benefit of palliative pharmacological sedation on quality of life, survival, and specific refractory symptoms in terminally ill adults during their last few days of life. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to November 2014), and EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), using search terms representing the sedative drug names and classes, disease stage, and study designs. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, non-RCTs, and observational studies (e.g. before-and-after, interrupted-time-series) with quantitative outcomes. We excluded studies with only qualitative outcomes or that had no comparison (i.e. no control group or no within-group comparison) (e.g. single arm case series). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of citations, and full text of potentially eligible studies. Two review authors independently carried out data extraction using standard data extraction forms. A third review author acted as arbiter for both stages. We carried out no meta-analyses due to insufficient data for pooling on any outcome; therefore, we reported

  5. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... renowned stem cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View ... story independent nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  6. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  7. Brain stem cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcarpio-O'Donovan, R.; Melanson, D.; Tampieri, D.; Ethier, R.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of cavernous angioma of the brain stem were definitely diagnosed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In many cases, the diagnosis had remained elusive for several years. Clinically, some cases behaved like multiple sclerosis or brain stem tumor. Others, usually associated with bleeding, caused increased intracranial pressure or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The diagnostic limitations of computed tomography in the posterior fossa are well known. Angiography fails to reveal abnormalities, since this malformation has neither a feeding artery nor a draining vein. Diagnosticians' familiarity with the MR appearance of this lesion may save patients from invasive diagnostic studies and potentially risky treatment

  8. Biomechanics of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, A. A.; Yuan, D.; Somers, S.; Grayson, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Stem cells play a key role in the healthy development and maintenance of organisms. They are also critically important in medical treatments of various diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that the mechanical factors such as forces, adhesion, stiffness, relaxation, etc. have significant effects on stem cell functions. Under physiological conditions, cells (stem cells) in muscles, heart, and blood vessels are under the action of externally applied strains. We consider the stem cell microenvironment and performance associated with their conversion (differentiation) into skeletal muscle cells. Two problems are studied by using mathematical models whose parameters are then optimized by fitting experiments. First, we present our analysis of the process of stem cell differentiation under the application of cyclic unidirectional strain. This process is interpreted as a transition through several (six) stages where each of them is defined in terms of expression of a set of factors typical to skeletal muscle cells. The stem cell evolution toward muscle cells is described by a system of nonlinear ODEs. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data on the time course of expression of the factors under consideration. Second, we analyse the mechanical (relaxation) properties of a scaffold that serves as the microenvironment for stem cells differentiation into skeletal muscle cells. This scaffold (surrounded by a liquid solution) is composed of unidirectional fibers with pores between them. The relaxation properties of the scaffold are studied in an experiment where a long cylindrical specimen is loaded by the application of ramp displacement until the strain reaches a prescribed value. The magnitude of the corresponding load is recorded. The specimen is considered as transversely isotropic poroelastic cylinder whose force relaxation is associated with liquid diffusion through the pores. An analytical solution for the total force applied to

  9. The Impact of a Short-Term Pharmacology Enrichment Program on Knowledge and Science Attitudes in Precollege Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly N Downing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As our nation and the global economy place an increased demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM jobs, science educators must implement innovative approaches to pique precollege student’s interests in these careers. Pharmacology remains a relevant and engaging platform to teach biology and chemistry concepts, and this strategy applied over several months in the formal classroom increases science literacy in high school students. In order to improve the affordability and accessibility of this educational approach, we developed and assessed the impact of a short-term pharmacology day camp, ‘Pills, Potions, and Poisons’ (PPP, on high school students’ science knowledge and attitudes toward science careers. The PPP program was offered annually from 2009 through 2012, and participants spent 6 days learning about pharmacology and careers in the biomedical sciences. All PPP student participants (n=134 completed surveys assessing their basic science knowledge and science attitudes before and after the program. Students achieved significant gains in their science knowledge by the end (Day 6 of the PPP program (from 41% mean test score to 65%; p<0.001. In addition, the majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the PPP program positively impacted their attitudes toward science (p<0.001. This study provides evidence that a short-term pharmacology-centered science enrichment program can achieve significant gains in participant’s science knowledge as well as motivation and confidence towards science careers. Moreover, we report benefits experienced by the undergraduate, graduate, and professional pharmacy student teaching assistants (TAs, n=10 who reported improved communication skills and an increased interest in future educational work.   Type: Original Research

  10. [Progress in epidermal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, You-Liang; Yang, Xiao

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian skin epidermis contains different epidermal stem cell pools which contribute to the homeostasis and repair of skin epithelium. Epidermal stem cells possess two essential features common to all stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. Disturbing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cell often causes tumors or other skin diseases. Epidermal stem cell niches provide a special microenvironment that maintains a balance of stem cell quiescence and activity. This review primarily concentrates on the following points of the epidermal stem cells: the existing evidences, the self-renewal and differentiation, the division pattern, the signal pathways regulating self-renewal and differentiation, and the microenvironment (niche) and macroenvironment maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells.

  11. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  12. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  13. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into ... virus infection. To search the complete list of stem cell research projects funded by NIH please go to NIH ...

  14. Stem Cells in Burn Eschar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; Vlig, M.; van Milligen-Kummer, F.J.; de Vries, S.I.; Middelkoop, E.; Ulrich, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares mesenchymal cells isolated from excised burn wound eschar with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and dermal fibroblasts in their ability to conform to the requirements for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A population of multipotent stem cells in burn eschar could be an

  15. Stem cell organization in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of plant tissues and organs depends on continuous production of new cells, by niches of stem cells. Stem cells typically divide to give rise to one differentiating daughter and one non-differentiating daughter. This constant process of self-renewal ensures that the niches of stem cells or

  16. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  17. "Excellence" in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…

  18. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  19. Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis can occur as an isolated clinical syndrome or, more often, may be part of a more widespread encephalitis. Different antineuronal autoantibodies, such as anti-Hu, anti-Ri, and anti-Ma2 can be associated with the syndrome, and the most frequent tumors are lung and testicular cancer. Anti-Hu-associated brain stem encephalitis does not normally respond to immunotherapy; the syndrome may stabilize under tumor treatment. Brain stem encephalitis with anti-Ma2 often improves after immunotherapy and/or tumor therapy, whereas only a minority of anti-Ri positive patients respond to immunosuppressants or tumor treatment. The Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in children, almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, shows a good response to steroids, ACTH, and rituximab, some patients do respond to intravenous immunoglobulins or cyclophosphamide. In adults, OMS is mainly associated with small cell lung cancer or gynecological tumors and only a small part of the patients show improvement after immunotherapy. Earlier diagnosis and treatment seem to be one major problem to improve the prognosis of both, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, and OMS.

  20. stem bark in rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The effect of the extract on the normal intestinal transit in mice was not significant. However, in the ... kunthianum stem bark was therefore investigated in mice and rats' in vivo ..... sons, London, 11: 544. Izzo AA, Nicoletti M, ...

  1. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  2. Hollow stem in cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of, sometimes large, cavities in the stem of cauliflower formed a serious quality problem for Dutch cauliflower growers in recent years. The cause of the problem under the local conditions was not clear. In field experiments, the application of boron and variation in the growth rate

  3. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-04

    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  5. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  6. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in patients with early arthritis: a systematic literature review informing the 2016 update of EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daien, Claire Immediato; Hua, Charlotte; Combe, Bernard; Landewe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To perform a systematic literature review (SLR) on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, in order to inform the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of early arthritis (EA). The expert committee defined research questions concerning

  7. Using laser to measure stem thickness and cut weed stems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Andreasen, C.

    2002-01-01

    Stem thickness of the weed Solanum nigrum and the crop sugarbeet was determined with a He-Ne laser using a novel non-destructive technique measuring stem shadow. Thereafter, the stems were cut close to the soil surface with a CO2 laser. Treatments were carried out on pot plants, grown....... A binary model was also tested. The non-linear model incorporating stem thickness described the data best, indicating that it would be possible to optimize laser cutting by measuring stem thickness before cutting. The general tendency was that more energy was needed the thicker the stem. Energy uses...... in the greenhouse, at two different growth stages, and plant dry matter was measured 2-5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between plant dry weight and laser energy was analysed using two different non-linear dose-response regression models; one model included stem thickness as a variable, the other did not...

  8. The Role of Wnt Signal in Glioblastoma Development and Progression: A Possible New Pharmacological Target for the Therapy of This Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarini, Mariachiara; Giuliani, Patricia; Ziberi, Sihana; Carluccio, Marzia; Iorio, Patrizia Di; Caciagli, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2018-02-17

    Wnt is a complex signaling pathway involved in the regulation of crucial biological functions such as development, proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells, mainly stem cells, which are virtually present in all embryonic and adult tissues. Conversely, dysregulation of Wnt signal is implicated in development/progression/invasiveness of different kinds of tumors, wherein a certain number of multipotent cells, namely "cancer stem cells", are characterized by high self-renewal and aggressiveness. Hence, the pharmacological modulation of Wnt pathway could be of particular interest, especially in tumors for which the current standard therapy results to be unsuccessful. This might be the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most lethal, aggressive and recurrent brain cancers, probably due to the presence of highly malignant GBM stem cells (GSCs) as well as to a dysregulation of Wnt system. By examining the most recent literature, here we point out several factors in the Wnt pathway that are altered in human GBM and derived GSCs, as well as new molecular strategies or experimental drugs able to modulate/inhibit aberrant Wnt signal. Altogether, these aspects serve to emphasize the existence of alternative pharmacological targets that may be useful to develop novel therapies for GBM.

  9. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Illicit Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information on illicitly used synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are structurally heterogeneous and commonly used drugs of abuse that act as full agonists of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor but have a variety of additional pharmacologic effects. There are numerous cases of patient harm and death in the United States, Europe, and Australia with many psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal adverse events. Although most users prefer using cannabis, there are convenience, legal, and cost reasons driving the utilization of synthetic cannabinoids. Clinicians should be aware of pharmacologic and clinical similarities and differences between synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis use, the limited ability to detect synthetic cannabinoids in the urine or serum, and guidance to treat adverse events. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Clinical Pharmacology of Chemotherapy Agents in Older People with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations around the world are aging, and the associated increase in cancer incidence has led to the recognition of the importance of geriatric oncology. Chronological age is a poor determinant of pharmacological response to cancer chemotherapy agents. Age-associated changes in physiology and organ function have a significant impact on the clinical pharmacology of cancer chemotherapy agents used in cancer treatment. Altered response to medicines in older people is a consequence of changes in body composition, organ function, concomitant pathophysiology, multiple medications, genetic determinants of drug response, and patient's clinical status. These issues highlight the need to individualize the management of cancer in the older people with consideration of age-related changes in the clinical pharmacology of cancer drugs, analgesics, and adjunctive therapies.

  11. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  12. Human pharmacology for addiction medicine: From evidence to clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Herdener, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are complex and often chronic diseases with negative health outcomes and social consequences. Pharmacological treatment options for SUD can be separated in medications for (i) intoxication, (ii) withdrawal, and (iii) reduction of use together with relapse prevention. This chapter will focus on approved or clinically established pharmacological strategies suited to manage symptoms of withdrawal, and to reduce substance use or to promote abstinence. Hereby SUD involving alcohol, nicotine, stimulants, and opioids are primarily discussed as these substances are considered most harmful for both the individual and the society. Moreover, the pharmacotherapy of SUD related to the use of cannabis, benzodiazepines, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate is also briefly reviewed. Since most approved pharmacological treatment options show only moderate effect sizes especially in the long term, the development of new treatment strategies including new drugs, new combinations of available compounds, and biomarkers for response prediction is still warranted. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  14. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  15. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2008-05-08

    Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development.

  16. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  17. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  18. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. PMID:22820019

  20. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  1. Perinatal sources of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Piskorska-Jasiulewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton’s jelly.

  2. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  3. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds.

  4. Simulation in an Undergraduate Nursing Pharmacology Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnon, Elizabeth; Newton, Rebecca

    This study examined the effectiveness of simulation as a method of teaching pharmacological concepts to nursing students; perceptions of satisfaction with simulation as a teaching strategy were also evaluated. Second-semester juniors participated in three simulations and completed the National League for Nursing Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality Survey; a control group received traditional lectures. A unit exam on anticoagulant therapy content was administered to measure effectiveness. Findings support that simulation is as effective as traditional lecture for an undergraduate pharmacology course.

  5. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  6. New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

  7. Neuroscience of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although substantial advances have been made in behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions, moving treatment development to the next stage may require novel ways of approaching addictions, particularly those derived from new findings regarding of the neurobiological underpinnings of addictions, while assimilating and incorporating relevant information from earlier approaches. In this review, we first briefly review theoretical and biological models of addiction and then describe existing behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for the addictions within this framework. We then propose new directions for treatment development and targets that are informed by recent evidence regarding the heterogeneity of addictions and the neurobiological contributions to these disorders. PMID:21338880

  8. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine

  9. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  10. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundram, F X [General Hospital of Singapore, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Senegal)

    1996-12-31

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine.

  11. The internet as a tool in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Josep-Maria; Figueras, Albert; Vigo, Joan-Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The invention of the internet and the world-wide web was a landmark that has affected many aspects of everyday life, but is so recent and dynamic that many of its potential uses are still being explored. Aside from its purely commercial use as a virtual pharmacy (e-commerce), the internet is useful in at least three aspects related to clinical pharmacology: communication, training and research. In this paper we briefly review several internet applications related to clinical pharmacology and describe, as an example, the logistics of a multicentre research collaboration related to the promotion of rational drug use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:16722847

  12. Bioactive non-sterol triterpenoid from Streblus asper: microwave-assisted extraction, HPTLC profiling, computational studies and neuro-pharmacological evaluation in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vandana; Tripathi, Avinash C; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2016-11-01

    In folk medicine, the stem bark of Streblus asper Lour. (Moraceae) has been reported to possess anticonvulsant activity. However, no systematic/scientific validation is available. Objective This study explores the constituents in the stem bark, their biosassy-guided isolation and their efficacy in neuro-pharmacological disorders, for validating the traditional claims. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed to obtain the crude extract. The n-hexane, dichloromethane and aqueous fractions were prepared and phytoconstituents were ascertained by phytochemical tests. The isolated compound, betulin, was characterized by different physicochemical and spectral methods, including HPTLC. Finally, neuro-pharmacological evaluations were conducted at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o. (25, 50, 100 mg/kg b.w. for betulin) doses in BALB/c mice. The n-hexane fraction (400 mg/kg), and isolated compound betulin (100 mg/kg), showed maximum anticonvulsant activity in maximal electroshock (87.84% and 85.14% seizure inhibition), and isoniazid induced convulsion models (88.85% and 83.18% seizure inhibition), respectively. A dose-dependent attenuation of epileptic seizures was observed, probably through GABArgic mechanism of anticonvulsant action. Moreover, the antidepressant study was also conducted using behavioural models and the results expound that n-hexane and dichloromethane fractions (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of immobility, as compared to the control. This study reports some novel aspects like applying an environmentally benign/green approach of MAE, neuro-pharmacological screening and use of docking studies, for the first time, on the plant S. asper. The findings present a rational explanation for its use in traditional medicine, for the management of neuro-pharmacological disorders.

  13. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXXIX. Update on the Extended Family of Chemokine Receptors and Introducing a New Nomenclature for Atypical Chemokine Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelerie, Francoise; Ben-Baruch, Adit; Burkhardt, Amanda M.; Combadiere, Christophe; Farber, Joshua M.; Graham, Gerard J.; Horuk, Richard; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander Hovard; Locati, Massimo; Luster, Andrew D.; Mantovani, Alberto; Matsushima, Kouji; Nibbs, Robert; Nomiyama, Hisayuki; Power, Christine A.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.; Rot, Antal; Sozzani, Silvano; Thelen, Marcus; Yoshie, Osamu; Zlotnik, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145–176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human

  14. Stem cells in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruixia; Li, Junqin; Niu, Xuping; Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Xincheng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Xinhua; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is commonly accepted that the development of psoriasis is a result of multi-system interactions among the epidermis, dermis, blood vessels, immune system, neuroendocrine system, metabolic system, and hematopoietic system. Many cell types have been confirmed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we review the stem cell abnormalities related to psoriasis that have been investigated recently. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Pharmacology and toxicology of the novel investigational agent Cantrixil (TRX-E-002-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Heaton, Andrew; Lilischkis, Kimberley; Garner, James; Brown, David M

    2017-02-01

    Recurrent, chemo-resistant ovarian cancer is thought to be due to a subgroup of slow-growing, drug-resistant cancer cells with stem-like properties and a high capacity for tumour repair. Cantrixil targets this sub-population of cells and is being developed as an intraperitoneal therapy to be used as first-line therapy in combination with carboplatin for epithelial ovarian cancer. The studies presented here justify further development. A GLP dog CV study using a 4 × 4 Latin Square Crossover study was conducted using telemetric ECG recordings from dogs post IP administration to assess for cardiac abnormalities. Mutagenic potential was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Clastogenicity was assessed by determining micronuclei formation in the bone marrow of SPF Arc(S) Swiss mice dosed at clinical concentrations. TRX-E-002-1 toxicology was evaluated in GLP-compliant MTD and 28-day repeat-dose studies in rats and dogs. In vitro TRX-E-002-1 has potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells including CD44+/MyD88+ ovarian cancer stem cells. TRX-E-002-1 increased phosphorylated c-Jun levels in these cancer cells resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis. In vivo, Cantrixil was active in a model of disseminated ovarian cancer as a monotherapy and in combination with Cisplatin. Cantrixil was active as maintenance therapy in a model of drug-resistant, recurrent ovarian cancer and in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. In animals, this clinical formulation and route of administration of Cantrixil demonstrated acceptable activity, safety pharmacology, genotoxicity and toxicology profile and constituted a successful Investigational New Drug application to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  16. A comprehensive analysis on Symplocos racemosa Roxb.: Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Niyati; Acharya, Sanjeev; Shah, Unnati; Shah, Ripal; Hingorani, Lal

    2016-04-02

    Symplocos racemosa Roxb. belongs to a unigeneric family Symplocaceae, known as lodhra in Sanskrit; is a small evergreen tree, found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical countries. Ethnobotanical literature indicates use of S. racemosa in treatment of eye disease, skin diseases, ear diseases, liver and bowel complaints, tumors, uterine disorders, spongy and bleeding gums, asthma, fever, snake-bite, gonorrhea and arthritis. The main aim of this review is to provide detailed phytopharmacological profile on S. racemosa in support with the traditional practices and ethnomedicinal uses. All relevant worldwide accepted databases have been searched for the name "S. racemosa" along with other literature from Indian Classical texts and Pharmacopoeias. The accessible literatures available on S. racemosa, were collected through electronic search on Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and traditional reports. S. racemosa is important Indian traditional drug used in many Ayurvedic and herbal formulations for treatment of liver as well as uterine disorders and leucorrhea. Majority of phytopharmacological reports are on stem bark of the plant which include anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-androgenic effect, anti-inflammatory, wound healing activity and anti-diabetic effects. Phytochemical studies indicated presence of many phenolic glycosides like symplocoside, triterpenoids like betulinic acid, acetyloleanolic acid and oleanolic acid and flavonoids like quercetin which might have contributed to the observed protective effects. Many ethnobotanical claims have been confirmed through systematic in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies on different extracts of stem bark and isolated constituents. However, systematic studies on the bio-markers are desirable to establish mode of action and to validate the traditional claim in clinical practice after proper safety assessment. The conservation data of genus Symplocos showed risk of extinction due to restricted

  17. Engaging learners in STEM education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Krajcik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we focus on how to develop STEM learning environments, and how STEM can be implemented in K-12 schools. We focus on the following question: “How can we support students in building a deep, integrated knowledge of STEM so that they have the practical knowledge and problem solving skills necessary to live in and improve the world?” We also discuss criteria for evaluating STEM learning environments and the challenges teachers face in implementing STEM. We define STEM as the integration of science, engineering, technology, and mathematics to focus on solving pressing individual and societal problems. Engaging students in STEM also means engaging learners in the design process. Design is integral to student thinking in the STEM world. The design process is very non-linear and iterative in its nature but requires clearly articulating and identifying the design problem, researching what is known about the problem, generating potential solutions, developing prototype designs (artifacts that demonstrate solutions, and sharing and receiving feedback. With the integration of design, STEM education has the potential to support students in learning big ideas in science and engineering, as well as important scientific and engineering practices, and support students in developing important motivational outcomes such as ownership, agency and efficacy. Moreover, students who engage in STEM learning environments will also develop 21st century capabilities such as problem solving, communication, and collaboration skills.

  18. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  19. Hard Core Pharmacology: How Much Is Taught in Pharmacy Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)

  20. The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Halpern, John H; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Emrich, Hinderk M; Hintzen, Annelie

    2008-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so-called "experimental psychosis" by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures ("psycholytic" and "psychedelic" therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and better study oversight, scientific interest in LSD has resumed for brain research and experimental treatments. Due to the lack of any comprehensive review since the 1950s and the widely dispersed experimental literature, the present review focuses on all aspects of the pharmacology and psychopharmacology of LSD. A thorough search of the experimental literature regarding the pharmacology of LSD was performed and the extracted results are given in this review. (Psycho-) pharmacological research on LSD was extensive and produced nearly 10,000 scientific papers. The pharmacology of LSD is complex and its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. LSD is physiologically well tolerated and psychological reactions can be controlled in a medically supervised setting, but complications may easily result from uncontrolled use by layman. Actually there is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill.

  1. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaykaran; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals' (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of reporting of method of description and central tendencies. Inferential statistics was evaluated on the basis of fulfilling of assumption of statistical methods and appropriateness of statistical tests. Values are described as frequencies, percentage, and 95% confidence interval (CI) around the percentages. Inappropriate descriptive statistics was observed in 150 (78.1%, 95% CI 71.7-83.3%) articles. Most common reason for this inappropriate descriptive statistics was use of mean ± SEM at the place of "mean (SD)" or "mean ± SD." Most common statistical method used was one-way ANOVA (58.4%). Information regarding checking of assumption of statistical test was mentioned in only two articles. Inappropriate statistical test was observed in 61 (31.7%, 95% CI 25.6-38.6%) articles. Most common reason for inappropriate statistical test was the use of two group test for three or more groups. Articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals are not devoid of statistical errors.

  2. High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinec, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

  3. Applying linked data approaches to pharmacology: Architectural decisions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, A.J.G; Groth, P.T.; Loizou, A.; Askjaer, S; Brenninkmeijer, C; Burger, K.; Chichester, C.; Evelo, C.T.; Goble, C.A.; Harland, L; Pettifier, S; Thompson, M.; Waagmeester, A; William, A.J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new medicines requires pharmacologists to interact with a number of information sources ranging from tabular data to scientific papers, and other specialized formats. In this application report, we describe a linked data platform for integrating multiple pharmacology datasets that

  4. BPS Pharmacology 2014 - Drug Discovery Pathways symposium Report

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Report on BPS Pharmacology 2014, BPS Industry Committe and Learned Societies Drug Discovery Pathways Group symposium: "Realizing the potential of new approaches to target identification and validation" by Dr Andrew Marsh Associate Professor Department of Chemistry University of Warwick go.warwick.ac.uk/marshgroup Twitter @marshgroup

  5. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus cannabinus showed the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, lignans, essential oils, glucosides such as cannabiscitrin, cannabiscetin and anthocyanin glycoside. The pharmacological studies revealed that Hibiscus cannabinus possessed cytotoxic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, immunological, haematinic and hepatoprotective effects. This review will highli...

  6. Treatment of Fabry's Disease with the Pharmacologic Chaperone Migalastat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germain, Dominique P; Hughes, Derralynn A; Nicholls, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease, an X-linked disorder of lysosomal α-galactosidase deficiency, leads to substrate accumulation in multiple organs. Migalastat, an oral pharmacologic chaperone, stabilizes specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase, increasing enzyme trafficking to lysosomes. METHODS: The...

  7. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  8. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  9. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  10. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  12. Non-pharmacological interventions for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramp, Fiona; Hewlett, Sarah; Almeida, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and potentially distressing symptom for people with rheumatoid arthritis with no accepted evidence based management guidelines. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical activity and psychosocial interventions, have been shown to help people with a range of other long...

  13. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...

  14. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  15. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, J.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this thesis

  16. Towards predictive cardiovascular safety : a systems pharmacology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues related to changes in blood pressure, arise frequently in drug development. In the thesis “Towards predictive cardiovascular safety – a systems pharmacology approach”, a system-specific model is described to quantify drug effects on the interrelationship between mean

  17. Advances in Pharmacology of Isatin and its Derivatives: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione), an indole derivative of plant origin, is involved in many pharmacological activities like antiallergic, antimalarial, antiviral and antimicrobial; isatin and its derivatives have been found to show promising results against various cancer cell lines. Isatin is a versatile precursor for many biologically ...

  18. I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202. Nairobi, Kenya. '~nternational Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Volatile sex pheromone w as collected from the extruded p heromone g land o f females of the spotted stalk borer ...

  19. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  20. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, R D

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930's, and Vakhil's historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  1. On the Pharmacology of Oxidative Burst of Human Neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl 4 (2015), S445-S452 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * chemiluminescence * protein kinase C * apoptosis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_S445.pdf

  2. Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Rasmussen, Jesper Ø

    2018-01-01

    .13 points, 95% CI -4.03 to 3.77; very low-quality evidence).The following pharmacological interventions reduced symptoms of anxiety at end of intervention: carbamazepine (1 study, 36 participants; MD -6.00 points, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.42; very low-quality evidence), pregabalin (1 study, 106 participants; MD...

  3. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelle, K.J.; Faulmüller, N.; Caviola, L.; Hewstone, M.

    2014-01-01

    A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is "pharmacological cognitive enhancement" (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place

  5. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodologies for quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models : Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, Hp; Agoram, B.; Davies, M.R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, Ph.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  7. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, H. P.; Agoram, B.; Davies, M. R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  8. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Shan; Yu, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Xia

    2003-02-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation. The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel, and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism, etc.

  9. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  10. The neurobiology and pharmacology of depression: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Over the past decade, targeted drug design has led to significant advances in the pharmacological management of depression. A serendipitous approach to drug discovery has therefore been replaced by the development of drugs acting on predetermined neurobiological targets recognised to be involved in ...

  11. Pharmacology Students' Perceptions of Creating Multimodal Digital Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, W.; Hoban G.; Hyland, C. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Students can now digitally construct their own representations of scientific concepts using a variety of modes including writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech, all of which communicate meaning. In this study, final-year chemistry students studying a pharmacology subject created a ''blended media'' digital product as an assignment…

  12. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  13. The benefit of pharmacological venous thromboprophylaxis in foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks and benefits of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis are well documented in respect of total joint arthroplasty and hip fractures, but little is understood about the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or the potential risks and benefits of chemoprophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. Objective. To determine ...

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum sambac revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, coumarins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, steroids, fats, essential oils, fixed oils, terpines, resin, and salicylic acid. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant extracts possessed antimicrobial, insecticidal, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, anticancer, CNS and peripheral NS, ca...

  15. PHARMAVIRTUA: Educational Software for Teaching and Learning Basic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…

  16. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model for Obesity Pharmacology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Vasselli, Joseph R; King, Jason F; King, Michael L; We, Wenqian; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Johnson, William D; Finley, John W; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J; Enright, Frederic M; Greenway, Frank L

    The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.

  17. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  18. Epigenetic modulation of dental pulp stem cells: implications for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, H F; Smith, A J; Fleming, G J P; Cooper, P R

    2016-05-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) offer significant potential for use in regenerative endodontics, and therefore, identifying cellular regulators that control stem cell fate is critical to devising novel treatment strategies. Stem cell lineage commitment and differentiation are regulated by an intricate range of host and environmental factors of which epigenetic influence is considered vital. Epigenetic modification of DNA and DNA-associated histone proteins has been demonstrated to control cell phenotype and regulate the renewal and pluripotency of stem cell populations. The activities of the nuclear enzymes, histone deacetylases, are increasingly being recognized as potential targets for pharmacologically inducing stem cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. Depending on cell maturity and niche in vitro, low concentration histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) application can promote dedifferentiation of several post-natal and mouse embryonic stem cell populations and conversely increase differentiation and accelerate mineralization in DPSC populations, whilst animal studies have shown an HDACi-induced increase in stem cell marker expression during organ regeneration. Notably, both HDAC and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have also been demonstrated to dramatically increase the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for use in regenerative therapeutic procedures. As the regulation of cell fate will likely remain the subject of intense future research activity, this review aims to describe the current knowledge relating to stem cell epigenetic modification, focusing on the role of HDACi on alteration of DPSC phenotype, whilst presenting the potential for therapeutic application as part of regenerative endodontic regimens. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  1. Effects of nonpharmacological interventions on reducing fatigue after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat Jafari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is one of the main complaints of patients undergoing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Since nonpharmacological interventions are cost-effective and causes fewer complications, this study aimed to review the studies performed on the effects of nonpharmacological interventions on fatigue in patients undergoing HSCT during September 2016. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Magiran, and IRANDOC databases were searched using Persian and English keywords. A total of 1217 articles were retrieved, 21 of which were used in this study. Exercise is known as an effective intervention in alleviating physical and mental problems of patients undergoing stem cell transplant. This review-based study showed that nonpharmacological methods such as exercise might be effective in decreasing fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplant. There is a multitude of studies on some of the complementary and alternative therapy methods, such as music therapy, yoga, relaxation, and therapeutic massage. These studies demonstrated the positive effects of the aforementioned therapies on reduction of fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. All the investigated methods in this study were nonaggressive, safe, and cost-effective and could be used along with common treatments or even as an alternative for pharmacological treatments for the reduction, or elimination of fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. Given the advantages of complementary and alternative medicine, conducting further studies on this issue is recommended to reduce fatigue in patients after stem cell transplantation.

  2. Fetal stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration: a therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ePozzobon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 40% of the body mass is represented by muscle tissue, which possesses the innate ability to regenerate after damage through the activation of muscle specific stem cell, namely satellite cells. Muscle diseases, in particular chronic degenerative state of skeletal muscle such as dystrophies, lead to a perturbation of the regenerative process, which causes the premature exhaustion of satellite cell reservoir due to continue cycles of degeneration/regeneration. Nowadays, the research is focused on different therapeutic approaches, ranging from gene and cell to pharmacological therapy, but still there is not a definitive cure in particular for genetic muscle disease. Taking this in mind, in this article we will give special consideration to muscle diseases and the use of fetal derived stem cells as new approach for therapy. Cells of fetal origin, from cord blood to placenta and amniotic fluid, can be easily obtained without ethical concern, expanded and differentiated in culture, and possess immunemodulatory properties. The in vivo approach in animal models can be helpful to study the mechanism underneath the operating principle of the stem cell reservoir, namely the niche, which holds great potential to understand the onset of muscle pathologies.

  3. Radiopharmaceutical Stem Cell Tracking for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although neurological ailments continue to be some of the main causes of disease burden in the world, current therapies such as pharmacological agents have limited potential in the restoration of neural functions. Cell therapies, firstly applied to treat different hematological diseases, are now being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies for neurological illnesses. However, the potential applications and mechanisms for such treatments are still poorly comprehended and are the focus of permanent research. In this setting, noninvasive in vivo imaging allows better understanding of several aspects of stem cell therapies. Amongst the various methods available, radioisotope cell labeling has become one of the most promising since it permits tracking of cells after injection by different routes to investigate their biodistribution. A significant increase in the number of studies utilizing this method has occurred in the last years. Here, we review the different radiopharmaceuticals, imaging techniques, and findings of the preclinical and clinical reports published up to now. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and future applications of radioisotope cell labeling in the field of cell transplantation for neurological diseases.

  4. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  5. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE. We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness.We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have.

  6. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  7. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  8. Aging and immortality: quasi-programmed senescence and its pharmacologic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2006-09-01

    While ruling out programmed aging, evolutionary theory predicts a quasi-program for aging, a continuation of the developmental program that is not turned off, is constantly on, becoming hyper-functional and damaging, causing diseases of aging. Could it be switched off pharmacologically? This would require identification of a molecular target involved in cell senescence, organism aging and diseases of aging. Notably, cell senescence is associated with activation of the TOR (target of rapamycin) nutrient- and mitogen-sensing pathway, which promotes cell growth, even though cell cycle is blocked. Is TOR involved in organism aging? In fact, in yeast (where the cell is the organism), caloric restriction, rapamycin and mutations that inhibit TOR all slow down aging. In animals from worms to mammals caloric restrictions, life-extending agents, and numerous mutations that increase longevity all converge on the TOR pathway. And, in humans, cell hypertrophy, hyper-function and hyperplasia, typically associated with activation of TOR, contribute to diseases of aging. Theoretical and clinical considerations suggest that rapamycin may be effective against atherosclerosis, hypertension and hyper-coagulation (thus, preventing myocardial infarction and stroke), osteoporosis, cancer, autoimmune diseases and arthritis, obesity, diabetes, macula-degeneration, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Finally, I discuss that extended life span will reveal new causes for aging (e.g., ROS, 'wear and tear', Hayflick limit, stem cell exhaustion) that play a limited role now, when quasi-programmed senescence kills us first.

  9. Traumatic primary brain stem haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrioli, G.C.; Zuccarello, M.; Trincia, G.; Fiore, D.L.; De Caro, R.

    1983-01-01

    We report 36 cases of post-traumatic 'primary brain stem haemorrhage' visualized by the CT scan and confirmed at autopsy. Clinical experience shows that many technical factors influence the inability to visualize brain stem haemorrhages. Experimental injection of fresh blood into the pons and midbrain of cadavers shows that lesions as small as 0.25 ml in volume may be visualized. The volume and the anatomical configuration of traumatic lesions of the brain stem extended over a rostro-caudal direction, and their proximity to bony structures at the base of the skull are obstacles to the visualization of brain stem haemorrhages. (Author)

  10. Fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in outpatient health care. An analysis of statutory health insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Kristin; Kemper, Claudia; Glaeske, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition impacting on quality of life, causing physical and psychological impairment resulting in limited participation in professional and social life. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions of FMS, patients' characteristics and to compare findings to current research. About 1.6 Mio patients of a German statutory health insurance company (GEK) in 2007 were analyzed for: (a) the prevalence of FMS (ICD-10: M79.7); (b) and comorbid depression (ICD-10: F32/33); (c) the recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention rates; (d) and characteristics of patients associated with being prescribed recommended interventions. The (a) standardized prevalence of FMS in 2007 was 0.05% in men and 0.4% in women. (b) 51.9% of the patients with prevalent FMS had a comorbid depression in 2007 (88.2% female). (c) 66% of FMS patients received the recommended pharmacological treatment, 59% physical therapy, 6.1% cognitive-behavioural therapy and 3.4% a combination of these (multi-component therapy, MCT). (d) One year increase in age was associated with a 3% decrease in the predicted odds of receiving MCT (95%, CI 0.95-0.99). The current data indicate an FMS-prevalence that differs from epidemiological surveys and screenings, probably due to methodological differences. Especially females with comorbid depression are affected. The likelihood of receiving MCT is not associated with gender, but with younger age. Yet, the findings seem to indicate insufficient and inadequate treatment, but FMS warrants more research. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years

  12. Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA. A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B, that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive perspective on the chemistry and pharmacology of these compounds related to their potential therapeutic applications to dementia. The two common causes of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD and stroke, are employed to scrutinize the effects of these compounds in vitro and in animal models of dementia. Key pharmacological mechanisms beyond the common antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols are highlighted with emphasis given to amyloid beta (Aβ pathologies among others and neuronal regeneration from stem cells.

  13. Learning for STEM Literacy: STEM Literacy for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…

  14. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical

  16. Sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension : a review of population-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A; Paes, A.H.P.; Seidell, J C; Bakker, A

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize all available literature on sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension with respect to the percentage of hypertensive patients treated pharmacologically and the selection of antihypertensive drugs. The influences of the calendar period, age, definition

  17. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  18. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General.... In response to feedback during the April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and...

  19. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General..., 2011, the committee will discuss current strategies for FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Science...

  20. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) on the regulatory challenges of drug-induced phospholipidosis (excessive...

  1. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... continuous manufacturing for pharmaceutical products. Speakers from the Agency, academia, and industry will...

  2. Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light ...

  3. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  4. Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carum copticum L. commonly known as “Ajwain” is cultivated in many regions of the world including Iran and India, states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Traditionally, C. copticum has been used in the past for various therapeutic effects including bloating, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and loss of appetite. It has other health benefits such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic effects. This plant contains different important components such as carbohydrates, glucosides, saponins and phenolic compounds (carvacrol, volatile oils (thymol, terpiene, paracymene and beta-pinene, protein, fat, fiber, and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nicotinic acid (niacin. In the previous studies, several pharmacological effects were shown for C. copticum. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of the plant were reviewed.

  5. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  6. Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects of the Vas Deferens - an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stewart Koslov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vas deferens, a muscular conduit conveying spermatozoa from the epididymis to the urethra, has been used as a model tissue for smooth muscle pharmacological and physiological advancements. Many drugs, notably α-adrenergic antagonists, have effects on contractility and thus normal ejaculation, incurring significant side effects for patients that may interfere with compliance. A more thorough understanding of the innervation and neurotransmitter pharmacology of the vas has indicated that this is a highly complex structure and a model for co-transmission at the synapse. Recent models have shown clinical scenarios that alter the vas contraction. This review covers structure, receptors, neurotransmitters, smooth muscle physiology, and clinical implications of the vas deferens.

  7. Pharmacological Bypass of Cockayne Syndrome B Function in Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth abnormalities, premature aging, and photosensitivity. Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB affects neuronal gene expression and differentiation, so we attempted to bypass its function by expressing downstream target genes. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9, a key component of the machinery controlling neurotrophin release, bypasses the need for CSB in neuritogenesis. Importantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptic modulation, and pharmacological mimics such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and amitriptyline can compensate for CSB deficiency in cell models of neuronal differentiation as well. SYT9 and BDNF are downregulated in CS patient brain tissue, further indicating that sub-optimal neurotrophin signaling underlies neurological defects in CS. In addition to shedding light on cellular mechanisms underlying CS and pointing to future avenues for pharmacological intervention, these data suggest an important role for SYT9 in neuronal differentiation.

  8. Supercapacitive transport of pharmacologic agents using nanoporous gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Pierson, Bonnie E; Ha, Cindy M; Wu, Chung-An Max; Narayan, Roger J; Robinson, David B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, nanoporous gold supercapacitors were produced by electrochemical dealloying of gold-silver alloy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed completion of the dealloying process and generation of a porous gold material with approximately 10 nm diameter pores. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of the nanoporous gold electrodes indicated that these materials exhibited supercapacitor behavior. The storage capacity of the electrodes measured by chronoamperometry was approximately 3 mC at 200 mV. Electrochemical storage and voltage-controlled delivery of two model pharmacologic agents, benzylammonium and salicylic acid, was demonstrated. These results suggest that capacitance-based storage and delivery of pharmacologic agents may serve as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods.

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  10. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils from Cedrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.

  12. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  13. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  14. Induced adult stem (iAS) cells and induced transit amplifying progenitor (iTAP) cells-a possible alternative to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Richards, Mark; Ge, Zigang; Shu, Yimin

    2010-02-01

    The successful derivation of iPSC lines effectively demonstrates that it is possible to reset the 'developmental clock' of somatic cells all the way back to the initial embryonic state. Hence, it is plausible that this clock may instead be turned back half-way to a less immature developmental stage that is more directly applicable to clinical therapeutic applications or for in vitro pharmacology/toxicology screening assays. Such a suitable developmental state is postulated to be either the putative transit amplifying progenitor stage or adult stem cell stage. It is hypothetically possible to reprogram mature and terminally differentiated somatic cells back to the adult stem cell or transit amplifying progenitor stage, in a manner similar to the derivation of iPSC. It is proposed that the terminology 'Induced Adult Stem Cells' (iASC) or 'Induced Transit Amplifying Progenitor Cells' (iTAPC) be used to described such reprogrammed somatic cells. Of particular interest, is the possibility of resetting the developmental clock of mature differentiated somatic cells of the mesenchymal lineage, explanted from adipose tissue, bone marrow and cartilage. The putative adult stem cell sub-population from which these cells are derived, commonly referred to as 'mesenchymal stem cells', are highly versatile and hold much therapeutic promise in regenerative medicine, as attested to by numerous human clinical trials and animal studies. Perhaps it may be appropriate to term such reprogrammed cells as 'Induced Mesenchymal Stem Cells' (iMSC) or as 'Induced Mesenchumal Progenitor Cells' (iMPC). Given that cells from the same organ/tissue will share some commonalities in gene expression, we hypothesize that the generation of iASC or iTAPC would be more efficient as compared to iPSC generation, since a common epigenetic program must exist between the reprogrammed cells, adult stem cell or progenitor cell types and terminally differentiated cell types from the same organ/tissue.

  15. Engaging STEM Ethics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ann Joyce

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The automation of knowledge via algorithms, code and big data has brought new ethical concerns that computer scientists and engineers are not yet trained to identify or mediate. We present our experience of using original research to develop scenarios to explore how STS scholars can produce materials that facilitate ethics education in computer science, data science, and software engineering. STS scholars are uniquely trained to investigate the societal context of science and technology as well as the meaning STEM researchers attach to their day-to-day work practices. In this project, we use a collaborative, co-constitutive method of doing ethics education that focuses on building an ethical framework based on empirical practices, highlighting two issues in particular: data validity and the relations between data and inequalities. Through data-grounded scenario writing, we demonstrate how STS scholars and other social scientists can apply their expertise to the production of educational materials to spark broad ranging discussions that explore the connections between values, ethics, STEM, politics, and social contexts.

  16. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  17. An overview on Phyllanthus emblica: phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirazodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phyllanthus emblica L. (Phyllanthaceae, commonly known as Indian gooseberry, is an endemic plant to the tropical and subtropical areas in china, India and Thailand. The plant is extensively used in Chinese, Ayurveda, and traditional Persian medicine (TPM. In addition, there are numerous reports on pharmacological and clinical activities of gooseberry in current medicine. The present review was performed to compile the phytochemical and pharmacological data on P. emblica in order to draw a window for further research.  Methods: Databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect and PubMed were searched for the term “P. emblica” up to 1st September, 2017. Papers concerning pharmacology and phytochemistry of the plant were gathered and analyzed. On the contrary, agriculture and genetic contents were excluded. Results: Over all, 80 papers were selected. The herb revealed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, larvicidal, anti-asthmatic, antiulcer, anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumor, anti-genotoxicity, anti-microbial, anticholinergic, antispasmodic, gastroprotective, anti-plasmodia, and antinociceptive activities as well as antidote effect against certain elements. The fruits are also useful in brain and gastrointestinal diseases and can be beneficial in hearth protection. Remarkably, many of those properties have been mentioned in TPM manuscripts.  Conclusion: Despite numerous pharmacological activities for P. emblica, there is still a gap between the in vivo and human studies which should be covered by more comprehensive and complementary studies. Many compounds have been isolated and elucidated from this plant which can be good candidates for various related activities and also as new natural medicaments in novel drug discovery.

  18. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanak Salari; Mahdi Yousefi; Masoumeh Salari

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop ...

  19. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  20. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  1. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Lele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930′s, and Vakhil′s historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda′s concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda′s aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  2. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae, also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This review summarizes selected scientific evidence on phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of M. vulgare over the past 48 years (1968 to 2016. The work reported on M. vulgare was reviewed from various sources like books, internet source i.e. google search engine, pubmed, sciencedirect and chemical abstract. The exhaustive literature was studied and critical analysis was done according to their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of M. vulgare have been reported the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and volatile oils (0.05%. The aerial parts contain marrubiin, together with ursolic acid and choline. Pharmacological activities like, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-hepatotoxic activity have been reported. M. vulgare has therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, liver disorders, pain, cardiovascular, gastric and diabetic conditions. Aerial parts of M. vulgare is a good source of labdane type diterpene especially marrubiin which is present in high concentrations. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore clinical efficacy, toxicity and to explore the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites like diterpenes, phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides of M. vulgare. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6

  3. Pharmacological treatment of refugees with trauma-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a systematic review of published treatment outcome studies on PTSD and depression among refugees. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Most studies focused on the use of antidepressants. Included studies differed widely in method and quality....... The majority were observational studies and case studies. Small sample sizes limited the statistical power. Few studies reported effect sizes, confidence intervals, and statistical significance of findings. No specific pharmacological treatment for PTSD among refugees can be recommended on the basis...

  4. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  5. The main directions of pharmacological correction of radioinduced scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskaya, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Results of clinical and experimental research on pharmacological correction of radiationinduced sclerosis were summarized. Efficiency of prophylaxis main trends and drug therapy was analyzed. Application of specific pharmaceuticals (preparations directly affecting certain chains of collagen metabolism) and nonspecific pharmaceuticals (preparations of indirect affect on collagen metabolism) was given. Further research of specific pharmaceuticals was shown to be expedient. Analysis of nonspecific pharmaceuticals used in complex therapy revealed problems in evaluating their efficiency at various stages of sclerosis development

  6. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  7. Counting stem cells : methodological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Verovskaya, Evgenia; Zwart, Erik; Broekhuis, Mathilde; de Haan, Gerald

    The number of stem cells contributing to hematopoiesis has been a matter of debate. Many studies use retroviral tagging of stem cells to measure clonal contribution. Here we argue that methodological factors can impact such clonal analyses. Whereas early studies had low resolution, leading to

  8. Stem cell function and maintenance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stem cell research holds a promise to treat and prevent age-related degenerative changes in humans. Literature is replete with studies showing that stem cell function declines with aging, especially in highly proliferative tissues/organs. Among others, telomerase and telomere damage is one of the intrinsic physical ...

  9. Notch signaling activation in human embryonic stem cells is required for embryonic but not trophoblastic lineage commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaobing; Zou, Jizhong; Ye, Zhaohui; Hammond, Holly; Chen, Guibin; Tokunaga, Akinori; Mali, Prashant; Li, Yue-Ming; Civin, Curt; Gaiano, Nicholas; Cheng, Linzhao

    2008-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in cell fate determination during embryonic development and adult life. In this study, we focus on the role of Notch signaling in governing cell fate choices in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we achieved both blockade and conditional activation of Notch signaling in several hES cell lines. We report here that activation of Notch signaling is required for undifferentiated hES cells to form the pr...

  10. Status of Undergraduate Pharmacology Laboratories in Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Norman L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    U.S. colleges of pharmacy were surveyed in 1976 to determine whether a trend exists in continuing, discontinuing, or restructuring laboratory time in pharmaceutical education. Data regarding core undergraduate pharmacology courses, undergraduate pharmacology laboratory status, and pharmacology faculty are presented. (LBH)

  11. The Genus Spilanthes Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulraj, Jayaraj; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Palpu, Pushpangadan

    2013-01-01

    Spilanthes spp. are popular, over-the-counter remedies; they are sold over the internet under various names and are widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures. This review will summarize the important reports on the ethnopharmacology, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties as described in the literature from recent years (1920 to 2013). Spilanthes spp. are used for more than 60 types of disorders. They are reported to contain a number of biologically active phytochemicals, although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented; only a few of these species have been investigated for their chemical and biological activities. The studies are carried out mainly on Spilanthes extracts and a few metabolites substantiate the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Well-conducted pharmacological studies are still needed for several traditional indications, and the mechanisms of action by which the plant extracts and the active compounds exert their pharmacological effects remain to be studied. They are predominantly used as extracts in personal care products, traditional medicines, and the pharmaceutical and culinary areas. Suggestions are made regarding some of the possible mechanisms of action as to how the known compounds may exert their biological activity. PMID:24454346

  12. Lippia citrodora: a review on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lippia citrodora commonly known as lemon verbena is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, native to western South America. With its antioxidant effects, it is mostly used in folk medicine to treat anti-inflammatory diseases, and diseases associated with oxidative stress. This review has presented a summary on L. citordora’s phytochemistry and its pharmacological activities. It will also discuss gaps and challenges needed to be solved. Methods: Electronic database including Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 1973 and 2017 regarding the phytochemistry and biological activities of L. citodora. Results: Traditional uses of this plant were specially related to coagulation system, digestive system and brain. Phytochemical investigations identified flavonoids, terpenes, iridois, lignins, phenylethanoid, as the main components of the plant. Antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antinociceptive, anti hyperpropulsive, sedative, anticolitis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antihyperalgesic, and anticancer properties were among the pharmacological activities of L. citriodora. The plant extract and essential oil had also demonstrated high antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of L. citrodora. The data reviewed here revealed that this plant is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases specially inflammatory diseases and neurological dysfunctions. Future human studies are needed for further confirmation of the therapeutic activities of L. citriodora.

  13. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  14. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

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    Roshanak Salari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop insights into the causes and treatments of chronic constipation, relevant review articles that were published on the Pubmed, Cochrane database, and Embase websites, were examined. The outputs of these studies indicated that high daily intake of fibers and fluids in addition to regular exercise can be very helpful in avoiding and treating constipation. The pharmacological treatments that are administered to treat this disease typically increase the water content of the bowel lumen, and this leads to more regular bowel movements. Novel drugs have been introduced to treat constipation, and many of these are now subject to formal research studies. Since constipation can facilitate the development of other gastrointestinal diseases, it is important that we develop an understanding the therapeutic treatments that are available with the intention of identifying which of these may represent the most effective method for treating this disease. With that objective in mind, this review was undertaken to review the clinical effectiveness of the different pharmacological treatments that are employed to treat or prevent constipation.

  15. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  16. Review of the chemistry and pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor

    2014-03-01

    Naphthoquinone is a class of phenolic compounds derived from naphthalene. 7-Methyljuglone (7-MJ) is a naphthoquinone also known as ramentaceone or 6-Methyl-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-,1,4-naphtoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione. This compound is a biologically active naphtoquinone, with a molecular weight of 188 g/mol mostly isolated in the genus Diospyros and Euclea. This review was aimed at providing available chemically and pharmacological data on 7-MJ. The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-knowledge and Scifinder. 7-MJ was reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. The hemi-synthesis of the compound have been described. The present review pooled out together the knowledge on 7-MJ, and can serve as the start point for future research and valorization accomplishments.

  17. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  18. Metabolites of alectinib in human: their identification and pharmacological activity

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    Mika Sato-Nakai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolites (M4 and M1b in plasma and four metabolites (M4, M6, M1a and M1b in faeces were detected through the human ADME study following a single oral administration of [14C]alectinib, a small-molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, to healthy subjects. In the present study, M1a and M1b, which chemical structures had not been identified prior to the human ADME study, were identified as isomers of a carboxylate metabolite oxidatively cleaved at the morpholine ring. In faeces, M4 and M1b were the main metabolites, which shows that the biotransformation to M4 and M1b represents two main metabolic pathways for alectinib. In plasma, M4 was a major metabolite and M1b was a minor metabolite. The contribution to in vivo pharmacological activity of these circulating metabolites was assessed from their in vitro pharmacological activity and plasma protein binding. M4 had a similar cancer cell growth inhibitory activity and plasma protein binding to that of alectinib, suggesting its contribution to the antitumor activity of alectinib, whereas the pharmacological activity of M1b was insignificant.

  19. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus-castus extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Berger, D; Hoberg, E; Sticher, O; Schaffner, W

    2000-10-01

    The pharmacological effects of ethanolic Vitex agnus-castus fruit-extracts (especially Ze 440) and various extract fractions of different polarities were evaluated both by radioligand binding studies and by superfusion experiments. A relative potent binding inhibition was observed for dopamine D2 and opioid (micro and kappa subtype) receptors with IC50 values of the native extract between 20 and 70 mg/mL. Binding, neither to the histamine H1, benzodiazepine and OFQ receptor, nor to the binding-site of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, was significantly inhibited. The lipophilic fractions contained the diterpenes rotun-difuran and 6beta,7beta-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-labda-8,14-dien . They exhibited inhibitory actions on dopamine D2 receptor binding. While binding inhibition to mu and kappa opioid receptors was most pronounced in lipophilic fractions, binding to delta opioid receptors was inhibited mainly by a aqueous fraction. Standardised Ze 440 extracts of different batches were of constant pharmacological quality according to their potential to inhibit the binding to D2 receptors. In superfusion experiments, the aqueous fraction of a methanolic extract inhibited the release of acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the potent D2 receptor antagonist spiperone antagonised the effect of the extract suggesting a dopaminergic action mediated by D2 receptor activation. Our results indicate a dopaminergic effect of Vitex agnus-castus extracts and suggest additional pharmacological actions via opioid receptors.

  20. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder

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    Ya-Mei Bai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN – the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts’ experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  2. How Can Synergism of Traditional Medicines Benefit from Network Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Cui, Heying; Liu, Guancheng; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Piao, Guangchun

    2017-07-07

    Many prescriptions of traditional medicines (TMs), whose efficacy has been tested in clinical practice, have great therapeutic value and represent an excellent resource for drug discovery. Research into single compounds of TMs, such as artemisinin from Artemisia annua L., has achieved great success; however, it has become evident that a TM prescription (which frequently contains various herbs or other components) has a synergistic effect in effecting a cure or reducing toxicity. Network pharmacology targets biological networks and analyzes the links among drugs, targets, and diseases in those networks. Comprehensive, systematic research into network pharmacology is consistent with the perspective of holisticity, which is a main characteristic of many TMs. By means of network pharmacology, research has demonstrated that many a TM show a synergistic effect by acting at different levels on multiple targets and pathways. This approach effectively bridges the gap between modern medicine and TM, and it greatly facilitates studies into the synergistic actions of TMs. There are different kinds of synergistic effects with TMs, such as synergy among herbs, effective parts, and pure compounds; however, for various reasons, new drug discovery should at present focus on synergy among pure compounds.

  3. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  4. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  5. The pharmacology of neurokinin receptors in addiction: prospects for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandweiss AJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander J Sandweiss, Todd W VanderahDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Addiction is a chronic disorder in which consumption of a substance or a habitual behavior becomes compulsive and often recurrent, despite adverse consequences. Substance p (SP is an undecapeptide and was the first neuropeptide of the neurokinin family to be discovered. The subsequent decades of research after its discovery implicated SP and its neurokinin relatives as neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of the reward pathway. Here, we review the neurokinin literature, giving a brief historical perspective of neurokinin pharmacology, localization in various brain regions involved in addictive behaviors, and the functional aspects of neurokinin pharmacology in relation to reward in preclinical models of addiction that have shaped the rational drug design of neurokinin antagonists that could translate into human research. Finally, we will cover the clinical investigations using neurokinin antagonists and discuss their potential as a therapy for drug abuse.Keywords: reward, substance p, alcohol, morphine, cocaine, dopamine

  6. Pharmacological therapy for analgesia and sedation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K J S; Hall, R W

    2006-11-01

    Rapid advances have been made in the use of pharmacological analgesia and sedation for newborns requiring neonatal intensive care. Practical considerations for the use of systemic analgesics (opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, other drugs), local and topical anaesthetics, and sedative or anaesthetic agents (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, other drugs) are summarised using an evidence-based medicine approach, while avoiding mention of the underlying basic physiology or pharmacology. These developments have inspired more humane approaches to neonatal intensive care. Despite these advances, little is known about the clinical effectiveness, immediate toxicity, effects on special patient populations, or long-term effects after neonatal exposure to analgesics or sedatives. The desired or adverse effects of drug combinations, interactions with non-pharmacological interventions or use for specific conditions also remain unknown. Despite the huge gaps in our knowledge, preliminary evidence for the use of neonatal analgesia and sedation is available, but must be combined with a clear definition of clinical goals, continuous physiological monitoring, evaluation of side effects or tolerance, and consideration of long-term clinical outcomes.

  7. Amphetamine, past and present--a pharmacological and clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-06-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine's diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine's distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed.

  8. Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine’s diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine’s distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed. PMID:23539642

  9. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari Jr., Ilio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil studies with native medicinal plants are usually performed using non-domesticated plants and as a result the genetic variability of wild species could express different levels of active principles changing their therapeutic effect. Based on that, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that extract of different half- sib families Cordia verbenacea (DC, widely used as medicinal plant in Brazil, have different efficacy in the Total Growth Inhibition (TGI of 5 different human tumor cell lines. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA follow by Tuckey test and a heritability estimation of the plant families was performed. The results showed that TGI are different for each plant family according with each human tumor cell line. For instance, extracts obtained from families 3,11 and 12 were more effective to inhibit the U-251 and Ht-29 cell lines compared to the other families, while extracts obtained from the family 32 was more effective against thethe PC-3 line. The heritability coefficient indicated that plant population selection could promote a genetic improvement related to its active principle and their pharmacological effect and could provide the identification of the best families according to their pharmacological efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that the domestication of a wild medicinal plant should be better monitored by its pharmacological effect.

  11. Lasers, stem cells, and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Necochea-Campion Rosalia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical use of low level laser (LLL irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed.

  12. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  13. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  14. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  15. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Man; Liu, Jiu-Shi; Wang, Min; Cao, Ting-Ting; Qi, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2018-06-12

    Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge. The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis. Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are

  16. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2015-05-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.

  17. Concise Review: Cell Surface N-Linked Glycoproteins as Potential Stem Cell Markers and Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boheler, Kenneth R; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells and their derivatives hold great promise to advance regenerative medicine. Critical to the progression of this field is the identification and utilization of antibody-accessible cell-surface proteins for immunophenotyping and cell sorting-techniques essential for assessment and isolation of defined cell populations with known functional and therapeutic properties. Beyond their utility for cell identification and selection, cell-surface proteins are also major targets for pharmacological intervention. Although comprehensive cell-surface protein maps are highly valuable, they have been difficult to define until recently. In this review, we discuss the application of a contemporary targeted chemoproteomic-based technique for defining the cell-surface proteomes of stem and progenitor cells. In applying this approach to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), these studies have improved the biological understanding of these cells, led to the enhanced use and development of antibodies suitable for immunophenotyping and sorting, and contributed to the repurposing of existing drugs without the need for high-throughput screening. The utility of this latter approach was first demonstrated with human PSCs (hPSCs) through the identification of small molecules that are selectively toxic to hPSCs and have the potential for eliminating confounding and tumorigenic cells in hPSC-derived progeny destined for research and transplantation. Overall, the cutting-edge technologies reviewed here will accelerate the development of novel cell-surface protein targets for immunophenotyping, new reagents to improve the isolation of therapeutically qualified cells, and pharmacological studies to advance the treatment of intractable diseases amenable to cell-replacement therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:131-138. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  18. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  19. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, antiallodynic effects and quantitative analysis of gallic acid in spray dried powders from Phyllanthus niruri leaves, stems, roots and whole plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica G. Couto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects of spray dried powders starting from leaves, stems, roots, the mixture of leaves and stems, as well as the whole plant aqueous solutions of Phyllanthus niruri L., Phyllanthaceae, were assessed. Gallic acid, used as chemical marker, was quantified by HPLC in the spray dried powders. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory and allodynic responses in the mouse paw were used as pharmacological models. Quantitative and qualitative differences among chemical composition of different herb parts were observed. The oral administration of leaves or leaves plus stems spray dried powders (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced allodynic effect (42±5 and 54±3%, respectively. Additionally, the spray dried powders of leaves significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema (35±6%. The spray dried powders of roots, stems, or the mixture of leaves, stems and roots (100 mg/kg, p.o. did not exhibit antiallodynic or antioedematogenic effect in the same model. In conclusion, differences in the chemical composition of spray dried powders from P. niruri are reflected in their in vivo pharmacological actions. Despite of a direct relationship of anti-inflammatory and antiallodynic effects with the gallic acid content had been observed, especially in the spray dried powders of leaves, the use of spray dried powders of leaves plus stems showed to be more effective, suggesting a synergic effect between their constituents.

  1. Kirkia acuminata Oliv.: a review of its ethnobotany and pharmacology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical assessment of roots and stem bark of K. acuminata showed presence of lignans, neo-lignans, nor-carotinoids and other compounds. The extracts of K. acuminata exhibited antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. These phytochemical compounds may be responsible for the medicinal uses ...

  2. IL8-CXCR2 pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against MDS and AML stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Carolina; Giricz, Orsolya; Li, Weijuan; Shastri, Aditi; Gordon, Shanisha; Barreyro, Laura; Barreryo, Laura; Bhagat, Tushar; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Ramachandra, Nandini; Bartenstein, Matthias; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Wickrema, Amittha; Yu, Yiting; Will, Britta; Wei, Sheng; Steidl, Ulrich; Verma, Amit

    2015-05-14

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are associated with disease-initiating stem cells that are not eliminated by conventional therapies. Novel therapeutic targets against preleukemic stem cells need to be identified for potentially curative strategies. We conducted parallel transcriptional analysis of highly fractionated stem and progenitor populations in MDS, AML, and control samples and found interleukin 8 (IL8) to be consistently overexpressed in patient samples. The receptor for IL8, CXCR2, was also significantly increased in MDS CD34(+) cells from a large clinical cohort and was predictive of increased transfusion dependence. High CXCR2 expression was also an adverse prognostic factor in The Cancer Genome Atlas AML cohort, further pointing to the critical role of the IL8-CXCR2 axis in AML/MDS. Functionally, CXCR2 inhibition by knockdown and pharmacologic approaches led to a significant reduction in proliferation in several leukemic cell lines and primary MDS/AML samples via induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Importantly, inhibition of CXCR2 selectively inhibited immature hematopoietic stem cells from MDS/AML samples without an effect on healthy controls. CXCR2 knockdown also impaired leukemic growth in vivo. Together, these studies demonstrate that the IL8 receptor CXCR2 is an adverse prognostic factor in MDS/AML and is a potential therapeutic target against immature leukemic stem cell-enriched cell fractions in MDS and AML. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Coordinate expansion of murine hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments by SHIPi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Iyer, S; Akada, H; Neelam, S; Russo, C M; Chisholm, J D; Kerr, W G

    2015-03-01

    Promoting the expansion of adult stem cell populations offers the potential to ameliorate radiation or chemotherapy-induced bone marrow failure and allows for expedited recovery for patients undergoing these therapies. Previous genetic studies suggested a pivotal role for SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) in limiting the size of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recent development of small molecule SHIP1 inhibitors offers the potential for pharmacological expansion of the HSC compartment in vivo. We show here that treatment of mice with aminosteroid inhibitors of SHIP1 (SHIPi) more than doubles the size of the adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) compartment while simultaneously expanding the HSC pool sixfold. Consistent with its ability to target SHIP1 function in vivo, SHIPi also significantly increases plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, a growth factor that supports proliferation of HSC. Here, we show that SHIPi-induced G-CSF production mediates HSC and MSC expansion, as in vivo neutralization of G-CSF abrogates the SHIPi-induced expansion of both the HSC and MSC compartments. Due to its expansionary effect on adult stem cell compartments, SHIPi represents a potential novel strategy to improve declining stem cell function in both therapy induced and genetically derived bone marrow failure syndromes. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Stem cells for tooth engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bluteau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  5. AVOCADO SEEDLINGS MULTIPLE STEMS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS VINICIUS SANDOVAL PAIXÃO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the potential of multi-stems in avocado seeds according to their mass as well as the adventitious rooting of multi-stem budding with or without the use of auxin. The research was carried out at the Vegetation House of Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Campus Santa Teresa -ES, with seeds of different masses: 100 g, in which each experimental unit was made of five seeds, distributed within five repetitions, under a completely randomized design. The seeds were put to germinate and the percentage number of emergence and multiple stems were evaluated. After 150 days, the following evaluations were carried out: survival of rooted cuttings; number of leaves; stem diameter; root length; root volume; root and shoot fresh mass; root and shoot dry mass; shoot height; absolute growth and shoot growth rate; shoot dry weight/root dry mass ratio; shoot height/stem diameter ratio; shoot height/root length and Dickson's quality index ratio. Avocado seeds with mass over 100 g and between 81-100 g presented higher percentage of multiple stems. Rods over 20 cm that were not treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid resulted on avocado plants of better quality. The use of IBA (2000 mg L-1 does not affect the rooting and growth of avocado's multi-stem plants.

  6. Cellular Therapeutics for Heart Failure: Focus on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh C. Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulting from a various etiologies, the most notable remains ischemia; heart failure (HF manifests as the common end pathway of many cardiovascular processes and remains among the top causes for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current pharmacologic treatment for HF utilizes pharmacologic agents to control symptoms and slow further deterioration; however, on a cellular level, in a patient with progressive disease, fibrosis and cardiac remodeling can continue leading to end-stage heart failure. Cellular therapeutics have risen as the new hope for an improvement in the treatment of HF. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have gained popularity given their propensity of promoting endogenous cellular repair of a myriad of disease processes via paracrine signaling through expression of various cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules resulting in activation of signal transduction pathways. While the exact mechanism remains to be completely elucidated, this remains the primary mechanism identified to date. Recently, MSCs have been incorporated as the central focus in clinical trials investigating the role how MSCs can play in the treatment of HF. In this review, we focus on the characteristics of MSCs that give them a distinct edge as cellular therapeutics and present results of clinical trials investigating MSCs in the setting of ischemic HF.

  7. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  8. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  9. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  10. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  11. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  12. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed.......This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...

  13. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; van Hensbergen, Larissa; Jacobs, Lotte; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Given the reported high rates of medication errors, especially in elderly patients, we hypothesized that current curricula do not devote enough time to the teaching of geriatric pharmacology. This review explores the quantity and nature of geriatric pharmacology education in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula for health professionals. METHODS Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched (from 1 January 2000 to 11 January 2011), using the terms ‘pharmacology’ and ‘education’ in combination. Articles describing content or evaluation of pharmacology education for health professionals were included. Education in general and geriatric pharmacology was compared. RESULTS Articles on general pharmacology education (252) and geriatric pharmacology education (39) were included. The number of publications on education in general pharmacology, but not geriatric pharmacology, has increased over the last 10 years. Articles on undergraduate and postgraduate education for 12 different health disciplines were identified. A median of 24 h (from 15 min to 4956 h) devoted to pharmacology education and 2 h (1–935 h) devoted to geriatric pharmacology were reported. Of the articles on education in geriatric pharmacology, 61.5% evaluated the teaching provided, mostly student satisfaction with the course. The strength of findings was low. Similar educational interventions were not identified, and evaluation studies were not replicated. CONCLUSIONS Recently, interest in pharmacology education has increased, possibly because of the high rate of medication errors and the recognized importance of evidence-based medical education. Nevertheless, courses on geriatric pharmacology have not been evaluated thoroughly and none can be recommended for use in training programmes. Suggestions for improvements in education in general and geriatric pharmacology are given. PMID:22416832

  14. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  15. Expanding STEM opportunities through inclusive STEM-focused high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools-that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans' science achievement scores in the Texas study.

  16. Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubneide Barreto Silva Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Trial registration: NCT01389128. [Gallo RBS, Santana LS, Marcolin AC, Duarte G, Quintana SM (2018 Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 33–40

  17. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors...

  18. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  19. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi C Banjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  20. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT