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Sample records for personal protective measures

  1. Knowledge and Use of Personal Protective Measures Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro.active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents ...

  2. Measured results and assessment of personal protection appliances against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lijuan; Lin Zhikai; Cao Jisheng; Zhu Pei; Tang Haiying; Liu Baiqun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the protective qualities of personal protective appliances and to ensure the health and safety of radiological working personnel. Methods: The lead-equivalent thickness of personal protective appliances and materials was measured by means of standard lead slices. The lead equivalent thickness represents in terms of mm Pb. Results: 77 pieces of products and samples were measured altogether. The results indicate that the specific lead equivalents of lead-rubber plates were between 0.20-0.39 mm Pb/mm for 37 pieces of lead-rubber plates and the values of 6 pieces of samples were less than 0.25 mm Pb/mm, which did not accord with the requirement of the relational standard. 27 pieces of personal protection appliances were measured altogether. They were 12 pieces of protective clothes, 4 pieces of protective headgears, 5 pieces of protective neckpieces, 4 pieces of protective gloves and 2 pieces of protective masks. 13 pairs of lead-glass spectacles among them were measured altogether. The measured results for personal protective appliances and lead-glass spectacles showed that actually measured lead-equivalent were higher than the nominal lead-equivalent. Conclusions: The protective qualities are reliable for personal protection materials and appliances to be made in home and imported abroad. But the protective qualities of interventional protection gloves should be improved and made them better. (authors)

  3. Perception and personal protective measures toward mosquito bites by communities in Jaffna District, northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, S N; Kajatheepan, A

    2007-06-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are of public health importance in war-torn northern Sri Lanka. The severity of mosquito bites and attitudes of the public toward mosquito problems were investigated using a structured questionnaire among communities in 3 administrative divisions in Jaffna District. One hundred fifty-four households were interviewed during this study. Sixty-four percent of the respondents reported that the mosquito problem was severe in their localities. Fifty-two percent stated that mosquito-biting activity was severe in the evening (1500 h-1900 h), 41% at night (after 1900 h), and 7% throughout the day. Severity of mosquito menace was found to have no association with type of house construction. Seventy-seven percent were able to name at least 1 disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Statistical analysis showed no association between education level and public awareness on mosquito-borne diseases. Nearly 88% were able to identify at least a breeding source of mosquitoes and most of them practice measures to eliminate suitable environments for mosquito breeding. Ninety-six percent used personal protective measures against mosquito bites during some seasons or throughout the year. Mosquito coils were the most commonly used personal protective method followed by bed nets. The monthly expenditure for personal protective measures varied from US$0.19 (LKR 20) to US$3.40 (LKR 350).

  4. Personal Protective Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...

  5. Personal protective equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert

  6. Personal protection accessories (PPA) as a primary health safety measures in pesticide use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Akhtar, A.; Kanwal, S.; Ali, T.; Zafar, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit growers from three districts of the Punjab took part in this study whereas their knowledge, attitude, skill and practices were evaluated regarding the use of pesticides. The hygiene and sanitation practices of the respondents were also related with proper use of PPA during pesticide spray which needs attitudinal changes along with the provision of better facilities and infrastructure. Demographic features of the fruit growers were evaluated regarding their age, qualification, marital status, source of income, smoking habits, farming size, fruit production and pesticide spraying experience. The ordinal regression model determined the significant relation among the qualification, spraying experience and land holding size with their level of knowledge and skill of using personal protection accessories (PPA). It is recommended that pesticide safety education and better skill be given to pesticide sprayers for the appropriate use of PPA. (author)

  7. A person having ability in radiation protection: an original measure in comparison with the common rights for work safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the regulations, any factory using ionising radiations is obliged to designate a person having having ability in radiation protection and entrusted with specific missions regarding safety for professional risks. This represents an original measure in comparison with the common rights for work safety. The decree whose became operative on 2 october 1986, about ten years ago and just before the reform of radiation protection standards, it seems important to store in memory the genesis and the goals of this prescription and to present the results. (authors)

  8. Google and personal data protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Lopez-Tarruella, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interplay between the European personal data protection regime and two specific Google services, Interest-Based Advertising and Google Street View. The chapter assesses first the applicability of the Data Protection Directive, then jurisdictional issues, the principles

  9. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  10. Health education: Effect on knowledge and practice of workplace personal hygiene and protective measures among woodworkers in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeugwu, L; Aguwa, E N; Arinze-Onyia, S U; Okeke, T A

    2017-07-01

    There has been increasing incidence of occupational diseases among woodworkers due to exposure to preventable hazards in the workplace. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of health education on the knowledge and practice of workplace hygiene and protective measures among woodworkers in Enugu timber market. This was a before and after study conducted among 290 woodworkers using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and manual on workplace hazards prevention. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 and P-value of 0.05 was set as the significance level. Two hundred and ninety respondents participated in the study; 282 (97.2%) were males, most completed secondary education and had worked for less than 10 years (71% and 58.3%, respectively). The mean knowledge score of participants pre- and postintervention were 89.5% ± 9.03 and 98.5% ± 1.84, respectively (P Personal hygiene practices showed mixed responses most of which improved post intervention. The most common reason for eating in workplace was excessive workload (60.3%), while lack of PPEs (29.3%) and lack of training (23.8%) were the most common reasons for nonuse of PPEs. Majority of the participants had good knowledge of workplace hygiene but had poor use of PPEs. Health education intervention improved the use of PPEs and should be recommended.

  11. 23081 - Royal Decree No. 1132 of 14 September 1990 laying down basic measures for radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Royal Decree incorporates into Spanish regulations Directive 84/466 Euratom which lays down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. Any exposure to radiation for medical purposes must be medically justified and be conducted under the responsibility of a medical or dental practitioner adequately trained in the radiation protection field. All relevant facilities must be recorded in the national inventories to avoid unnecessary proliferation of such equipment [fr

  12. Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-04

    Toward Better Personal Ballistic Protection Manon Bolduc1, Jason Lo2, Ruby Zhang2, Dan Walsh2, Shuqiong Lin3, Benoit Simard3, Ken Bosnick4, Mike...presenc particulate gr atly increase ceramic mad er, knowing e ceramic ma the alumina y on the mat a layered with s on the coat stantial prope C) magnif...mic fiber ma site ceramics such, thod. this fore, on of t has 8. CONCLUSION In an attempt to improve the failure resistance of ceramic

  13. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Koshcheev, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  14. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures against mosquito borne diseases in a resettlement colony of delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T; Kumar, R; Saini, V; Meena, Gs; Ingle, Gk

    2014-03-01

    Mosquito borne diseases (MBDs) are major public health problem in India. State of Delhi is endemic for dengue and other MBDs. The increasing incidence of MBDs in Delhi in recent years warrants a pro-active approach for their prevention. Knowledge and use of personal protective measures (PPMs) presents an effective strategy for prevention and control of MBDs. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and use of PPMs against MBDs in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi. It was a cross-sectional study carried out in a resettlement colony of Delhi. A total of 100 families were selected by systematic random sampling. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaire and supplemented by spot survey by the investigator in the community. The results were analyzed in SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago Illinios, USA). Out of the 100 respondents, 65% (65/100), 58%(58/100) and 13% (13/100) had heard about dengue, malaria and chikungunya, respectively. Nearly, one-fifth (20/100; 20%) of the participants reported incorrect breeding sites for mosquitoes. The knowledge regarding PPMs was very high (93/100; 93%) and about (90/100; 90%) families were actually using at least one of the PPMs. However, very few families were using them correctly (1/90; 1.1%) and adequately (5/90; 5.6%). The most common PPM being used by the study population was liquid vaporizers (54/90; 60%). Nearly one-third (29/90; 32.2%) of the participants reported side-effects due to PPMs with irritation to smell being the most common reported side-effect. On house visit, adult mosquitoes were seen in 67% (67/100) of the houses, while potential mosquito breeding sites were found in and around 56% (56/100) houses. There were crucial gaps in knowledge and practices of participants with regard to prevention and control of MBDs. Thus, there is a need to intensify efforts toward creating public knowledge and mobilizing community about correct use of preventive measures against MBDs.

  15. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  16. Safety of persons protected by the Government Protection Bureau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The state is the organizational structure, which unites the whole nation by providing optimal conditions for the functioning and development. One of the conditions for the basic functions of the state is efficient administration headed by a person with the role of management. They not only hold the highest position, but also represent the authority of the state. For this reason, they need special protection. Each attack undermines the authority of the administration and trust in the state institutions. For the protection of persons performing managerial functions in the state corresponds to the Government Protection Bureau that providing them protection at the same time protect the state.

  17. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  18. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of elastomeric respirator masks and protective eyewear such as goggles may be reused if the ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  19. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  20. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  1. Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhel, Th.; Briandchamplong, J.; Gambini, D.J.; Ammerich, M.; Aubert, B.; Barbey, P.; Biau, A.; Bruchet, H.; Capelle, M.H.; Flon, E.; Gauron, Ch.; Gravelotte, D.; Guerin, Ch.; Le Denmat, D.; Lemoine, Th.; Lombard, J.; Lucas, St.; Menechal, Ph.; Mignien, S.; Million, M.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Prevot, S.; Radecki, J.J.; Rigaud, S.; Taillandier, P.; Timbert, M.; Vidal, J.P.; Bardelay, Ch.; Lahaye, Th.; Balduyck, S.; Chasson, E.; Rehel, J.L.; Chatellier, Ch.; Barret, Ch.; Guersen, J.; Degrange, J.P.; Sevestre, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Marchal, C.; Lefaure, Ch.; Bouk'il, H.; Gneiting, M.; Auboiroux, B.; Riedel, A.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Bof, M.; Lochard, J.; Godet, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external RSP

  2. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  3. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: arm and hand protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Fire, heat, cold, electro-magnetic and ionising radiation, electricity, chemicals, impacts, cuts, abrasion, etc. are the common hazards for arms and hands at work. The gloves chosen for protection of the arm and hand should cover those parts adequately and the material of the gloves should be capable of offering protection against the specific hazard involved. Criteria for choosing arm and hand protection equipment will be based on their shape and part of the arm and hand protected. Guide lines for choosing such personal protection equipment for nuclear facilities are given. (M.K.V.). 3 annexures, 1 appendix

  4. Protecting Personal Information on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.

  5. Person expert in radiation protection: changing profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    In all French enterprises producing or using ionizing radiations, a person is in charge of the protection of workers against radiations: the expert in radiation protection (PCR). The education and training of this profession has been recently reformed, and its status will evolve by 2018 with a transposition of a European directive. While indicating the six main missions of PCRs (risk assessment, definition of protection measures, zoning optimisation, training of exposed workers, dosimetry follow-up, periodic controls), this article comments the current professional profile of PCRs who can be technicians, engineers as well as researchers. It also outlines aspects of the reform which do not satisfy PCRs' needs. A second article reports how PCRs perceive their mission on a daily basis, which obstacles they face, how they are organised to communicate between them and not to be isolated (a map of PCR regional networks is provided with indications of the number of members and of the main actions), and how the IRSN helps them. A third article evokes the content of a new standard (NF C 15-160) which defines the requirements for X ray generating installations, and the related theoretical and practical training proposed by the IRSN

  6. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  7. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. Information booklet on personal protective equipment: eye and face protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In all work places where hazards of various kinds are present and the same cannot be totally controlled by engineering methods, suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be used. There are several types of eye and face protection devices available in the market and it is important that employees use the proper type for the particular job. The main classes of eye and face protection devices required for the industrial operations are as follows: (a) eye protection devices which includes: (i) safety goggles (ii) safety spectacles (iii) safety clipons and eye and face protection devices which are (i) eye shield, (ii) face shield, (iii) wire mesh screen guard. Guide lines for selecting appropriate ear and face protection equipment for nuclear installations are given. (M.K.V.). 4 annexures, 1 appendix

  9. Assessment of occupational exposure and provision of recommendations and guidance on measures for the radiological protection of occupationally exposed persons in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    311 X-ray installations including 14 therapeutic machines were surveyed all over Bangladesh. It was noted that most of the installations had no shielded control booths, required wall thickness of X-ray rooms, radiation protection measures and shielding arrangements for patients and occupational workers with particular reference to gonads, eyes, thyroid glands and warning indicators. The direct exposure per sec was found to range from 11 mR to 417 mR which is abnormally high for the attendants or occupational workers holding the patients. The mA and kV indicators of many X-ray machines did not function at all, the therapy machines were not properly calibrated and as a result, doses delivered to patients were sometimes erroneous. Several cases of abnormal burning of healthy tissues of patients due to improper exposure were observed. Most of the hospitals had no health physicist or competent person to look after the potential risks of radiation. At present there is no suitable arrangement for training, education and proper motivation of X-ray technicians and radiologists on the protection against ionizing radiation in the country. A considerable number (42%) of X-ray machines had no shutter/collimator and collimators of some of the machines did not function properly. Almost all the X-ray rooms were not planned according to the standard structural specifications. In most of the hospitals/clinics, the dark room facilities were not adequate. Even some dark rooms and film stores were found to receive unnecessarily high doses. There is no legal framework on radiation protection in Bangladesh and therefore it is not possible to impose radiation protection and safety rules at the X-ray installations of the country. Recommendations were made to cover radiation protection of the occupational worker, and special recommendations with respect to fluoroscopy and radiography, dental radiography, radiotherapy, X-ray film processing, personnel monitoring and medical care and

  10. Personal protection against biting insects and ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern France by Aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the Personal protection against vectors (PPAV. It is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individually by using an arsenal of resources available on the market. Yet most of these means have been neither checked for effectiveness or safety tests, however, essential. Travellers, staff on mission or assignment, are looking for specific information on how to protect themselves or their families. Health workers had at their disposal so far indications that vary widely from one source to another. Therefore it seemed important to the Society of Travel Medicine (SMV and the French Society of Parasitology (SFP to initiate a reflection on this theme. This reflection took the form of recommendations for good practice, following the outline established by the French High Health Authority (HAS. The aim was to gather all relevant information, verified and validated and the format to be used not only by health personnel (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, but also by travel agents and individuals. This document highlights the need to take into account the risk of vector-borne diseases, some deadly, and the benefit of various methods of personal protection. The choice of methods is clearly oriented towards those whose effectiveness has been proven and potential risks assessed. The paper finally proposes two decision trees based on the transmission type (day or night and kind of stay (short or roaming, long and steady. It concerns travellers, but also expatriates, residents and nomads.

  11. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  13. 22 CFR 212.22 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of personal privacy. 212.22 Section... Information for Public Inspection and Copying § 212.22 Protection of personal privacy. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, USAID may delete identifying details...

  14. Protecting personal information: Implications of the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, M

    2017-10-31

    Careless handling of patient information in daily medical practice can result in Health Professions Council of South Africa sanction, breach of privacy lawsuits and, in extreme cases, serious monetary penalty or even imprisonment. This review will focus on the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act (No. 4 of 2013) and the implications thereof for healthcare professionals in daily practice. Recommendations regarding the safeguarding of information are made.

  15. Implications of the Protection of Personal Information (POPI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of the POPI act is to protect the processing of personal information ... a smartphone, iPad or personal computer), digital storage devices. (iCloud, Dropbox ... (vi) Reasonable security regarding the safeguarding, integrity and.

  16. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  17. Mandatory certification of personal protection equipment against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Tulio A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyze the regulations establishing mandatory certification of personal protection equipment, including those aim to protect against ionizing radiation due to the external irradiation and to the radioactive contamination. (author)

  18. PERSONA : a personalized data protection framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egea, M.; Paci, F.; Petrocchi, M.; Zannone, N.; Fernández-Gago, C.; Martinelli, F.; Pearson, S.; Agudo, I.

    2013-01-01

    The European Directive on Data Protection recognizes the right of data subjects to control the usage of their information. However, to date there are no data protection solutions that involve data subjects in the definition and enforcement of data protection policies. In this paper we present the

  19. Second meeting of competent persons in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This conference treats the subjects interesting the competent persons in radiation protection. It is divided in four sessions. The first one concerns the regulatory bases for the action of competent persons and includes three articles, the second one is about the operational dosimetry and includes six articles, the third session is devoted to the sources and waste management and represents two texts, the last and fourth session concerns the competent person in radiation protection and gives evidence. (N.C.)

  20. 36 CFR 902.56 - Protection of personal privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... privacy. 902.56 Section 902.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... Protection of personal privacy. (a) Any of the following personnel, medical, or similar records is within the... invasion of his personal privacy: (1) Personnel and background records personal to any officer or employee...

  1. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries (\\'third countries\\') that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 ...

  2. Protecting personal data in camera surveillance practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores in which ways privacy (in particular, data protection principles) comes to the fore in the day-to-day operation of a public video surveillance system. Starting from current European legal perspectives on data protection, and building on an empirical case study, the meanings and

  3. Personal Protection: The Way Forward (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.

    2000-01-01

    The perceived need for sunscreens with ever-increasing sun protection factors is unnecessary and leads to more confusion than clarity. Year-round sun protection achieved by the inclusion of ultraviolet (UV) filters in skin care products intended for daily use is not indicated for people living in northern Europe and may, in fact, be potentially harmful. Future needs for sun protection are likely to be influenced more by global warming than ozone depletion, and by the rising trend for overseas holidays to sunny destinations. (author)

  4. Measuring Personalization of Web Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannak, Aniko; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Kakhki, Arash Molavi

    2013-01-01

    are simply unable to access information that the search engines’ algorithm decidesis irrelevant. Despitetheseconcerns, there has been little quantification of the extent of personalization in Web search today, or the user attributes that cause it. In light of this situation, we make three contributions...... as a result of searching with a logged in account and the IP address of the searching user. Our results are a first step towards understanding the extent and effects of personalization on Web search engines today....

  5. WS-010: EPR-First Responders: Personal monitoring techniques and protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this working session is that the participant can apply their knowledge in relation to the personal monitoring techniques and protective clothing. They have to know the use of the radiation measurement instrumentation available in each region

  6. Intelligent textiles for personal protection and safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Kiekens, Paul; Grancaric, Ana Marija

    2006-01-01

    .... Each chapter in the book provides an in-depth assessment of one particular facet of this emerging discipline - from analysis of the threats and sensing technologies to ergonomics of protecting...

  7. A Guide for Selecting Protection Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korn, H.; Strilek, I.

    2000-01-01

    An important task of emergency planning is to determine countermeasures during different time phases of an airborne plume. For this purpose a Catalogue of Countermeasures was created. The purpose of the catalogue it to be a primary guide for experts of competent governmental and state authorities as well as for persons belonging to the respective advisory and supporting panel, who have to assess and evaluate the situation and to select protection measures in the case of a nuclear event with radiological consequences off-site. Since radiation is generally not directly measurable, it is, for practical purposes, not the radiation dose itself but the derived measurable quantities that are used for decision-making. On this basis the catalogue is a tool for deciding on the initiation of countermeasures based on Operational Intervention Levels. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of ultraviolet light personal protective equipment used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... (UV) light personal protective equipment (PPE) used by arc welders in the informal sector. ... all had formal education: 31.1% had primary school level as the highest attained education level, ...

  9. Personal protective equipment for registration purposes of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory authorities in North America, Europe and Australia use different approaches for the estimation of exposure reduction effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) in registration processes of agrochemical pesticides. TNO has investigated current views and facts for the use of

  10. The competent person in radiation protection: practical radiation protection for industry and research - unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, H.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)

  11. Personal protective clothing against accidental immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, David; Tipton, Michael [Surrey Univ., Robens Inst. of Health and Safety, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The requirements for protective clothing against accidental immersion are discussed and the advantages and limitations of the main types of immersion protection available are analysed. The variety of designs available reflects the various circumstances under which they may be used. In broad terms in the offshore industry these include the following activities: normal work without risk of immersion but with a possible need to abandon the rig or ship; work in areas where there is risk of accidentally falling into the sea; flying over the sea in a helicopter. The first response to sudden immersion in sea water, which must usually be considered to be cold, is a sudden gasp often followed by an immediate phase of uncontrolled breathing. Since control of ones breathing between and under the breaking waves is essential to staying alive, this is a critical time. After surviving this initial ``cold shock`` phase, the effects of body heat loss become hazardous. Protection against hypothermia has been the priority for those providing survival suits and protective clothing while the hazard of the immediate response to cold immersion has been unrecognised to a large extent. (UK)

  12. Protection of persons undergoing radiological examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection was in the form of gonad shields, lead apron to shield the unwanted parts during examinations and coning the X-ray field before exposure. The staff had Thermoluminscent Dosimeters (TLD) to monitor dose levels received by such staff every three months. They wore hand gloves, lead aprons and stayed behind ...

  13. Major breakthrough in personal dust protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2004-09-15

    With new studies highlighting one in every 20 miners developing 'black lung', USA labour, industry and government have joined forces to develop a solution. The rapid advance in Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) technology is a perfect example. The article reports a PDM, which is developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, working in the partnership with the United Mine Workers of America, the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and the National Mining Association.

  14. Personal health record systems and their security protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy; Mu, Yi

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the security protection of personal health record systems. To achieve this we have investigated different personal health record systems, their security functions, and security issues. We have noted that current security mechanisms are not adequate and we have proposed some security mechanisms to tackle these problems.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.95 - Criteria for personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life... in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes or... construction for the work to be performed. (d) Payment for protective equipment. (1) Except as provided by...

  16. Protection of old persons under family law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujundžić Slavica M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a social phenomenon which paid special attention nowadays, both in our country and in the world. It is a very sensitive topic that deeply interferes into the basic cell of society, such as a family, but also the wider community itself. The Republic of Serbia has made a major breakthrough in this area by passing the Family Law in 2005, which was the first law of this type that clearly defines the concept of domestic violence, as well as actions that is described as violence and the group of persons who consider themselves victims of violence. The adoption of the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence, which enters into force at June the 1st 2017, represents an additional step forward when it comes to the regulation of domestic violence, particularly in the area of preventive action and coordination of all stakeholders involved in solving this problem. This study pays special attention to one category of victims of domestic violence, namely, the elderly (persons over 65 years of age. The elderly in our society are one of the most vulnerable groups, taking into account their physical health and also financial situation. All available data indicate that this group of victims are reluctant to speak, and that a large number of acts of domestic violence against the elderly go unreported within the same family, while the perpetrators remain unpunished.

  17. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  18. Fifth meeting of persons competent in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During this meeting will successively be approached: the statutory frame, the practical guide for the realization of the dosimetry studies of work stations presenting a risk of exposure to ionizing radiations, a study of post in conventional and interventional radiology, study of post in interventional cardiology, the roles and the missions of the P.C.R. (person competent in radiation protection) in a subcontractor company in I.N.B. (base nuclear installation), the application of the zoning order for the activities of industrial radiography, the evolution of the statutory measures in protection of the workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations, all which concerns the P.C.R. (training, missions, certification, educational role), the controls of radioprotection, the external controls of radioprotection, the surveillance of working zones, surveillance of effluents,management of the radioactive waste and effluents, classification of the personnel and the surveillance of the exposure, dosimetry by radio photo luminescence, the systeme S.I.S.E.R.I.. (N.C.)

  19. Accidents, injuries and the use of personal protective equipment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are often neglected and their health and safety are generally overlooked. This study ... respondents had an accident at the workplace while 4% had injury, 60% had burns/scald injury while 72% had falls. In all, 6(54.5%) who ... Key words: Hospital cleaners, personal protective equipment, accidents, injuries, workplace.

  20. Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile Gas Exposure from A Novelty Personal-Protection Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CS tear-gas exposure from the unwitting discharge of a personal-protection handgun loaded with CS gas. The gun was in a bag of toys purchased from a local thrift store and was discharged by a child. The responding paramedic presumptively identified the substance as CS based solely on personal experience. This recognition led to suboptimal field management of the incident with the paramedic failing to follow the standard operating procedures for an unknown chemical exposure. As this was a benign agent, there were no serious consequences. This case highlights the pre-hospital and emergency department challenges associated with the management of an unknown chemical exposure and the potential consequences if the chemical is a toxic substance. A methodical approach following established protocols can reduce the potential for negative outcomes. Review of the literature found no other report of CS gas exposure from such a personal-protection weapon.

  1. 78 FR 48683 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Personal Protective Technology (PPT...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Technology (PPT) Program; Framework Document for the Healthcare Worker Personal Protective Equipment Action... titled ``Framework for Setting the NIOSH PPT Program Action Plan for Healthcare Worker Personal... NIOSH personal protective technology (PPT) program publishes and periodically updates its research...

  2. Protective personality traits: High openness and low neuroticism linked to better memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Inglese, Matilde; Sumowski, James F

    2017-11-01

    Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common, although few risk/protective factors are known. To examine relationships of personality to memory/non-memory cognition in MS. 80 patients completed a cognitive battery and a personality scale measuring the "Big 5" traits: openness, neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Memory was most related to openness, with higher openness linked to better memory and lower risk for memory impairment, controlling for age, atrophy, education, and intelligence quotient (IQ). Lower neuroticism was also related to better memory, and lower conscientiousness to memory impairment. Non-memory cognition was unrelated to personality. Personality may inform predictive models of memory impairment in MS.

  3. Balancing autonomy and protection: A qualitative analysis of court hearings dealing with protective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon-Kund, Marie; Coenen, Michaela; Bickenbach, Jerome E

    Respect for individual autonomy is at the core of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). However, the need to protect persons with disabilities, especially those with cognitive impairments and psychosocial conditions, from outright exploitation, violence and abuse is explicitly provided for in article 16. Legal authorities still decide on a daily basis upon the institution of measures, which aim to protect vulnerable persons and unavoidably impact on the autonomy of persons concerned, known as guardianship, curatorship or administration. Observations of court hearings, interviews with judges and analysis of written materials from the cantons of Geneva and Vaud in Switzerland as well as from Belgium - which all have differently composed authorities - were carried out in order to identify what influences authorities in decision-making processes regarding protective measures, and to explore how autonomy and protection can be balanced. We suggest pragmatic considerations that should not be ignored when trying to reach a balance between autonomy and protection from abuse, in line with the CRPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  5. Qualification criteria for persons responsible for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the qualification criteria included in the German atomic law (Atomic Energy Act, Radiological Protection Ordinance and X-ray Protection Ordinance) for persons responsible for radiation protection is given. Especially the various activities for which a health physics officer is required, the range of qualification in each case and the way the qualification has to be proved, are pointed out. Also the different guides that are issued to complete the legal requirements are mentioned. The definitions of the term qualification for health physics given in the different guides are cited and it is shown, that the qualification of a healt physics officer has to be based on the three criteria (I) vocational training. (II) professional experience and (III) the necessary knowledge in radiation protection. (orig./HP) [de

  6. On Measuring the Sixth Basic Personality Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielmann, Isabel; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Zettler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in personality research led to the proposition of two alternative six-factor trait models, the HEXACO model and the Big Six model. However, given the lack of direct comparisons, it is unclear whether the HEXACO and Big Six factors are distinct or essentially equivalent, that is......, whether corresponding inventories measure similar or distinct personality traits. Using Structural Equation Modeling (Study 1), we found substantial differences between the traits as measured via the HEXACO-60 and the 30-item Questionnaire Big Six (30QB6), particularly for Honesty-Humility and Honesty...

  7. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  8. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries' that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether South Africa can learn any lessons from them. In general, it can be said that although New Zealand law does not expressly recognise a right to privacy, it has a data protection regime that functions well and that goes a long way to providing adequate data protection as required by the EU Directive on data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has not made a finding to that effect as yet. The New Zealand data protection act requires a couple of amendments before New Zealand might be adjudged ‘adequate’. South Africa’s protection of the right to privacy and identity is better developed and more extensive than that of New Zealand. Privacy is recognised and protected in the law of delict and by the South African Constitution. Despite South Africa’s apparently high regard for the individual’s right to privacy and identity and our well-developed common and constitutional law of privacy, South Africa does not meet the adequacy requirement of the EU Directive, because we do not have a data protection Act. This means that South African participants in the information technology arena are at a constant disadvantage. It is argued that South Africa should follow New Zealand’s example and adopt a data

  9. [Child protection measures in other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, L

    1980-06-01

    The goal of measures for the protection of children is to help parents to behave toward their children in physically and psychologically nonviolent ways. In this article, a distinction is made between organisations devoted to field work and those devoted to public education. Examples are given from the Netherlands, England, the United States, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The care of families at risk is often in the hands of persons having already friendly contacts with the family. This type of lay helpers receive special training, and it seems that they gain more easily access to the parents than public agencies. In several countries there are interdisciplinary therapeutic centres where children, youth, or entire families find temporary acceptance. Therapy of this type aims primarily at providing an experience of nonviolent human interaction. In public education, the accent is on information of the public. A predominant aim is a change of attitude toward violent parents, in the sense of help being more important than punishment. In most instances, there is also a need to better make known the helping organizations. Finally, some postulates for primary prevention of cruelty to children are summarized, and reference is made to the "Fourth World Movement".

  10. Dose measurement during defectoscopic work using electronic personal dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoldasova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Personal monitoring of the external radiation of radiation, personnel exposed to sources of ionizing radiation at a workplace is an important task of the radiological protection. Information based on the measured quantities characterizing the level of the exposure of radiation personnel enable to assess the optimum radiological protection at the relevant workplace and ascertain any deviation from the normal operation in time. Different types of personal dosimeters are used to monitor the external radiation of radiation personnel. Basically, there are two types of dosimeters, passive and active (electronic). Passive dosimeters provide information on the dose of exposure after its evaluation, while electronic dosimeters provide this information instantly. The goal of the work is to compare data acquired during different working activities using the DMC 2000 XB electronic dosimeters and the passive film dosimeters currently used at the defectoscopic workplace. (authors)

  11. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.; Meldes, C.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  12. Protective measures during construction against radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, thoron as well as their daughter products have an cancerogeneous effect on the human respiratory tracts. In this respect protective measures in the area of construction are of great importance. This article deals with constructional solutions which consist of different individual measures. Sources of radon are outside air, water, fuels, building materials as well as the building ground. Possible protective measures are divided into area-related (floor structure, intermediate floors, exterior walls of cellar, foundation slab, building ground), line-related (joints, cracks, wall ducts) as well as supplementary measures (tightly closing doors, arrangement of natural cross-ventilation and vertical ventilating shafts). (BWI) [de

  13. Electrostatic Properties of Selected Personal Protective Equipment Regarding Explosion Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jachowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In industries such as the mining, petrochemistry or power industries, personal protective equipment is often used in explosive atmospheres. What causes the occurrence of explosive hazards is ever-present in the work environment they include, electrostatic phenomena as well as the build-up of electrical charges on the surface of the protective equipment used. This paper presents the results of studies which were aimed at determining the fundamental electrostatic parameters of protective helmets as well as eye and face protection, surface resistance and the voltage of electrostatic fields. Examinations on the typical structure of the above mentioned equipment was conducted including the variable values of ambient humidity, which can occur in the working environment and with the use of various types of materials used to generate a charge. The adopted methods and testing equipment have been presented. Using the current, general requirements regarding the electrostatic properties of materials, the examined helmets and eye protection were assessed for their use in explosive atmospheres.

  14. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  15. Role and missions of the person competent in radiation protection (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadia-Benoist, Genevieve; Basile, Sandy; Gauron, Christine; Guillemy, Nathalie; Moureaux, Patrick; Billarand, Yann; Rannou, Alain; Scanff, Pascale; Vidal, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection is a hot topic and has been the matter of debates between the French national institute of research and safety (INRS) and the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). It has been also the main topic of a joint IRSN/INRS workshop held in 2013 about the use of dosimetric data. This paper presents the joint position of both institutes with regards to the key-role, status and missions of the person competent in radiation protection (PCR) in the domain of risk prevention and access to dosimetric data. It presents also some possible measures of evolution of this occupation

  16. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.; Lakey, J.R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  17. Promoting fluoroscopic personal radiation protection equipment: unfamiliarity, facts and fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    An incomplete understanding of risk can cause inappropriate fear. Personal protective equipment (PPE) offered for the prevention of brain cancer in interventional fluoroscopists (IR-PPE). Similar items are offered for cell-phone use (RF-PPE). Publications on fluoroscopy staff brain cancer and similar papers on cell-phone induced brain cancer were reviewed. An internet safety product search was performed, which resulted in many tens of thousands of hits. Vendor claims for either ionizing radiation or radio frequency products seldom addressed the magnitude of the risk. Individuals and institutions can buy a wide variety of safety goods. Any purchase of radioprotective equipment reduces the funds available to mitigate other safety risks. The estimated cost of averting an actuarial fatal brain cancer appears to be in the order of magnitude $10 000 000-$100 000 000. Unwarranted radiation fears should not drive the radiation protection system to the point of decreasing overall safety. (authors)

  18. Protecting Personal Information in the Era of Identity Theft: Just how Safe is Our Personal Information from Identity Thieves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzia Cassim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Identity theft has become one of the fastest growing white collar crimes in the world. It occurs when an individual's personal information such as inter alia his or her name, date of birth or credit card details is used by another individual to commit identity fraud. Identity theft can be committed via physical means or online. The increased use of the Internet for business and financial transactions, social networking and the storage of personal information has facilitated the work of identity thieves. Identity theft has an impact on the personal finances and emotional well-being of victims, and on the financial institutions and economies of countries. It presents challenges for law enforcement agencies and governments worldwide. This article examines how identity thieves use the personal information of individuals to commit identity fraud and theft, and looks at legislative solutions introduced in South Africa, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and India to combat identity theft crimes. The article examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract such crimes. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such crimes in the future. The study reveals that identity theft is a growing and evolving problem that requires a multi-faceted and multi-disciplinary approach by law enforcement agencies, businesses, individuals and collaboration between countries. It is advocated that businesses and institutions should take measures to protect personal information better and that individuals should be educated about their rights, and be vigilant and protect their personal information offline and in cyberspace.

  19. Protection of personal information in South Africa: a framework for biometric data collection security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mzila, Phiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available personal information. Like many other countries, South Africa, in 2013 officially approved and enacted the Protection of Personal Information Act, which gives guidelines that should be followed when processing personal information. The Act regards biometric...

  20. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    1975-10-01

    'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this one-year investigation is to perform a technology integration/search, thereby ensuring that the safest and most cost-effective options are developed and subsequently used during the deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sites. Issues of worker health and safety are the main concern, followed by cost. Two lines of action were explored: innovative Personal Cooling Systems (PCS) and Personal Monitoring Equipment (PME). PME refers to sensors affixed to the worker that warn of an approaching heat stress condition, thereby preventing it. Three types of cooling systems were investigated: Pre-Chilled or Forced-Air System (PCFA), Umbilical Fluid-Chilled System (UFCS), and Passive Vest System (PVS). Of these, the UFCS leads the way. The PVS or Gel pack vest lagged due to a limited cooling duration. And the PCFA or chilled liquid air supply was cumbersome and required an expensive and complex recharge system. The UFCS in the form of the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS) performed exceptionally. The technology uses a chilled liquid circulating undergarment and a Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) external pump and ice reservoir. The system is moderately expensive, but the recharge is low-tech and inexpensive enough to offset the cost. There are commercially available PME that can be augmented to meet the DOE's heat stress alleviation need. The technology is costly, in excess of $4,000 per unit. Workers easily ignore the alarm. The benefit to health and safety is indirect so can be overlooked. A PCS is a more justifiable expenditure

  2. Decontamination of persons and other medical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1982-01-01

    Medical measures in case of radiation damages are discussed on the basis of five potential categories of radiation incidents or accidents, namely contaminations, incorporations, external local and general radiation over-exposures, contaminated wounds, and combinations of radiation damages and conventional injuries. Considerations are made for diagnostic and therapeutic initial measures especially in case of minor and moderate radiation accidents. The medical emergency planning is reviewed by means of definitions used in the practical handling of radiation incidents or accidents. The parameters are: extent of the incident or accident, number of persons involved, severity of the radiation damage. Based on guiding symptoms the criteria for the classification into minor, moderate or severe radiation accidents are discussed. (orig./RW)

  3. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Privacy protection for personal health information and shared care records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Roderick L B

    2014-01-01

    The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers: this will become more onerous with the introduction of the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in mid-2014. Many institutions, both large and small, have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient consent and control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring, has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failure to protect privacy: these too are set to become more onerous under the GDPR, increasing to a maximum of 2% of annual turnover. There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information. This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy. This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing. REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVACY: There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers) to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient. To achieve this information storage and retrieval, communication systems must be appropriately configured. There are many components of this, which are discussed in this paper. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore, their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval (i.e. like the World Wide Web) under patient control and kept private: a method for delivering this is outlined.

  5. Contamination measurements on persons after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of contamination measurements after accidents is threefold: to detect and localize contaminations; to determine the level of contamination as a base for medical decisions; and to check the scope and efficiency of the decontamination measures. Persons involved in accidents should never measure their contamination themselves. The radiation protection personnel, whether it belongs to the medical team or to the disaster control squads, must be familiar with the measuring instruments and experienced in handling these instruments. A high priority has to be placed on training and constant practice. The monitors used must meet the special requirements of an emergency situation. This includes resistance against environmental factors - temperature, humidity, vibrations - as well as the simplicity of handling the instrument, and the clear presentation of the results. (author)

  6. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with 137 Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  7. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the 137 Cs, 131 I and 90 Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  8. Liabilities of the competent person for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizet, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article R. 4456-1 of the Labour code requires employer to appoint a competent person for radiation protection (C.P.R.). Although the prerogatives of the CPR are exercised under the responsibility of the employer, the traditional rules of questioning the liability apply to the employer as well as to the C.P.R.. For the civil liability, the object of which is to guarantee the compensation of damage by its author, but also for the criminal liability, which aims at punishing an illegal behaviour, the C.P.R. does not escape these traditional rules which, however, apply in a particular way considering the daily missions of the C.P.R.. If the responsibility of the employer is more questioned, notably because of the authority he/she exercises on his/her employee, the C.P.R. must not be considered as irresponsible regarding civil and penal requirements; the C.P.R. may indeed be questioned by an employee victim of damage. The activity of the C.P.R. (and thus the cases allowing the questioning of its liability) rests widely on the means which it has and the context in which it discharges its missions. Moreover the judge does take into account the resources which an agent has to judge his responsibility. Thus, the relations of the C.P.R. with other actors of the radiation protection, internal or external in the establishment, are determining. (author)

  9. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  10. Privacy Protection in Personal Health Information and Shared Care Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick L B Neame

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The protection of personal information privacy has become one of the most pressing security concerns for record keepers. Many institutions have yet to implement the essential infrastructure for data privacy protection and patient control when accessing and sharing data; even more have failed to instil a privacy and security awareness mindset and culture amongst their staff. Increased regulation, together with better compliance monitoring has led to the imposition of increasingly significant monetary penalties for failures to protect privacy. Objective  There is growing pressure in clinical environments to deliver shared patient care and to support this with integrated information.  This demands that more information passes between institutions and care providers without breaching patient privacy or autonomy.  This can be achieved with relatively minor enhancements of existing infrastructures and does not require extensive investment in inter-operating electronic records: indeed such investments to date have been shown not to materially improve data sharing.Requirements for Privacy  There is an ethical duty as well as a legal obligation on the part of care providers (and record keepers to keep patient information confidential and to share it only with the authorisation of the patient.  To achieve this information storage and retrieval, and communication systems must be appropriately configured. Patients may consult clinicians anywhere and at any time: therefore their data must be available for recipient-driven retrieval under patient control and kept private. 

  11. The European Person Equivalent: Measuring the personal environmental space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The European person equivalent (PE) is a quantification of the environmental impact caused annually by the activities of an average European. It comprises contributions to all the major environmental impacts from global to local as well as our consumption of resources. Similarly, the targeted...... European person equivalent is a quantification of the average person’s environmental impact in a near future according to the current politically set environmental targets. In addition to expressing the current societal priorities in pollution reduction, the targeted PE expresses the environmental space...... available to all of us according to the current environmental policy. Both concepts were developed in the mid-nineties for use in life cycle impact assessment to help comparisons across different environmental impact categories. Since then they have shown their value as a pedagogic tool in the presentation...

  12. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Reitan, J.B.; Harbitz, O.; Brynhildsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  13. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiation protection measures for hot cell sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.; Burck, W.; Dilger, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cell 5 of the Hot Cell Facility of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK) was to be restored and reequipped after 12 years of operation. The decontamination work was first done remotely controlled and afterwards by 38 persons entering the cell, which took about 2 months. The radiation protection methods and personal dosimetry systems are described. At the beginning of the work the γ-dose rate amounted up to 900 mSv/h. After completion of the remotely controlled decontamination work the γ-dose rate decreased to 1.5 mSv/h. At that time the (α+β-contamination was 10 5 Bq/cm 2 . Till the end of the work the removable activity dropped to 10 2 - 10 3 Bq/cm 2 for β-radiation, to 0.3 - 30 Bq/cm 2 for α-radiation and the local dose rate to about 0.03 mSv/h. During the work the accumulated collective doses were listed for breast, hand, head, gonads and foot. In the figure the development with the time of the doses for breast and hand is shown. During restoration work of the cell the accumulated collective whole-body dose amounted to 30 mSv. (orig.) [de

  15. Collection, Use, Disclosure and Protection of Personal Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    whoskin

    addresses, personal and/or work email addresses, personal and/or work or cell telephone numbers); and. • language testing and language assessment results. How Do We Use Your Personal Information? We use the personal information you provide exclusively for the purposes of processing, screening, assessing ...

  16. Protective measures while treating CWA casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medema, J.

    2009-01-01

    When Chemical Warfare agent casualties are brought into a medical facility they are usually decontaminated before receiving treatment. The decontamination can range from simply undressing to complex entry/exit procedures for a collective protection medical shelter. It is expected that the decontamination has reduced the contamination to such a degree that there is no more hazard for the medical personnel from emanating CWA vapors. However there is quite some evidence that this is usually not the case and additional protective measures are required in order to have the medical staff operating unhindered and not endangered by albeit low but still hazardous CWA vapor concentrations that at the end of the day would have adverse effects on the capabilities of the medical staff. In the paper some simple but effective means will be described that will reduce the exposure of the medical staff to.(author)

  17. Eighth meeting of the radiation protection-skilled persons - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhel, Thierry; Lahaye, Thierry; Rousse, Carole; Perrin, Marie-Line; Billarand, Yann; Scanff, Pascale; Celier, David; El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Jacob, Sophie; Vecchiola, Sophie; Bulla, Giuseppina; Guillalmon, Christophe; Mechin, Guillaume; Guersen, Joel; Blaise, Philipp; Ammerich, Marc; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Sevestre, Bernard; Massiot, Philippe; Michel, Xavier; Raffoux, Yann; Kernisant, Billy; Lefaure, Christian; Balduyck, Sebastien; Wassilieff, Serge; Ouabdelkader, Said; Lecu, Alexis; Roy, Catherine; Pigree, Gilbert; Barbey, Pierre; Bergeron, Christophe; Schieber, Caroline

    2012-12-01

    This eighth meeting of the radiation protection skilled persons celebrated the 15. anniversary of this type of meetings. It is the occasion for radiation protection specialists to share information and their experience on various topics, in particular the recent evolutions of the regulation. This document gathers the available presentations given during this conference: 1 - Opening talk (T. Juhel); 2 - Regulatory evolutions in the domain of protection of workers exposed to ionising radiations (T. Lahaye); 3 - Evolution of the regulatory documents on the basis of the French public health law (C. Rousse); 4 - Relations between IRSN and Companies - regulatory obligations from the perspective of the radiation protection-skilled person (Y. Billarand); 5 - IRSN's follow up of workers' exposure (P. Scanff); 6 - Contribution of a 18 F preparation and injection system to the radiation protection of workers (D. Celier); 7 - Workplace analysis in interventional radiology (G. Bulla, C. Guillalmon); 8 - Interest of Workplace analyses in risk information (G. Mechin); 9 - Running of a joint operators/contractors club of radiation protection skilled persons at the scale of a CEA centre (P. Blaise); 10 - Radiological exposure of the maintenance personnel of aerial monitoring radars (X. Michel); 11 - The IRSN barometer (M.H. El Jammal); 12 - An original network of professional radiation protection: the GoogleGroup for dental radiation protection-skilled persons (Y. Raffoux); 13 - Cirkus radiation protection association - a portal for a practical and operational radiation protection (B. Kernisant); 14 - Situation of networks - what do we do in a network? What is the role of the national coordination? (S. Balduyck, C. Lefaure); 15 - Update on the situation at Fukushima (M. Ammerich); 15 - Radio-induced cataracts: why lowering the eye lens legal limit? (S. Wassilieff); 16 - O'CLOC study - Radio-induced cataracts among interventional Cardiologists (S. Jacob); 17 - Photon dosimetry of

  18. Fourth meeting of persons competent in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.; Vidal, J.P.; Ammerich, M.; Feron, F.; Pasquier, J.L.; Lecomte, J.F.; Mansoux, H.; Menechal, Ph.; Briand-Champlong, J.; Gambini, D.J.; Bontemps, A.; Frobert, F.; Grandclaude, A.; Fraboulet, P.; Laporte, Ch.; Roussille, F.; Lahaye, Th.

    2005-01-01

    The different contributions are as follow: the landscape of radiation sources in France; decrees: general presentation; relation of the person competent in radiation protection (P.C.R.) with officials organisms: the part of the D.G.S.N.R.; relation of the P.C.R. with the official organisms: the part of I.R.S.N.; authorizations: industry, education, research; interlocutors of the P.C.R. in hospitals; enforcement of the decree relative to the training of the P.C.R. at the I.N.S.T.N.; the educational contribution of the P.C.R.; European equivalence of the P.C.R. synthesis of training, comparison to the French situation; P.C.R.: contribution, missions and means in the industrial medium; management of damaged situations by the P.C.R.: contribution of the training and the putting in position; coordination with the exterior companies and prevention plans out of I.N.B.; regulatory evolution. (N.C.)

  19. Antisocial personalities: Measuring prevalence among offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of offenders who meet the criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder or dissocial personality disorder could be of significant value to help address the violent crime crisis in South Africa. A sample of 500 male maximum security offenders was selected to determine the prevalence of these ...

  20. Measuring personality : a comparison of three personality questionnaires in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Luteijn, F.

    Three studies were conducted in order to examine (1) what can be measured with three commonly used Dutch self-report personality questionnaires, and (2) which instrument is most suitable for measuring personality in The Netherlands. In Study 1, the relationships between the Five Factor Personality

  1. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  2. Guidance on the use of protective lead aprons in medical radiology protection efficiency and correction factors for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Workers in clinical radiology wear lead aprons when standing in the vicinity of a patient being exposed to x-rays. A lead apron protects the person's trunk against radiation scattered rom the patient. Our research is focused on two main issues: 1. How much protection does a lead apron provide, and what are the main factors that determine the protection efficiency 2. How can measured badge dose be translated into a realistic estimate of the effective dose, and how does this depend on dosemeter placement Using a model for x-ray shielding and dosimetry we calculated equivalent organ doses and personal depth dose HP(10) for various exposure conditions, x-ray energies and types of aprons that occur in clinical practice. We concluded that apron model and fit are often more important than lead thickness. In others, increasing lead thickness of a badly chosen apron will not provide better protection. For many fluoroscopy applications an apron of good model and fit need not be thicker than 0.5 mm of lead (equivalent). In case of intensive and frequent interventional work lead we advise higher lead thickness (0.35 mm), and preferably additional neck shielding for protection of the oesophagus and thyroid. A well chosen lead apron reduces effective dose by 75%up to 90%. We also concluded that the dosemeter badge should always be worn outside the apron, at mid front of collar or chest. In our view this dosemeter position enables reliable evaluation of effective dose from badge readings. As a standard practice we recommend translating measured badge dose to effective dose by dividing by a factor of five, provide that the worker wears a suitable lead apron. Finally, some research was done on the subject of the protective effect of lead aprons for the uterus, and the relation of uterus dose and badge dose. Use of a lead apron is found to reduce uterus dose by a factor of 5 to 10. Our study shows that in case of worker pregnancy, exposure of the unborn child may de adequately

  3. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Schneider, W.; Hoefert, M.; Kuehn, H.; Jahr, R.; Wagner, S.; Piesch, E.

    1979-09-01

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Evaluation of protective measures for tropical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D. N. G.; Rochedo, E. R. R.; Wasserman, M. A. V.; Conti, L. F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear and radiological accidents have demonstrated the need for prior planning for exposure assessment as well as guidelines for the implementation of protection and remediation measures of contaminated areas. Typically, the description of the efficiency of the measures in the literature is associated with the reduction of the concentration of the environmental media where they are applied. In order to verify the efficiency related to the reduction in doses, some basic scenarios were established, taking into account aspects of a typical tropical climate, such as building materials (urban areas) and types of crops and farming practices, considering the seasonality and soil type typical of the southeastern region of Brazil. The Integrated System for Emergency (SIEM) program was used to perform the simulations. The results indicate that decision-making processes must be made in accordance with the actual conditions of contamination and use of the affected area. For rural areas, the effectiveness of measures depends on many factors specific to each site, such as seasonality, produced crops, diet habits and degree of subsistence on the items in the diet, which make it unfeasible to develop generic predefined scenarios. The criteria for classification of measurements were defined as: (i) the efficiency in reducing the doses in the first year, in which largest dose rates are observed; (ii) the efficiency in reducing the long-term dose, considering 50 y for adults and (iii) the effect of delay in implementation of the measures on the reduction of doses. (authors)

  5. A fractionation of the physiological burden of the personal protective equipment worn by firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Lewis, Michael C; Notley, Sean R; Peoples, Gregory E

    2012-08-01

    Load carriage increases physiological strain, reduces work capacity and elevates the risk of work-related injury. In this project, the separate and combined physiological consequences of wearing the personal protective equipment used by firefighters were evaluated. The overall impact upon performance was first measured in 20 subjects during a maximal, job-related obstacle course trial and an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion (with and without protective equipment). The fractional contributions of the thermal protective clothing, helmet, breathing apparatus and boots were then separately determined during steady-state walking (4.8 km h(-1), 0% gradient) and bench stepping (20 cm at 40 steps min(-1)). The protective equipment reduced exercise tolerance by 56% on a treadmill, with the ambulatory oxygen consumption reserve (peak minus steady-state walking) being 31% lower. For the obstacle course, performance declined by 27%. Under steady-state conditions, the footwear exerted the greatest relative metabolic impact during walking and bench stepping, being 8.7 and 6.4 times greater per unit mass than the breathing apparatus. Indeed, the relative influence of the clothing on oxygen cost was at least three times that of the breathing apparatus. Therefore, the most efficient way to reduce the physiological burden of firefighters' protective equipment, and thereby increase safety, would be to reduce the mass of the boots and thermal protective clothing.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessing Doses to Interventional Radiologists Using a Personal Dosimeter Worn Over a Protective Apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.; Widmark, A.; Sekse, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Interventional radiologists receive significant radiation doses, and it is important to have simple methods for routine monitoring of their exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a dosimeter worn outside the protective apron for assessments of dose to interventional radiologists. Material and Methods: Assessments of effective dose versus dose to dosimeters worn outside the protective apron were achieved by phantom measurements. Doses outside and under the apron were assessed by phantom measurements and measurements on eight radiologists wearing two routine dosimeters for a 2-month period during ordinary working conditions. Finger doses for the same radiologists were recorded using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD; DXT-RAD Extremity dosimeters). Results: Typical values for the ratio between effective dose and dosimeter dose were found to be about 0.02 when the radiologist used a thyroid shield and about 0.03 without. The ratio between the dose to the dosimeter under and outside a protective apron was found to be less than 0.04. There was very good correlation between finger dose and dosimeter dose. Conclusion: A personal dosimeter worn outside a protective apron is a good screening device for dose to the eyes and fingers as well as for effective dose, even though the effective dose is grossly overestimated. Relatively high dose to the fingers and eyes remains undetected by a dosimeter worn under the apron

  8. Assessing Doses to Interventional Radiologists Using a Personal Dosimeter Worn Over a Protective Apron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranden, E.; Widmark, A.; Sekse, T. (Buskerud Univ. College, Drammen (Norway))

    2008-05-15

    Background: Interventional radiologists receive significant radiation doses, and it is important to have simple methods for routine monitoring of their exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a dosimeter worn outside the protective apron for assessments of dose to interventional radiologists. Material and Methods: Assessments of effective dose versus dose to dosimeters worn outside the protective apron were achieved by phantom measurements. Doses outside and under the apron were assessed by phantom measurements and measurements on eight radiologists wearing two routine dosimeters for a 2-month period during ordinary working conditions. Finger doses for the same radiologists were recorded using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD; DXT-RAD Extremity dosimeters). Results: Typical values for the ratio between effective dose and dosimeter dose were found to be about 0.02 when the radiologist used a thyroid shield and about 0.03 without. The ratio between the dose to the dosimeter under and outside a protective apron was found to be less than 0.04. There was very good correlation between finger dose and dosimeter dose. Conclusion: A personal dosimeter worn outside a protective apron is a good screening device for dose to the eyes and fingers as well as for effective dose, even though the effective dose is grossly overestimated. Relatively high dose to the fingers and eyes remains undetected by a dosimeter worn under the apron

  9. Personality Measurement and Employment Decisions. Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes data concerning personality measurements as predictors of job performance, and offers responses to frequently raised questions about these measurements in the employment process. It is suggested that measures of personality are valid predictors of performance in all occupations, that they do not adversely impact minority group job…

  10. Sources and protective measures of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Quanlu; Wang Hengde

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the relative contribution to indoor radon 222 Rn of various sources in twenty three rooms of three kinds in Taiyuan area. The results show that the major sources in this area are radon emanation from surfaces of soil and building materials and that from outdoor air, while the contribution of water and gas consumed in the rooms is less important. These results suggest a basis for taking suitable protective measures against indoor radon. Some materials are also recommended which are effective in restraining radon exhalation and low in price, by testing more than ten kinds of materials and comparing them using cost-effectiveness analysis technique, such as painting materials, polyvinyl alcohol (CH 2 :CHOH)n, etc. Their sealing effects on radon exhalation were examined with home-made REM-89 Radon Exhalation Monitor. The deposition effects of negative ion generator and humidifier on radon progeny were also tested. The maximum deposition may reach 70-90%, which proves they are also effective and economical in radon protection. (2 tabs., 3 figs.)

  11. Comparison of Respirable Mass Concentrations Measured by a Personal Dust Monitor and a Personal DataRAM to Gravimetric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halterman, Andrew; Sousan, Sinan; Peters, Thomas M

    2017-12-15

    In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 mg m-3. For all aerosols except coal dust, strong, near-one-to-one, linear relationships were observed between mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and gravimetrically (diesel fume, slope = 0.99, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.98, R2 = 0.99; and NaCl, slope = 0.95, R2 = 0.99). The slope deviated substantially from unity for coal dust (slope = 0.55; R2 = 0.99). Linear relationships were also observed between mass concentrations measured with the pDR-1500 and gravimetrically, but one-to-one behavior was not exhibited (diesel fume, slope = 0.23, R2 = 0.76; coal dust, slope = 0.54, R2 = 0.99; ARD, slope = 0.61, R2 = 0.99; NaCl, slope = 1.14, R2 = 0.98). Unlike the pDR-1500, mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 appear independent of refractive index and density, suggesting that it could have applications in a variety of occupational settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Measuring and manipulating audiences : A personal reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, Dick C A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the emotional reactions of audiences to a wide range of content types is an important area of research. In this article, I provide a personal reflection on various approaches to modeling, quantifying and understanding audience behavior based on a broad range of evaluation techniques.

  13. Second meeting of competent persons in radiation protection; Deuxiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats the subjects interesting the competent persons in radiation protection. It is divided in four sessions. The first one concerns the regulatory bases for the action of competent persons and includes three articles, the second one is about the operational dosimetry and includes six articles, the third session is devoted to the sources and waste management and represents two texts, the last and fourth session concerns the competent person in radiation protection and gives evidence. (N.C.)

  14. The role of personal protective factors in anchoring psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article I report on a study that focused on the concept of resilience, in order to determine the nature of personal attributes in adolescents with learning difficulties, who were able to rebound from life's onslaughts, and to continue determinedly along the path of self-actualisation. The personal attributes impacting on the ...

  15. FOREIGN AFFAIRS: Internally Displaced Persons Lack Effective Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Internally displaced persons--those forced to flee their homes because of armed conflict and persecution but who remain within their own country are among the most at-risk, vulnerable populations in the world...

  16. Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Heliny Carneiro Cunha; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva e; Medeiros, Marcelo; Munari, Denize Bouttelet; Ribeiro, Luana Cássia Miranda; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in a teaching hospital with 15 nursing professionals. Attempted to analyze the reasons, attitudes and beliefs of nursing staff regarding adherence to personal protective equipment. Data were collected through focus groups, analyzed by the method of interpretation of meanings, considering Rosenstock's model of health beliefs as a reference framework. Data revealed two themes: Occupational safety and Interpersonal Relationship. We identified several barriers that interfere in matters of safety and personal protective equipment, such as communication, work overload, physical structure, accessibility of protective equipment and organizational and management aspects. Adherence to personal protective equipment is determined by the context experienced in the workplace, as well as by individual values and beliefs, but the decision to use the personal protective equipment is individual.

  17. Evaluation of the use of personal protective equipment in radiodiagnostic services in Sergipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Lucas R. dos; Oliveira, Celso A.; Silva, Fabio A.R.; Souza, Divanizia N.

    2008-01-01

    The theme ionizing radiation is frequently associated with danger. Therefore this subject induces to think about accessories to personal protection. These accessories can contain metal heavy (as example, lead) so that we have an efficient protection. Our analysis was done with the main objective of evidence that is not enough the radiodiagnostic services have personal protective equipment to disposal to the radiology technicians have an efficient protection, because the procedures with ionizing radiation will be safe only with the use accomplish of the security procedures and of adequate use and storing of personal protective equipment. In our analysis the accessories in question were the lead rubber X-ray protection aprons and thyroid gland protectors. We have tested these accessories through of a similar methodology utilized to checking the half-value layer of the X-ray units. It was investigated also the importance given to use of these accessories by the radiology technicians. (author)

  18. Determinants of the Intention to Protect Personal Information among Facebook Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Soo Chon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine predictors of the intention to protect personal information on Facebook. We conducted an online survey of 679 Facebook users in the Republic of Korea. The findings of this study showed that usefulness and ease of use had significant effects on attitudes toward protection behavior. The results also revealed that risk factors (privacy risk severity and vulnerability had significant effects on protective behaviors. Based on our findings, we discussed the information protection of privacy on Facebook.

  19. Measurement with Persons: A European Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendrill, L.R.; Emardson, R.; Berglund, B.; Gröning, M.; Höglund, A.; Cancedda, A.; Quinti, G.; Crenna, F.; Rossi, G.B.; Drnovek, J.; Gersak, G.; Goodman, T.; Harris, S.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kallinen, K.; Ravaja, N.

    2010-01-01

    The European ‘Measuring the Impossible’ Network MINET promotes new research activities in measurement dependent on human perception and/or interpretation. This includes the perceived attributes of products and services, such as quality or desirability, and societal parameters such as security and

  20. Intra- and Inter-personal Consequences of Protective Buffering among Cancer Patients and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Brown, Jonathon D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Protective buffering refers to hiding cancer-related thoughts and concerns from one’s spouse or partner. This study sought to examine the intra- and inter-personal consequences of protective buffering and motivations for such (desire to shield partner from distress, desire to shield self from distress). METHODS Eighty hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their spousal caregivers/ partners completed measures designed to assess protective buffering and relationship satisfaction at two time points: prior to the transplant (T1) and 50 days post-transplant (T2). Overall mental health was also assessed at T2. RESULTS There was moderate agreement between one dyad member’s reported buffering of his/ her partner, and the partner’s perception of the extent to which s/he felt buffered. Caregivers buffered patients more than patients buffered caregivers, especially at T2. The more participants buffered their partners at T2, and the more they felt buffered, the lower their concurrent relationship satisfaction and the poorer their mental health. The latter effect was particularly true for patients who buffered, and patients who felt buffered. With respect to motivations, patients who buffered primarily to protect their partner at T1 reported increases in relationship satisfaction over time, but when they did so at T2, their caregiver reported concurrent decreases in relationship satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Protective buffering is costly, in that those who buffer and those who feel buffered report adverse psychosocial outcomes. In addition, buffering enacted by patients with an intention to help may prove counterproductive, ultimately hurting the object of such protection. PMID:19731352

  1. 40 CFR 170.240 - Personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, socks, and other items of work clothing are not considered... movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use. (2) When “waterproof” personal..., one of the following types of footwear must be worn: (i) Chemical-resistant shoes. (ii) Chemical...

  2. 3. encounter of competent persons in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.

    2002-12-01

    Daily, several thousand of competent persons control the use of ionizing radiations and radioactive sources, in areas as different than research, industry and medicine. The access to the new data, regulations, technical or practical principles and the sharing of experiences constitute in this field necessary aspects to keep the quality of their interventions. (N.C.)

  3. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Ellekilde Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. METHODS: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08;0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, likeability 95.6% versus 77.8%. CONCLUSION: We cannot support the expectation...

  4. Evaluation of Personal Chemical Vapor Protection for Patrol and Tactical Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedele, Paul D; Lake, William L; Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Mitchell, David B

    2002-01-01

    In Domestic Preparedness efforts, the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command and the Maryland State Police, have evaluated personal chemical protective systems for use in patrol and tactical...

  5. On the Protection of Personal Data in the Access Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Durakovskiy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to prove the qualification system of access control systems (ACS as an information system for personal data (ISPDn. Applications: systems of physical protection of facilities.

  6. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  7. Experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for personal protection equipment - effect of used 3D printing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Václav; Votrubec, Radek; Šafka, Jiří; Kracík, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the research is experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for a personal protection equipment. The aim of the fan is to drive the contaminated air containing harmful or irritating particles through the filters and then into the mask of workers, such as a fireman, a labourer or a lab worker. The fan is measured on the test stand, the characteristics and performances are evaluated, i.e. the dependencies of the working pressure on the flow rate. The characteristics are measured for three constant speed settings. The characteristics of the wheels produced by the different 3D printing technology are compared. It is found that the production technology has only a minimal effect, the performance of the wheels is more influenced by the position of the impeller on the motor shaft and hence by the mutual position of the impeller and the diffuser.

  8. Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons; Septiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhel, Th.; Briandchamplong, J.; Gambini, D.J.; Ammerich, M.; Aubert, B.; Barbey, P.; Biau, A.; Bruchet, H.; Capelle, M.H.; Flon, E.; Gauron, Ch.; Gravelotte, D.; Guerin, Ch.; Le Denmat, D.; Lemoine, Th.; Lombard, J.; Lucas, St.; Menechal, Ph.; Mignien, S.; Million, M.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Prevot, S.; Radecki, J.J.; Rigaud, S.; Taillandier, P.; Timbert, M.; Vidal, J.P.; Bardelay, Ch.; Lahaye, Th.; Balduyck, S.; Chasson, E.; Rehel, J.L.; Chatellier, Ch.; Barret, Ch.; Guersen, J.; Degrange, J.P.; Sevestre, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Marchal, C.; Lefaure, Ch.; Bouk' il, H.; Gneiting, M.; Auboiroux, B.; Riedel, A.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Bof, M.; Lochard, J.; Godet, J.L.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external

  9. Measuring the Core Components of Maladaptive Personality: Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel); C.C. Berghout (Casper); C. Dolan (Conor); P.J.A. van der Kroft (Petra); A.W. Bateman (Anthony); P. Fonagy (Peter); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes a series of studies among 2231 subjects on the development of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP), a self-report questionnaire measuring the core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning. Results show that the 16 facets have good

  10. Relationships among measures of managerial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J B

    1976-08-01

    Comparisons were made to determine the degree of convergence among three measures associated with leadership success in large, hierarchic organizations in the business sector: the Miner Sentence Completion Scale; the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory; and the F-Scale, Correlational analyses and comparisons between means were made using college students and business manager samples. The results indicated considerable convergence for the first two measures, but not for the F-Scale. The F-Scale was related to the Miner Sentence Completion Scale in the student group, but relationships were nonexistent among the managers. Analyses of the individual F-Scale items which produced the relationship among the students suggested that early family-related experiences and attitudes may contribute to the development of motivation to manage, but lose their relevance for it later, under the onslaught of actual managerial experience.

  11. INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL VARIABLES AFFECTING THE USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUNÇ DEMİRBİLEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management’s safety approach and commitment are related to occupational health and safety applications in workplaces. However, personal characteristics and attitudes on their health of employees are very influential factors on occupational health and safety applications. For examine of interaction between behaviors and the health and safety applications it is required that determine of employee’s perceptions. For this reason this paper’s purpose is to establish of safety needs, attitudes and behaviors of employees and their perceptions regarding management’s safety approach and applications. The study’s focal point is use of personal protective equipment as an indicator “safety behavior”. In empirical study, assumption variables regarding the use of personal protective equipment are safety effectively, safety need, management attitudes and protective equipment conditions. The fundamental hypothesis of this paper is use of personal protective equipment is related to individual and organizational variables. Implications of research findings are to indicate impelling the workers to safety behaviour or using the personal protective equipment by their feeling of the safety behaviour and availability of personal protective equipment.

  12. Measuring relais as an alternative to digital protective systems; Messende Relais als Alternative zu digitalen Schutzsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Rainer [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Energieversorgung GbR, Meiningen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    In order to keep the occasionally severe consequences of electrical faults in switchgear, cables and transformers as low as possible, to reduce the risk to persons and to continue the operation of the not disturbed grid, measuring relays provide for fast and selective fault detection and fault shutdown. In general, it is thought at digital protection systems which are designed for example as a differential protection, distance protection and overcurrent protection. Some applications, however, get along with a lower level of equipment technology, and can be realized more cost-effectively.

  13. Measurement techniques and safety culture in radiation protection -reflections after 37 years of occupation with measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1994-01-01

    Safety Culture in radiation use and radiation protection implies primarily knowledge and competence of the decision makers. As the measuring techniques are basic for practical radiation protection, only such person can be called competent who has sufficient expertise on measuring techniques, and is able to evaluate its application and results. Safety Culture also implies the readiness to expose errors, and to learn from them. ''Believing in infallibility'' excludes Safety Culture. Therefore, correctly applied measuring technique contributes to recognize weak points early. How far it is used consciously and actively to prevent undesirable developments and exceeding of limits, can be considered outright as a yardstick for a high-ranking safety culture. Safety Culture as a whole, however, needs more than more measuring techniques. It requires its own and adequate Measurement Culture, presupposing also motivation and determination to measure. Therefore, education, training, knowledge and consciousness of safety of the people who are responsible for measurements are decisive for successful radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  14. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  15. Biochar strategies as measures for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Martin; Wilske, Burkhard; Bai, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is advertised by stakeholders both public and private as an innovative interface in materials stream management which holds potential for added value in the fields of climate protection, energy, agriculture, soil improvement, and waste management. A number of factors must be considered in undertaking a comprehensive assessment and valuation for climate protection purposes of the option of a ''biochar strategy'', meaning carbon sequestration by biomass carbonisation (pyrolysis, HTC): biochar production and uptake capacities, energy and carbon balance, product stability, impact on soil functions and yield effects and, not least, economic aspects. This article addresses the more important of these factors.

  16. Personal Protective Equipment in the humanitarian governance of Ebola: between individual patient care and global biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between

  17. Using scoring methods to assess the performance of CBRN personal protective systems in different scenarios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwelingen, T.; Kistemaker, L.A.; Kant, S. de; Hartog, E.A. den

    2010-01-01

    The past decades show an increasing variety in the design and application of personal protective equipment, PPE. Even within the PPE aimed at CBRN protection the future user can choose from a bewildering amount of producers and models. To make his predicament even worse he also has to deal with a

  18. 29 CFR 1977.5 - Persons protected by section 11(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.5 Persons protected by section 11(c). (a) All employees are afforded the full protection of section 11(c). For purposes of the Act, an employee is defined... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  19. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m 2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A privacy protection model to support personal privacy in relational databases.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The individual of today incessantly insists on more protection of his/her personal privacy than a few years ago. During the last few years, rapid technological advances, especially in the field of information technology, directed most attention and energy to the privacy protection of the Internet user. Research was done and is still being done covering a vast area to protect the privacy of transactions performed on the Internet. However, it was established that almost no research has been don...

  1. A new way to measure the world's protected area coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lissa M; Pressey, Robert L; Fuller, Richard A; Segan, Daniel B; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are effective at stopping biodiversity loss, but their placement is constrained by the needs of people. Consequently protected areas are often biased toward areas that are unattractive for other human uses. Current reporting metrics that emphasise the total area protected do not account for this bias. To address this problem we propose that the distribution of protected areas be evaluated with an economic metric used to quantify inequality in income--the Gini coefficient. Using a modified version of this measure we discover that 73% of countries have inequitably protected their biodiversity and that common measures of protected area coverage do not adequately reveal this bias. Used in combination with total percentage protection, the Gini coefficient will improve the effectiveness of reporting on the growth of protected area coverage, paving the way for better representation of the world's biodiversity.

  2. A history of accelerator radiation protection - personal and professional memoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.W.; Thomas, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This book is a result of many influences not the least of which was the realisation of their own mortality by the Editors. Over the eighty or so joint years of experiences in accelerator laboratories they found many fine colleagues and friends. Most of their older contemporaries of the World War II Manhattan Project era have retired or will soon do so. Knowing that, collectively, these people have a tale to tell that is well worth telling, full of both scientific and human interest, and believing that it is particularly important to capture the memories of the more senior of these before they become irretrievable, they persuaded 30 or so friends and colleagues from many countries of the world to record their personal and professional memoirs for the education and entertainment of both scientists and scientific historians. (author)

  3. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tomooka, M.; Kato, S.; Murata, M.; Kinouchi, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  4. Assuring measurement quality in person-centred healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, L. R.

    2018-03-01

    Is it realistic to aspire to the same kind of quality-assurance of measurement in person-centred care, currently being implemented in healthcare globally, as is established in the physical sciences and engineering? Ensuring metrological comparability (‘traceability’) and reliably declaring measurement uncertainty when assessing patient ability or increased social capital are however challenging for subjective measurements often characterised by large dispersion. Drawing simple analogies between ‘instruments’ in the social sciences—questionnaires, ability tests, etc—and engineering instruments such as thermometers does not go far enough. A possible way forward, apparently equally applicable to both physical and social measurement, seems to be to model inferences in terms of performance metrics of a measurement system. Person-centred care needs person-centred measurement and a full picture of the measurement process when man acts as a measurement instrument is given in the present paper. This complements previous work by presenting the process, step by step, from the observed indication (e.g. probability of success, P success, of achieving a task), through restitution with Rasch measurement theory, to the measurand (e.g. task difficulty). Rasch invariant measure theory can yield quantities—‘latent’ (or ‘explanatory’) variables such as task challenge or person ability—with characteristics akin to those of physical quantities. Metrological references for comparability via traceability and reliable estimates of uncertainty and decision risks are then in reach even for perceptive measurements (and other qualitative properties). As a case study, the person-centred measurement of cognitive ability is examined, as part of the EU project EMPIR 15HLT04 NeuroMet, for Alzheimer’s, where better analysis of correlations with brain atrophy is enabled thanks to the Rasch metrological approach.

  5. Ultraviolet Exposure, Measurement and Protection in Townsville, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moise, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation summarises some of the main results from three different studies conducted in Townsville, Australia, investigating recent topics in personal exposure to solar UV radiation: exposure during early childhood, exposure during school hours, and the UV protection of various shade structures. (author)

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining the...

  7. Specificity of psychon structure forming the personality of transgressive and protective spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakowicz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of psychotransgressionism, personality is a network of five equipollent psychons, the content of which determines the personality’s functioning. The strength and power of the individual psychons underlies the tendency to undertake transgressive actions. In this study, we hypothesized that transgressive spouses are characterized by greater potential strength, greater power of cognitive, instrumental, motivational, emotional, and personal psychons than protective spouses. We operationalized all psychons, created the appropriate research tools, and then studied married couples. Using the Transgression Scale developed by Studenski, we found a group of spouses with higher levels of transgression (transgressive, and a group of spouses with lower levels of transgression (protective. Transgressive wives are characterized by better knowledge about their husbands’ operational sphere, and are more aware of personal beliefs than protective wives. Similarly, transgressive husbands have greater knowledge of their wives’ operational sphere, stronger cognitive needs, and weaker personal needs than protective husbands. Transgressive husbands are characterized by a positive affective shift and have a greater awareness of personal beliefs than protective husbands. The potential brought into interpersonal relationships by transgressive spouses may create a climate conducive to building a satisfying marital relationship.

  8. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  9. The use of personal values in living standards measures | Ungerer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Living Standards Measure (LSM), a South African marketing segmentation method, is a multivariate wealth measure based on standard of living. This article reports on whether a rationale can be found for the inclusion of psychological variables, particularly personal values, in this type of multivariate segmentation.

  10. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  11. Promotion of alternative-sized personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Keller, Brenna; DeLaney, Sheli C

    2017-12-01

    With more diversity in the workforce, companies are producing PPE such as hard hats, safety glasses, coveralls, foot protection, and safety harnesses for a larger range of body shapes and sizes. However, gray literature reports suggest that barriers exist to getting alternate sized PPE from the manufacturer to the workers who need it. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which alternative-sized PPE is marketed. A web-based review of seven major manufacturers of PPE was conducted to determine: (a) whether or not they offer alternative-sized products, (b) if these products are clearly labeled, and (c) if images used to display PPE are representative of a diverse workforce. Of the seven PPE manufacturers investigated, six had at least one product that was marketed as gender and/or size alternatives however, alternative sizes were more common for larger body types. Alternative-sized products rarely included size charts, and the models used to display PPE were overwhelmingly white males of average size. Despite the growing availability of alternative-sized PPE, it can be difficult to find these products, which suggests that they are rarely promoted or labeled as alternative-sized. Our study indicates that companies should expand their product lines and more aggressively market and promote these items. Guidance on how to properly fit their products would also be extremely helpful to the end-user. Manufacturers could improve the availability of alternative-sized PPE and increase their promotion of these products on their websites and in their catalogs. Individual companies and safety professionals may assist in this process by demonstrating demand for alternative-sized PPE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  13. Radiation protection measuring device SSM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Product information from the producer on a universal measuring instrument for alpha, beta and gamma radiation designed for stationary and field use by military, police and fire brigades. 4 figs. (qui)

  14. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years).

  15. Non-ionizing radiation measurements and protection. V. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, W.A.; Delpizzo, V.; Joyner, K.H.; Roy, C.R.; Wilkinson, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    The use of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) sources in the scientific, medical, industrial and domestic areas is becoming increasingly widespread. Concern has been expressed of the increased possibility of exposure of employees and of the public to NIR. Regulatory authorities have the role of ensuring that all organisations using NIR source keep the exposure of all persons below prescribed limits. The lecture notes draw together the basic information on NIR protection including essential quantities and units, biological interactions, protection standards, measurement techniques and personnel protection

  16. Fifth meeting of persons competent in radiation protection; Cinquiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    During this meeting will successively be approached: the statutory frame, the practical guide for the realization of the dosimetry studies of work stations presenting a risk of exposure to ionizing radiations, a study of post in conventional and interventional radiology, study of post in interventional cardiology, the roles and the missions of the P.C.R. (person competent in radiation protection) in a subcontractor company in I.N.B. (base nuclear installation), the application of the zoning order for the activities of industrial radiography, the evolution of the statutory measures in protection of the workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations, all which concerns the P.C.R. (training, missions, certification, educational role), the controls of radioprotection, the external controls of radioprotection, the surveillance of working zones, surveillance of effluents,management of the radioactive waste and effluents, classification of the personnel and the surveillance of the exposure, dosimetry by radio photo luminescence, the systeme S.I.S.E.R.I.. (N.C.)

  17. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest......This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... that regardless of the temperature combinations, personalized ventilation may decrease significantly the number of occupants dissatisfied with the air quality. Under non-isothermal conditions the percentage of dissatisfied may decrease up to 4 times....

  18. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  19. Preparing the United States for Zika Virus: Pre-emptive Vector Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2016-12-01

    Discovered in 1947 in a monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda, Zika virus was dismissed as a cause of a mild illness that was confined to Africa and Southeast Asia and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In 2007, Zika virus appeared outside of its endemic borders in an outbreak on the South Pacific Island of Yap. In 2013, Zika virus was associated with a major neurological complication, Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a larger outbreak in the French Polynesian Islands. From the South Pacific, Zika invaded Brazil in 2015 and caused another severe neurological complication, fetal microcephaly. The mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus can be propagated by sexual transmission and, possibly, by blood transfusions, close personal contacts, and organ transplants, like other flaviviruses. Since these combined mechanisms of infectious disease transmission could result in catastrophic incidences of severe neurological diseases in adults and children, the public should know what to expect from Zika virus, how to prevent infection, and what the most likely failures in preventive measures will be. With federal research funding stalled, a Zika vaccine is far away. The only national strategies to prepare the United States for Zika virus invasion now are effective vector control measures and personal protection from mosquito bites. In addition to a basic knowledge of Aedes mosquito vectors and their biting behaviors, an understanding of simple household vector control measures, and the selection of the best chemical and physical mosquito repellents will be required to repel the Zika threat. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G.; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30?C and 30% ...

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness Offered by Different Types of Personal Protective Clothing Against Nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domat, M.; Pla, J.; Cadavid-Rodríguez, M. C.; Fito, C.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid expansion of nanotechnology is outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. Thus, there is a lack of information about the effects that nanomaterials can induce in the human health. Nevertheless, workers in nanotechnology-related industries are potentially at risk of being exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is a need of characterize the behaviour of personal protective equipment against penetration nanoparticles, in order to provide an adequate protection to the workers. In this study, the efficiency of several protective dermal equipment against water-based NaCl aerosol was evaluated. For this purpose, different protective clothing and gloves were selected to carry out the assays, simulating typical use conditions of protective equipment under occupational settings. Results obtained exposed that the level of protection offered by the distinct types of personal protective coveralls depended not only on the fabric, but also on their fitting to the body of the subject. On the other hand, the efficiency of the protective gloves was set in the range from 95% to 99%, depending on the thickness and the type of material.

  2. Maintenance of influenza virus infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroko; Wada, Koji; Kajioka, Jitsuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Nakano, Ryuichi; Hirose, Tatsuko; Ohta, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    The maintenance of infectivity of influenza viruses on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing is an important factor in terms of controlling viral cross-infection in the environment and preventing contact infection. The aim of this study was to determine if laboratory-grown influenza A (H1N1) virus maintained infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings. Influenza A virus (0.5 mL) was deposited on the surface of a rubber glove, an N95 particulate respirator, a surgical mask made of non-woven fabric, a gown made of Dupont Tyvek, a coated wooden desk, and stainless steel. Each sample was left for 1, 8, and 24 h, and hemagglutination (HA) and 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL were measured. The HA titer of this influenza A virus did not decrease in any of the materials tested even after 24 h. The infectivity of influenza A virus measured by TCID(50) was maintained for 8 h on the surface of all materials, with the exception of the rubber glove for which virus infectivity was maintained for 24 h. Our results indicate that the replacement/renewal of personal protective equipment and clothing by healthcare professionals in cases of exposure to secretions and droplets containing viruses spread by patients is an appropriate procedure to prevent cross-infection.

  3. Basing of a complex design measures for protection against fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuger, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fire impact on NPP radiation safety is analyzed. The general industry requirements to the protection system against fire are shown to be insufficient for NPPs. A complex of protection measures against fire is suggested that should be taken into account in the NPP designs [ru

  4. BIOETHICAL SENSIBILITY OF THE LAW ON PROTECTION OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DIFFICULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velinka Grozdanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A more and more obvious gap between the human spiritual development, which mostly stagnates, and often even regresses, and the technological development of society, which intensively and unstoppably grows, has been the initiation of numerous bioethical discussions that cover a wide range of topics, i.e. from a concern for a man and his health to a concern for nature and preservation of life in general. No matter the fact that numerous ethical discussions, which highlighted the last decade, have resulted with commonly accepted principles, several ethical issues were left without clear and unambiguous solutions. Within this context, the legal regulations expected to protect persons from unacceptable and harmful actions, but at the same time not to present an obstacle to scientific and technological development of society, have gained a special meaning. This is a significant challenge due to the fact that through statutory provisions we need to reach a balance between the freedom of scientific research and protection of a man. Although ethical dilemmas follow almost every field of human actions, bioethical contents are especially associated with the unimaginable technological achievements in medicine. Thereby, persons with mental difficulties, as one of the most vulnerable groups of patients, demand a highlighted bioethical sensibility within the meaning of humanity, understanding and enhanced awareness when ethically questionable medical procedures are applied on them, and especially when these patients are included in, sometimes even hazardous, biomedical researches. A basic protective mechanism for this category of persons in the Republic of Croatia is the Law on Protection of Persons with Mental Difficulties. The Law establishes a clear legal framework to proceed with actions designated for persons with mental difficulties, and certain legal provisions embodied within the Law could be considered a quite concrete answer to numerous ethical

  5. Knowledge and Use of Personal Protective Measures Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in South-East Asia is still residing in India.[3] Recently, it .... were selected by systematic random sampling method and informed ... amount of active ingredient, air temperature, amount of physical ..... Convenience, effectiveness and cost of a.

  6. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated tuberculosis: the role of respiratory isolation and personal respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H

    2007-05-01

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis continues to decline in most developed countries, the risk of healthcare-associated tuberculosis, remains for patients or healthcare staff. Outbreaks of healthcare-associated tuberculosis are usually associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment, or the care of patients in sub-optimal facilities. The control and prevention of tuberculosis in hospitals is best achieved by three approaches, namely administrative (early investigation diagnosis, etc.), engineering (physical facilities e.g. ventilated isolation rooms) and personal respiratory protection (face sealing masks which are filtered). Recent guidelines on the prevention of tuberculosis in healthcare facilities from Europe and the USA have many common themes. In the UK, however, negative pressure isolation rooms are recommended only for patients with suspected multi-drug resistant TB and personal respiratory protection, i.e. filtered masks, are not considered necessary unless multi-drug resistant TB is suspected, or where aerosol-generating procedures are likely. In the US, the standard of care for patients with infectious tuberculosis is a negative pressure ventilated room and the use of personal respiratory protection for all healthcare workers entering the room of a patient with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis. The absence of clinical trials in this area precludes dogmatic recommendations. Nonetheless, observational studies and mathematical modelling suggest that all measures are required for effective prevention. Even when policies and facilities are optimal, there is a need to regularly review and audit these as sometimes compliance is less than optimal. The differences in recommendations may reflect the variations in epidemiology and the greater use of BCG vaccination in the UK compared with the United States. There is a strong argument for advising ventilated facilities and personal respiratory protection for the care of all patients with tuberculosis, as

  7. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  8. Self-informant Agreement for Personality and Evaluative Person Descriptors: Comparing Methods for Creating Informant Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Leonard J; Zelazny, Kerry; Yam, Wern How; Gros, Daniel F

    2010-05-01

    Little attention typically is paid to the way self-report measures are translated for use in self-informant agreement studies. We studied two possible methods for creating informant measures: (a) the traditional method in which self-report items were translated from the first- to the third-person and (b) an alternative meta-perceptual method in which informants were directed to rate their perception of the targets' self-perception. We hypothesized that the latter method would yield stronger self-informant agreement for evaluative personality dimensions measured by indirect item markers. We studied these methods in a sample of 303 undergraduate friendship dyads. Results revealed mean-level differences between methods, similar self-informant agreement across methods, stronger agreement for Big Five dimensions than for evaluative dimensions, and incremental validity for meta-perceptual informant rating methods. Limited power reduced the interpretability of several sparse acquaintanceship effects. We conclude that traditional informant methods are appropriate for most personality traits, but meta-perceptual methods may be more appropriate when personality questionnaire items reflect indirect indicators of the trait being measured, which is particularly likely for evaluative traits.

  9. New measuring and protection system at VR-1 training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Jurickova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution describes the new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 training reactor. The measuring and protection system upgrade is an integral part of the reactor I and C upgrade. The new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 reactor consists of the operational power measuring and the independent power protection systems. Both systems measure the reactor power and power rate, initiate safety action if safety limits are exceeded and send data (power, power rate, status, etc.) to the reactor control system. The operational power measuring system is a full power range system that receives signal from a fission chamber. The signal is evaluated according to the reactor power either in the pulse or current mode. The current mode utilizes the DC current and Campbell techniques. The new independent power protection system operates in the two highest reactor power decades. It receives signals from a boron chamber and evaluates it in the pulse mode. Both systems are computer based. The operational power measuring and independent power protection systems are diverse - different types and location of chambers, completely different hardware, software algorithms for the power and power rate calculations, software development tools and teems for the software manufacturing. (author)

  10. Use of remote video auditing to validate Ebola level II personal protective equipment competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allar, Peter J; Frank-Cooper, Madalyn

    2015-06-01

    Faced with an Ebola-related mandate to regularly train frontline hospital staff with the donning and doffing of personal protective equipment, a community hospital's emergency department implemented remote video auditing (RVA) to assist in the training and remediation of its nursing staff. RVA was found to be useful in assessing performance and facilitating remediation. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Anti-Spam Legislation in Consideration of Personal Data Protection and Other Legal Instruments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matejka, Ján

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2016), s. 90-114 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : spam * personal data protection * e- marketing Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  12. The protection of personal and medical data - a call for confidentiality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    international and local statutory instruments that protect such personal ... management of a patient, for example between the treating physician and the ... The electronic data dilemma ... a network security specialist at AT+T Bell Laboratories in the. USA. ... profession or outside of my profession or in daily commerce with men ...

  13. 78 FR 12065 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for Pesticide Handlers: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of...

  14. Risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories in older persons : Are these the same?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I.; Ranchor, A.V.; van Sonderen, E.; van Jaarsveld, C.H.; Sanderman, R.

    We examined whether risk and protective factors of different functional trajectories were the same in 1,765 Dutch older persons. We assessed disability in 1993 and reassessed it in 2001. For 2001 as compared with 1993, we distinguished three trajectory groups: substantially poorer, somewhat poorer,

  15. The availability of appropriately fitting personal protective aprons and jackets for angiographic and interventional radiology personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremen, S.A.; McNulty, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the availability of personal protective equipment, lead or lead-free aprons or jackets, in angiographic and interventional radiology suites in the Republic of Ireland with a focus on the sizes available, appropriateness of fit and purchasing practices. Methods: All centres providing an angiographic or interventional radiology service in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate with data being collected by means of a postal questionnaire exploring the above issues. Results: The mean number of aprons or jackets available across the centres who responded to the survey was 18.4 with the majority of these, 72%, being medium or large in size. Clinical specialists in three centres identified that there were insufficient aprons or jackets sized extra small or extra large within their departments and only one centre had a purchasing policy in place where individual staff were assigned a personal apron or jacket. Conclusion: Ill-fitting aprons or jackets will reduce the shielding provided to certain body regions by personal protective equipment. The use of over-sized aprons or jackets by staff is of particular concern based on the potential for inadvertent exposure to tissues where cancers may potentially be induced due to poor armhole fit. It is important to carefully consider purchasing practices and range of personal protective equipment sizes available in order to ensure that all staff receive the greatest possible protection from occupational radiation exposure

  16. Electronic Contracts and the Personal data Protection of the Consumer: Sources Dialogue Between the Consumer Protection Code and the Internet Civil Mark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Leal Da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the personal data protection of the consumer and your vulnerability in interactive electronic contracts, aiming to point means of defense. For this, uses the deductive approach and starts of the electronic contracting to discuss the legal protection of the consumer in light of the capturing and processing of personal data by the furnisher. Considering the absence of law about personal data, concludes that electronic contracting expands the consumer vulnerability, which requires the principles application of the Consumer Protection Code, adding the Internet Civil Mark in relation to the privacy protection.

  17. Study to the current protection of personal data in the educational sector in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaini, E.; Kusumasari, T. F.; Lubis, M.; Lubis, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This study examines how legal expert interpret UU ITE to protect personal data based on privacy principle by using content analysis. This act has importance in order to govern the process of collection, use, transfer, disclose and store personal data for profit or other commercial purposes. By recognizing both the right of individual for privacy and the need of organization to utilize the customer data, the Act, which was amended by Parliament at October, 27th 2016 have critical role for protection guideline in Indonesia. Increasingly, with the use of advanced technology, data protection became one of the main issues on various sectors, especially in the educational sector. Educational institutions require large amount of personal data to run their business process to support learning, teaching, research and administration process. It involves wide range of personal data from institution, agencies, colleges, lecturers, students and parents, which might consist of several sensitive and confidential data such as historical, health, financial, academic and experience background. Underestimating and ignoring these issues can lead to disaster such as blackmailing, stalking, bullying or improper use of personal data. In aggregation, they might deliver huge loss to institution either financially or trust. Thus, this study analyse the privacy principle of UU ITE through 21 coders from legal expert to obtain more understanding of appropriate approach to implement privacy policy in the educational sector.

  18. Empirical study on the feasibility of measures for public self-protection capability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goersch, Henning G.; Werner, Ute

    2011-01-01

    The empirical study on the feasibility of measures for public self-protection capability enhancement covers the following issues with several sections: (1) Introduction: scope of the study; structure of the study. (2) Issue coherence: self-protection; reduction and prevention of damage by personal emergency preparedness, personal emergency preparedness in Germany. (3) Solution coherence: scientific approaches, development of practical problem solution approaches, proposal of a promotion system. (4) Empirical studies: Promotion system evaluation by experts; questioning of the public; Delphi-study on minimum standards in emergency preparedness; local networks in emergency preparedness. (5) Evaluation of models for personal emergency preparedness (M3P). (6) Integration of all research results into the approach of emergency preparedness: scope; recommendations, conclusions.

  19. Personal monitoring services available at Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Bonarelli, T.

    1999-01-01

    Personnel monitoring provides the means to measure and record the radiation doses received by individual workers. The ionising radiation decree (230/95) set out the circumstances when the assessment and recording of person's exposure is legally required. Many employers issue dosemeters to staff even though there is no legal requirement to do so. This may be part of a quality assurance programme or as a reassurance measure. Dosemeter readings will serve to ensure compliance with legal dose limits and assure the employer that radiation exposure is as low as reasonably achievable. The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) IRP (Institute for Radiation Protection) individual monitoring service has been running for over 30 years. It offers personnel dosemeters which are based on its expertise and backed up by continual research and development. The report provides details of the dosemeters in use at IRP enable to decide which ones most suit the needs and shows IMS's organisation, customer and communications, dose reports form and administrative items. A short mention of future development will also be given [it

  20. La tutela constitucional de las personas con discapacidad // The constitutional protection of persons with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Álvarez García

    2017-12-01

    The work begins with an historical journey through the different models implemented by public authorities to address the phenomenon of disability. This journey culminates with the mixed paradigm —medical and social— embodied in the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The article interprets the «social protections norms» of the Constitution, in the light of the International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the doctrine of the Constitutional Court, in order to determine the content and scope of constitutional protection of the capacity to act of persons with disabilities. This is essential to ensure the free development of the personality of this large group of citizens, whose lives have traditionally been governed by the will of others, if not been directly deprived of their liberty through their institutionalization.

  1. Protecting agriculture against nuclear radiations: conception and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann Hans-Joerg

    1997-01-01

    In case of atomic and chemical (AC) accident or attacks the agriculture is severely affected. This became clearly after the Chernobyl disaster, after which the authorities mobilized and increased the efforts to protect the agriculture. In Switzerland the Federal Commission for AC protection has undertaken the necessary actions in collaboration with the Federal Office for Agriculture. The protection of agriculture against radioactive fallout has many aspects. One of these concerns the requirement of informing farmers with all the necessary instruction to ensure the protection of rural population and animals, foods and forages, to make them able to take essential protection measures without exterior assistance, and to provide the agriculture buildings with simple and durable tools necessary in case of emergency intervention. To implement these requirements on Confederation level educational programs were developed to instruct agriculture agents and advisors on basic notions of radioactivity and radiation protection. These programs are thought to make the farmer aware with the implications of nuclear chemical and nuclear menace and the measures of protecting its enterprise by own means. Special instructions are to be applied by the enterprise chiefs to ensure first that the personnel protection is the top priority and then how to minimize and limit the damage produced by the radiation accident

  2. Sun protection practices among offspring of women with personal or family history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2006-04-01

    Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463

  3. Increasing the Usage of Personal Protective Equipments in Constructing Subway Stations: An Application of Social Marketing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Although the relationship between the use of personal protective equipment and the reduction of workplace injuries is well-known the use of these devices during operation by the staff is not so desirable. This study was based on a model of social marketing interventions to increase the use of safety devices and personal protection on the subway-station staff. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was based on the results of a formative research consisted of a qualitative (exploring employees’ views through focus group discussions and a quantitative study (measuring attitudes and behaviors by questionnaire and checklist. Based on the formative research findings, a free package includes a helmet with a label containing the message, an anti-cut safety gloves, a dust mask, and an educational pamphlet were delivered to intervention group. After four weeks, the check list of observational behaviors in two constructing stations was completed and the results were compared with before intervention. The data were analyzed by paired t-test, t-test and logistic regression. Results: Three common behaviors were observed among staff not using caps, masks and gloves. The odds ratio for helmet and mask usage in the intervention group was more than other groups. After the intervention, the use of safety helmets and masks significantly increased (p < 0.05. The odds ratio for the use of helmets and masks after intervention in the intervention group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The experimental basis of the safety devices and personal protection needs and demands of the audience, material and immaterial costs of the equipment, supplies, and promoting their use in the right place, can encourage the staff to continuously use the safety devices at workplace. Key Words: Workplace, Injuries, Personal Protective Equipment, Social Marketing

  4. Competent person for radiation protection. Practical radiation protection for base nuclear installations and installations classified for the environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, A.; Perez, S.; Videcoq, J.; Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book corresponds to the practical module devoted to the base nuclear installations and to the installations classified for the environment protection, that is to say the permanent nuclear installations susceptible to present risks for the public, environment or workers. Complied with the legislation that stipulates this module must allow to apply the acquired theoretical training to practical situations of work, it includes seven chapters as follow: generalities on access conditions in regulated areas of nuclear installation,s or installations classified for environment protection and clothing against contamination; use of control devices and management of damaged situations; methodology of working place studies, completed by the application to a real case of a study on an intervention on a containment wall; a part entitled 'take stock of the situation' ends every chapter and proposes to the reader to check its understanding and acquisition of treated knowledge. (N.C.)

  5. Personality in general and clinical samples: Measurement invariance of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenhuis, Annemarie; Kamphuis, Jan H; Noordhof, Arjen

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the same general dimensions can describe normal and pathological personality, but most of the supporting evidence is exploratory. We aim to determine in a confirmatory framework the extent to which responses on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) are identical across general and clinical samples. We tested the Dutch brief form of the MPQ (MPQ-BF-NL) for measurement invariance across a general population subsample (N = 365) and a clinical sample (N = 365), using Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) and Multiple Group Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (MGESEM). As an omnibus personality test, the MPQ-BF-NL revealed strict invariance, indicating absence of bias. Unidimensional per scale tests for measurement invariance revealed that 10% of items appeared to contain bias across samples. Item bias only affected the scale interpretation of Achievement, with individuals from the clinical sample more readily admitting to put high demands on themselves than individuals from the general sample, regardless of trait level. This formal test of equivalence provides strong evidence for the common structure of normal and pathological personality and lends further support to the clinical utility of the MPQ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Personality may confound common measures of mate-choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan David

    Full Text Available The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to exploration tendencies has not been addressed so far. In the present study we assessed the influence of variation in exploration tendencies, a trait closely associated to global personality, on the measurement of female mating preference in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata using the widely used four-chamber choice-apparatus. The number of movements performed within both exploration and mate-choice apparatus was consistent within and across the two contexts. In addition, personality explained variation in selectivity, preference strength and consistency. High-exploratory females showed lower selectivity, lower preference scores and displayed more consistent preference scores. Our results suggest that variation in personality may affect the measurement of female mating preference and may contribute to explain existing inconsistencies across studies.

  7. The efficiency cost of protective measures in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Garcia-Muros, Xaquin; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Arto, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent achievements towards a global climate agreement, climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions remains quite heterogeneous across countries. Energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries in industrialized countries are concerned on stringent domestic emission pricing that puts them at a competitive disadvantage against producers of similar goods in other countries with more lenient emission regulation. This paper focuses on climate policy design in the United States of America (US) and compares the economic implications of four alternative protective measures for US EITE industries: (i) output-based rebates, (ii) exemptions from emission pricing, (iii) energy intensity standards, and (iv) carbon intensity standards. Using a large-scale computable general equilibrium model we quantify how these protective measures affect competitiveness of US EITE industries. We find that protective measures can improve common trade-related competitiveness indicators such as revealed comparative advantage or relative world trade shares but at the same time may lead to a decline in the output value for EITE industries because of negative income effects. The economy-wide cost of emission abatement under protective measures increase as compared to uniform emission pricing stand-alone such that the gains of protective measures for EITE exports may be more than compensated through losses in domestic EITE demand. - Highlights: • We assess impacts for US emission-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries. • EITE impacts are quantified via competitiveness metrics and production output. • Protective measures reduce adverse competitiveness impacts but can depress output. • Output losses are due to negative income effects that reduce domestic EITE demand. • Protective measures run the risk of making US climate policy much more costly.

  8. Implementation of organizational measures in radiation protection in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freerk Boersma, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Regulation Administrative and Organizational Measures in Radiation Protection is an important part of new legislation concerning radiation protection in the Netherlands. In this contribution we pay attention to the implementation of two obligations resulting from this regulation, being the creation of a radiation protection organization, and the realization of a system of internal permits. These obligations apply to holders of comprehensive licenses. Relevant aspects of the regulation will be explained in some detail. The first draft of a guideline, initiated by the Dutch Radiation Protection Society and meant to facilitate putting up a system for internal permits, is discussed. We also describe the radiation protection organization and the system of internal permits at Groningen University, and focus on the major successes and flaws of both. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Personal Protection of Permethrin-Treated Clothing against Aedes aegypti, the Vector of Dengue and Zika Virus, in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsborne, James; DeRaedt Banks, Sarah; Hendy, Adam; Gezan, Salvador A; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsay, Steve W; Logan, James G

    2016-01-01

    The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (ptreated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae

  10. A holistic person perspective in measuring entrepreneurship education impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Lynfort

    2014-01-01

    and impact of entrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurship education, a number of interrelated factors are identified that are important to address in assessment and measurement of impact. In addition to these factors, a supplementary dimension is suggested – the holistic person perspective...... of the article is that it can be fruitful to understand entrepreneurial activities in a dynamic and holistic manner with attention to extended time and space dimensions in order to fully capture assessment and impact of entrepreneurship education....

  11. Recent developments and trends in radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring instruments used in radiation protection have undergone dramatic changes over the past decade. But also the attitude of users vis-a-vis this equipment is changing. This is reflected in changes in equipment concepts, the trend being towards 'considerate equipment' which does not absorb the user's attention, but reserves it for the real proposes of radiation protection. Just measuring is no longer enough. Measured data acquisition and evaluation must be integrated more closely, and more specifically, into an overall process of optimized in-plant radiation protection. A key role in this scheme is played by the application-oriented user interface, while measurement and testing routines become more and more automated. The technology now available for storing programs and data, interconnecting and displaying them in many ways, offers almost unlimited possibilities

  12. Examination of offsite emergency protective measures for core melt accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.C.; McGrath, P.E.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Jones, R.B.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to potential nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted using a modified version of the Reactor Safety Study consequence model. Models representing each protective measure were developed and are discussed. Potential PWR core-melt radioactive material releases are separated into two categories, ''Melt-through'' and ''Atmospheric,'' based upon the mode of containment falure. Protective measures are examined and compared for each category in terms of projected doses to the whole body and thyroid. Measures for ''Atmospheric'' accidents are also examined in terms of their influence on the occurrence of public health effects

  13. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Technological measures of protection in the copyright system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital exploitation of works often exceed the limit to which the holder can control the exploitation of their intellectual creations, and the protection provided by legal norms are, in the era of a fast exchange of information, may prove to be insufficiently effective. For these reasons, the rights holders are increasingly opting for preventive care through placement of physical obstacles to the exploitation of copyright works, generic called technological protection measures (known as digital right management (DRM. Simultaneously with the development of the application of these measures flows the process of finding ways to circumvent them. Therefore, the effectiveness of technological measures depends on exactly the question of their legal protection, which now exists in most of modern legal systems. However, in the normative solutions there are differences, which reflect the problems in finding adequate forms of protection. They mostly stem from the fact that the sanctioning of circumvention (or preparatory actions of technological measures put into the question the purpose of copyright protection in general. Hence, in this paper we tried to point out the normative solutions accepted in modern legal systems and practical implications of what they have. Conclusion that arises is that the legal shaping of technological measures is not completed and that further technological developments open new dilemmas.

  15. Draft guidance notes for the protection of persons against ionising radiations arising from veterinary use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidance notes have been prepared for those who use ionising radiation for diagnostic purposes in veterinary practice, either in private practices or in larger institutions. Ancillary activities such as the testing and calibration of equipment are also covered by these notes so far as they are carried out on the same premises. The guidance notes indicate procedures for the protection of all persons who may be exposed as a result of these practices, that is to say all employed and self-employed persons, apprentices and students, and members of the public. (author)

  16. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  17. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  18. Hybrid Paradigm from European and America Concerning Privacy and Personal Data Protection in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmon Makarim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging era of information and technology, the importance of privacy and data protection is growing ever since. However, despite such common concern from the society, there is some confusion about the mechanisms of differentiation and scope of discussion about privacy with the protection of personal data and even impressed blended with issues of spamming issues. With comparison to Europe and the US legal perspectives, Therefore, this paper tries to discuss such problem in accordance to the perspective of laws to the communication itself.

  19. International recommendations[General radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, Bo [Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection (Sweden)

    1986-07-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  20. Public-private provision of protection measures against natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2009-04-01

    Natural hazards threaten human lives as well as economic values of a society. Due to an increasing population density, augmenting property holdings in congested areas as well as higher frequencies of catastrophic events, the damage potential associated with natural hazards is growing. In order to safeguard societal assets against this threat, active and passive protection measures can be established. While passive protection measures provide for this type of risk by means of thorough land use planning, active protection measures aim at improving safety through technical or biological protective systems and structures. However, these provisions are costly and need to be handled prudentially. In most European countries protection measures against natural hazards are provided by the public. Specific governmental funds have been set up for the establishment of preventive systems as well as for damage compensation payments after the occurrence of catastrophic events. Though, additional capital is urgently needed in order to facilitate the realisation of all necessary projects in this field and to provide for maximal safety. One potential solution for such financial deficiencies can be found in Public Private Partnerships (PPP). PPPs have been implemented as attractive concepts for the funding of diverse projects in the fields of e.g. road construction, municipal, health and social services. In principle, they could also provide alternative funding solutions for the establishment of crucial protective infrastructure in respect of natural hazards, adding private financial means to the currently available public funds. Thereby, the entire capacities for catastrophe funding could be enhanced. Beside PPPs, also alternative funding mechanisms such as the emission of catastrophe bonds, contingent credit lines or leasing arrangements may enhance available capacities for the financing of protection measures. This contribution discusses innovative solutions for the funding of

  1. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  2. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  3. Safety of nursing staff and determinants of adherence to personal protective equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Neves,Heliny Carneiro Cunha; Souza,Adenícia Custódia Silva e; Medeiros,Marcelo; Munari,Denize Bouttelet; Ribeiro,Luana Cássia Miranda; Tipple,Anaclara Ferreira Veiga

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in a teaching hospital with 15 nursing professionals. Attempted to analyze the reasons, attitudes and beliefs of nursing staff regarding adherence to personal protective equipment. Data were collected through focus groups, analyzed by the method of interpretation of meanings, considering Rosenstock’s model of health beliefs as a reference framework. Data revealed two themes: Occupational safety and Interpersonal Relationship. We identified several barriers that i...

  4. Qualifications of persons working in radiation user's organization and radiation protection training required for competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The Guide sets out the requirements governing the qualifications of persons working in userAes organizations and the radiation protection training required for such competence. It also sets out the requirements for training organizations arranging radiation safety officer training and exams. The Guide applies only to uses of radiation requiring a afety licence. The requirements for userAes organizations are set out in Guide ST 1.4

  5. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  6. X-ray measurements and protection, 1913-1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-12-01

    This report reviews the development of measurement standards and protection against x rays. The story of x rays can be divided into three periods up to 1925, a period of discovery, application, and a recognized new danger; up to 1955, a period of exploitation, measurement, control, and protection, and from then, a time of consolidation, public awareness, and political activism. This book is an account of how government and non-government organizations have worked together. Attention is directed to some of the changes and differences between government laboratory operations today and those in the first half of the 20th century

  7. How Uninformed is the Average Data Subject? A Quest for Benchmarks in EU Personal Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria González Fuster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Information obligations have always been crucial in personal data protection law. Reinforcing these obligations is one of the priorities of the legislative package introduced in 2012 by the European Commission to redefine the personal data protection legal landscape of the European Union (EU. Those responsible for processing personal data (the data controllers must imperatively convey certain pieces of information to those whose data is processed (the data subjects, and they are expected to do so in an increasingly transparent manner. Beyond these punctual information requirements, however, data subjects appear to always be and inevitably remain in a state of relative ignorance, as in almost constant need of further guidance. Data subjects are nowadays often depicted as unknowing consumers of online services, services which surreptitiously take away from them personal data thus conceived as a valuable asset. In light of these developments, this contribution critically investigates how EU law is envisaging data subjects in terms of knowledge. The paper reviews the birth and evolution of information obligations as an element of European personal data protection law, and asks whether thinking of data subjects as consumers is consistent with the notion of average consumer functioning in EU consumer law. Finally, it argues that the time might have come to openly clarify when data subjects are unlawfully misinformed, and that, in the meantime, individuals might benefit not only from accessing more transparent information, but also from being made more aware of the limitations of the information available to them.   

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vieira Claudio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. Method: exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. Results: there were 17 (34% cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0% surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%. The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761 was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. Conclusion: electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment.

  9. CSR initiatives by companies for employees through social protection measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Salleh Noor Akma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has always been the main concern globally as it alienates and distresses particular groups of citizen that affects their emotion and psychological behaviour, and may have impact on the socio-economic aspect of the country. Hence, it is critical for the government to address the poverty problem, as this would lead to inequality. One way to minimise income inequality is through the provision of social protection to maintain the basic consumption and living standard of the needed members of the society. The government highlights the importance of increasing involvement of the private sector to improve social protection through their CSR programmes. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to unearth the concept of social protection and its role in minimising inequality in the society as well as to develop an instrument to measure the social protection dimension of companies’ CSR activities.

  10. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Building Construction Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Izudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 270 million workplace accidents occur annually. In Uganda, Kampala district has the highest workplace injury and fatality rates. However, information on personal protective equipment (PPE—hand gloves, hardhats, overalls, safety boots, earplugs, safety harness with lanyard, and face shields—utilization among building construction workers remains scarce. We assessed PPE utilization and determinants among building construction workers in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 385 respondents. Data collected by structured questionnaire was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed in STATA at 5% significance level. Independent determinants of PPE use were established by a stepwise backward logistic regression analysis. Results. 305 (79.2% respondents were males, 290 (75.3% were 18–30 years, 285 (74.0% completed secondary education, and 197 (51.2% were temporary employees. 60 (15.6% respondents used PPE. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.64; 95% CI: 1.55–28.46; P=0.011, temporary (AOR = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27; P<0.001 and casual (AOR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.001–0.071; P<0.001 employment, and previous knowledge of safety measures (AOR = 100.72; 95% CI: 26.00–390.16; P<0.001 were associated with PPE use. Conclusion. PPE use was low in Kampala, Uganda. Building construction companies should implement measures of the Uganda Occupational Health and Safety Act.

  11. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress.Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa.A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct and evaporative resistance (Ret of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s.Nearly still air (0.4 m/s measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W.Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  12. Ebola Response: Modeling the Risk of Heat Stress from Personal Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Adam W; Gonzalez, Julio A; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of healthcare workers have responded to aid in the relief and containment of the 2013 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Healthcare workers are required to wear personal protective clothing (PPC) to impede the transmission of the virus; however, the impermeable design and the hot humid environment lead to risk of heat stress. Provide healthcare workers quantitative modeling and analysis to aid in the prevention of heat stress while wearing PPC in West Africa. A sweating thermal manikin was used to measure the thermal (Rct) and evaporative resistance (Ret) of the five currently used levels of PPC for healthcare workers in the West Africa EVD response. Mathematical methods of predicting the rise in core body temperature (Tc) in response to clothing, activity, and environment was used to simulate different responses to PPC levels, individual body sizes, and two hot humid conditions: morning/evening (air temperature: 25°C, relative humidity: 40%, mean radiant temperature: 35°C, wind velocity: 1 m/s) and mid-day (30°C, 60%, 70°C, 1 m/s). Nearly still air (0.4 m/s) measures of Rct ranged from 0.18 to 0.26 m2 K/W and Ret ranged from 25.53 to 340.26 m2 Pa/W. Biophysical assessments and modeling in this study provide quantitative guidance for prevention of heat stress of healthcare workers wearing PPC responding to the EVD outbreak in West Africa.

  13. Personal Privacy Protection in Big Data Era%大数据时代个人隐私的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永兵

    2016-01-01

    近年来,以云计算为基础平台的大数据时代正式到来,大数据因蕴藏有巨大的商业价值而使不法分子想方设法盗取个人隐私数据,从而影响用户的正常生活。本文通过分析大数据时代个人隐私安全面临的严峻挑战,对个人隐私保护所采用的技术措施进行总结,并提出了个人或企业应遵守的法律和行业规范,最后探索了个人隐私保护的进一步研究方向。%In recent years, the era of big data based on cloud computing platform officially arrived, and big data contains a huge commercial value and makes the criminals try to steal personal privacy data, thus affecting the normal life of the user. By analyzing the challenges faced by the privacy security in the era of big data, summarize the technical measures adopted in the protection of personal privacy, put forward the laws and industry standards the individual or enterprise should abide by, and finally explore the direction of further research on the protection of personal privacy.

  14. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  15. Measurement and evaluation of personal radiation dose during 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ning; Wang Jing; Qiao Hongqing; Deng Jinglan; Li Guoquan; Zhou Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To measure and evaluate the personal radiation dose for medical staff and patient accompanying persons in PET imaging, in order to offer the reference data for clinical radiation protection. Methods: Analysis of γ-ray radiation dose rate was performed on 30 medical staff members by using radiation dose meter during each medical procedure in injection room and scanning room , and the instantaneous, 1 and 2 h dose rate at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m from the mid-thorax of the patient received injection of the isotope were also measured. Then the mean dose per medical procedure per person and the assuming annual dose at different working sites were all calculated. Results: The mean personal doses per procedure were: left hand (30.0 ± 8.0) μSv, right hand (6.0 ± 1.5) μSv, whole-body (0.5 ± 0.1) μSv for syringe preparation; hand (3.00 ± 0.75) μSv, whole-body (1.27 ± 0.20) μSv for injection; (9.9 ± 1.4) μSv for imaging operation; (310 ± 91) μSv for close contact accompanying persons. Annual dose for staff members working in different sites were: left hand (16.63 ± 4.41) mSv, right hand (6.45 ± 1.23) mSv, whole-body (1.18 ± 0.15) mSv in the injection room; whole-body (4.99 ± 0.70) mSv in the imaging room. Conclusion: Under the normal operational conditions, the dose received by staff members and accompanying persons do not exceed the annual limit for professional and non-professional persons that has published as GuoBiao safe standard (GBSS)

  16. "Insensitive" to touch: fabric-supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films for omniphobic personal protective gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Viraj G; Tummala, Abhishiktha; Chandrashekar, Sriram; Kido, Cassidee; Roopesh, Ajay; Sun, Xiaoda; Doudrick, Kyle; Chinn, Jeff; Lee, James R; Burgin, Timothy P; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-02-25

    The use of personal protective gear made from omniphobic materials that easily shed drops of all sizes could provide enhanced protection from direct exposure to most liquid-phase biological and chemical hazards and facilitate the postexposure decontamination of the gear. In recent literature, lubricated nanostructured fabrics are seen as attractive candidates for personal protective gear due to their omniphobic and self-healing characteristics. However, the ability of these lubricated fabrics to shed low surface tension liquids after physical contact with other objects in the surrounding, which is critical in demanding healthcare and military field operations, has not been investigated. In this work, we investigate the depletion of oil from lubricated fabrics in contact with highly absorbing porous media and the resulting changes in the wetting characteristics of the fabrics by representative low and high surface tension liquids. In particular, we quantify the loss of the lubricant and the dynamic contact angles of water and ethanol on lubricated fabrics upon repeated pressurized contact with highly absorbent cellulose-fiber wipes at different time intervals. We demonstrate that, in contrast to hydrophobic nanoparticle coated microfibers, fabrics encapsulated within a polymer that swells with the lubricant retain the majority of the oil and are capable of repelling high as well as low surface tension liquids even upon multiple contacts with the highly absorbing wipes. The fabric supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films introduced here, therefore, could provide durable and easy to decontaminate protection against hazardous biological and chemical liquids.

  17. Towards a conceptual framework for protection of personal information from the perspective of activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personal information about individuals is stored by organisations including government agencies. The information is intended to be kept confidential and strictly used for its primary and legitimate purposes. However, that has not always been the case in many South African government agencies and departments. In recent years, personal information about individuals and groups has been illegally leaked for other motives, in which some were detrimental. Even though there exists a legislation, Protection of Personal Information (POPI Act, which prohibits such malpractices, illegally leaked information has however, not stopped or reduced. In addition to the adoption of the POPI Act, a more stringent approach is therefore needed in order to improve sanity in the use and management of personal information. Otherwise, the detriment that such malpractices cause too many citizens can only be on the increase. Objectives: The objectives of this study were in twofold: (1 to examine and understand the activities that happen with personal information leaks, which includes why and how information is leaked; and (2 to develop a conceptual framework, which includes identification of the factors that influence information leaks and breaches in an environment. Method: Qualitative research methods were followed in achieving the objectives of the study. Within the qualitative methods, documents including existing literature were gathered. The activity theory was employed as lens to guide the analysis. Result: From the analysis, four critical factors were found to be of influence in information leaks and breaches in organisations. The factors include: (1 information and its value, (2 the roles of society and its compliance to information protection, (3 government and its laws relating to information protection and (4 the need for standardisation of information usage and management within a community. Based on the factors, a conceptual framework was

  18. Radon: guidance on protective measures for new dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report gives guidance for reducing the presence of radon in new dwellings and hence reducing the risk to occupants of exposure to radon. This is a follow-up to the interim guidance of 1988. The report provides comprehensive practical details on the methods of protection including both primary and secondary measures. (UK)

  19. The labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to labor protection and safety measures at the electrolysis department. Thus, the characteristics of dangerous and harmful production factors as well as the danger of thermal burns and thermal exposure were considered. Safety requirements on labor safety were studied.

  20. Radiation protection measures applied during the autopsies on the casualties of the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, N.S.F.; Silva, L.H.C.; Rosa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The most seriously affected casualties of the radiological accident caused by the opening of a 137 Cs source capsule in Goiania were treated at the Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital (HNMD) in Rio de Janeiro in the period from October to December 1987. Four of the injured died in October. The autopsies were performed at this institution. Due to the external and internal contamination presented by these victims, specific radiation protection procedures were adopted to enable the medical team to perform their duties. The radiation protection staff, under the co-ordination of technicians of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), were responsible for the preparation of the autopsy room and for advising the professionals on duty during these events. The radiation protection staff took specific measures to prevent the spread of contamination throughout the hospital, the contamination of persons attending the autopsies and to minimize any radiation dose to the medical and professional team. The measures aimed at personal control and the preparation of the autopsy room are described as well as the radiation protection steps applied in connection with the performance of the autopsies, the emplacement of the bodies into the coffins and their transport back to Goiania. (author)

  1. Radiation protection measures in case of 125I incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    Thyroid measurements were performed on members of the scientific staff in the whole body counter of the Giessen Radiation Center with an aluminium encapsulated 3'' x 3'' dia. NaI(T1) detector; the personnel under investigation comprised those persons who either handled major quantities of 125 I or worked in the controlled area. The measuring setup, phantom calibration and the limits of measurement that can be attained are discussed. In a few cases of incorporation the effective halflife was determined. The radiation exposure was calculated by the absorbed fractions concept. A hazard is encountered almost exclusively in the iodization of the test substances. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Measuring the impact of child protection through Activation States

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlaczek, Z; Bringer, JD; Cockburn, C; Nutt, G; Pitchford, A; Russell, K; Brackenridge, CH

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and...

  3. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The

  4. ConstitutionalJustice: Cases of Protection of Freedom and Personal Security in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Molinares Hassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of an investigation about judicial protection of freedom and personal security granted by the Constitutional Court (cc of Colombia, with a comparative analysis between the period 1992-2001, to which governments have appointed period of postconstitucionales, which coincides with the issuance of the 1991 Constitution, and the creation of constitutional jurisdiction, and the period 2002-2010, during which it ran the Democratic Security Policy (dsp as a government policy proposal by former president Álvaro Uribe, whose aim was to achieve peace through the declaration of war to the guerrilla group Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (farc. Our interest is to show that the protection of freedom and personal security as the basis of the Constitutional (ec finds in the cc his greatest guarantor, even against closing courts in other jurisdictions that are still rooted in the failed legal positivist paradigm, ignoring the postulates of neoconstitutionalism dc sufficiently developed from a process of creative interpretation and decision-making. This coupled with the importance for the branches of power and knowledge associated scope of freedom and personal security developed by the cc in the difficult context of irregular warfare that exists in Colombia, yet it is, for universal constitutionalism, an example of the development of legal guarantor in the context of current constitutionalism.

  5. Radiation protection measures for the handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-03-01

    The radiation protective medical measures are described which are required after contamination by radioactive materials or their incorporation. In the case of skin contamination, penetration by diffusion is explained and the maximum permissible value with regard to the various types of radiation is given. A detailed description of the decontamination measures including the necessary equipment follows. Indications for the treatment of injuries are given. In addition, incorporation due to inhalation, ingestion with intake through the skin are described, direct and indirect incorporation detection are explained, and the therapeutical possibilities and measures are gone into. (ORU/LH) [de

  6. Measuring Personality in Context: Improving Predictive Accuracy in Selection Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffner, Rebecca Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of a context-sensitive (i.e., goal dimensions) measure of personality compared to a traditional measure of personality (NEO-PI-R) and generalized self-efficacy (GSE) to predict variance in task performance. The goal dimensions measure takes a unique perspective in the conceptualization of personality. While traditional measures differentiate within person and collapse across context (e.g., Big Five), the goal dimensions measure employs a hierarchical structure...

  7. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-02-01

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; α). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147 Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; α) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  8. Employers' Statutory Vicarious Liability in Terms of the Protection of Personal Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A person whose privacy has been infringed upon through the unlawful, culpable processing of his or her personal information can sue the infringer's employer based on vicarious liability or institute action based on the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPI. Section 99(1 of POPI provides a person (a "data subject" whose privacy has been infringed upon with the right to institute a civil action against the responsible party. POPI defines the responsible party as the person who determines the purpose of and means for the processing of the personal information of data subjects. Although POPI does not equate a responsible party to an employer, the term "responsible party" is undoubtedly a synonym for "employer" in this context. By holding an employer accountable for its employees' unlawful processing of a data subject's personal information, POPI creates a form of statutory vicarious liability. Since the defences available to an employer at common law and developed by case law differ from the statutory defences available to an employer in terms of POPI, it is necessary to compare the impact this new statute has on employers. From a risk perspective, employers must be aware of the serious implications of POPI. The question that arises is whether the Act perhaps takes matters too far. This article takes a critical look at the statutory defences available to an employer in vindication of a vicarious liability action brought by a data subject in terms of section 99(1 of POPI. It compares the defences found in section 99(2 of POPI and the common-law defences available to an employer fending off a delictual claim founded on the doctrine of vicarious liability. To support the argument that the statutory vicarious liability created by POPI is too harsh, the defences contained in section 99(2 of POPI are further analogised with those available to an employer in terms of section 60(4 of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA and other

  9. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru; Tamura, Naoki

    2005-06-28

    Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  10. Personal customizing exercise with a wearable measurement and control unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura Naoki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of customizing machine-based exercise on an individual basis by relying on biosignal-based controls. We propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the customization process. Methods The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise performance and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. The workload is continuously tracked with exercise programs set according to personally customized workload patterns and estimation results from the measured biosignals by a fuzzy control method. Exercise programs are adapted by relying on a computer workstation, which communicates with the wearable unit via wireless connections. A prototype of the wearable unit was tested together with an Internet-based cycle ergometer system to demonstrate that it is possible to customize exercise on an individual basis. Results We tested the wearable unit in nine people to assess its suitability to control cycle ergometer exercise. The results confirmed that the unit could successfully control the ergometer workload and continuously support gradual changes in physical activities. Conclusion The design of wearable units equipped with measurement and control functions is an important step towards establishing a convenient and continuously supported wellness environment.

  11. Between the Profiles Pay Per View and the Protection of Personal Data: the Product is You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karin CHÁVEZ VALDIVIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps in the past was difficult to imagine that the moment in which someone could register each purchase that has been made, each book that has been read or each thing that has been said would come. That there would be companies storing data about our physical activity, behaviors, preferences and choices all the time. Most of the personal data comes from acts as daily as installing an application, completing a form, purchasing a product or requesting a service. This information provided sometimes consciously, voluntarily and with relative knowledge of the destination that will have, contrasts with situations in which data are inferred, deduced, extracted and manipulated.  In this sense, within a context in which the only access to the database has been left behind to give way to the creation of these by third parties, we wonder about the possible denaturation of the personal data and sensitive information that when get transformed in raw material through the analysis of existent connections and extraction of new data implicit in the multitude of information compiled in public or private databases, would convert  people into an essential product for the market; while the development of citizen profiles pay per view would allow predicting behaviors, selections and multiple deployments in different aspects of our lives. It is probable that in the defenselessness condition where we are now for having passed from personal space to social one and from there to the market many times without our knowledge and consent makes necessary to reconsider the current forms of protection and mechanisms of  legal protection around our personal data.

  12. Privacy Protection for Personal Health Device Communication and Healthcare Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for protecting patient privacy when communicating with a gateway which collects bioinformation through using personal health devices, a type of biosensor for telemedicine, at home and in other buildings. As the suggested method is designed to conform with ISO/IEEE 11073-20601, which is the international standard, interoperability with various health devices was considered. We believe it will be a highly valuable resource for dealing with basic data because it suggests an additional standard for security with the Continua Health Alliance or related international groups in the future.

  13. The Use of DLP-systems for the Protection of Personal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Boridko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of the principal possibility of the application of DLP-systems (Data Leak Prevention System for the protection of personal data are considered. Approaches of Russian company SecurIT for the prevention of leakage of information through the connected devices and network channels (Zlock system and Zgate system are analyzed. Advantages of Zgate system are revealed, which allows to increase the efficiency of detection of confidential data with the average 60—70 % for existing DLP-systems up to 95 % of the Zgate.

  14. Guidance notes for the protection of persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Guidance notes have been prepared by the NRPB, the Health Departments and the Health and Safety Executive for the protection of all persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use. The guidance notes are a guide to good radiation protection practice consistent with regulatory requirements. The areas covered include medical and dental radiology, diagnostic X-ray equipment for medical and dental radiography, beam therapy and remotely controlled after-loading, brachytherapy, diagnostic and therapeutic uses of unsealed radioactive substances, diagnostic uses of sealed or other solid radioactive sources, patients leaving hospital after administration of radioactive substances, precautions after death of a patient whom radioactive substances have been administered, storage and movement of radioactive substances, disposal of radioactive waste and contingency planning and emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  15. Search and seizure law; practical advice and interpretation for nuclear protective force persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-07-06

    Recent Supreme Court decisions, which interpret the 200-year-old Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution, are used to provide a brief overview of some search and seizure subjects important to management and officers responsible for physical protection of nuclear facilities. The overview is framed in practical terms in order to make the comments applicable to the everyday activity of nuclear-protective-force persons. The Supreme Court has described several exceptions where searches and seizures (arrests) are permitted without a warrant, despite the Fourth Amendment which states that warrants are always required. The seven exceptions briefly discussed are search incidents to a lawful arrest, the automobile-search exception, the suitcase or container exception, the hot-pursuit or emergency exception, the stop-and-frisk exception, the plain-view exception, and consent to be searched.

  16. Search and seizure law; practical advice and interpretation for nuclear protective force persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent Supreme Court decisions, which interpret the 200-year-old Fourth Amendment of the US Constitution, are used to provide a brief overview of some search and seizure subjects important to management and officers responsible for physical protection of nuclear facilities. The overview is framed in practical terms in order to make the comments applicable to the everyday activity of nuclear-protective-force persons. The Supreme Court has described several exceptions where searches and seizures (arrests) are permitted without a warrant, despite the Fourth Amendment which states that warrants are always required. The seven exceptions briefly discussed are search incidents to a lawful arrest, the automobile-search exception, the suitcase or container exception, the hot-pursuit or emergency exception, the stop-and-frisk exception, the plain-view exception, and consent to be searched

  17. Radiation protection in the age of accountability - measuring our effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effectiveness and accountability were catch-words of the 1980s for public and private enterprises. This mood has persisted into the current decade and radiation protection authorities have not escaped the organisational microscope. But whereas simple models and measures of effectiveness can be applied to most private companies and government agencies, organisations in the regulatory and preventative health areas cannot be assessed by the same criteria. These organisations are fundamentally different because their primary objective is one of minimisation. This paper looks at options for measuring and reporting the effectiveness of radiation protection organisations. Some performance indicators are proposed and evaluated. The intention is not, however, to present a 'solution' to this apparently vexing problem. Indeed, the answer may be that there is none. 11 refs., 4 figs

  18. Protecting the "Impressionable Minds" from the "Impressionable Minds": The Third-Person Effect and Student Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Schraum, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Support for student expression and First Amendment attitudes were measured among Missouri high school principals (n = 86). Findings demonstrated that the third-person effect was a significant predictor of these attitudes. The more principals perceived mass media to affect others over themselves, the less supportive they were for student free…

  19. Relational humility: conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Gartner, Aubrey L; Jennings, David J; Emmons, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    The study of humility has progressed slowly due to measurement problems. We describe a model of relational humility that conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment. In this set of 5 studies, we developed the 16-item Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and offered initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N = 300), we developed the RHS and its subscales--Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of Self. In Study 2, we confirmed the factor structure of the scale in an independent sample (N = 196). In Study 3, we provided initial evidence supporting construct validity using an experimental design (N = 200). In Study 4 (N = 150), we provided additional evidence of construct validity by examining the relationships between humility and empathy, forgiveness, and other virtues. In Study 5 (N = 163), we adduced evidence of discriminant and incremental validity of the RHS compared with the Honesty-Humility subscale of the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

  20. Experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for personal protection equipment – effect of used 3D printing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is experimental investigation of centrifugal fans for a personal protection equipment. The aim of the fan is to drive the contaminated air containing harmful or irritating particles through the filters and then into the mask of workers, such as a fireman, a labourer or a lab worker. The fan is measured on the test stand, the characteristics and performances are evaluated, i.e. the dependencies of the working pressure on the flow rate. The characteristics are measured for three constant speed settings. The characteristics of the wheels produced by the different 3D printing technology are compared. It is found that the production technology has only a minimal effect, the performance of the wheels is more influenced by the position of the impeller on the motor shaft and hence by the mutual position of the impeller and the diffuser.

  1. Therapy palliative with 223Ra without special radiation protection measures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, Guenther; Petzold, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    For nearly 2 years now as a therapy of the castration resistant prostata carcinoma a nuclide therapy with 223 Ra-Dichloride (trade-mark Xofigo) is applied. Xofigo is applied by a medical specialist for nuclear medicine altogether 6 times in a monthly distance. The activity used in each case is according to the body weight (50 kBq/kg BW). This therapy is licensed by the supervisory authorities of the German federal countries as an ambulant therapy. Special radiation protection measures are only required when exceeding a given number of 17 patients per year as incorparation measurements.

  2. Benefits of fish passage and protection measures at hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is engaged in a multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. An initial report (Volume 1) reviewed and surveyed the status of mitigation methods for fish passage, instream flows, and water quality; this paper focuses on the fish passage/protection aspects of the study. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A variety of mitigative measures is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks, and lightor sound-based guidance measures. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking at non-federal hydroelectric projects. Volume 2 considers the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection measures, as illustrated by case studies for which performance monitoring has been conducted. The report estimates the effectiveness of particular measures, the consequent impacts on the fish populations that are being maintained or restored, and the resulting use and non-use values of the maintained or restored fish populations

  3. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  4. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  5. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  6. The Civil Identity Registry Unification and Personal Data Protection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Gaziero Cella

    2016-06-01

    . Article search thus demonstrate, through hypothetical-deductive method, the urgency of adopting a specific law on the protection of personal data in Brazil. To this end, it comes to point out that privacy and forms of protection are usually aligned with the technology available in each season and, with the advent of so-called Information Society captained especially the Internet and the instant and ubiquitous circulation of data it provides. The article demonstrates that even public agencies, such as the Sirc, respect the constitutional principles aimed at protecting the privacy of citizens, a fact that confirms and justifies the initial hypothesis of this work, which is, as stated, the demonstration of urgency the institution in Brazil, a specific law on personal data protection.

  7. Self-protection of FLIP fuel: Experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.; Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Bennett, S.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    During the last year and one-half non-power reactor licensees of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have been repeatedly alerted to the fact that the Commission planned to tighten physical security regulations for their class of reactors. Essentially all of the new NRC physical security requirements for these reactors have been based on the type, quantity and enrichment of the special nuclear materials (e.g. enriched uranium and plutonium) possessed by the licensees. While each licensee's security classification will be evaluated individually, it is now apparent that non-power reactor licensees using or storing formula quantities of special nuclear material not meeting the 100 rem per hour at three feet self-protection exemption (e.g. 5 kilograms or more of non-self-protected fuel enriched to 20% or more with U-235) will be required to meet extremely stringent NRC physical security requirements patterned after the new Physical Protection Upgrade Rule. Implementation of these much stricter security requirements poses many economic and operational difficulties for university research reactors, to the point where facility closure could be the only alternative. TRIGA reactors utilizing a full FLIP fueled core, such as the Oregon State University TRIGA (OSTR), qualify for the highest physical protection category unless fuel can be maintained at self-protecting radiation levels. In order to demonstrate that OSTR fuel could be consistently kept above the 100 rem per hour threshold, a computer program was written which predicts the gamma radiation levels from an irradiated FLIP fuel element at 1, 2 and 3 feet in air and water. Furthermore, in order to verify the accuracy of the computer program, actual measurements of irradiated fuel elements were made at 3 feet in air and at 1, 2 and 3 feet in water, and the results compared very favorably to the predictions. The results of specific measurements, the instrumentation used and its calibration, the personnel doses

  8. Personal, Familial, and Social Risk and Protective Factors of Tendency towards Substance Use among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jahanshahloo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: University students are among vulnerable groups to tendency towards substance use. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the role of personal, familial, and social risk and protective factors in the prediction of tendency to this behavior among students.Materials and Methods: This descriptive correlational study was carried out on 431 students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Data were collected by Risk and Protective Factors Inventory (RPFI and Youth Risk Taking Scale (YRTS and then, were analyzed by Pearson correlation method and stepwise multivariate regression.Results: Data analysis using Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed significant relationships between personal (e.g. attitude towards substance use and tendency to drug use; r=0.6, P<0.01, familial (e.g. parent attitude towards substance and tendency towards smoking cigarettes; r=0.2, P<0.05, and social (e.g. perceived accessibility and tendency towards alcohol; r=0.4, P<0.01 factors with tendency to substance use. Moreover, the results of stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that personal factors (i.e. attitude towards substance use, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, social factors (i.e. friends’ substance use and perceived accessibility, and familial factors (i.e. family monitoring and parents’ attitude towards substance use were the best predictors of tendency towards substance use in students, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, current results indicated that a series of individual, familial, and social factors affect tendency towards substance use among students. Accordingly, identifying vulnerable students using suitable screening tests and providing them with primary prevention programs is of the utmost importance.

  9. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  10. Concordance of In-Home "Smart" Scale Measurement with Body Weight Measured In-Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    Newer "smart" scales that transmit participants' body weights directly to data collection centers offer the opportunity to simplify weight assessment in weight management research; however, little data exist on the concordance of these data compared to weights measured at in-person assessments. We compared the weights of 58 participants (mean±SD BMI = 31.6±4.8, age = 52.1±9.7 years, 86.2% White, 65.5% Female) measured by study staff at an in-person assessment visit to weights measured on the same day at home using BodyTrace "smart" scales. These measures occurred after 3 months of an internet-based weight management intervention. Weight (mean±SD) measured at the 3-month in-person assessment visit was 81.5±14.7kg compared to 80.4±14.5kg measured on the same day using in-home body weight scales; mean bias =1.1±0.8kg, 95% limits of agreement = -0.5 to 2.6. Two outliers in the data suggest that there may be greater variability between measurements for participants weighing above 110 kg. Results suggest good concordance between the measurements and support the use of the BodyTrace smart scale in weight management research. Future trials using BodyTrace scales for outcome assessment should clearly define protocols for measurement and associated instructions to participants (e.g., instruct individuals to weigh at the same time of day, similarly clothed). Finally, measure concordance should be investigated in a group of individuals weighing more than 110kg.

  11. Advances in the simulation of personal protective equipment for the mitigation of exposure to radioactive particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeterink, M.J.; Kelly, D.G.; Dickson, E.F.G; Corcoran, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne radioactive particulates represent a significant potential hazard to first responders in nuclear related incidents. Personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular radio-opaque fabrics, can be used to reduce wearer exposure to the emitted radiation, but do not offer complete protection. The objective of this project is to create a realistic dosimetric model of the human arm, protected by a sleeve, which can eventually be developed into a tool to assess the full-body dose imparted to the wearer in the event of radiological particulate exposure. A two-fold approach will be employed whereby: (1) a particulate transport model will be used to determine the regional radioactive particulate concentrations; and (2) these concentration data will then be incorporated into a dosimetric model that will use the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code to determine the dose imparted to the tissue. Benchmarking experiments will be carried out to validate the results generated by the computer models. Such experimentation will be conducted for both the particulate transport and dosimetric models. Model advancement aims to consider whole body dose and will be invaluable in the development of future radiation exposure policies and procedures. (author)

  12. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Leyenda, Belén; Villa, José G; López-Satué, Jorge; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC) is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH). Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton) used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg). Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  13. Impact of Different Personal Protective Clothing on Wildland Firefighters' Physiological Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carballo-Leyenda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire firefighting is an extremely demanding occupation performed under hot environment. The use of personal protective clothing (PPC is needed to protect subjects from the thermal exposure. However, the additional use of PPC may increase the wildland firefighters' physiological strain, and consequently limit their performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four different PPC on the physiological strain of wildland firefighters under moderate conditions (30°C and 30% RH. Eight active and healthy wildland firefighters performed a submaximal walking test wearing a traditional short sports gear and 4 different PPC. The materials combination (viscose, Nomex, Kevlar, P-140 and fire resistant cotton used during the PPC manufacturing process was different. During all tests, to simulate a real scenario subjects wore a backpack pump (20 kg. Heart rate, respiratory gas exchange, gastrointestinal temperature, blood lactate concentration, perceived exertion and temperature and humidity underneath the PPC were recorded throughout tests. Additionally, parameters of heat balance were estimated. Wearing a PPC did not cause a significant increase in the subjects' physiological response. The gastrointestinal temperature increment, the relative humidity of the microclimate underneath the PPC, the sweat residue in PPC, the sweat efficiency, the dry heat exchange and the total clothing insulation were significantly affected according to the PPC fabric composition. These results suggest that the PPC composition affect the moisture management. This might be taken into account to increase the wildland firefighters' protection in real situations, when they have to work close to the flames.

  14. Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2016-08-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) from infection by highly virulent pathogens via exposure to body fluids and respiratory droplets. Given the recent outbreaks of contagious infectious diseases worldwide, including Ebola virus and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, there is urgent need for further research to determine optimal PPE use in high-risk settings. This review intends to provide a general understanding of PPE and to provide guidelines for appropriate use based on current evidence. Although previous studies have focused on the efficacy of PPE in preventing transmission of pathogens, recent studies have examined the dangers to HCWs during removal of PPE when risk of contamination is highest. Access to adequate PPE supplies is crucial to preventing transmission of pathogens, especially in resource-limited settings. Adherence to appropriate PPE use is a challenge due to inadequate education on its usage, technical difficulties, and tolerability of PPE in the workplace. Future projects aim at ameliorating this situation, including redesigning PPE which is crucial to improving the safety of HCWs. PPE remains the most important strategy for protecting HCW from potentially fatal pathogens. Further research into optimal PPE design and use to improve the safety of HCWs is urgently needed.

  15. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have developed some sort of legislation focusing on data protection. This paper proposes solutions for monitoring and enforcing data protection laws within an E-government Interoperability Platform. In particular, the proposal addresses requirements posed by the Uruguayan Data Protection Law and the Uruguayan E-government Platform, although it can also be applied in similar scenarios. The solutions are based on well-known integration mechanisms (e.g. Enterprise Service Bus as well as recognized security standards (e.g. eXtensible Access Control Markup Language and were completely prototyped leveraging the SwitchYard ESB product.

  16. Personal Protective Equipment Supply Chain: Lessons Learned from Recent Public Health Emergency Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita; D'Alessandro, Maryann M; Ireland, Karen J; Burel, W Greg; Wencil, Elaine B; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency. Additionally, a significant proportion of the supply chain is produced off-shore and might not be available to the US market during an emergency because of export restrictions or nationalization of manufacturing facilities. Efforts to increase supplies during previous public health emergencies have been challenging. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic, the commercial supply chain of pharmaceutical and healthcare products quickly became critical response components. This article reviews lessons learned from these responses from a PPE supply chain and systems perspective and examines ways to improve PPE readiness for future responses.

  17. ERP responses to person names as a measure of trait inference in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang

    2015-01-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study examines how trait information inferred from behaviors is associated with person names. In linguistic discourses, person names were associated with descriptions of either positive or negative behaviors. In a subsequent explicit evaluation task, the previously described person names were presented in isolation, and the participants were asked to judge the emotional valence of these names. We found that the names associated with positive descriptions elicited a larger positivity in the ERP than the names associated with negative descriptions. The results indicate that the emotional valence of person names attached to person perception can be dynamically influenced by short descriptions of the target person, probably due to trait inference based on the provided behavioral descriptions.

  18. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  19. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C) – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Marta eMaćkiewicz; Jan eCieciuch

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores f...

  20. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  1. IDA NOMEX: examination of emergency protective measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of work carried out by the Swiss Interdepartmental Working Group on Emergency Protective Measures for Extreme Incidents IDA NOMEX after the nuclear incident in Fukushima, Japan. The first three chapters deal with the initial situation after the incidents in Fukushima. The mandate issued by the Swiss Federal Government to IDA NOMEX and its implementation are discussed. Topics covered include data on the personnel and materials required to deal with nuclear incidents, details with reference to the Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinance, tasks of the various state agencies along with the interfaces between them, lessons learned from the nuclear accident in Fukushima, current deficits in the various organisations and measures to be taken as well as a master plan and its implementation. The testing of the various reference scenarios proposed is discussed and various measures, such as evacuation concepts and the distribution of iodine tablets, are looked at in detail. The international situation is examined and co-operation within Europe and also with international bodies is looked at. Finally the required resources are discussed and further work to be done is looked at. Appendices complete the report

  2. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  3. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  4. Measures for the explosion protection for gas systems; Massnahmen des Explosionsschutzes fuer Gasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Wolfgang [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany). Anlagentechnik Nord; Seemann, Albert [BG ETEM Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    In order to protect employees, technical and organizational measures for explosion protection have to be provided to gas plants with potentially explosive areas. These measures have to be documented in the explosion protection document in accordance with paragraph 6 section 1 of the regulation of industrial safety. The contribution under consideration presents an overview on the measures for explosion protection for gas systems.

  5. The impact of social and organizational factors on workers' use of personal protective equipment: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Grøgaard, Jens B; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne

    2005-08-01

    On the basis of the job demands-control-support model by Karasek and Theorell, we investigated how social and organizational factors influence workers' use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1420 workers in 203 motor vehicle-repair garages. Multilevel modeling was performed to account for the hierarchical structure of the data. Social and management support correlated positively with PPE use at the worker level. Low demands measured at the garage level and having a health and safety management system at the garage also correlated with active use of PPE. An interaction effect between social support and garage-level demands was observed. In addition to health information and provision of PPE, focusing on social and organizational factors seems necessary to get more workers to comply with the instructions on PPE use.

  6. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  7. Experimental Measures of News Personalization in Google News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozza, Vittoria; Hoang, Van Tien; Petrocchi, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    Search engines and social media keep trace of profile- and behavioral-based distinct signals of their users, to provide them personalized and recommended content. Here, we focus on the level of web search personalization, to estimate the risk of trapping the user into so called Filter Bubbles. Our...

  8. The influence of personality, measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), on symptoms among subjects in suspected sick buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, R; Norbäck, D; Klinteberg, B; Edling, C

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to study possible relationships between personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), a self-report personality inventory based on psychobiological theory, and medical symptoms, in subjects with previous work history in suspected sick buildings. The study comprised 195 participants from 19 consecutive cases of suspected sick buildings, initially collected in 1988-92. In 1998-89, the KSP inventory and a symptoms questionnaire were administered in a postal follow-up study. There were 16 questions on symptoms, including symptoms from the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and headache, tiredness, and a symptom score (SC), ranging from 0 to 16, was calculated. The questionnaire also requested information on personal factors, including age, gender, smoking habits, allergy and diagnosed asthma. The KSP ratings in the study group did not differ from the mean personality scale norm scores, calculated from an external reference group. Females had higher scores for somatic anxiety (P < 0.01), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.01), psychasthenia (P < 0.05), indirect aggression (P < 0.05), and guilt (P < 0.05), while males scored higher on detachment (P < 0.001). Subjects with higher SC were found to display higher degree of somatic anxiety (P < 0.001), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.001), psychasthenia (P < 0.001), inhibition of aggression (P < 0.05), detachment (P < 0.05), suspicion (P < 0.01), indirect aggression (P < 0.01), and verbal aggression (P < 0.05). In addition, ocular, respiratory, dermal, and systemic symptoms (headache and tiredness) were significantly related to anxiety- and aggressivity-related scales. There were associations between personality scales and change of symptom score (SC) during the 9-year period. The associations between KSP personality traits and symptoms were more pronounced in females. In conclusion, there are gender differences in personality and SBS symptoms

  9. Informatics in Radiology (infoRAD): personal computer security: part 2. Software Configuration and file protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2004-01-01

    Proper configuration of software security settings and proper file management are necessary and important elements of safe computer use. Unfortunately, the configuration of software security options is often not user friendly. Safe file management requires the use of several utilities, most of which are already installed on the computer or available as freeware. Among these file operations are setting passwords, defragmentation, deletion, wiping, removal of personal information, and encryption. For example, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine medical images need to be anonymized, or "scrubbed," to remove patient identifying information in the header section prior to their use in a public educational or research environment. The choices made with respect to computer security may affect the convenience of the computing process. Ultimately, the degree of inconvenience accepted will depend on the sensitivity of the files and communications to be protected and the tolerance of the user. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  10. The right to the protection of personal data between law and constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Aguilar Del Castillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is, on the one hand, to analyze the content and scope of fundamental right to the protection of personal data, provided by art. 18.4 of the Spanish Constitution; on the other, to decline this right in the context of the employment relationship starting from the interpretation given by the Spanish Constitutional Court in judgment no. 39/2016. The contrast between this right and the freedom of enterprise, which is realized in the power of organization, control and supervision of work performance, is resolved by the Constitutional Court in the light of the principles of proportionality, suitability and necessity. The outcome of the balancing leads the Constitutional Court to establish the prevalence of the entrepreneurial freedom on the right to privacy of the employee.

  11. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  12. Protection Against Cross Infection in Hospital Beds with Integrated Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Polak, Marcin; Jiang, Hao

    2008-01-01

    in this paper are carried out with tracer gas and two thermal manikins in the experimental SARS ward at Hong Kong University. One of the manikins is the source manikin, and the other one the target. The measurements show that a very high degree of protection can be obtained with this system. Optimum flow rate...... and temperature of the supply air are addressed in the research work....

  13. A performance study of radio-opaque personal protective fabrics for the reduction of transmittance of gamma-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, E.C.; William Forest; Robert Horton; Kelly, D.G.; Kristine Mattson; Curtis McDonald; Nielsen, K.S.; Kristin Topping; Weir, R.D.; Andre Yonkeu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial radio-opaque combat (CRC) fabrics, for incorporation into personal protective equipment used by first responders and armed forces, are marketed as having the ability to provide a level of protection against specific types of radiation. For a CRC material, a standard combat uniform and a multi-layered chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) protective material, the present work examines chemical composition and radiation protection against gamma-rays and neutron fluxes. Significant reduction in gamma-ray transmittance occurs only for the CRC fabric (46-514 keV) with gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of 3.10 to 2 g -1 . Reduction in neutron transmittance, for all three fabrics, could not be assessed with certainty as the measured transmittance was obscured by large statistical uncertainties. (author)

  14. Effective personal protective clothing for health care workers attending patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas K S; Chung, Joanne W Y; Li, Y; Chan, Wai F; Ching, Patricia T Y; Lam, Conita H S; Chow, Chun B; Seto, Wing H

    2004-04-01

    Optimal usability is crucial in providing protection for health care workers who are exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome day and night while taking care of patients with the virus. No research study has yet tested the usability of personal protective clothing (PPC). The study was carried out in 3 stages. PPC available in Hong Kong were sorted by their physical properties in the first stage. The second stage was a single-blinded study examining the different usability aspects of the PPC. The third stage was a simulated viral load test. Four types were identified: good water repellency and water resistance, poor air permeability (Type A PPC); good water repellency and air permeability, poor water resistance (Type B PPC); poor water repellency, poor water resistance, and fair air permeability (Type C PPC); and good water repellency, poor air permeability, and fair water resistance (Type D PPC). Type D PPC had a significantly higher number of contamination sites on the subjects' dorsum and palm. Type C PPC had the highest contamination over the trunk. Findings in the viral load test showed that there was a significant difference in the contamination of the face (t=4.69, df=38, Phand contamination is lowest among the 4 groups in the current study.

  15. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  16. Decree of the 29. december 2003 relative to the education modes of the competent person in radiation protection and the trainer certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This decree details the content of the training of the radiation protection competent person that must allow to the applicant to execute the missions assigned by the article R.231-106 from the Labour code. The different chapters are as follow: radioactivity; radiation-matter interaction; protection principle against external exposure; protection principle against contamination; radiation detection; biological radiation effects; exposure sources for man; regulation; the work of the competent person in radiation protection; optimization in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  17. Measuring protected-area isolation and correlations of isolation with land-use intensity and protection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferling, Ian S; Proulx, Raphaël; Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Fahrig, Lenore; Messier, Christian

    2012-08-01

    Protected areas cover over 12% of the terrestrial surface of Earth, and yet many fail to protect species and ecological processes as originally envisioned. Results of recent studies suggest that a critical reason for this failure is an increasing contrast between the protected lands and the surrounding matrix of often highly altered land cover. We measured the isolation of 114 protected areas distributed worldwide by comparing vegetation-cover heterogeneity inside protected areas with heterogeneity outside the protected areas. We quantified heterogeneity as the contagion of greenness on the basis of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) values, for which a higher value of contagion indicates less heterogeneous land cover. We then measured isolation as the difference between mean contagion inside the protected area and mean contagion in 3 buffer areas of increasing distance from the protected-area border. The isolation of protected areas was significantly positive in 110 of the 114 areas, indicating that vegetation cover was consistently more heterogeneous 10-20 km outside protected areas than inside their borders. Unlike previous researchers, we found that protected areas in which low levels of human activity are allowed were more isolated than areas in which high levels are allowed. Our method is a novel way to assess the isolation of protected areas in different environmental contexts and regions. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  19. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    telecommunication carriers' personal data sharing practices in order to protect their customers' data privacy when the regulation restricts use of the data for marketing purposes. In this case National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA) challenged a new Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule...... requiring carriers to obtain customers' advance approval before releasing their telephone record information for marketing purposes. NCTA claimed the FCC's new opt-in rule violates companies' First Amendment right to engage in commercial speech. At stake in this appeal was the constitutionally required...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...

  20. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF FORMING THE SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROVIDING SOCIAL PROTECTION INVOLUNTARILY DISPLACED PERSONS WITH CLUSTER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Kropelnytska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.

  1. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C – a new measure of children’s personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMaćkiewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to adjust personality measurements to children’s developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C. To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model. Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children’s self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged approximately 7 to 10 years.

  2. Occupational risk factors for skin cancer and the availability of sun protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Ofenloch, Robert; Surber, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Germany implemented a new occupational disease "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation (UVR)" into the German ordinance on occupational diseases. Since primary prevention is very important, the aim of this study was to assess the provision of sun protection measures by the employers in vocational school students for outdoor professions. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the availability of sun protection measures at German workplaces and the risk of occupational sunburn by surveying 245 vocational school students working in outdoor occupations. More than 40 % of the students did not receive any sun protection measures by their employer, and 34.5 % of the students got sunburned during work. Working in the shade was a protective factor for occupational sunburn but was merely available for 23.7 % of the outdoor workers. Our study reveals a strong need for effective sun protection measures, including both administrative controls like education and personal protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

  3. Fine PM measurements: personal and indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, M; Hänninen, O; Koistinen, K; Hashim, J H

    2002-12-01

    This review compiles personal and indoor microenvironment particulate matter (PM) monitoring needs from recently set research objectives, most importantly the NRC published "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (1998)". Techniques and equipment used to monitor PM personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations and the constituents of the sampled PM during the last 20 years are then reviewed. Development objectives are set and discussed for personal and microenvironment PM samplers and monitors, for filter materials, and analytical laboratory techniques for equipment calibration, filter weighing and laboratory climate control. The progress is leading towards smaller sample flows, lighter, silent, independent (battery powered) monitors with data logging capacity to store microenvironment or activity relevant sensor data, advanced flow controls and continuous recording of the concentration. The best filters are non-hygroscopic, chemically pure and inert, and physically robust against mechanical wear. Semiautomatic and primary standard equivalent positive displacement flow meters are replacing the less accurate methods in flow calibration, and also personal sampling flow rates should become mass flow controlled (with or without volumetric compensation for pressure and temperature changes). In the weighing laboratory the alternatives are climatic control (set temperature and relative humidity), and mechanically simpler thermostatic heating, air conditioning and dehumidification systems combined with numerical control of temperature, humidity and pressure effects on flow calibration and filter weighing.

  4. A Review of Personality Measurement in Aircrew Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    hypochondriasis , b) psychopathic deviate, c) neuroticism, d) manifest anxiety, e) antisocial, f) depression, and g) hysteria. Significant correlations ranged from... hypochondriasis , depression, hysteria, psychopathic personality, masculinity-femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, hypomauia, and social...that the successful pilot is relatively free from, or tends to deny, somatic complaints or symptoms that are characteristic of maladjusted individuals

  5. Animal personality, behaviour or traits: What are we measuring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oers, K.

    2008-01-01

    With the development of a new bottom-up methodology, the author aims at providing its with a tool for comparative personality research. This tool will indeed help us to identify differences between related species. However, to understand how differences within species are maintained and differences

  6. Teaching Students Personal and Social Responsibility with Measurable Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaiolo, Frank P.; Neilson, Steve; Daugherty, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) launched a national initiative that championed the importance of a twenty-first century liberal education. What was unique about this initiative was the underlying assumption that educating for personal and social responsibility was "core" for an educated citizenry and should be…

  7. Measuring Campus Climate for Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Andrew J.; Mitchell, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding institutional climate enhances decision-making capacity when planning new programs and improving learning environments on college campuses. This chapter defines climate, discusses the purpose and advantages of climate assessment, and identifies important factors to consider in planning and conducting a personal and social…

  8. Use of insecticide-treated clothes for personal protection against malaria: a community trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuria Isabel W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study sought to determine the effect of using insecticide-treated clothes (ITCs on personal protection against malaria infection. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of using ITCs on the rate of infection with malaria parasites and the effect on indoor mosquito density. Methods This study was done in Dadaab refugee camps, North Eastern Province Kenya between April and August 2002, and involved a total of 198 participants, all refugees of Somali origin. The participants were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Half of the participants (treatment group had their personal clothes worn on a daily basis (Diras, Saris, Jalbaabs, Ma'awis and shirts and their bedding (sheets and blankets treated with insecticide (permethrin. The other half (comparison group had their clothes treated with placebo (plain water. Indoor mosquito density was determined from twelve households belonging to the participants; six in the treatment block and six in the comparison block. During pre-test and post-test, laboratory analysis of blood samples was done, indoor mosquito density determined and questionnaires administered. Using STATA statistical package, tests for significant difference between the two groups were conducted. Results Use of ITCs reduced both malaria infection rates and indoor mosquito density significantly. The odds of malaria infection in the intervention group were reduced by about 70 percent. The idea of using ITCs for malaria infection control was easily accepted among the refugees and they considered it beneficial. No side effects related to use of the ITCs were observed from the participants. Conclusion The use of ITCs reduces malaria infection rate and has potential as an appropriate method of malaria control. It is recommended, therefore, that this strategy be considered for use among poor communities like slum dwellers and other underprivileged communities, such as street children and refugees

  9. Protection of occupants from exhaled infectious agents and floor material emissions in rooms with personalized and underfloor ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2007-01-01

    the concentration of exhaled air pollution increased in the room. The two types of personalized ventilation performed differently. Subsequent analyses of airborne infection transmission risk indicated that personalized ventilation could become a supplement to traditional methods of infection control....... of pollutants associated with exhaled air and floor material emissions was evaluated at various combinations of personalized and underfloor airflow rates. Compared to underfloor ventilation alone, personalized and underfloor ventilation provided excellent protection Of seated occupants from any pollution, while......The performance of two personalized. ventilation systems supplying air at the breathing zone was tested in conjunction with underfloor ventilation generating two different airflow patterns in a full-scale test room. Two breathing thermal manikins were used to simulate occupants. The distribution...

  10. SI units for radiation protection - an interim measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The brief memorandum comments on the problems concerning the delay in publishing the report of the ICRU working group on the change to SI units and makes the following suggestions to organisations considering whether to change over to SI units in the near future: a) It would be preferable to delay change-over to SI units for quantities specifying radiation for protection purposes until ICRU publishes its recommendations. This would avoid the risk of having to make two successive changes in procedure, with their attendant cost, need for retraining and the possibility of errors. (b) If, however, in order to be consistent with a change to SI units that has already been made in other applications of radiation, there are strong reasons for changing to SI units before the ICRU recommendations are published, then as an interim measure, measurements of exposure may be converted to dose equivalent using the approximation that 1 mR = 10 μSv. A decision as to whether to alter the scales of existing instruments, or to convert readings to dose equivalent at a later stage will depend on individual circumstances. (U.K.)

  11. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  12. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  13. Child protection training, experience, and personal views of dentists in the prefecture of Attica, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laud, Alexandra; Gizani, Sotiria; Maragkou, Sygklitiki; Welbury, Richard; Papagiannoulis, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The abuse and neglect of children constitutes a social phenomenon that unfortunately is widespread irrespective of geographic, ethnic, or social background. Dentists may be the first health professionals to recognize signs of child maltreatment (CM) and have an important role in dealing with such incidents. To describe the training, experience, and personal views of dentists practicing in the Prefecture of Attica regarding the recognition and referral of abused and neglected children. A random sample was drawn from a target population of dentists registered with two of the largest dental associations in Greece. The dental practitioners were interviewed by two paediatric dentists using a specially designed questionnaire. Information was collected regarding their awareness on child maltreatment, the frequency of suspected incidents as well as the reasons for not reporting them. With a response rate of 83%, findings are reported from 368 interviews (54% male, mean age 43 years). Only 21% of respondents had received training on child protection at undergraduate level. Suspected abuse was 13% and suspected neglect was 35%. Only six of the 368 respondents made an official report of a suspected case of child maltreatment. The most common reason that might prevent a dentist from reporting a case was doubt over the diagnosis (44%). Ninety-seven per cent of dentists believed that recognition and referral of incidents should be part of undergraduate training. Dental practitioners did not feel adequately informed on recognizing and referring child abuse and neglect cases. The low percentage of reported incidents and the lack of legislation indicate a great need for continuously educating dentists on child maltreatment as well as for setting up an organized system in Greece for reporting such incidents to protect the dentist referring the case as well as the child being victimized. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and

  14. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    's right to communicate with their customers. Considering privacy risks associated with advances in computer technology, the complexities of modern information processing and evolving mobile advertising (m-advertising) practices, privacy regulations should not be equated with unwarranted speech regulations...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...... to support the growth of the global mobile advertising (m-advertising) industry....

  15. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was

  16. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group.

  17. Fourth meeting of persons competent in radiation protection; Quatriemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, C. [Centre Hospitalier de Belfort-Montbeliard, 90 (France); Vidal, J.P.; Ammerich, M.; Feron, F. [Drection Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Pasquier, J.L.; Lecomte, J.F.; Mansoux, H. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France); Menechal, Ph. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Briand-Champlong, J. [Service de protection radiologique (SPRA), 75 - Paris (France); Gambini, D.J. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Bontemps, A. [CEFRI, 92 - Paris La Defense (France); Frobert, F. [CEA Saclay, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Grandclaude, A. [Societe Cursive (France); Fraboulet, P. [Groupe Hospitalier la Pitie-Salpetriere, - 75 Paris (France); Laporte, Ch. [FRAMATOME ANP, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Roussille, F. [INSERM, 75 - Paris (France); Lahaye, Th

    2005-07-01

    The different contributions are as follow: the landscape of radiation sources in France; decrees: general presentation; relation of the person competent in radiation protection (P.C.R.) with officials organisms: the part of the D.G.S.N.R.; relation of the P.C.R. with the official organisms: the part of I.R.S.N.; authorizations: industry, education, research; interlocutors of the P.C.R. in hospitals; enforcement of the decree relative to the training of the P.C.R. at the I.N.S.T.N.; the educational contribution of the P.C.R.; European equivalence of the P.C.R. synthesis of training, comparison to the French situation; P.C.R.: contribution, missions and means in the industrial medium; management of damaged situations by the P.C.R.: contribution of the training and the putting in position; coordination with the exterior companies and prevention plans out of I.N.B.; regulatory evolution. (N.C.)

  18. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  19. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  20. Radiation protection measures during the decommissioning of DR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Thommy Ingemann; Hedemann Jensen, Per; Sogaard-Hansena, Jens; Lauridsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    DR 2 (Danish Reactor 2), one of the research reactors at the Riso site, has been in the process of being decommissioned during the last two years. The decommissioning will be completed in 2008. The reactor went critical for the first time in late 1958 and was shut down in 1975. The construction was a 5 MW light-water moderated and cooled tank type reactor. Although the process of decommissioning was formally initiated in 2005, it was preceded by a characterization project with the purpose of determining activity contents in key materials and dose rates at relevant spots in the reactor. The paper describes the removal of neutron beam plugs, grid plate and a thermal column with focus on radiation protection issues. The primary objective is, however, to describe the measures taken to control radiation doses during the removal of the reactor block concrete and the reactor tank.The demolition and removal of concrete was done by an external contractor. The contractor had to comply with a comprehensive set of requirements. This included splitting activated concrete from concrete containing activities below clearance levels with no use of fluids of any kind, as the risk of not being able to control diffusion of contaminated fluids was an important issue. The experience from the decommissioning of the DR 1 reactor in 2005 showed that water-cooled cutting made it very difficult to monitor the levels of air contamination as the filters of the air monitors were blocked frequently. Certainly, dry cutting turned out to be a great technical challenge to the external contractor. Another demand was that the work should take place inside a de-pressurized containment in order to control air contamination and thereby minimize internal doses. The experience gathered from the practical implementation of dose reducing measures will be discussed. Problems involving the use of external contractors will be discussed, including training of personnel with no prior knowledge of radioactivity

  1. Public, private and personal: qualitative research on policymakers' opinions on smokefree interventions to protect children in 'private' spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Gareth; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Hudson, Sheena; Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Lanumata, Tolotea

    2010-12-31

    Governments use law to constrain aspects of private activities for purposes of protecting health and social wellbeing. Policymakers have a range of perceptions and beliefs about what is public or private. An understanding of the possible drivers of policymaker decisions about where government can or should intervene for health is important, as one way to better guide appropriate policy formation. Our aim was to identify obstacles to, and opportunities for, government smokefree regulation of private and public spaces to protect children. In particular, to seek policymaker opinions on the regulation of smoking in homes, cars and public parks and playgrounds in a country with incomplete smokefree laws (New Zealand). Case study, using structured interviews to ask policymakers (62 politicians and senior officials) about their opinions on new smokefree legislation for public and private places. Supplementary data was obtained from the Factiva media database, on the views of New Zealand local authority councillors about policies for smokefree outdoor public places. Overall, interviewees thought that government regulation of smoking in private places was impractical and unwise. However, there were some differences on what was defined as 'private', particularly for cars. Even in public parks, smoking was seen by some as a 'personal' decision, and unlikely to be amenable to regulation. Most participants believed that educative, supportive and community-based measures were better and more practical means of reducing smoking in private places, compared to regulation. The constrained view of the role of regulation of smoking in public and private domains may be in keeping with current political discourse in New Zealand and similar Anglo-American countries. Policy and advocacy options to promote additional smokefree measures include providing a better voice for childrens' views, increasing information to policymakers about the harms to children from secondhand smoke and the

  2. Nanoparticle usage and protection measures in the manufacturing industry--a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kaspar; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Addressing the risks of nanoparticles requires knowledge about release into the environment and occupational exposure. However, such information currently is not systematically collected; therefore, this risk assessment lacks quantitative data. The goal was to evaluate the current level of nanoparticle usage in Swiss industry as well as health, safety, and environmental measures, and the number of potentially exposed workers. A representative, stratified mail survey was conducted among 1626 clients of the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (SUVA), which insures 80,000 manufacturing firms, representing 84% of all Swiss manufacturing companies (947 companies answered the survey for a 58.3% response rate). The extrapolation to all Swiss manufacturing companies results in 1309 workers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1073 to 1545) potentially exposed to nanoparticles in 586 companies (95% CI: 145 to 1027). This corresponds to 0.08% of workers (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.09%) and to 0.6% of companies (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.1%). The industrial chemistry sector showed the highest percentage of companies using nanoparticles (21.2%). Other important sectors also reported nanoparticles. Personal protection equipment was the predominant protection strategy. Only a few applied specific environmental protection measures. This is the first nationwide representative study on nanoparticle use in the manufacturing sector. The information gained can be used for quantitative risk assessment. It can also help policymakers design strategies to support companies developing a safer use of nanomaterial. Noting the current low use of nanoparticles, there is still time to proactively introduce protective methods. If the predicted "nano-revolution" comes true, now is the time to take action.

  3. Measuring exposure in DDoS protection services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Mattijs; Sperotto, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Denial-of-Service attacks have rapidly gained in popularity over the last decade. The increase in frequency, size, and complexity of attacks has made DDoS Protection Services (DPS) an attractive mitigation solution to which the protection of services can be outsourced. Despite a thriving market and

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke and the use of personal protective equipment 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Caroline Vieira; Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Solci, Maria Cristina; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2017-03-02

    analyze the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in electrocautery smoke in operating rooms and the use of personal protective equipment by the intraoperative team when exposed to hydrocarbons. exploratory and cross-sectional field research conducted in a surgery center. Gases were collected by a vacuum suction pump from a sample of 50 abdominal surgeries in which an electrocautery was used. A form was applied to identify the use of personal protective equipment. Gases were analyzed using chromatography. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's test were used to treat data. there were 17 (34%) cholecystectomies with an average duration of 136 minutes, while the average time of electrocautery usage was 3.6 minutes. Airborne hydrocarbons were detected in operating rooms in 100% of the surgeries. Naphthalene was detected in 48 (96.0%) surgeries and phenanthrene in 49 (98.0%). The average concentration of these compounds was 0.0061 mg/m3 and a strong correlation (0.761) was found between them. The intraoperative teams did not use respirator masks such as the N95. electrocautery smoke produces gases that are harmful to the health of the intraoperative team, which is a concern considering the low adherence to the use of personal protective equipment. analizar las concentraciones de hidrocarburos policíclicos aromáticos provenientes del humo del electrocauterio en salas quirúrgicas y el uso de equipamientos de protección individual por parte del equipo intraoperatorio, cuando expuestos a los hidrocarburos. investigación de campo, exploratoria y transversal realizada en un centro quirúrgico. En la muestra, compuesta por 50 cirugías abdominales con uso de electrocauterio, los gases fueron recolectados con una bomba de succión de vacío. Se aplicó un formulario para identificar el uso de los equipamientos de protección. Se realizó la lectura de los gases por medio de cromatografía. Los datos fueron analizados con la estadística descriptiva y el test de

  5. Evaluation of Personal Chemical Vapor Protection for Patrol and Tactical Law Enforcement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fedele, Paul D; Lake, William L; Arca, Victor J; Marshall, Stephen M; Mitchell, David B

    2002-01-01

    ... functions in law enforcement. Various Level C, impermeable and charcoal impregnated, vapor-absorptive, air-permeable protective clothing ensembles, worn with the MSA Millenium respiratory protective mask/butyl hood, and seven-mil...

  6. Measurement of nonclinical personality characteristics of women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, T; Wiederman, M W

    1996-10-01

    Past research on personality and eating disorders has most often emphasized personality psychopathology and personality disorders. We further investigated nonclinical personality characteristics among women with anorexia nervosa (n = 35) or bulimia nervosa (n = 45) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982, 1985). The MPQ measures several personality traits that have been shown to consist of a substantial genetic component (Tellegen et al., 1988). In logistic regression analyses, women with anorexia nervosa evidenced greater degrees of control (vs. impulsivity) and general constraint, and a lower degree of absorption in sensory experiences relative to those with bulimia nervosa. Relative to the normative population (Tellegen, 1982), our sample evidenced very low scores on Well-being, Social Closeness, and Positive Affectivity and high scores on Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Negative Affectivity. Our results emphasize the importance of considering nonclinical personality features and temperament, and varying methods of assessment, in the understanding of predisposing factors for eating disorders.

  7. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cocoa Farmers' Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2018-02-13

    The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers' instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced ( p agrochemicals.

  9. Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers’ instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced (p agrochemicals. PMID:29438333

  10. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  11. Do privacy and data protection rules apply to legal persons and should they? A proposal for a two-tiered system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and data protection rules are usually said to protect the individual against intrusive governments and nosy companies. These rights guarantee the individual's freedom, personal autonomy and human dignity, among others. More and more, however, legal persons are also allowed to invoke the

  12. Situational judgement tests and personality measurement : some answers and more questions

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Timothy A.; Hofmans, Joeri; Wille, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Work psychologists have devoted considerable attention to studying how personality traits can best be conceptualized and assessed in 'high-stakes' contexts such as selection or hiring decisions. Lievens argued that two selection methods, Situational Judgement Tests and Assessment Centre exercises, by standardizing and contextualizing personality measurement, offer many advantages to personality psychology. In hopes of clarifying this argument, we ask two fundamental questions: (1) W...

  13. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguignet, Marine; Arnell, Andy; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Shi, Yichuan; Bingham, Heather; MacSharry, Brian; Kingston, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

  14. Are organisations in South Africa ready to comply with personal data protection or privacy legislation and regulations?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, Ntsako

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available people. Organisations require people’s trust and in turn, people are entitled to demand, as far as practicable and lawful, certain privileges from these organisations, such as the right to data protection or privacy. The power imbalance between... of restrictions on international data transfers, where there are no ‘adequate’ levels of personal data protection [5, 6]. This could have dire consequences for businesses. The European Union (EU) Directive [5] was a game changer. It resulted in the conclusion...

  15. Predicting personal exposure of Windsor, Ontario residents to volatile organic compounds using indoor measurements and survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corinne; MacNeill, Morgan; Wang, Daniel; Xu, Xiaohong; Guay, Mireille; Brook, Jeff; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    As part of a multi-year personal exposure monitoring campaign, we collected personal, indoor, and outdoor levels of 188 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In 2005, data were obtained for 48 non-smoking adults from Windsor, Ontario in order to assess their exposure to VOCs based on their daily routines and characteristics of their homes. During the 8-week winter and summer sampling sessions, five repeated 24-h measurements were obtained for each home. This paper focuses on the analysis of 18 VOCs: 11 have been declared toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, [1999. Statutes of Canada. Act assented to September 14, 1999. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. Available at Canada Gazette (Part III) 22(3): (Chapter 33). http://canadagazette.gc.ca/partIII/1999/g3-02203.pdf], and seven are commonly found in household and personal care products. Results of mixed effects models indicate that personal exposure to these VOCs can be largely predicted by indoor concentrations, with models including indoor concentrations found to have an r2 value for the fixed effects ranging from 58.4% to 87.2% for the CEPA toxic VOCs and from 41.7% to 90.1% for the commonly found VOCs. Given that people spend the majority of their time inside their home, characteristics of the home such as air exchange rates, type of garage, and type of stove have a greater potential to impact personal exposures.

  16. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHAN DILCHERT

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  18. Measuring Personal Networks and Their Relationship with Scientific Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of social networks has remained a crucial and yet understudied aspect of the efforts to measure Triple Helix linkages. The Triple Helix model aims to explain, among other aspects of knowledge-based societies, "the current research system in its social context" (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 2000:109). This paper develops a novel…

  19. The use of personal values in living standards measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-26

    Aug 26, 2011 ... Values Questionnaire, Living Standards Measure, purchase decision- .... According to Schwartz (1992), scholars in the areas of psychology, anthropology ... The application of the values perspective to the marketing of .... is a fairly complex task involving large data tables, and that some of the LSM groups.

  20. An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter; Niehorster, Sarah; Gaye-Valentine, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Researchers often use very abbreviated (e.g., 1-item, 2-item) measures of personality traits due to their convenience and ease of use as well as the belief that such measures can adequately capture an individual's personality. Using data from 2 samples (N = 437 employees, N = 355 college students), we show that this practice, particularly the use of single-item measures, can lead researchers to substantially underestimate the role that personality traits play in influencing important behaviors and thereby overestimate the role played by new constructs. That is, the use of very short measures of personality may substantially increase both the Type 1 and Type 2 error rates. We argue that even slightly longer measures can substantially increase the validity of research findings without significant inconvenience to the researcher or research participants. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Radiation protection measurement - spectral solutions in special fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.J.; Trliber, K.H.; Schwerdn, K.; Laube, S.

    1997-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiation is a fact for nearly every person. One part of the exposition is due to natural or man made radioisotopes occurring in the environment. Another part exists because of technical sources. mainly x-ray machines for medical diagnostics. (authors)

  2. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  4. Delineating Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations across Measures, Temperament, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…

  5. Personal Protective Equipment Guide for Military Medical Treatment Facility Personnel Handling Casualties From Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. Not all infected patients develop VHFs. 3. There must be...strict adherence to hand hygiene (Ref. 100): Health care workers should clean their hands prior to donning personal protective equipment for patient...good example of a nonstochastic effect of radiation (Ref. 103). Nosocomial infection Infection acquired in the hospital. Nucleocapsid In a

  6. Report About a New Standard for Radiation Protection Training of Intervention Persons. In the Case of Radiological emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, T.; Steurer, A.; Schmitzer, C.

    2004-01-01

    In autumn 2003 the Austrian standard OENORM S 5207 with the title R adiation protection training of intervention persons in the case of radiological emergency situations w ill be published. The standard is directed to persons who have to invent in case of a radiological emergency, security forces and as well training centres. The standard has to fulfil three objectives: 1. Regulation of the minimum requirements for the radiation protection training and education of intervention persons. 2. Harmonization of the radiation protection and training of different security forces, for instance Austrian army, Red Cross Austria, Fire Department, Police Department. 3. Mutual recognition of parts of the education between the different security forces. To fulfil these aims the standard is structured in different education modules. If , for instance, a person attended a special training module at the Austrian military, this part of the education is also valid for a career at the Fire Department. Further the modular structure of the education gives the possibility for persons of a special security force to attend one or more modules at another security force. This will lead to an improved cooperation between the different security forces in case of a radiological emergency situation. The education is structured in four levels. The topics of the standard are: 1. Requirements for training centres 2. Guidelines for the examinations of the candidates 3. Topics and goals of the basic education 4. Topics and goals of the advanced education level one 5. Topics and goals of the advanced education level two 6. Topics and examples of specialised education 7. Obligatory further education once every year. (Author)

  7. Development of digital power measuring and protecting equipment for SPRR-300 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuejie; Li Xi'an; Zhu Shilei

    2005-01-01

    A measuring and protecting equipment of reactor power based on Single-Chip Microcomputer is introduced in this paper. The composition of hardware and the major control idea about the software for the equipment are presented. Digitizing the measuring data from nuclear instruments is precondition of reactor control and protection system which would be computerizing, and it is also an application of redundancy and variety of reactor protection system in nuclear measuring instruments. At last the working state is described. (authors)

  8. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, V L; Wilkinson, D M; Blacker, S D; Horner, F E; Carter, J; Rayson, M P; Havenith, G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (T is ) to predict rectal temperature (T re ) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (T mc ) predicted T re with an adjusted r 2 = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r 2 = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of T re resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and T mc can be used in a model to predict T re in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for T is over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin. (paper)

  9. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…

  10. Measuring the Adoption of DDoS Protection Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Mattijs; Sperotto, Anna; van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks have steadily gained in popularity over the last decade, their intensity ranging from mere nuisance to severe. The increased number of attacks, combined with the loss of revenue for the targets, has given rise to a market for DDoS Protection Service (DPS)

  11. The NRPB Chilton Calibration Laboratory for radiological protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory in NRPB Headquarters is intended as an authoritative reference laboratory for all aspects of radiation protection level instrument calibrations for X-, gamma and beta radiations and to be complementary to the national primary standards of the National Physical Laboratory. The gamma ray, filtered X-ray, fluorescence X-ray and beta ray facilities are described. (U.K.)

  12. Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to protect their employees from workplace hazards such as machines, work procedures, and hazardous substances that can cause injury...

  13. Measures of radiation protection in the operation of nuclear power plants in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Schreiter, W.

    1975-11-01

    A survey is given on the provisions concerning (a) radiation protection at nuclear power plants in the GDR including the instructions applying within the plant, (b) the organization of radiation protection services, and (c) the measures of radiation protection surveillance inside and outside the plant during operation. (author)

  14. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft..., ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE).'' In... caused by impaired fire protection features at nuclear power plants. The report documents the history of...

  15. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Bolte, John; Neubauer, Georg; Cardis, Elisabeth; Feychting, Maria; Gajsek, Peter; Heinrich, Sabine; Joseph, Wout; Mann, Simon; Martens, Luc; Mohler, Evelyn; Parslow, Roger C; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Radon, Katja; Schüz, Joachim; Thuroczy, György; Viel, Jean-François; Vrijheid, Martine

    2010-05-20

    The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  16. Children's exposure assessment of radiofrequency fields: Comparison between spot and personal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Huss, Anke; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Guxens, Mònica; Birks, Laura Ellen; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; Röösli, Martin; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana

    2018-05-24

    Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m 2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m 2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m 2 . Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether spot measurements, with the latter

  17. Measuring psychosocial variables that predict older persons' oral health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, H A

    1996-12-01

    The importance of recognising psychosocial characteristics of older people that influence their oral health behaviours and the potential success of dental procedures is discussed. Three variables and instruments developed and tested by the author and colleagues are presented. A measure of perceived importance of oral health behaviours has been found to be a significant predictor of dental service utilization in three studies. Self-efficacy regarding oral health has been found to be lower than self-efficacy regarding general health and medication use among older adults, especially among non-Western ethnic minorities. The significance of self-efficacy for predicting changes in caries and periodontal disease is described. Finally, a measure of expectations regarding specific dental procedures has been used with older people undergoing implant therapy. Studies with this instrument reveal that patients have concerns about the procedure far different than those focused on by dental providers. All three instruments can be used in clinical practice as a means of understanding patients' values, perceived oral health abilities, and expectations from dental care. These instruments can enhance dentist-patient rapport and improve the chances of successful dental outcomes for older patients.

  18. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity among mental health service users: conceptual development and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; McCarthy, Kevin S; Draine, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A measure of an individual's level of internalization of the norm of reciprocity may signal exchange preferences and indicate whether "active" or "passive" mental health services are preferable to consumers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR) scale. We recruited 70 persons receiving mental health services and 65 comparison participants to complete questionnaires assessing reciprocity tendencies and correlates of mental illness. Two of three subscales of a shortened PNR showed evidence of reliability and validity. Consumers endorsed higher levels of the reciprocity norm than persons not seeking services. Persons in "active" service settings displayed greater rigidity in application of the reciprocity norm than individuals in "passive" service settings or comparison participants. The shortened PNR can be a useful measure of individual reciprocity preferences. Measurement of the internalization of the norm of reciprocity may assist practitioners in identifying what types of services are more likely to retain and benefit mental health service consumers.

  19. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  20. Fundamental right to freedom of genetic research and the protection of personal data: the principles of prevention and precaution to guarantee the right to privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linden Ruaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews fundamental rights of freedom of research and protection of personal data in the field of human genetics, it proposes the application of the precautionary principle of prevention. Evaluates the Brazilian legislation on the subject matter of research as to guarantee privacy measure of personal data and information collected in scientific research, a situation that worsens in the middle in digital and virtual world because it is a space virtually rapid development. Focuses on the limitation of fundamental rights, based on the conception that are not absolute. It proposes the principles of precaution and prevention among virtual environment. The deductive and dialectical methods are adopted, having premised most fundamental rights related and under Brazilian law; the dialectical method was used because the issue is the subject of constant debate is necessary confrontation of doctrinal currents and the Brazilian legislation.

  1. Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborit, Juana Mari Delgado; Aquilina, Noel J; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-06-15

    Personal exposures to 15 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 100 adult nonsmokers living in three UK areas, namely London, West Midlands, and rural South Wales, were measured using an actively pumped sampler carried around by the volunteers for 5/1 (VOC/PAH) consecutive 24-h periods, following their normal lifestyle. Results from personal exposure measurements categorized by geographical location, type of dwelling, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are presented. The average personal exposure concentration to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo(a)pyrene representing the main carcinogenic components of the VOC and PAH mixture were 2.2 +/- 2.5 microg/m3, 0.4 +/- 0.7 microg/m3, and 0.3 +/- 0.7 ng/m3 respectively. The association of a number of generic factors with personal exposure concentrations was investigated, including first-line property, traffic, the presence of an integral garage, and ETS. Only living in houses with integral garages and being exposed to ETS were identified as unequivocal contributors to VOC personal exposure, while only ETS had a clear effect upon PAH personal exposures. The measurements of personal exposures were compared with health-based European and UK air quality guidelines, with some exceedences occurring. Activities contributing to high personal exposures included the use of a fireplace in the home, ETS exposure, DIY (i.e., construction and craftwork activities), and photocopying, among others.

  2. Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations arising from Medical and Dental Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-01-01

    This Code is a revision of the 1964 Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use. This revised Code (which does not have the force of law) applies to the use of ionizing radiations arising from all forms of medical and dental practice and from allied research involving human subjects. It covers both workers, patients and members of the public. Although the arrangements recommended relate primarily to institutions they should be applied, as far as possible, by all medical and dental practitioners. The Code has been drawn up in the light of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and of the views of the Medical Research Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations.

  3. Child protection workers dealing with child abuse: The contribution of personal, social and organizational resources to secondary traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Shlomit Weiss; Ben-Porat, Anat; Itzhaky, Haya

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared secondary traumatization among child protection social workers versus social workers employed at social service departments. In addition, based on Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the study examined the contribution of working in the field of child protection as well as the contribution of background variables, personal resources (mastery), and resources in the workers' social and organizational environment (social support, effectiveness of supervision, and role stress) to secondary traumatization. The findings indicate that levels of mastery and years of work experience contributed negatively to secondary traumatization, whereas exposure to child maltreatment, trauma history, and role stress contributed positively to secondary traumatization. However, no significant contribution was found for social support and effectiveness of supervision. The study identifies factors that can prevent distress among professionals such as child protection workers, who are exposed to the trauma of child abuse victims. Recommendations are provided accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiations arising from Medical and Dental Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Code is a revision of the 1964 Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use. This revised Code (which does not have the force of law) applies to the use of ionizing radiations arising from all forms of medical and dental practice and from allied research involving human subjects. It covers both workers, patients and members of the public. Although the arrangements recommended relate primarily to institutions they should be applied, as far as possible, by all medical and dental practitioners. The Code has been drawn up in the light of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and of the views of the Medical Research Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations. (NEA) [fr

  5. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of ‘environmental protection’, and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  6. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  7. The effect of personal experience on choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis; Jose Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss and cost. Preference heterogeneity among survey respondents was examined using three econometric models and risk preferences were evaluated by comparing willingness to pay for wildfire protection...

  8. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  9. Measuring management success for protected species: Looking beyond biological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Bisack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the ocean ecosystem, including the human component, is such that a single fishery may require multiple policy instruments to support recovery and conservation of protected species, in addition to those for fisheries management. As regulations multiply, the need for retrospective analysis and evaluation grows in order to inform future policy. To accurately evaluate policy instruments, clear objectives and their link to outcomes are necessary, as well as identifying criteria to evaluate outcomes. The Northeast United States sink gillnet groundfish fishery provides a case study of the complexity of regulations and policy instruments implemented under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act to address bycatch of marine mammals. The case study illustrates a range of possible objectives for the policy instruments including biological, economic, social-normative and longevity factors. We highlight links between possible objectives, outcomes and criteria for the four factors, as well as areas for consideration when undertaking ex-post analyses. To support learning from past actions, we call for a coordinated effort involving multiple disciplines and jurisdictions to undertake retrospective analyses and evaluations of key groups of policy instruments used for protected species.

  10. Intervention levels for protective measures in nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1992-12-01

    A radiation protection philosophy for exposure situations following an accident has been developed by international organisations such as the ICRP, IAEA, NES/OECD, FAO/WHO, and the CEC during the last decade. After the Chernobyl accident, the application of radiation protection principles for intervention situations such as exposure from accidental contamination or radon in dwellings were further developed and this work is still in progress. The present intervention policy recommended by the international organisations as well as by the Nordic radiation protection authorities is reviewed. The Nordic Intervention levels for foodstuff restrictions, both for the Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl periods, have been based on dose limits and they are therefore in conflict with international intervention policy. Illustrative examples on intervention level setting for relocation and foodstuff restrictions are derived for Nordic conditions from the optimisation principle recommended by the international organisations. Optimised Generic Intervention Levels have been determined to be about 10 mSv x month -1 for relocation/return and 5,000-30,000 Bqxkg -1 for restrictions on various foodstuffs contaminated with 137 Cs and 131 I. (au) (14 tabs., 1 ill., 16 refs.)

  11. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  12. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Korn, Leo R.; Zhang, Lin; Weisel, Clifford P.; Turpin, Barbara; Morandi, Maria; Stock, Tom; Colome, Steve

    As a part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study, 48 h integrated residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of 10 carbonyls were simultaneously measured in 234 homes selected from three US cities using the Passive Aldehydes and Ketones Samplers (PAKS). In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using residential indoor concentrations to predict personal exposures to carbonyls. Based on paired t-tests, the means of indoor concentrations were not different from those of personal exposure concentrations for eight out of the 10 measured carbonyls, indicating indoor carbonyls concentrations, in general, well predicted the central tendency of personal exposure concentrations. In a linear regression model, indoor concentrations explained 47%, 55%, and 65% of personal exposure variance for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, respectively. The predictability of indoor concentrations on cross-individual variability in personal exposure for the other carbonyls was poorer, explainingexposure concentrations. It was found that activities related to driving a vehicle and performing yard work had significant impacts on personal exposures to a few carbonyls.

  13. Health behavior in persons with spinal cord injury: development and initial validation of an outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, S D; Wahlgren, D R; Epping-Jordan, J E; Rossi, A L

    1998-10-01

    To describe the development and initial psychometric properties of a new outcome measure for health behaviors that delay or prevent secondary impairments associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Persons with SCI were surveyed during routine annual physical evaluations. Veterans Affairs Medical Center Spinal Cord Injury Unit, which specializes in primary care for persons with SCI. Forty-nine persons with SCI, aged 19-73 years, 1-50 years post-SCI. The newly developed Spinal Cord Injury Lifestyle Scale (SCILS). Internal consistency is high (alpha = 0.81). Correlations between clinicians' ratings of participants' health behavior and the new SCILS provide preliminary support for construct validity. The SCILS is a brief, self-report measure of health-related behavior in persons with SCI. It is a promising new outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical and educational efforts for health maintenance and prevention of secondary impairments associated with SCI.

  14. Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE. Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers’ instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced (p < 0.05 by region of residence of cocoa farmers, gender, possession of formal education and farming as primary occupation. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the log of number PPE worn was significantly influenced (p < 0.10 by region, marital status, attainment of formal education, good health, awareness of manufacturers’ instructions, land area and contact index. It was among others concluded that efforts to train farmers on the need to be familiar with manufacturers’ instructions and use PPE would enhance

  15. Video-Based Learning vs Traditional Lecture for Instructing Emergency Medicine Residents in Disaster Medicine Principles of Mass Triage, Decontamination, and Personal Protective Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Henry A; Trang, Karen; Chason, Kevin W; Biddinger, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Introduction Great demands have been placed on disaster medicine educators. There is a need to develop innovative methods to educate Emergency Physicians in the ever-expanding body of disaster medicine knowledge. The authors sought to demonstrate that video-based learning (VBL) could be a promising alternative to traditional learning methods for teaching disaster medicine core competencies. Hypothesis/Problem The objective was to compare VBL to traditional lecture (TL) for instructing Emergency Medicine residents in the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP; Irving, Texas USA) disaster medicine core competencies of patient triage and decontamination. A randomized, controlled pilot study compared two methods of instruction for mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emergency Medicine resident learning was measured with a knowledge quiz, a Likert scale measuring comfort, and a practical exercise. An independent samples t-test compared the scoring of the VBL with the TL group. Twenty-six residents were randomized to VBL (n=13) or TL (n=13). Knowledge score improvement following video (14.9%) versus lecture (14.1%) did not differ significantly between the groups (P=.74). Comfort score improvement also did not differ (P=.64) between video (18.3%) and lecture groups (15.8%). In the practical skills assessment, the VBL group outperformed the TL group overall (70.4% vs 55.5%; Plearning vs traditional lecture for instructing emergency medicine residents in disaster medicine principles of mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):7-12.

  16. A study on the radiation and environmental safety -Development of radiation protection and measurement technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, See Yung; Lee, Tae Yung; Lee, Hyung Sub; Kim, Jan Ryul; Kim, Chang Kyung; Kim, Bong Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Soo; Jung, Kyung Kee; Jung, Duk Yun; Lee, Bong Jae; Chul, Yoon Suk; Lee, Kee Chang; Yoon, Yu Chang; Jung, Rae Ik; Lee, Sang Yoon; Han, Yung Dae; Kim, Jong Soo, I; Kim, Jong Soo, II; Suh, Kyung Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung [Han Yang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Reference X- and neutron radiation fields have been established and evaluated to support the national radiation protection programme under which performance evaluation test for domestic personal dosimetry will be implemented by the ministerial ordinance 1992-15, and to provide a basic technical support in radiation protection dosimetry. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with the KAERI reference radiation fields which comply well with those in the new ANSI N13.11(1993) to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of whole body direct bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been also developed and evaluated to be equally excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries. A BOMAB phantom for precise WBC calibration has also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. A principal method for estimating the cost for radiation protection which is important in performing a cost-benefit analysis for the radiation protection optimization study based on the ALARA principle has been preliminarily investigated and suggested. 49 figs, 67 tabs, 50 refs. (Author).

  17. A Legal Approach to Civilian Use of Drones in Europe. Privacy and Personal Data Protection Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Pauner Chulvi, Cristina; Viguri Cordero, Jorge Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Drones are a growth industry evolving quickly from military to civilian uses however, they have the potential to pose a serious risk to security, privacy and data protection. After a first stage focused on safety issues, Europe is facing the challenge to develop a regulatory framework for drones integration into the airspace system while safeguarding the guarantees of fundamental rights and civil liberties. This paper analyses the potential privacy and data protection risks ...

  18. Are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) persons protected against discrimination and hate crime in Georgia?

    OpenAIRE

    Japaridze, Sophio

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses whether lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are protected against discrimination and hate crime in Georgia. Georgia is dominated by deeply rooted traditions, history and religion which promote stigmatisation and enhance existing negative stereotypes of the LGBT community. This is aggravated by state practice and poor legislation which fail to ensure adequate protection of LGBT individuals against discrimination and hate crime. Even though homosexuality ...

  19. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology -A study on the radiation and environmental safety-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Si Young; Seo, Kyeong Won; Yoon, Seok Cheol; Lee, Tae Yeong; Kim, Bong Hwan; Chung, Deok Yeon; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Jong Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Kim, Jang Ryeol; Lee, Sang Yoon

    1994-07-01

    Reference radiation fields which can meet the national and international standard and criteria such as the ANSI N13.11 have been designed, produced and evaluated to maintain the national traceability and reliability of the radiation measurement and to provide precise calibration of the various radiation measuring instruments as well as standard irradiation of the personal dosimeters for the performance evaluation. Existing dose calculation algorithm has been improved to correctly evaluate the shallow dose from the β(Ti-204) + γ(Cs-137) mixed radiation exposure by applying the TLD response correction function newly derived in this study. A mathematical algorithm to calculate the internal dose from inhalation of the uranium isotopes has been developed on the basis of the ICRP-30 respiratory tract model. Detailed performance analysis of the KAERI lung counter has been carried out to participate in the intercomparison of lung dosimetry. A preliminary and basic study on the quantitative method of optimal dose reduction based on the ALARA concept has been performed to technically support and strengthen the national radiation protection infrastructure. (Author)

  20. Assessing dose of the representative person for the purpose of radiation protection of the public. ICRP publication 101. Approved by the Commission in September 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Commission intended that its revised recommendations should be based on a simple, but widely applicable, system of protection that would clarify its objectives and provide a basis for the more formal systems needed by operating managers and regulators. The recommendations would establish quantified constraints, or limits, on individual dose from specified sources. These dose constraints apply to actual or representative people who encounter occupational, medical, and public exposures. This report updates the previous guidance for estimating dose to the public. Dose to the public cannot be measured directly and, in some cases, it cannot be measured at all. Therefore, for the purpose of protection of the public, it is necessary to characterise an individual, either hypothetical or specific, whose dose can be used for determining compliance with the relevant dose constraint. This individual is defined as the 'representative person'. The Commission's goal of protection of the public is achieved if the relevant dose constraint for this individual for a single source is met and radiological protection is optimised. This report explains the process of estimating annual dose and recognises that a number of different methods are available for this purpose. These methods range from deterministic calculations to more complex probabilistic techniques. In addition, a mixture of these techniques may be applied. In selecting characteristics of the representative person, three important concepts should be borne in mind: reasonableness, sustainability, and homogeneity. Each concept is explained and examples are provided to illustrate their roles. Doses to the public are prospective (may occur in the future) or retrospective (occurred in the past). Prospective doses are for hypothetical individuals who may or may not exist in the future, while retrospective doses are generally calculated for specific individuals. The Commission recognises that the level of detail afforded by its

  1. Personality Disorders in Later Life: Questions about the Measurement, Course, and Impact of Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Balsis, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Lifespan perspectives have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of many forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to personality disorders in middle adulthood and later life. Several issues are responsible for this deficiency, including difficulty applying the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders to older people and challenges in identifying appropriate samples of older participants. The goal of this review is to explore the benefits of considering older adults in the study of personality disorders. Later life offers a unique opportunity for investigators to consider links between personality pathology and consequential outcomes in people’s lives. Many domains are relevant, including health, longevity, social adjustment, marital relationships, and the experience of major life events. We review each domain and consider ways in which the study of middle-aged and older adults challenges researchers to evaluate how personality disorders in general are defined and measured. PMID:21219195

  2. Layer of protection analysis: Selecting cost effective safety measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry risks are reduced by applying technical solutions and taking organisational measures. The performance of both types of 'solutions' depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of

  3. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insect repellents and sunscreen: implications for personal protection strategies against mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the protection times provided by insect repellent and sunscreen in combined formulations against biting mosquitoes. To determine if concurrent use of repellent and sunscreen influenced protection times. Insect repellent containing comparable concentrations of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) with and without sunscreen were tested on human skin to determine the mean protection time (MPT) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in the laboratory. Further trials were undertaken to determine the effect on MPT of sunscreen reapplication over repellent every two hours. There was no significant difference in the MPT provided by 80% DEET with (MPT+/-SE=770+/-54.8 minutes) and without (MPT+/-SE=830+/-20.2 minutes) sunscreen or 7.14% DEET with (MPT+/-SE =240+/-15.5 minutes) and 6.98% DEET without (MPT+/-SE =230+/-18.4 minutes) sunscreen. Reapplication of sunscreen resulted in a significantly lower MPT of a 17.0% DEET formulation when sunscreen was reapplied concurrently (MPT+/-SE=330+/-25.2 minutes), compared with DEET alone (MPT+/-SE =400+/-12.7 minutes). When combined in a single formulation with sunscreen, the MPT provided by both high and low concentrations of DEET is not reduced. However, if sunscreen is reapplied over insect repellent, protection times can be reduced significantly. In areas of endemic mosquito-borne disease, the reapplication of a low concentration repellent and sunscreen formulation may provide the most effective protection from biting mosquitoes while minimising the risk of overexposure to DEET.

  6. Effectiveness of ventilation improvements as a protective measure against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, P.; Arvela, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radon reduction rates for ventilation improvement measures vary considerably. In 70% of the cases studied, further mitigation is needed to reach a level of 400 Bq/m 3 . Ventilation measures in crawl spaces and basements have resulted in reduction rates of up to 90%, though more typically 30-70%. Installing new mechanical systems in dwellings has resulted in 20-80% reduction rates. If fan use or fan efficiency is increased, radon levels can be reduced as much as when new systems are installed. Increasing fresh-air supply through vents or window gaps reduces radon concentrations 10-40%. Low ventilation rates, measured after mitigation using the passive per fluorocarbon tracer gas method, seem to be accompanied by also low radon reduction rates. Multiple zone tracer gas measurements were conducted in order to reveal radon entry from the soil and radon transport between zones. (orig.). (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  7. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, A. B.; Furnham, A.; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  8. The Utility of Personality Measures in the Admissions Process at the United States Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    ISFP, INFP, INTP , ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ENTP, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ , AND ENTJ. Within each pair of personality indicators a scale score is determined. Each...applicants if the reader is willing to make the assumption that the relationship between personality measures (MBTI & PHQ) and attrition is the same... relationship between them. 1. Tinto’s Student Integration Model Vincent Tinto’s work is accepted as the basis for the modern study of college attrition

  9. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  10. Development of a personalized dosimetric tool for radiation protection in case of internal contamination and targeted radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.

    2005-12-01

    Current internal dosimetric estimations are based on the M.I.R.D. formalism and used standard mathematical models. These standard models are often far from a given patient morphology and do not allow to perform patient-specific dosimetry. The aim of this study was to develop a personalized dosimetric tool, which takes into account real patient morphology, composition and densities. This tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., a French acronym of Tool for the Evaluation of Personalized Internal Dose, is a user-friendly graphical interface. O.E.D.I.P.E. allows to create voxel-based patient-specific geometries and associates them with the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code. Radionuclide distribution and absorbed dose calculation can be performed at the organ and voxel scale. O.E.D.I.P.E. can be used in nuclear medicine for targeted radiotherapy and in radiation protection in case of internal contamination. (author)

  11. 34 CFR 5.71 - Protection of personal privacy and proprietary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other information of a private and personal nature. (b) Information having a commercial or financial... individuals who have access to such information, (3) the type and degree of risk of financial injury to be... use of nondiscloseable records or information from such records for authorized program purposes...

  12. The fear of other persons' laughter: Poor neuronal protection against social signals of anger and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Ilona; Schulter, Günter; Rominger, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-01-30

    The fear of other persons' laughter (gelotophobia) occurs in the context of several psychiatric conditions, particularly in the schizophrenia spectrum and social phobia. It entails severe personal and inter-personal problems including heightened aggression and possibly violence. Individuals with gelotophobia (n=30; 24 with social phobia or Cluster A diagnosis) and matched symptom-free controls (n=30) were drawn from a large screening sample (n=1440). EEG coherences were recorded during the confrontation with other people's affect expressions, to investigate the brain's modulatory control over the emotionally laden perceptual input. Gelotophobia was associated with more loose functional coupling of prefrontal and posterior cortex during the processing of expressions of anger and aggression, thus leaving the individual relatively unprotected from becoming affected by these social signals. The brain's response to social signals of anger/aggression and the accompanied heightened permeability for this kind of information explains the particular sensitivity to actual or supposed malicious aspects of laughter (and possibly of other ambiguous social signals) in individuals with gelotophobia, which represents the core feature of the condition. Heightened perception of stimuli that could be perceived as offensive, which is inherent in several psychiatric conditions, may be particularly evident in the fear of other persons' laughter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. 34 CFR 361.38 - Protection, use, and release of personal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through appropriate modes of communication of the confidentiality of personal information and the... individual's native language or through the appropriate mode of communication; and (v) These policies and... the record of services, consistent with § 361.47(a)(12). (d) Release for audit, evaluation, and...

  14. Hostility and hearing protection behavior: the mediating role of personal beliefs and low frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-10-01

    The authors examined whether hostility would negatively be associated with occupational health behavior, namely, the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Also examined as possible mediators were the protection motivation theory (PMT) components and low frustration tolerance (LFT). Participants were 226 male industrial workers, all exposed to potentially hearing-damaging noise. Hostility was negatively related to HPD use. It moderately correlated with the PMT components: negatively with perceived susceptibility, severity, effectiveness, and self-efficacy and positively with perceived barriers. Hostility correlated highly with LFT. Regression analyses confirmed the mediating role of perceived barriers, low self-efficacy, and LFT in the negative relationship between hostility and the use of HPDs. Thus, intrapsychic characteristics of hostile people may be significant for hearing protection behavior.

  15. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Risk exposures for human ornithosis in a poultry processing plant modified by use of personal protective equipment: an analytical outbreak study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C J; Sillis, M; Fearne, V; Pezzoli, L; Beasley, G; Bracebridge, S; Reacher, M; Nair, P

    2013-09-01

    Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur.

  17. Measurement of conversion coefficients between air Kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors for diagnostic X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, Paulo Henrique Goncalves

    2008-01-01

    Two sets of quantities are import in radiological protection: the protection and operational quantities. Both sets can be related to basic physical quantities such as kerma through conversion coefficients. For diagnostic x-ray beams the conversion coefficients and backscatter factors have not been determined yet, those parameters are need for calibrating dosimeters that will be used to determine the personal dose equivalent or the entrance skin dose. Conversion coefficients between air kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors were experimentally determined for the diagnostic x-ray qualities RQR and RQA recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The air kerma in the phantom and the mean energy of the spectrum were measured for such purpose. Harshaw LiF-100H thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were used for measurements after being calibrated against an 180 cm 3 Radcal Corporation ionization chamber traceable to a reference laboratory. A 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom was used for deep-dose measurements. Tl dosemeters were placed in the central axis of the x-ray beam at 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 mm depth in the phantom upstream the beam direction Another required parameter for determining the conversion coefficients from was the mean energy of the x-ray spectrum. The spectroscopy of x-ray beams was done with a CdTe semiconductor detector that was calibrated with 133 Ba, 241 Am and 57 Co radiation sources. Measurements of the x-ray spectra were carried out for all RQR and RQA IEC qualities. Corrections due to the detector intrinsic efficiency, total energy absorption, escape fraction of the characteristic x-rays, Compton effect and attenuation in the detector were done aiming an the accurate determination of the mean energy. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected with the stripping method by using these response functions. The typical combined standard uncertainties of conversion coefficients and

  18. Is prevention of acute pesticide poisoning effective and efficient, with Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment? A randomized crossover study among farmers in Chitwan, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Neupane, Dinesh; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    Background: Farmers' risk of pesticide poisoning can be reduced with personal protective equipment but in low-income countries farmers' use of such equipment is limited. Objective: To examine the effectiveness and efficiency of Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment to reduce organophosphate...... exposure among farmers. Methods: In a crossover study, 45 male farmers from Chitwan, Nepal, were randomly allocated to work as usual applying organophosphate pesticides wearing Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment or Daily Practice Clothing. For seven days before each experiment, each farmer.......08; 0.06]. Wearing the Locally Adapted Personal Protective Equipment versus Daily Practice Clothing gave the following results, respectively: comfort 75.6% versus 100%, sense of heat 64.4% versus 31.3%, other problems 44.4% versus 33.3%, like-ability 95.6% versus 77.8%. Conclusion: We cannot support...

  19. Management of risk factors in the selection and use of PPE [personal protective equipment] on hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemplin, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Industrial hygiene managers working in the hazardous waste area face daily decisions concerning appropriate levels of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hazards expected on various waste site projects. Typical hazards include exposures to toxic dust, chemical vapors, toxic gases, splashes of corrosive or toxic substances, radioactive materials and high noise levels. Managers who are experienced in this area recognize that each item of PPE can represent potential hazards in its own right. For example, full-face respirators typically restrict peripheral vision and can impede proper communications. In high ambient temperature conditions, coated protective suits can represent significant heat stress concerns, etc. Accordingly, this paper reviews health and safety management decision-making in this regard

  20. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  1. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radon Katja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  2. Does personal experience affect choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Thomas P. Holmes; John B. Loomis; José J. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss, and cost. A phone-mail-phone survey was used to collect data from homeowners predominantly living in medium and high wildfire risk communities in Florida. We tested three hypotheses: (1) homeowner...

  3. Balancing speech intelligibility versus sound exposure in selection of personal hearing protection equipment for Chinook aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech

  4. IAEA outlines measures to enhance protection against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Mr. ElBaradei, head of the IAEA presented a report today to the Agency's Board of Governors, outlining plans for substantially expanding and strengthening IAEA programmes relevant to improving nuclear security. The report addresses the IAEA's response to the following threats from acts of nuclear terrorism by a subnational group: acquisition of a nuclear weapon; acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard; acquisition of other radioactive materials to cause a radiological hazard; and violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard. The report puts a price tag on its proposed programme upgrades at $30-50 million per year, representing an initial 10-15% increase in the IAEA's overall resources. Additionally, Mr. ElBaradei said the IAEA's budget is currently underfeed by about $40 million due to a budgetary policy over many years of 'zero real growth', and called on Member States to provide the resources required to cope with the newly emerging threat. 'In addition to the resources required for urgent international assistance,' Mr. ElBaradei said, 'the necessary global upgrades to meet the full range of possible threats would be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars and would have to be carried out by individual States and through bilateral and multilateral assistance'. The IAEA would play a coordinating role in delivering this assistance.If States provide adequate funding, Mr. ElBaradei predicts that the enhanced and additional activities proposed in his report should lead over time to a powerful national and international security framework for nuclear facilities and material. The Summary of Report on 'Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism' presented to the IAEA Board of Governors on 30.11.2001 is attached

  5. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples ( N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

  6. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    González, Laura; Echevarría, Andrés; Morales, Dahiana; Ruggia, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have ...

  7. Protecting and Evaluating Genomic Privacy in Medical Tests and Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ayday, Erman; Raisaro, Jean Louis; Rougemont, Jacques; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose privacy-enhancing technologies for medical tests and personalized medicine methods that use patients' genomic data. Focusing on genetic disease-susceptibility tests, we develop a new architecture (between the patient and the medical unit) and propose a "privacy-preserving disease susceptibility test" (PDS) by using homomorphic encryption and proxy re-encryption. Assuming the whole genome sequencing to be done by a certified institution, we propose to store patients' ...

  8. The Names Have Been Changed to Protect the . . . Humanity: Person-First Language in Correctional Health Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Precious S; Spaulding, Anne C; So, Marvin; Sarrett, Jennifer C

    2018-06-01

    After objections surfaced following a call for papers on "Prisoner Health," the editors of Epidemiologic Reviews decided to rename this year's volume "Incarceration and Health." In this commentary, we trace the origins of person-first language and explain why using appropriate terms in correctional health, including correctional health epidemiology, matters. We discuss the potential consequences of person-first language for justice-involved individuals and how inclusive language might affect the social, emotional, and physical well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Future directions may include measuring health outcomes when language is systematically changed. The barriers that thwart successful reentry may wane when dehumanizing language disappears.

  9. Measurements of the UVR protection provided by hats used at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Peter; Javorniczky, John; Roy, Colin; Henderson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The importance of protection against solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in childhood has lead to SunSmart policies at Australian schools, in particular primary schools, where children are encouraged and in many cases required to wear hats at school. Hat styles change regularly and the UVR protection provided by some of the hat types currently used and recommended for sun protection by the various Australian state cancer councils had not been previously evaluated. The UVR protection of the hats was measured using UVR sensitive polysulphone film badges attached to different facial sites on rotating headforms. The sun protection type hats included in this study were broad-brimmed hats, "bucket hats" and legionnaires hats. Baseball caps, which are very popular, were also included. The broad-brimmed hats and bucket hats provided the most UVR protection for the six different sites about the face and head. Legionnaires hats also provided satisfactory UVR protection, but the caps did not provide UVR protection to many of the facial sites. The highest measured UVR protection factors for facial sites other than the forehead were 8 to 10, indicating that, while some hats can be effective, they need to be used in combination with other forms of UVR protection.

  10. The distance between Mars and Venus: measuring global sex differences in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco; Booth, Tom; Irwing, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality. Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards. The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.

  11. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  12. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  13. Measurement properties of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests protocols in persons after stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittink, Harriet; Verschuren, Olaf; Terwee, Caroline; de Groot, Janke; Kwakkel, Gert; van de Port, Ingrid

    2017-11-21

    To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols for measuring aerobic capacity, VO2max, in persons after stroke. PubMed, Embase and Cinahl were searched from inception up to 15 June 2016. A total of 9 studies were identified reporting on 9 different cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. VO2max measured with cardiopulmonary exercise test and open spirometry was the construct of interest. The target population was adult persons after stroke. We included all studies that evaluated reliability, measurement error, criterion validity, content validity, hypothesis testing and/or responsiveness of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. Two researchers independently screened the literature, assessed methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist and extracted data on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. Most studies reported on only one measurement property. Best-evidence synthesis was derived taking into account the methodological quality of the studies, the results and the consistency of the results. No judgement could be made on which protocol is "best" for measuring VO2max in persons after stroke due to lack of high-quality studies on the measurement properties of the cardiopulmonary exercise test.

  14. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 14, Safety protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents can be caused by three type of errors: failure of reactor components including (1) control and measuring instrumentation, (2) errors in operation procedure, (3) natural disasters. Safety during reactor operation are secured during its design and construction and later during operation. Both construction and administrative procedures are applied to attain safe operation. Technical safety features include fission product barriers, fuel elements cladding, primary reactor components (reactor vessel, primary cooling pipes, heat exchanger in the pump), reactor building. Safety system is the system for safe reactor shutdown and auxiliary safety system. RA reactor operating regulations and instructions are administrative acts applied to avoid possible human error caused accidents [sr

  15. LEX Ferende measures regarding minor child protection in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. MATEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, according to the legislation in force, the consent is mandatory even when the parental rights of the parents were terminated, what empties of content the very institution of parental rights termination and the efficiency of imposing such a measure in practice. Consequently, in cases when the parent displays obvious lack of interest, bad-faith and no intent of caring for the child, lex ferenda legal provisions should be in place such as to allow imposing adoption without parental consent.

  16. Multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Rossi, H.H.; Johnson, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses design modifications of a multi-element proportional counter. The original counter exhibited poor resolution, as measured by the width of the event-size spectrum for low-energy photons. It was also suspected that the field inside each volume was not sufficiently symmetric. Results of the modifications showed that a dramatic improvement in resolution could be obtained in the chamber with tissue-equivalent septa if their potentials were adjusted to obtain optimal resolution. The full width at half maximum then approached, although it did not equal, that of a standard spherical counter

  17. Care of the elderly persons in the system of social protection in the Republic of Srpska

    OpenAIRE

    Lepir Ljubo

    2010-01-01

    The number of the elderly in the overall population is increasing, which poses a need to seek an adequate model of organizing social care of the elderly. Most of them get social safety through the social welfare system. A functional and sustainable social welfare system requires application of efficient management and technique models based on the theoretical premises of contemporary management. The role and the importance of old people's protection in a social welfare system is becoming a to...

  18. Personal Protective Equipment In Animal Research - Back To The Basics (A review paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Multilayere d spunbonded -meltblown- spunbonded (SMS) fabric High tensile strength, soft, comfortable, and breathable; low-linting and resistant to...The Association of the Nonwoven and Engineered Fabrics Industry, Cary, NC Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and...Code of Federal Regulations FDA – Food and Drug Administration NFPA - National Fire Protection Association NIOSH - National Institute of

  19. Ambulatory treatment and radiation protection of persons on the outside of the hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.; Kaul, A.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the risk to which an increasing use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis exposes patients and the population as a whole is described. A good radiation protection of the population can be obtained if the patient undergoing radiodiagnosis is to be kept in the controlled area and is dismissed from the hospital when the standard remaining dose is expected to be reached within certain limits

  20. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  1. A five-factor measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Riddell, Ashley D B; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI), a newly developed measure of traits relevant to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM). Twelve scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of specific FFM facets (e.g., Perfectionism as a maladaptive variant of FFM competence). On the basis of data from 407 undergraduates (oversampled for OCPD symptoms) these 12 scales demonstrated convergent correlations with established measures of OCPD and the FFM. Further, they obtained strong discriminant validity with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Most important, the individual scales and total score of the FFOCI obtained incremental validity beyond existing measures of the FFM and OCPD for predicting a composite measure of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology. The findings support the validity of the FFOCI as a measure of obsessive-compulsive personality traits, as well as of maladaptive variants of the FFM.

  2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

  3. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  4. Protection measurements on the Ulysse pile during its start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattegrain, A.; Satge, H.

    1963-01-01

    The authors report measurements which aimed at verifying protection calculations made for the Ulysse atomic pile. They measured thermal, epithermal flows and the fast flow (when high enough to be measured). They also measured the gamma flow in some parts of the reactor. The authors describe the protections present on the different faces of the pile. These are made of baryte concrete and borated concrete. They indicate the detectors used to measure the different flows, and discuss the results obtained in the different channels

  5. Health protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavalic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health condition of workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The results for 1406 workers exposed to ionising radiations, who were regularly examined in 2004, were analysed using Statistica 5.0. The analysis included workers' case histories, frequency of illnesses and causes of temporary or permanent work disability. Of 1406 workers, 16 (1.13%) were found permanently disabled; in 11 the cause of disability was lens opacity, in 2 persistent trombocitophenia, and in 2 malignant tumour. Twenty-four workers were temporarily disabled, of whom 5 due to pregnancy. Thrombocytopenia was found in 12 men and only one woman. Anaemia was found in 4 women; dicentric chromosomes were the cause of temporary disability in one person, and tuberculosis in one person. Medical examinations of Croatian workers confirm low occupational exposure to ionising radiation. With this type of radiation, the established lens impairments could not be characterised as occupational. The two malignant tumours however were recognised as occupational diseases.(author)

  6. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim

    2017-01-01

    radiation exposure are needed to help resolve this problem. This can be done using personal ultraviolet radiation dosimeters. Methods: We consider technical and practical feasibility of measuring individual solar ultraviolet exposure at work and leisure in professions with different á priori temporal high......-level outdoor worktime, using aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector based personal UV-B dosimeters. Essential technical specifications including the spectral and angular responsivity of the dosimeters are described and pre-campaign dosimeter calibration applicability is verified. The scale...... with our specialist knowledge as occupational physicians. Conclusions: Large-scale use of personal UV-B dosimeters for measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at work and leisure in Denmark is indeed feasible from a technical and practical viewpoint. Samples of exposure data shown support...

  7. Psychometric properties of the Survey of Personal Beliefs: a rational-emotive measure of irrational thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, T P; Kassinove, H; Dill, C A

    1989-01-01

    A test consistency and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the Survey of Personal Beliefs, a new measure of irrational thinking based on rational-emotive personality theory. The survey, which was logically derived, includes a general rationality factor and subscales measuring five hypothesized core categories of irrational beliefs. Subjects included a nonclinical sample of 130 men and 150 women, with a mean age of 46. Results indicated that the Survey of Personal Beliefs had satisfactory total and scale reliability. The confirmatory analyses supported a higher order factor model including 5 first-order factors ( awfulizing, self-directed shoulds, other-directed shoulds, low frustration tolerance, and self-worth) and 1 second-order or general factor.

  8. Development of measures of online privacy concern and protection for use on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, T; Paine, C; Joinson, A; Reips, U D

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet grows in importance, concerns about online privacy have arisen. We describe the development and validation of three short Internet-administered scales measuring privacy related attitudes ('Privacy Concern') and behaviors ('General Caution' and 'Technical Protection').

  9. Personal Information Protection and Legal Regulation on Rubbish Message%个人信息保护与垃圾短信的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国强

    2012-01-01

    The "special rectification activities" cannot solve the rubbish messages which need a comprehensive and systematic legal measures to regulate. The current law mainly regulates rubbish message from the "content", which exists blemish. We should considerate the personal information protection as the breakthrough point, combination with the "behavior" angle. Specifically, we should legislate the personal information protection under the framework of legal provisions, regulate the confidentiality obligations legitimate on the personal information collectors, and the legal responsibilities for the illegal stealing and illegal purveyor. At the same time, we should strengthen the special laws on the rubbish message, regulate the behavior of the operator and SP, protect the personal information and curb the rubbish message according to the common law before the special legislation completion.%垃圾短信的泛滥已非“专项治理活动”所能解决,对垃圾短信的规制需要更加综合性和体系性的法律措施。现行法律规范主要从“内容”界定来规制垃圾短信的方式存在缺陷,应考虑以个人信息保护为切入点,结合“行为”的角度来规制垃圾短信。具体而言,应在个人信息保护立法的框架下,规定个人信息合法收集者的保密义务、非法盗取者和非法传播者的法律责任等内容。同时,加强垃圾短信治理专门法规的建设,对运营商、SP等主体进行规范;并且在特别法立法完成之前,积极利用普通法的一般保护手段对个人信息进行保护,遏制垃圾短信的泛滥。

  10. Intercomparison of measurements of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields in the West Asia Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with its statutory function, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been assisting its Member States in establishing and upgrading their radiation protection infrastructures, including activities in occupation radiation protection. Individual external dosimetry services for photon radiation have been under establishment or upgrading with support through the Technical Cooperation Model Projects RAW/9/006, Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (concluded in 2000), and RAW/9/008, Development of Technical Capabilities for Sustainable Radiation and Waste Safety Infrastructure (2001-2004), in all the participating countries in the West Asia Region. Two regional training courses were organized by the IAEA, in Germany in 1998, on Design, Implementation and Management of Individual Monitoring Services (IMS), and in the Syrian Arabic Republic in 2001, on Assessment of Occupational Exposure due to External Sources, under the above stated projects. However, no performance testing has yet been carried out and no regional intercomparisons have been established before in this region. Only two Member States from the region (the Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon) participated in the interregional Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of Radiological Measurements for Purposes of Monitoring Personal Dose Equivalent Hp(10) in 1999

  11. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  12. Assessing reserve-building pursuits and person characteristics: psychometric validation of the Reserve-Building Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Michael, Wesley; Zhang, Jie; Rapkin, Bruce D; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2018-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure. Classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses investigated psychometric characteristics of the Reserve-Building Measure. This North American sample (n = 592) included both patients and caregivers [mean age = 44, SD 19)]. Psychometric analyses revealed distinct subscales measuring current reserve-building activities (Active in the World, Games, Outdoors, Creative, Religious/Spiritual, Exercise, Inner Life, Shopping/Cooking, Passive Media Consumption,), past reserve-building activities (Childhood Activities, Achievement), and reserve-related person-factors (Perseverance, Current and Past Social Support, and Work Value). Test-retest stability (n = 101) was moderately high for 11 of 15 subscales (ICC range 0.78-0.99); four were below 0.59 indicating a need for further refinement. IRT analyses supported the item functioning of all subscales. Correlational analyses suggest the measure's subscales tap distinct constructs (range r = 0.11-0.46) which are not redundant with QOL, well-being, or personality (range r = 0.11-0.48). The Reserve-Building Measure provides a measure of activities and person-factors related to reserve that may potentially be useful in prospective research.

  13. Further evidence for the fifth higher trait of personality pathology: a correlation study using normal and disordered personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hao; Xu, Shaofang; Zhu, Junpeng; Chen, Wanzhen; Xu, You; He, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-30

    Studies between disordered personality and the Big-Five or the Alternative Five-Factor model of normal personality have consistently shown four higher traits. The fifth higher trait, relating to Openness to Experience or Impulsive Sensation Seeking was less supported. The culture-free Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (NPQ) might help us to characterise the fifth higher trait. We therefore tried the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP), the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R), the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and the NPQ in 253 healthy participants. Our results yielded five factors, four of which resembled the previous ones. The fifth one, namely Peculiarity Seeking, was defined by NPQ and NEO-PI-R Openness to Experience, ZKPQ Impulsive Sensation Seeking and DAPP Stimulus Seeking. Whether the fifth factor is linked to the schizotypal personality disorder as proposed remains unanswered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Empirical study on the feasibility of measures for public self-protection capability enhancement; Empirische Untersuchung der Realisierbarkeit von Massnahmen zur Erhoehung der Selbstschutzfaehigkeit der Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goersch, Henning G.; Werner, Ute

    2011-07-01

    The empirical study on the feasibility of measures for public self-protection capability enhancement covers the following issues with several sections: (1) Introduction: scope of the study; structure of the study. (2) Issue coherence: self-protection; reduction and prevention of damage by personal emergency preparedness, personal emergency preparedness in Germany. (3) Solution coherence: scientific approaches, development of practical problem solution approaches, proposal of a promotion system. (4) Empirical studies: Promotion system evaluation by experts; questioning of the public; Delphi-study on minimum standards in emergency preparedness; local networks in emergency preparedness. (5) Evaluation of models for personal emergency preparedness (M3P). (6) Integration of all research results into the approach of emergency preparedness: scope; recommendations, conclusions.

  15. Celery-based topical repellents as a potential natural alternative for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2008-12-01

    Celery-based products were investigated for chemical composition, skin irritation, and mosquito repellency in comparison to commercial repellents and the standard chemical, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), with a goal to develop a natural alternative to synthetic repellents for protection against mosquitoes. Chemical identification by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry discovered that the major constituents of Apium graveolens hexane extract (AHE) were 3-n-butyl-tetrahydrophthalide (92.48%), followed by 5.10% beta-selinene and 0.68% gamma-selinene. Evaluation of skin irritation in 27 human volunteers revealed no irritant potential from 25% ethanolic AHE solution. Laboratory investigated repellent against female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes demonstrated that G10 formula, the best AHE-developed product, provided remarkable repellency with a median protection time of 4.5 h (4.5-5 h), which was greater than that of ethanolic DEET solution (25% DEET, 3.5 h) and comparable to that of the best commercial repellent, Insect Block 28 (28.5% DEET, 4.5 h). According to significantly promising results, including highly effective repellency and no potential skin irritation or other side effects, the G10 formula is a worthwhile product that has the promise of being developed for commercialized registration. This developed AHE product could be an acceptable and affordable alternative to conventional synthetic chemicals in preventing mosquito bites, and in turn, helping to interrupt mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  16. A Structural and Correlational Analysis of Two Common Measures of Personal Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Bonnie Bost

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current inquiry is a factor analytic study which utilizes first and second order factor analytic methods to examine the internal structures of two measurements of personal epistemological beliefs: the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire (SEQ) and Epistemic Belief Inventory (EBI). The study also examines the…

  17. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  18. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  19. Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oreg, S.; Bayazit, M.; Vakola, M.; Arciniega, L.; Armenakis, A.; Barkauskiene, R.; Bozionelos, N.; Ferič, I.; Fujimoto, Y.; Gonzáles, L.; Han, J.; Hetland, H.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jimmieson, N.; Kordačová, J.; Kotrla Topič, M.; Mitsuhashi, H.; Mlacić, B.; Ohly, S.; Saksvik, I.; Saksvik, P.O.; van Dam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2008), s. 935-944 ISSN 0021-9010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : resistance to change * personal values * measurement equivalence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.769, year: 2008

  20. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Personal computer interface for temmperature measuring in the cutting process with turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajchevski, Neven; Filipovski, Velimir; Kuzinonovski, Mikolaj

    2004-01-01

    The computer development aided reserch systems in the investigations of the characteristics of the surface layar forms conditions for decreasing of the measuring uncertainty. Especially important is the fact that the usage of open and self made measuring systems accomplishes the demands for a total control of the research process. This paper describes an original personal computer interface which is used in the newly built computer aided reserrch system for temperatute measuring in the machining with turning. This interface consists of optically-coupled linear isolation amplifier and an analog to digital (A/D) converter. It is designed for measuring of the themo- voltage that is a generated from the natural thermocouple workpiece-cutting tool. That is achived by digitalizing the value of the thermo-voltage in data which is transmitted to the personal computer. The interface realization is a result of the research activity of the faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Skopje.

  2. Performance measurement systems, TQM, and multi-level firm performance: a person-organisation fit perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jo-Ting; Chang, Yeun Wen; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Hsin-Hung

    2017-01-01

    For firms implementing TQM, there is a need to redesign performance measurement systems (PMS). Innovated PMS ought to have measurement diversity in their structure with considering the spirit of TQM and emphasize the congruence of goals between employees and firms by adding the viewpoint of person-organisation fit (P-O fit). This paper adopts structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine Taiwanese manufacturing firms to study the association between the P-O fit of PMS and the implementation o...

  3. Development of Measures to Assess Personal Recovery in Young People Treated in Specialist Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mary; Jeffries, Fiona W; Acuna-Rivera, Marcela; Warren, Fiona; Simonds, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Recovery has become a central concept in mental health service delivery, and several recovery-focused measures exist for adults. The concept's applicability to young people's mental health experience has been neglected, and no measures yet exist. Aim The aim of this work is to develop measures of recovery for use in specialist child and adolescent mental health services. On the basis of 21 semi-structured interviews, three recovery measures were devised, one for completion by the young person and two for completion by the parent/carer. Two parent/carer measures were devised in order to assess both their perspective on their child's recovery and their own recovery process. The questionnaires were administered to a UK sample of 47 young people (10-18 years old) with anxiety and depression and their parents, along with a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome and a measure of self-esteem. All three measures had high internal consistency (alpha ≥ 0.89). Young people's recovery scores were correlated negatively with scores on a measure used to routinely assess treatment progress and outcome (r = -0.75) and positively with self-esteem (r = 0.84). Parent and young persons' reports of the young person's recovery were positively correlated (r = 0.61). Parent report of the young person's recovery and of their own recovery process were positively correlated (r = 0.75). The three measures have the potential to be used in mental health services to assess recovery processes in young people with mental health difficulties and correspondence with symptomatic improvement. The measures provide a novel way of capturing the parental/caregiver perspective on recovery and caregivers' own wellbeing. No tools exist to evaluate recovery-relevant processes in young people treated in specialist mental health services. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of three self-report recovery-relevant assessments for young

  4. Potential applications of smart clothing solutions in health care and personal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Harriet; Honkala, Markku

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development in the fields of sensor and telecommunication technologies has created completely new possibilities also for the textile and clothing field. New smart textile and clothing systems can be developed by integrating sensors in the textile constructions. Application fields for these added-value products are e.g. protective clothing for extreme environments, garments for the health care sector, technical textiles, sport and leisure wear. Some products have already been introduced on the markets, but generally it can be stated that the development is only in its starting phase, and the expectations for the future are big. Many different aspects have to be considered in the development of the wearable technology products for the health care sector: medical problems and their diagnosis, sensor choice, data processing and telecommunication solutions, clothing requirements. A functional product can be achieved only if all aspects work together, and therefore experts from all fields should participate in the RTD projects. In the EC-funded project DE3002 Easytex clothing and textiles for disabled and elderly people were investigated. Some recommendations concerning durability, appearance, comfort, service and safety of products for different special user groups were defined, based on user questionnaires and seminars, general textile and clothing requirements and on laboratory test series."Clothing Area Network--Clan" is a research project aiming to develop a technical concept and technology needed in enabling both wired and wireless data and power transfer between different intelligent modules (user interfaces, sensors, CPU's, batteries etc.) integrated into a smart clothing system. Fire-fighters clothing system is chosen as the development platform, being a very challenging application from which the developed technology can be transferred to other protective clothing systems.

  5. Effect of neurolinguistic programming training on self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R C; Konefal, J; Spechler, M M

    1990-06-01

    Neurolinguistic programming training is based on principles that should enable the trainee to be more "present"-oriented, inner-directed, flexible, self-aware, and responsive to others, that is, more self-actualized. This study reports within-person changes on self-actualization measures of the Personal Orientation Inventory following a 24-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant positive mean changes were found for 18 master practitioners on nine of the 12 scales and for 36 practitioners on 10 of the 12 scales. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that training increases individual self-actualization scores.

  6. Evaluation of personal protective devices used in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao de dispositivos de protecao individual utilizados em radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador

    2006-07-01

    In this work protective devices of five manufacturers were evaluated according to the NBR/IEC 61331-1 and NBR/IEC 61331-3 standards. Three different methodologies (linear interpolation, Archer model and sum of exponentials) were applied for the determination of the attenuation equivalent, since the standard does not indicate how it must be determined. Moreover, the uncertainties associated to each method, and the influence of the number of measurements in the combined uncertainty were estimated. The evaluated manufacture characteristics were: accompanying document, design, materials, dimensions and label marking. For this evaluation a check list about the requirements of the NBR/IEC 61331-3 standard was elaborated. The results showed a great difference between nominal and measured attenuation equivalent values. The comparison of the results using the three methodologies showed small variations among the obtained values and among the associated uncertainties in the different methodologies. It was possible to observe that the number of measurements does not contribute significantly for the increase of the uncertainty in all three methodologies. The best methodology for the laboratory routine is the linear interpolation methodology, with five measurements for each air kerma rate value. The discrepancy between the results obtained in this work and the requirements of the applied standards show the need to adopt a compulsory certification process for protective devices, thus contributing for the increase of the radiation protection of the users. (author)

  7. Is the Assessment of Personality Comparable in Persons Who Have and Have Not Experienced Depressive, Anxiety, and Substance Use Disorders? An Examination of Measurement Invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Benini, Laura; Icenogle, Grace; Wilson, Sylia; Klein, Daniel N; Seeley, John R; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies have focused on characterizing personality differences between individuals with and without psychopathology. For drawing valid conclusions for these comparisons, the personality instruments used must demonstrate psychometric equivalence. However, we are unaware of any studies that examine measurement invariance in personality across individuals with and without psychopathology. This study conducted tests of measurement invariance for positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and disinhibition across individuals with and without histories of depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. We found consistent evidence that positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and disinhibition were assessed equivalently across all comparisons with each demonstrating strict invariance. Overall, results suggest that comparisons of personality measures between diagnostic groups satisfy the assumption of measurement invariance and these scales represent the same psychological constructs. Thus, mean-level comparisons across these groups are valid tests.

  8. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of ± 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of ±0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of ±2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  9. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A.R.L

    2000-07-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of {+-} 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of {+-}0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of {+-}2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  10. Radiation protection measures to support the life of population at contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolevich, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    At the contaminated territories from the first days after the accident at Chernobyl NPP protection measures are conducted with the aim to decrease the total dose of radiation to a limited level and to decrease the risk of cancer deceases and genetic consequences for living and next generations. Radiation protection measures at these territories are the following: radiation control of food and environment; measures on lowering the content of radionuclides in the air, water and soils; measures to supply people with clean food and products of agriculture; lowering the dose loading during X-ray diagnostics; control of radon influence, resettlement of population to the clear territories. Apart from that measures on development of medical service, supply with fool-bodied food, lowering the sociopsychological tension, education in the field of radiation protection and legal knowledge are conducted. The results of activity are shown

  11. Intercomparison of personal dose equivalent measurements by active personal dosimeters. Final report of a joint IAEA-EURADOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    Active personal dosimeters (APD) are widely used in many countries, i.e. in the medical field and as operational dosimeters in nuclear power plants. Their use as legal dosimeters is already established in a few countries, and will increase in the near future. In the majority of countries, APDs have not undergone accreditation programmes or intercomparisons. In 2001, an EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) Working Group on harmonization of individual monitoring was formed, funded by the European Commission, in the fifth framework programme, and by the participating institutes. The work addressed four issues; inter alia also an inventory of new developments in individual monitoring with an emphasis on the possibilities and performance of active (electronic) dosimeters for both photon/beta and neutron dosimetry. Within the work on this issue, a catalogue of the most extensively used active personal dosimeters (APDs) suitable for individual monitoring was made. On the basis of the knowledge gained in this activity, the organization of an international intercomparison, which would address APDs, was considered of great value to the dosimetric community. The IAEA in cooperation with EURADOS organized such an intercomparison in which most of the testing criteria as described in two internationally accepted standards (IEC61526 and IEC61283) were used. Additionally, simulated workplace fields were used for testing the APD reactions to pulsed X ray fields and mixed gamma/X ray fields. This is the first time that results of comparisons of such types are published, which is of great importance for APD end users in medical diagnostic and surgery X ray applications. Nine suppliers from six countries in Europe and the USA participated in the intercomparison with 13 different models. One of the models was a special design for extremity dose measurements. Irradiations and readout was done by two accredited calibration laboratories in Belgium and France and the French

  12. Comparing models of borderline personality disorder: Mothers' experience, self-protective strategies, and dispositional representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M; Newman, Louise

    2010-07-01

    This study compared aspects of the functioning of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to those of mothers without psychiatric disorder using two different conceptualizations of attachment theory. The Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) of 32 mothers were classified using both the Main and Goldwyn method (M&G) and the Dynamic-Maturational Model method (DMM). We found that mothers with BPD recalled more danger, reported more negative effects of danger, and gave evidence of more unresolved psychological trauma tied to danger than other mothers. We also found that the DMM classifications discriminated between the two groups of mothers better than the M&G classifications. Using the DMM method, the AAIs of BPD mothers were more complex, extreme, and had more indicators of rapid shifts in arousal than those of other mothers. Representations drawn from the AAI, using either classificatory method, did not match the representations of the mother's child drawn from the Working Model of the Child Interview; mothers with very anxious DMM classifications were paired with secure-balanced child representations. We propose that the DMM offers greater clinical utility, conceptual coherence, empirical validity, and coder reliability than the M&G.

  13. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): a new measure for assessing adolescent personality and personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347 also completed the Big Five Inventory-Adolescent, 144 provided 2-week retest data, and 128 others completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. Outpatient adolescents (N = 103) completed the SNAP-Y, and 97 also completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent. The SNAP-Y demonstrated strong psychometric properties, and structural, convergent, discriminant, and external validities. Consistent with the continuity of personality, results paralleled those in adult and college samples using the adult Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Second Edition (SNAP-2), from which the SNAP-Y derives and which has established validity in personality-trait assessment across the normal-abnormal continuum. The SNAP-Y thus provides a new, clinically useful instrument to assess personality traits and personality pathology in adolescents.

  14. A five-factor measure of avoidant personality: the FFAvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Loehr, Abbey; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of avoidant personality disorder (AVD) was developed using a general trait model of personality (Five-factor model; FFM) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of 10 FFM traits found to be robustly related to AVD across a variety of methods. In a sample of 291 undergraduates, the scales from the Five Factor Avoidant Assessment (FFAvA) proved to be internally consistent and strongly related to the original FFM scales from which they were derived. The FFAvA scales also demonstrated substantial incremental validity in the prediction of existing AVD measures and indexes of social discomfort over their FFM counterparts. The FFAvA provides an opportunity to examine AVD and its correlates using smaller, more basic units of personality rather than more global symptoms that might blend these elements.

  15. Draft guidance notes for the protection of persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidance notes are presented under the following headings: 1) Limitation of radiation dose. 2) Administrative measures for radiological protection. 3) Medical surveillance. 4) Operational measures for radiological protection. 5) The request for a radiological examination or treatment, whether directly associated or not with illness or injury, together with consideration of the problems of dealing with patients of a reproductive age. 6) Diagnostic use of X-rays. 7) Dental radiography. 8) Therapeutic uses of radiation beams, remotely-operated after-loading equipment and extra-corporeal blood irradiators and neutron activation analysis. 9) Brachytherapy. 10) Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of unsealed radioactive substances. 11) Diagnostic uses of closed sources. 12) The use of nuclear-powered cardiac pacemakers. 13) Patients leaving a hospital after administration of radioactive substances. 14) Precautions after death.. 15) Storage and movement of radioactive materials. 16) Disposal of radioactive waste. 17) Emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  16. Factors associated with personal protection equipment use and hand hygiene among hemodialysis staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Gayle; Weber, David J; Miller, William C; Wurtzel, Heather; Alter, Miriam J

    2006-04-01

    Because exposure to blood by health care workers is frequent during hemodialysis, gloves are required for all contact with patients and their equipment, followed by hand hygiene. In this study, we investigated factors associated with performing these practices as recommended. Staff members from a sample of 45 US hemodialysis facilities were surveyed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors independently associated with reporting increased compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices during patient care were identified with multivariate modeling. Of 605 eligible staff members, 420 (69%) responded: registered nurses, 41%; dialysis technicians, 51%; and licensed practical nurses, 8%. Only 35% reported that dialysis patients were at risk for bloodborne virus infections, and only 36% reported always following recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices. Independent factors associated with more frequent compliance were being a technician (versus a registered nurse) and reporting always doing what was needed to protect themselves from infection. Compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices by hemodialysis staff was low. The rationale for infection control practices specific to the hemodialysis setting was poorly understood by all staff. Infection control training should be tailored to this setting and should address misconceptions.

  17. Bill proposition related to the protection of persons against exposure to radon in dwellings - Nr 4390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dord, Dominique; Colombier, Georges; Forissier, Nicolas; Luca, Lionnel; Carayon, Bernard; Blanc, Etienne; Remiller, Jacques; Perrut, Bernard; Voisin, Michel; Diard, Eric; Poletti, Berengere; Fort, Marie-Louise; Ciotti, Eric; Guibal, Jean-Claude; Gest, Alain; Roccaserra, Camille de; Delatte, Remi

    2012-01-01

    After having recalled the extent of the risk associated with exposure to radon in France, and that a regulation already exists for professional premises and buildings receiving public, this document contains the measures proposed to define a regulatory framework for dwellings. It addresses radon concentration values, radon volume activity thresholds, radon diagnosis practices, actors, protocols and reports

  18. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  19. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-11-14

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students.

  20. Measurements of the solar UVR protection provided by shade structures in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Peter; Mackay, Christina

    2004-01-01

    To reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure during childhood, shade structures are being erected in primary schools to provide areas where children can more safely undertake outdoor activities. This study to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and purpose built shade structures in providing solar UVR protection was carried out on 29 such structures in 10 schools in New Zealand. Measurements of the direct and scattered solar UVR doses within the central region of the shade structures were made during the school lunch break period using UVR-sensitive polysulfone film badges. These measurements indicate that many of the structures had UVR protection factors (PF) of 4-8, which was sufficient to provide protection during the school lunch hour. However, of the 29 structures examined, only six would meet the suggested requirements of UVR PF greater than 15 required to provide all-day protection.

  1. Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Müller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2013-08-01

    Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2∙45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2∙35), smoking (RR 1∙92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1∙86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1∙77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking.

  2. Measurement of Effectiveness of Personal Income Tax in the Tax System of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Břetislav Andrlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of effectiveness of personal income tax in the Czech Republic. The personal income tax in the Czech Republic, referred to as the tax on income of natural persons, represents a significant part of the public budget revenue (23.35% of all tax revenues in 2012. One of the principles of a good tax system is the principle of its effectiveness. The effectiveness of a particular tax is measured by various methods. The theory distinguishes between two types of costs expended on the collection of taxes, i. e. administrative costs (direct or indirect and excessive tax burden. In the case of direct administrative costs the measurement compares the total volume of a particular tax revenue with the costs of its collection. The amount of the tax levied is thus not a net income of the public budget, due to the fact that it must be reduced by the costs of the public sector which are necessary for obtaining such amount.In this contribution we shall focus on the measurement of direct administrative costs. The measurement of effectiveness of income tax on natural persons is performed with the use of the full-time equivalent (FTE method, which is based on the classification of revenue authorities’ staff according to their jobs and on the determination of conversion coefficients in order to identify costs related to the collection of a particular tax.A separate part of the article deals with measurements of tax system effectiveness in the international scope. We cite an important international study, “"Paying Taxes 2013: The Global Picture”", annually prepared by the World Bank and PricewaterhouseCoopers, which analyses demands of tax systems in different countries of the world.

  3. Analysis and protective measures of sharp instrument injury causes of sterilization and supply center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the causes of sharp injury in the sterilization and supply center, take protective measures, effectively avoid sharp instrument injury, and guarantee staff safety. Methods: Adopt a retrospective survey method, summarize sharp instrument injury data of sterilization and supply center in 2013, analyze the reasons of the occurrence of sharp instrument injury, and make protective countermeasures. Results: Sharp instrument injuries occurred mainly in the device classification, manual cleaning and device packaging process. Conclusion: Poor consciousness of occupational protection of the staff in the sterilization and supply center, nonstandard operation, and lack of training and supervision in place are the main reasons of occurrence of sharp instrument injury.

  4. Evaluation of X-Ray Protective Measurements in Intraoral Radiography Equipped Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Goodarzi Pour

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A few decades have past from using radiographic technology as an accurate paraclinical method and always protective measurements is applicated against ionizing radiation. As dentalradiography is a routine procedure in dentistry the importance of protective strategies is clear.Propose: The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the protection principles in centers which haveintraoral radiographic devices in Yazd.Material and Methods: We have considered all three aspects of practitioner, environment and patientprotection using questionnaire and visiting those centers.Results: 33/7% of dental offices ,10 clinics ,3 institution and faculty of dentistry had intraoral radiographicequipments. Stablishment of protection principles for radiographer was favorable. 7.7% of centers had x-ray room with leaded walls, 23.1% had curtain , in 69/2% of centers radiographers stood in correct position anddistance while taking radiograph. Regarding to protection of environment, beams leakage control in 23.1% dental offices, 70% of clinics, all institution and faculty of dentistry have done.Conclusion: Non of the centers used rectangular localizator, thyroid shield, film holder and just some centers used leaded apron in specific circumstances. We have concluded that patient protection constitute less consideration. Generally lack of protective consideration is related to deficient knowledge of operators. Lackof information about protection equipments causes decrease of demanding of these tools and ultimately lack of these equipments in the market.

  5. The ICC’s Witness Protection Measures Through the Lens of Policy-Oriented Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Kayuni, Steven William

    2015-01-01

    The protection of witnesses from intimidation or harm has become a firmly entrenched part of modern criminal justice systems. The ICC’s decisionmaking with regard to procedural and non-procedural protective measures has on one hand reinforced the integrity and success of the judicial process, while on the other, led to numerous interpretational and applicability challenges of both policy and law. This article aims at designating policy-oriented jurisprudence as a possible theoretical approach...

  6. Legal protection of elderly persons and risk of their victimization by criminal acts with elements of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is inevitable. It follows the individual from birth until death. Due to the inability of people to influence it, there is a greater obligation of society to provide the people in the „third age“ a dignified life, without any form of victimization. The author defines which people are considered old according to positive legal acts of the Republic of Serbia. The subject of this paper are the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly within the family, taking into account the physical, psychological, sexual and economic violence against the elderly, as well as mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, as one of the most effective tools of the state and society in general for protection of this particularly vulnerable social group. Relevant provisions of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Serbia with a critical analysis of the incrimination of offenses with elements of domestic violence where the victim is usually an old person will be analyzed. From the subject defined in this manner, stems the paper‘ s mainly descriptive goal of describing the phenomenon through the analysis of the major forms of violence to which the elderly within the family are exposed (physical, psychological, economic and sexual violence. The purpose of the paper is also to analyze the factors that increase the risk of victimization of the elderly and the mechanisms for their legal protection from domestic violence, point out the harm of this type of violence and thus contribute to combating this negative social phenomenon.

  7. Development of a wearable measurement and control unit for personal customizing machine-supported exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Tamura, Naoki; Kiryu, Tohru

    2005-01-01

    Wearable technology has been used in various health-related fields to develop advanced monitoring solutions. However, the monitoring function alone cannot meet all the requirements of personal customizing machine-supported exercise that have biosignal-based controls. In this paper, we propose a new wearable unit design equipped with measurement and control functions to support the personal customization process. The wearable unit can measure the heart rate and electromyogram signals during exercise and output workload control commands to the exercise machines. We then applied a prototype of the wearable unit to an Internet-based cycle ergometer system. The wearable unit was examined using twelve young people to check its feasibility. The results verified that the unit could successfully adapt to the control of the workload and was effective for continuously supporting gradual changes in physical activities.

  8. Five-factor personality measures in Chinese university students: effects of one-child policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Du, Wuying; Liu, Ping; Liu, Jianhui; Wang, Yehan

    2002-01-31

    Since the one-child policy was implemented in China in 1979, many investigators have studied the psychological consequences to children without siblings. Although the results are not conclusive, there is evidence that children who have siblings, rather than only children, have increased anxiety and depression. Whether the differences between students with and without siblings would continue when they reached university age is an interesting question. We used the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire to assess personality traits and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory to measure depressed mood in 134 university students with and 126 university students without siblings. Most students without siblings (93.7%) were reared in urban areas, while 90.3% of students with siblings came from rural areas. Parental professions were higher in social status and annual family incomes were higher in students without siblings. Increased neuroticism-anxiety, aggression-hostility, and depressed mood were found in students with siblings. Gender and annual family income were not significantly related to personality in the two groups, and birth-order position was not related to personality in the students with siblings. In contrast, the depression score was positively correlated with neuroticism-anxiety and aggression-hostility, but negatively correlated with parental occupation and annual family income. The greater competition to receive high education, reduced benefits from society, and lower level of social respect might nurture these personality traits in students with siblings. These findings might, in some limited aspects, indicate that the one-child policy affects personality traits and depressed mood in students with siblings.

  9. Variations in status of preparation of personal protective equipment for preventing norovirus gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Saori; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-12-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities are highly susceptible to norovirus gastroenteritis, and each facility is concerned about the need to implement norovirus infection control. Among control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and masks, plays a major role in reducing infectious spread. However, the preparation status of PPE in facilities before infection outbreaks has not been reported. The aim was to clarify the implementation status of preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis and the cost of preparing the necessary PPE in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire survey of facilities affiliated with the Kyoto Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture branches of the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities was conducted. The survey items were the characteristics of the facility, whether preventive measures had been implemented for norovirus gastroenteritis from October through the following March in both 2009 and 2010, and the quantities and unit prices of PPE prepared for preventive measures. Twenty-six (11.2%) of 232 surveyed facilities (as of August 2011) answered the survey. Among them, 24 (92.3%) in 2009 and 25 (96.2%) in 2010 reported having implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis, while 21 facilities (80.8%) in 2009 and 22 facilities (84.6%) in 2010 had prepared PPE. The median total cost for preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures was US $2601 (range US $221-9192) in 2009 and US $3904 (range US $305-6427) in 2010. Although the results need careful interpretation because of the low response rate, most of the surveyed long-term care facilities had implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis. However, the cost of preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures varied among the facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Photometrically measured continuous personal PM(2.5) exposure: levels and correlation to a gravimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Alm, Sari; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Janssen, Nicole A H; Jantunen, Matti; Pekkanen, Juha

    2002-05-01

    There is evidence that hourly variations in exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) may be associated with adverse health effects. Still there are only few published data on short-term levels of personal exposure to PM in community settings. The objectives of the study were to assess hourly and shorter-term variations in personal PM(2.5) exposure in Helsinki, Finland, and to compare results from portable photometers to simultaneously measured gravimetric concentrations. The effect of relative humidity on the photometric results was also evaluated. Personal PM(2.5) exposures of elderly persons were assessed for 24 h every second week, resulting in 308 successful measurements from 47 different subjects. Large changes in concentrations in minutes after cooking or changing microenvironment were seen. The median of daily 1-h maxima was over twice the median of 24-h averages. There was a strong significant association between the two means, which was not linear. Median (95th percentile) of the photometric 24-h concentrations was 12.1 (37.7) and of the 24-h gravimetric concentrations 9.2 (21.3) microg/m3. The correlation between the photometric and the gravimetric method was quite good (R2=0.86). Participants spent 94.1% of their time indoors or in a vehicle, where relative humidity is usually low and thus not likely to cause significant effects on photometric results. Even outdoors, the relative humidity had only modest effect on concentrations. Photometers are a promising method to explore the health effects of short-term variation in personal PM(2.5) exposure.

  11. Criterion for adoption of urgent decision on population protection measures in case of NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, Yu.O.

    1985-01-01

    The main table of a criterion for making decision about population protection measures in case of NPP accident is reconsidered. In comparison with the previous data the table doesn't contain contact irradiation and food-stuff contamination with 90 Sr and 137 Cs because of their insignificance relatively to external irradiation as a result of inert radioactive gaseous and halogen release and internal irradiation by iodine radioisotopes. Defining more exactly the criterion one should pay more attention to the discussion of numerical values of internal irradiation dose of thyroid gland. The choice of hazard-levels giving the foundation for making decision concerning protection measures should be determined both by biological radiation risk and scale of hazard relative protection urgebcy the degree of accuracy of potential irradiation or contamination evaluation by possibilities of measures carried out in time, difficulties, unfavourable psychologic effect and risk for population health. The criterion should permit flexibility in decision making according to concrete conditions

  12. River-bed erosion due to changing boundary conditions: performance of a protective measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Termini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the introduction of man-made sediment barriers along a river, the amount of sediment load entering the downstream river reach is different to that leaving the reach, and erosion processes occur downstream of the barrier itself. Designers are often required to take into account the scouring process and to include adequate protective measures against the local scour. This paper addresses the performance of bio-engineering protective measures against the erosion process. In particular, a green carpet, realized with real flexible vegetation, has been used as the protective measure against erosion processes downstream of a rigid bed. Analyses are based on experimental work carried out in a straight channel constructed at the laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aereospaziale, dei Materiali, Palermo University (Italy.

  13. Guidelines for defining and documenting data on costs of possible environmental protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, I.; King, K.; Boyd, R.; Bouscaren, R.; Pacyna, J. [AEA Technology Environment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The Guidelines are intended to promote good practice in the documenting and use of data on the costs of possible environmental protection measures in the context of international data comparisons. The minimum information needed to describe the cost of an environmental protection measures is: details of pollution source; details of the environmental protection measure and its performance characteristics; how costs are defined; the year to which data apply; indications of data uncertainty; how pollutants are defined; and reference to data sources. Guidelines are given for these seven items. These are followed by descriptions of various methods of data processing - dealing with information; calculating annual costs; discount/interest rates; and additional issues relating to the implementation of cost data. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 apps.

  14. Promises of protection? Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and gender-based violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrinck, Helene

    Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) guarantees persons with disabilities freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse. This article explores the current status of implementation of article 16 in South Africa, with specific reference to the legislative framework underpinning protection from exploitation, violence and abuse. This investigation is done specifically in the context of gender-based violence, which remains a cause of great concern in this country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Marco Civil da Internet: Limits From the Express and Unequivocal Requirement Consent as a Legal Protection of Personal Data on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the limits of the legal determination of express and unequivocal consent for the collection, use, storage, processing and protection of personal data as provided for in the Marco Civil da Internet (Law 12.965/2014 provided for in the list of rights and guarantees of users of the World Wide Web. With the increasing use of personal data from the Internet, for purposes of market analysis, prospecting investment trends, consumption and guidance of advertising campaigns - possible through technological resources for treatment and analysis of information - it is urgent to effectiveness the legal protection of this intangible property.

  16. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  17. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  18. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  19. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  20. International coordination of activities for establishing protective measures for the case of accidental release of radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The document discussed here has been submitted to the WHO Regional Committee as a basis for discussion on the international coordination of protective measures in case of large-area radioactive contamination. The document presents the following: a summary of actions taken by the regional office in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident, and of the national and international measures for public health protection after the accident; brief review of actions taken by other international organisations, and the activities proposed by the WHO on a European and on a global level. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Cernavoda nuclear power plant: Modifications in the fire protection measures of the CANDU 6 standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Having as purpose the improvement of fire safety at the Cernavoda NPP - both in the prevention and the protection aspects in the case of fire - we implemented some modifications in the CANDU 6 standard design. These improvements are inspired, mainly, from two sources: the world-wide achievements in the field of fire protection techniques, introduced in nuclear power plants since the middle of 70's, when the CANDU 6 design was completed; the national practice and experience in fire protection, usually applied in industrial objectives (conventional power plants, in particular). The absence of any incident may be considered as a proof of the efficiency of the implemented fire preventing and protection measures. (author)

  2. Meaningful Ways of Understanding and Measuring Change for People with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Louise; Turner, Marie-Louise; Pike, Georgina; Startup, Helen

    2018-02-19

    The effective treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) presents healthcare providers with a significant challenge. The evidence base remains limited partially due to a lack of professional consensus and service user involvement regarding ways of measuring change. As a result, the limited evidence that is available draws on such a wide range of outcome measures, that comparison across treatment types is hindered, maintaining a lack of clarity regarding the clinical needs of this group. This investigation aimed to follow the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2009) research recommendations by asking service users about meaningful change within their recovery. This forms a starting point for the future development of a tailored outcome measure. Fifteen service users with a diagnosis of BPD participated in three focus groups across two specialist Personality Disorder services. The focus groups were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Two superordinate themes were synthesized from the data: (1) recovery to what?: 'How do you rewrite who you are?'; and (2) conditions for change. Each superordinate theme further consisted of three subordinate themes which elucidated the over-arching themes. This investigation highlights the complex nature of measuring change in people who have received a BPD diagnosis. Further research is needed to develop meaningful ways of measuring change according to the needs and priorities of people with BPD.

  3. Optimization of fire protection measures and quality controls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenig, H.; Holtschmidt, H.; Liemersdorf, H.; Suetterlin, L.; Dobbernack, R.; Hahn, C.; Hosser, D.; Kordina, K.; Schneider, U.; Sprey, W.; Wesche, H.

    1985-09-01

    This study presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the evaluation of fire hazards and the optimization of fire protection measures in German nuclear power plants. Differences between the method presented here and the US ''Fire Hazard Analysis'' result from the inclusion of the stringent redundancy concept of German nuclear power plants and the emphasis placed on passive structural fire protection measures. The method includes a time-dependent quantification of fire-specific event sequences. Fire occurrence frequencies and the reliabilities of active fire protection measures were derived from German experiences and literature abroad. The reliability data of passive fire protection measures were obtained by an evaluation of experiments and probabilistic analyses. For the calculation of fire sequences fundamental experiments were taken into consideration. For the quantification of the time-dependent event trees a methodology was applied which permits an evaluation of the influence of the individual measures. The consequences of fire were investigated for ten fire events identified as decisive, and the fire sequence paths important in terms of safety were quantified. Their annual frequencies are within a range of 10 -3 to 8.10 -6 . (orig./HP) [de

  4. Investment in flood protection measures under climate change uncertainty. An investment decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruin, Karianne de

    2012-11-01

    Recent river flooding in Europe has triggered debates among scientists and policymakers on future projections of flood frequency and the need for adaptive investments, such as flood protection measures. Because there exists uncertainty about the impact of climate change of flood risk, such investments require a careful analysis of expected benefits and costs. The objective of this paper is to show how climate change uncertainty affects the decision to invest in flood protection measures. We develop a model that simulates optimal decision making in flood protection, it incorporates flexible timing of investment decisions and scientific uncertainty on the extent of climate change impacts. This model allows decision-makers to cope with the uncertain impacts of climate change on the frequency and damage of river flood events and minimises the risk of under- or over-investment. One of the innovative elements is that we explicitly distinguish between structural and non-structural flood protection measures. Our results show that the optimal investment decision today depends strongly on the cost structure of the adaptation measures and the discount rate, especially the ratio of fixed and weighted annual costs of the measures. A higher level of annual flood damage and later resolution of uncertainty in time increases the optimal investment. Furthermore, the optimal investment decision today is influenced by the possibility of the decision-maker to adjust his decision at a future moment in time.(auth)

  5. The trend on legislation of physical protection law and the effective measures for its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    As a part of strengthening the international regime of physical protection, the 'Legal and Technical Experts Meeting' to prepare a draft amendment of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material(INFCIRC/274/Rev.1) has been held under the auspices of IAEA Secretariat, based on the results of about two-year discussion related to its amendment among the Member States. In addition, terrorism of last September in the United States has made the amendment work of the Convention speed up to quickly cope with the real threat of nuclear facility, and the Diplomatic Conference for its amendment would be held at the end of this year. In order to meet these international strengthening trends and to prepare the measures against radiological emergency with the re-establishment of domestic protection system, Korean government has currently pursued to establish a comprehensive 'law for Physical Protection and Measures against Radiological Emergency' This paper suggests the consideration on domestic status of the legal system, the trend of its legislation and the effective measures for its implementation, to efficiently maintain domestic system of physical protection

  6. Operational quantities for use in external radiation protection measurements. An investigation of concepts and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of the Euratom Treaty the Commission of the European Communities is required to draw up basic standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. The basic standards lay down reference values for particular quantities; these values are required to be measured, and appropriate steps taken to ensure that they are not exceeded. To ensure that the basic standards are applied uniformly in the Member States, it is necessary to harmonize not only national laws but also measurement and recording techniques. As a practical contribution towards this objective, the Commission has since 1964 been conducting intercomparison programmes on operational radiation protection dosimetry. Effective monitoring against the dangers of ionizing radiation cannot be guaranteed unless the measuring instruments meet the necessary requirements, the quantities measured are those for which limit values have been laid down, and the instruments can be calibrated unequivocally. The differences between the concepts of quantity and unit of measurement in radiation protection were often unclear. In the light of developments at international level, the introduction of the international system of units of measurements (SI units) and the contents of ICRP Publication No 26, the services of the European Community responsible for radiation protection decided to review the whole question of quantities. The introduction of the 'index' quantities (absorbed dose index and dose equivalent index) was greeted with initial enthusiasm, but it soon became clear, on closer critical examination, that these too had major shortcomings. The Commission, in collaboration with experts from the Member States of the European Community, has therefore set out in this publication the various considerations and points of view concerning the use of these quantities in practical dosimetry. It is hoped that this publication will be of use to all

  7. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet (UV radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  8. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  9. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  10. The experiences and perceptions of persons with disabilities regarding work skills development in sheltered and protective workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Mohammed Shaheed; De Jongh, Jo Celene; Diedericks, Amy; Matthys, Kelly; Swart, Nicole; van der Pol, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Protective workshops and sheltered employment settings have been instrumental in developing the work skills of people with disabilities, however there has been a void in the literature about its influence on the ability of individuals to find employment in the open labor market. The aim of the study is to explore the experiences and perceptions of people with disabilities about the development of their work skills for transitioning into the open labor market. Five individuals with various types of disabilities and two key informants participated in the study. The research study was positioned within the qualitative paradigm specifically utilizing an exploratory and descriptive research design. In order to gather data from the participants, semi structured interviews were used. Three themes emerged from the findings of the study. Theme one, designated as "Reaching a ceiling", reflected the barriers that the participants experienced regarding work skills development. Theme two, designated as "Enablers for growth within the workplace", related to the enabling factors related to development of the work skills of persons with a disability (PWD). The final theme related to the meaning that PWD associated to their worker role and was designated as "A sense of universality". The participants highlighted that they felt their coworkers in the workshops were "like family" to them and thoroughly enjoyed the work tasks and work environment, expressing specific support from their fellow workers. Through reaching their goals, engaging in their work tasks and having the sense of universality in the workplace, the workers felt that the work they participated in gave them meaning to their life. The findings of the study indicated that managers of protective workshops and sheltered employment settings should consider selecting work tasks that enable the development of skills needed in the open labour market. A work skills development system whereby PWD in these workshops could

  11. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  12. Why do measures of normal and disordered personality correlate? A study of genetic comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, K L; Livesley, W J

    1999-01-01

    The genetic and environmental correlations between measures of normal (NEO-FFI) and abnormal personality (Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology: DAPP-BQ) were estimated in a sample of 545 volunteer general population twin pairs (269 monozygotic and 276 dizygotic pairs). The largest genetic correlations were observed between the 18 DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI neuroticism (range = .05 to .81; median = .48), extraversion (range = -.65 to .33; median = -.28), agreeableness (range = -.65 to .00; median = -.38), and conscientiousness (range = -.76 to .52; median = -.31). The smallest genetic correlations were found between the DAPP-BQ dimensions and NEO-FFI openness (range = -.17 to .20; median = -.04). The environmental correlations are lower in magnitude but show the same pattern of correlations between DAPP-BQ and NEO-FFI scales. These results indicate that these two scales share a common broad-based genetic architecture, whereas the environmental influences show greater scale specificity.

  13. Boundaries of dreams, boundaries of dreamers: thin and thick boundaries as a new personality measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E

    1989-11-01

    Previous work by the author and his collaborators on frequent nightmare sufferers demonstrated that these people had striking personality characteristics which could be called "thin boundaries" in a number of different senses. In order to measure thin and thick boundaries, a 145-item questionnaire, the Boundary Questionnaire, has been developed which has now been taken by over 1,000 persons. Preliminary results are presented indicating that, as predicted a priori, several new groups of nightmare sufferers and groups of art students scored usually "thin," whereas a group of naval officers had usually "thick" boundaries. Overall, thinness on the Boundary Questionnaire correlated highly positively (r = .40) with frequency of dream recall and also significantly (r = .16) with length of sleep.

  14. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Reanalysis of Toomela (2003: Spurious measurement error as cause for common variance between personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHIAS ZIEGLER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reanalyzed data collected by Toomela (2003. The data contain personality self ratings and cognitive ability test results from n = 912 men with military background. In his original article Toomela showed that in the group with the highest cognitive ability, Big-Five-Neuroticism and -Conscientiousness were substantially correlated and could no longer be clearly separated using exploratory factor analysis. The present reanalysis was based on the hypothesis that a spurious measurement error caused by situational demand was responsible. This means, people distorted their answers. Furthermore it was hypothesized that this situational demand was felt due to a person’s military rank but not due to his intelligence. Using a multigroup structural equation model our hypothesis could be confirmed. Moreover, the results indicate that an uncorrelated trait model might represent personalities better when situational demand is partialized. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  16. Personal Protective Measures Against Insects and Other Arthropods of Military Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    repellent, and finally rubbing the netting between the hands. Repeat the process until all the netting has been lightly and evenly covered. It is not...such as eyeglass frames, plastic lenses, and cases; contact lenses; combs ; watch crystals; goggles; painted and varnished surfaces; and some synthetic...fabrics (nylon excepted). The water-repellent properties of Gore-Tex are also reduced by deet. Deet does NOT damage cotton or wool fabrics

  17. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  18. Measurement Equivalence of the Empowerment Scale for White and Black Persons with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott B.; Huang, Jialin; Zhao, Lei; Sergent, Jessica D.; Neuhengen, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the measurement equivalence on a measure of personal empowerment for African American and White consumers of mental health services. Methods Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess measurement equivalences of the 28-item Empowerment Scale (Rogers, Chamberlin, Ellison & Crean, 1997), using data from 1,035 White and 301 African American persons with severe mental illness. Results Metric invariance of the Empowerment Scale was supported, in that the factor structure and loadings were equivalent across groups. Scalar invariance was violated on three items; however, the impact of these items on scale scores was quite small. Finally, subscales of empowerment tended to be more highly inter-correlated for African American than for White respondents. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Results generally support the use of Empowerment Scale for ethnic group comparisons. However, subtle differences in the psychometric properties of this measure suggest that African Americans and White individuals may conceptualize the construct of empowerment in different ways. Specifically, African American respondents had a lower threshold for endorsing some items on the self-esteem and powerlessness dimensions. Further, White respondents viewed the three dimensions of empowerment (self-esteem, powerlessness and activism) as more distinct, whereas these three traits were more strongly interrelated for African Americans. PMID:24884300

  19. Protection and measurement systems for 500 keV DC industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, R.N.; Saroj, P.C.; Nanu, K.; Sharma, D.K.; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Pandey, M.K.; Aggarwal, Ritu; Nagesh, K.V.; Sethi, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    A 500 keV, 20 ma electron beam accelerator has been developed and commissioned for industrial processing application at BRIT, Vashi. The 500 kV supply system consists of a 10 kV/2a DC power supply, 15 kW/10 kHz oscillator, 60 kV/10 kHz step-up transformer, and a 10 stage balanced Cockcroft-Walton multiplier. Since this is a high voltage system, and is prone to generate high electrical surges in the event of fault, adequate protection measures have to be incorporated to prevent catastrophic failure to the components of the supply system and also for measurement and control devices. Two level safety protection schemes have been incorporated in this system. This paper describes about various safety measures incorporated in the system and a few system specific measurement schemes

  20. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  1. Test methods for estimating the efficacy of the fast-acting disinfectant peracetic acid on surfaces of personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, K; Howaldt, S; Heinrich, R; Roder, A; Pauli, G; Dorner, B G; Pauly, D; Mielke, M; Schwebke, I; Grunow, R

    2017-11-01

    The work aimed at developing and evaluating practically relevant methods for testing of disinfectants on contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE). Carriers were prepared from PPE fabrics and contaminated with Bacillus subtilis spores. Peracetic acid (PAA) was applied as a suitable disinfectant. In method 1, the contaminated carrier was submerged in PAA solution; in method 2, the contaminated area was covered with PAA; and in method 3, PAA, preferentially combined with a surfactant, was dispersed as a thin layer. In each method, 0·5-1% PAA reduced the viability of spores by a factor of ≥6 log 10 within 3 min. The technique of the most realistic method 3 proved to be effective at low temperatures and also with a high organic load. Vaccinia virus and Adenovirus were inactivated with 0·05-0·1% PAA by up to ≥6 log 10 within 1 min. The cytotoxicity of ricin was considerably reduced by 2% PAA within 15 min of exposure. PAA/detergent mixture enabled to cover hydrophobic PPE surfaces with a thin and yet effective disinfectant layer. The test methods are objective tools for estimating the biocidal efficacy of disinfectants on hydrophobic flexible surfaces. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Occupational stress and strain in relation to personal protective equipment of Japanese firefighters assessed by a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Su-Young; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate differences in actual work environments, mobility and satisfaction between firefighters wearing aluminized and non-aluminized personal protective equipment (PPE), and to suggest a proper standard test method for Japanese firefighters' PPE. A survey from two cities in Japan (City A: aluminized PPE; City B: non aluminized PPE) was undertaken. A total of 525 firefighters from City A and 757 from City B participated. Firefighters spent 22.5 min (City A) and 27.3 min (City B) on average firefighting with the full set of PPE in one incident, but the heat strain experienced among firefighters from City A was twice that of firefighters from City B (57.5% and 28.4%). Firefighters spent 65.9 min on one incident and 24.2 min for suppression of fire with the full set of PPE on average. The toughest task that caused physical strain in City A was 'stair climbing' and in City B was 'drawing up a hose filled with water'. The most restricted body region due to PPE was the knee for both groups. Evaluations revealed that the aluminized fire jacket had worse ventilation and mobility than the non-aluminized, while the non-aluminized one received with more unfavorable evaluations for water resistance and maintainability.

  3. Methodology of ionizing radiation measurement, from x-ray equipment, for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Katia C.S.; Borges, Jose C.

    1996-01-01

    Most of X-rays beam used for diagnostic, are short exposure time (milliseconds). Exception are those used in fluoroscopy. measuring instruments (area monitors with ionizing chambers or Geiger tubes) used in hospitals and clinics, in general, have characteristic answer time not adequate to X-rays beams length in time. Our objective was to analyse instruments available commercially, to prepare a measuring methodology for direct and secondary beams, in order to evaluate protection barriers for beams used in diagnostic radiology installations. (author)

  4. Assessing Personal Constructs of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Person-Centered Measure of Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sean; Self, Trisha; DiLollo, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Many protocols assessing social communication skills of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are based on behavioral observations. It has been suggested, however, that social cognition encompasses processes underlying observable behaviors. Such processes include personal constructs, which can be assessed using repertory grids. Personal…

  5. Radiation protection measurements in nuclear engineering. The use of microelectronics is only just beginning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1986-01-01

    The progress achieved by microelectronics is impressive already now, but it is only a beginning. The contribution deals with the modern methods of representing measured data and with the processing of measured data as the optimum area of use of microprocessors. It outlines the uses of personnel dosimeters and portable dose rate meters, portable units with data storage capacity, new possibilities in monitoring the room air in large building complexes, gamma spectroscopy with very high purity germanium detectors, equivalent dose measurement with multichannel data evaluation, 'talking' equipment, and it also presents a forecast of future radiation protection measuring equipment. (orig.) [de

  6. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Phasor Measurement Units for Protection of Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskin, Matin

    comprehensive protective system is suggested at the end of the dissertation. The proposed method is based on the application of the phasor measurement unit (PMU) and the differential protection method. All of the current magnitudes and angles are collected by PMU and are sent to the phasor data concentrator (PDC), where a differential protection algorithm is applied to these data. If any fault is detected, the trip will be sent back to the corresponding circuit breakers across the network. Higher selectivity, sensitivity, and faster operation in the differential protection are superior to those of other protection schemes. Differential protection operates as unit protection, which means that it operates only when there is a fault in the protection zone. It does not function for faults occurring out of zone. Therefore, no coordination is required between differential protections across the power system. Moreover, the misoperation of this protective scheme is less likely as compared to other protection methods.

  8. Order of the 6 December 2013 related to modalities of training of the Competent Radiological Protection Person, and of certification of training organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combrexelle, J.D.; Gandil, P.; Ligeard, C.

    2013-01-01

    This order issued by the French Ministry of labour, employment, professional training and social dialogue aims at defining the modalities and contents of training of competent radiological protection persons, as well as the modalities of certification of certificating organizations and of certification of training organizations. As far as the training of the competent radiological protection person, the order defines the scope, training levels, activity sectors, the basic training, the knowledge control and validation process, the certification of the person, the extension of the level or scope of this certification, the certification renewal. As far as the certificating body and the certification of the training organization are concerned, the order addresses the certification instruction modalities, additional requirements for certificating bodies, requirements related to training organizations. Other arrangements and issues are indicated related to equivalencies, implementation, abrogation and transitory arrangements. Additional information regarding the content of training courses and certification processes is provided in appendix

  9. The use of suction blisters to measure sunscreen protection against UVR-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Gwendal; Douki, Thierry; Le Digabel, Jimmy; Gravier, Eleonore; Questel, Emmanuel

    2018-02-01

    The formation of DNA photoproducts caused by solar UVR exposure needs to be investigated in-vivo and in particular in order to assess sunscreens' level of protection against solar genotoxicity. The study's purposes were: i) to evaluate if the roof of suction blisters is an appropriate sampling method for measuring photoproducts, and ii) to measure in-vivo sunscreen protection against cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Skin areas on the interior forearms of eight healthy volunteers were exposed in-vivo to 2 MED of simulated solar radiation (SSR) and to 15 MED on a sunscreen protected area. After irradiation, six suction blisters were induced and the blister roofs were collected. Analysis of SSR-induced CPDs was performed by two independent methods: a chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) approach and a 3D-imaging of CPD immunostaining by multiphoton microscopy on floating epidermal sheets. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that SSR-unexposed skin presented no CPD dimers, whereas 2 MED SSR-exposed skin showed a significant number of TT-CPD. The sunscreen covered skin exposed to 15 MED appeared highly protected from DNA damage, as the amount of CPD-dimers remained below the detection limit. The multiphoton-immunostaining analysis consistently showed that no CPD staining was observed on the non-SSR-exposed skin. A significant increase of CPD staining intensity and number of CPD-positive cells were observed on the 2 MED SSR-exposed skin. Sunscreen protected skin presented a very low staining intensity and the number of CPD-positive cells remained very close to non-SSR-exposed skin. This study showed that suction blister samples are very appropriate for measuring CPD dimers in-vivo, and that sunscreens provide high protection against UVR-induced DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  11. [Justifying measures to correct functional state of operators varying in personal anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Workers of operating and dispatching occupations are exposed to high nervous and emotional exertion that result in increased personal anxiety, working stress and overstrain. That requires physiologically justified correction of hazardous psycho-physiologic states via various prophylactic measures (stay in schungite room, autogenous training, central electric analgesia, electric acupuncture). Attempted relaxation sessions in schungite room revealed in highly anxious individuals an increased velocity of visual signals perception, of attention concentration and shifting. Autogenous training sessions improve memory and have significant hypotensive effect in highly anxious individuals.

  12. Working level measurement of radon daughters and thoron daughters by personal dosimetry and continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Leung, H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of personal alpha dosimeters in mixed radon daughter and thoron daughter atmospheres in Ontario uranium mines is described together with monitoring developments which enable the radon daughter working level to be determined separately. The theoretical bases for continuous and integrated working level measurements based on individual and gross counts are presented in terms of the weighting factor for combining the thoron daughter working level with the radon daughter working level, and in terms of the in-growth time of the air. Implications for the determination of working level in the presence of thoron daughters are discussed

  13. Personalized risk communication for personalized risk assessment: Real world assessment of knowledge and motivation for six mortality risk measures from an online life expectancy calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Abdulaziz, Kasim E; Perez, Richard; Beach, Sarah; Bennett, Carol

    2018-01-01

    In the clinical setting, previous studies have shown personalized risk assessment and communication improves risk perception and motivation. We evaluated an online health calculator that estimated and presented six different measures of life expectancy/mortality based on a person's sociodemographic and health behavior profile. Immediately after receiving calculator results, participants were invited to complete an online survey that asked how informative and motivating they found each risk measure, whether they would share their results and whether the calculator provided information they need to make lifestyle changes. Over 80% of the 317 survey respondents found at least one of six healthy living measures highly informative and motivating, but there was moderate heterogeneity regarding which measures respondents found most informative and motivating. Overall, health age was most informative and life expectancy most motivating. Approximately 40% of respondents would share the results with their clinician (44%) or social networks (38%), although the information they would share was often different from what they found informative or motivational. Online personalized risk assessment allows for a more personalized communication compared to historic paper-based risk assessment to maximize knowledge and motivation, and people should be provided a range of risk communication measures that reflect different risk perspectives.

  14. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: udilma@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  15. Standardization of radiation protection measurements in mixed fields of an extended energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The improved ICRU concept of dose equivalent index aims at standardizing both area and personnel dose measurements so that the results on the dosimetry of external irradiations in radiation protection become compatible. It seems that for photon and neutron energies up to 3 and 20 MeV respectively the realization of dose-equivalent index is straightforward, but the inclusion of higher energies and/or other types of radiation will lead both to conceptual and practical difficulties. It will be shown that practical measurements in mixed radiation fields of an extended energy range for protection purposes will overestimate the standardized quantity. While area measurements can be performed to represent a good approximation, greater uncertainties have to be accepted in personnel dosimetry for stray radiation fields around GeV proton accelerators

  16. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares

    2011-10-26

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  17. Protective measures adopted in OECD member countries in response to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the measures for exposure prevention taken in West European countries following the Chernobyl power plant accident. In particular, the radioactivity regulation levels for foods (derived intervention levels) adopted in these countries are described in detail, citing from the reports of the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health of OECD/NEA (The Radiological Impact of the Chernobyl Accident in OECD Countries) and an scientific seminar held by EC (International Scientific Seminar on Foodstuffs Intervention Levels Following a Nuclear Accident). It is pointed out that these countries rather largely vary in measures taken and the derived intervention levels adopted although the principles for radiation protection which provide the basis for emergency protection measures must be nearly the same in all of the countries. It is necessary to establish consistent standards in each country in consideration of an accident, like the one at Chernobyl, that may have global effects. The ICRP recommendations and IAEA safety guidelines so far are centered on ''near-field'' measures to be taken in areas near an accident site. Thus, studies should be made to establish measures to be taken in areas far from the site. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  19. Üniversite Kütüphanelerinde Kişisel Verilerin Korunması=Protection of Personal Data in University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Henkoğlu

    2015-05-01

    university librarieshas been evaluated based on the framework of basic principles and legal regulations related tothe protection of personal data; and it has been aimed to make suggestions for elimination of deficiencies in this area and to contribute to the creation of information security culture. For this purpose, a survey was conducted through interviews at 15 different university libraries located in Ankara, and the collected data relating to the information security measures was evaluated in accordance with the existing legal regulations.The results show that the legal regulations are not adequate and preventive in nature, the universities do not have any security policies concerning the protection and the safe destruction of personal data. There is not any risk management, and the responsibility is not shared within the units of universities. Training for personal data protection awareness is not provided for then staff who is responsible for data processing, and the units responsible for the data processing have hesitation even in deciding whether data is personal or not.

  20. Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume